Foxe's Book of Martyrs-- Part One

Book of Martyrs Preface of foxe's book of the marytrs 
Foxe's Martyrs are among our earliest recollection; and their spirit- stirring 
incidents rivetted our eyes to their pages in our earliest childhood. Here we 
see "the great things that faith can do, and the great things that faith can suffer." 
Here we behold, in fact, what Bunyan has so admirably described if fiction; here 
is Faithful again suffering and dying; here are graphically described the reacting 
in all parts of the world, and in our own country in particular, of the awful 
tragedies of Jerusalem, in which the Saviour of men was put to death, and the 
proto-martyr Stephen followed his holy example, dying by wicked hands, as a witness 
to the truth. Here in particular are seen anew the men of modern ages of whom 
the world was not worthy, "who loved not their lives unto the death," and whose 
cry mingles with that of the souls of them that were slain for the word of God 
and for the testimony which they held: "How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost 
not thou judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?" These are 
they arrayed in white robes; these are they which came out of great tribula- tion, 
and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Here 
is "the patience of the saints," showing the influence of pure Christianity upon 
the mind, and the triumphs of the real believer over the world. These sufferers 
truly believed the word of God, and received it "not as the word of men, but as 
it is in truth the word of God, which effectually worketh in them that believe." 
To them houses and lands, wealth and honours, friends and relations, not even 
the dearest ties on earth, nor life itself, were any estimation when set in competition 
with their love to the Saviour; and they practically illustrated in their end, 
the doctrine of their Divine Master, "He that loveth father or mother more than 
me, is not worthy of me;" while they now reap the reward promised by Him who is 
"faithful and true." "And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or 
sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, 
shall receive an hun- dredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life, Matthew 19:29. 
The present times especially call for the multiplication of copies of such a work 
as that of Foxe. Ever one can understand facts, though every one may not be capable 
of following up a chain of reasonings. And "facts are stubborn things," which 
no subilty can evade. The papists point to paganism as the persecutor of the saints, 
but Popery is but paganism under a mask; and while it mingles paganism with its 
Christian- ity, it has the heart and spirit of paganism. It is to be hoped that 
"the man of sin" has arrived at the period when his strength is decayed: but perhaps 
his dying struggles will be the most violent, and they may not be short or few. 
He is losing much of his power in lands which he has hitherto ruled with a rod 
of iron, but he is aiming to redeem his losses in distant regions of the globe, 
and is obtaining subtle entrance into the distant regions of the globe, and is 
obtaining subtle entrance into the British Isles. Under the cloak of Jesuitism 
and the mask of Puseyism, the inveterate foe of God and man is diligently at work, 
and may at length boldly show his face even in high places. The increased circulation 
of such a work as this may greatly assist in defeating his plans, and in throwing 
a fence around our common Protestant faith. Rome indeed is shamed of her own acts, 
and never admits that she is a persecutor. Hence Foxe, and all other writers who 
have published her crimes, are denounced as liars. It is in the creed of Jesuitism, 
for the expediency's sake, to aver anything or deny anything. And if we are to 
believe the statements of the papists, those who have suffered as martyrs, have 
not suffered by the hands of the church, but of the civil power, to whom the church 
has always consigned them, that they might be punished "according to law." In 
the teeth of fire and fagot, they have represented themselves as merciful; and 
the sanguinary murderers, glut- ted with the blood of the saints, have dared to 
assume the name of the meek and lowly Jesus. Let them tell us that there have 
been Protestant persecutors; there have, to their shame. But persecution is not 
inherent on Protestantism, while in Popery it is an essential ingredient; and 
where ten have perished by the hands of Protestant persecutors, in times of darkness 
and ignorance preceded by Popery, whose example they copied, ten thousand have 
perished by those of the papist. Let us, then, hold up the inhuman system to merited 
execration. Let parents teach their children, and children teach their children, 
to dread and to oppose this "abomination of desolation," and to shun this "pestilence 
that walketh in darkness." By aiding to circulate this work they will be doing 
an essential good: and by the light issuing from the flames of the martyrs' funeral 
piles, they may help to scatter the darkness which is gathering around. This edition, 
already improved by the able hands of the Rev. J. Milner, and by original communications 
from other learned and eminent ministers, will now be continued to the present 
time, and furnish the most complete as well as the cheapest Book of Martyrs which 
has yet been published. INGRAM COBBIN essay on popery 
from foxe's book of the marytrs  ESSAY ON POPERY Protestant 
writers often seem to take up the pen rather in self-defence than as assailants 
of Popery; or, at least, they do not think of assail- ing it till it has assumed 
an imposing posture, and threatened their faith by its daring advances. Such is 
the reletive position of Popery and Protestantism amoung us at the present moment, 
through in many other countries the former is on the decline; and every true servant 
of Christ is called upon to use his best efforts to repel the artful destroyer. 
Though apologies are offered for truth, truth needs no apology. We are accused 
by Papist as schismatics and heritics; but the so-called schism consists in separating 
from their church, and not from the church of Christ; and our heresy is shunning 
their tradition, and not the word of God - the only standard of truth and infallible 
guide of our judments. Whatever does not come from the fountain of truth in doctrine, 
and whatever does not accord with the practice of the primitive church before 
the Fathers wrote, ar human creeds were invented, or Popish councils assembled, 
should be avoided as we would avoid the most destructive pestilence. On these 
grounds would we warn against Popery as the moral Upas-tree to come within the 
atmosphere of which is to inhale the most deadly poison for the soul. The limits 
to which this Essay is restricted, require us to plunge at once into the heart 
ot the subject, without further introductory remarks;- The Church of Rome is erroneous 
in its Doctrines. The Papists, with us, believe (1.) in original sin, its defiling 
and ruinous nature, its being entailed from one child of Adam to another; but 
for the cure of this they have, as they imagine, a special remedy, which is baptisim, 
"right- ly administered according to the forms of the church:" in which ordiance 
the merits of Christ are applied, and thus what was contracted on gener- ation 
is cleansed away by this sort to regeneration! The same doctrine is now notoriously 
enforced by the semi-papists who have started up in the church of England - a 
doctrine which at once sets aside the need of a change of heart, and deludes thousands 
whith the idea that they have by this ordinance been made Christians, instead 
of having only received "an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual 
grace," which if they do not afterwards possess, will cause them to fall short 
of that qualification which fits for the kingdom of heaven. (2.) The doctrine 
of Justification lies at the root of the tree of life. Without an entire faith 
in the merits of a better righteousness than our own, we can never be saved. So 
conscious are mankind of guilt in the sight of God, that all the world have virrually 
at least acknowledged it. Infidels themselves, in moments of danger, have trembled 
at the thought of eternity, and have even prayed. "How shall man be just with 
God?" is a question of the utmost moment; yet, deceived by the arch- adversary, 
men have aver been ready to prefer a religion of external forms, to a religion 
of the heart - an outside, to an inside cleansing: a religion in which they fancy 
there is much merit, rather than one in which they must be indebted wholly to 
Divine grace. Popery panders to this lust of pride. One article, among many others 
on the subject, by the council of Trent, the indisputable standard of popery, 
says, "If any one shall affirm that good works do not preserve and increase justifica- 
tion, but that good works themselves are only the fruits and evidence of justification 
already had, let such an one be accursed." If justifica- tion is to be preserved 
by us, then the justification wrought out by Christ is, at best, but a precarios 
justification; and if we can in- crease it, then it is incomplete justification. 
If we appeal to the Bible standard, the question there occurs, "It is God that 
justifieth; who is he that condemneth?" But popery is a jumble on this great doc- 
trine; it makes Christ to do part and the sinner to do part, and under- values 
the efficacy of the atoning blood and all-sufficient righteous- ness of "the Lord 
our Tighteousness." Thus one of its acknowledged standard authors says, "These 
penitential works, he [the papist,] is taught to be no otherwise satisfactory, 
than as joined and applied to the satisfaction Jesus made upon the cross; in virtue 
of which alone, all our good works find a grateful acceprance in God's sight." 
Here is the most complete confusion. A man's works must be joined and applied 
to the satisfaction of Christ; and yet it is in virtue of Christ's satisfaction 
that our good works can be acceptable to God! If we ask how far the efficacy of 
Christ's atonement extends, we are told that is extends to all mortal sins, as 
if there could be any sin not mortal, and exposing us to eternal death; but then 
there are sins from which we must be justified by our own deeds, venial transgressions, 
which prayers, fastings, almsgiving, penance, and purgatory may in the end remove. 
While many poor wouls are deluded by this doctrine of mixed justifica- tion, partly 
by Christ and partly by the sinner himself, the Roman Catholic church, by working 
on the pride of the human heart on the one hand, and on the fears of trembling 
souls on the other, derives bo small advantage from these misnamed meritorios 
labours and toils. Moreover, in addition to his own good deeds, the papist can 
help himself from the stock of others, who need to perform them no longer! Those 
saints wh have lived such immaculate lives, that they have done more than their 
duty to God and man, and have got safe to heaven with a treasure of works of supererogation 
to spare, are kind enough to allow the pope for the time being to assing to such 
as he thinks proper "a portion of this inexhaustible source of merit, suitable 
to their respec- tive guilt, and sufficient to deliver them from the punishment 
due to their crimes!" This doctrine was first invented in the twelfth century, 
and modified and embellished by St. Thomas in the thirteenth. To suppose that 
a sinful creature, who is bound to love God with all his heart and soul and mind 
and strength, could with his sinful nature perform more than is here required, 
is one of the most preposterous ideas that ever entered into the mind of man. 
The belief of such a doctrine is "the firstborn of delusion;" it need be answered 
but very briefly from the words of our Divine Lord Himself, "When ye shall have 
done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: 
we have done that which was our duty to do, "Luke 17:10. And could we serve and 
worship God incessantly, with the purity and ardour of the burning seraphs around 
the eternal throne, we should still do no more than our duty. (3.) Absolution 
is a power presumed to belong to the popish priesthood. By this the priest pronounces 
remitted the sins of such as are penitent. The council of Trent and that of Florence 
declare the form or essence of the sacrament to lie in the words of the absolution, 
"I absolve thee of thy sins!" According to this, no one can receive absolution 
without the privity, consent, and declaration of the priest: therefore, unless 
the priest be willing, God Himself cannot pardon any man. They found this doctrine 
on John 20:23, "Whoseoever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whoseoever 
sins ye retain, they are retained." Had the words implied power to par don sins, 
still that power could not, from this warrant, go beyond the apostles on whom 
it was conferred, as was the power of working miracles. But we see no such power 
clained. The apostles preached the forgiveness of sins to those that repented 
and believed, (Acts 3:19,etc;) and in all cases their theme was the same, "Be 
it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man is preached 
unt6o you the forgiveness of sins," Acts 13:38. It was, therefore, no more than 
a declarative absolution, assuring sinners that "He pardoneth and absolveth all 
them that truly repent, and unfeignedly believe his holy gospel." No power here 
belongs to the priest; it is God only who can forgive sins. (4.) Indulgences. 
Nearly allied to the doctrine of absolution, is the power of grantion indulgences, 
or "a remission of the punishment due to sin, granted by the church, and supposed 
to save the sinner from puga- tory." With all his absolution, the good papist 
stops short of heaven at last; for the moment his breath is out of his body, he 
enters purgatory. But hte keys of heaven being committed to St. Peter, and the 
popes in succession, they can unlock the gates, and let in the vilest sinners 
that ever corrupted the world! For various prices soulls may be redeemed out of 
purgatory, and any one may make his friends a present of a ple- nary remission 
of all sins! This is too ridiculous to merit notice, but for the awful delusion 
with which it is connected. The popish priest having asserted his power to forgive 
sins, poor souls who give credit to his assertion are naturally anxious to obtain 
pardon from him. But in order so to do, he requires that to him they should make 
confession. (5.) Purgatory must here be noticed. It has been defined as "a place 
in which the just who depart out of this life are supposed to expiate certain 
offences, which do not merit eternal damnation." Now all sin is sin; and every 
sin is "the transgression of the law," I John 3:4; and sin, then, must merit death, 
"for the wages of sin is death," Romans 4:23. Nor does the Scripture tell us anything 
about the wicked being in punishment for a limited time, or even going to an intermediate 
state, or passing from hell to heaven. It tells us that the duration of the misery 
of the wicked is like that of the happiness of the righteous, which is for ever, 
Mark 9:44; I Thessalonians 4:17, etc.; that the good go instantly into the paradise 
of God, Luke 23:43, Philippians 1:23; and that the wicked as instantly lift up 
their eyes in torments - torments from which escape to heaven is rendered impossible 
by an impassable gulf, Luke 16:26. There are two scriptures on which the papists 
found their doctrine of purgatory, Matthew 12:32, and I Peter 3:18-20. The language 
of the former is a strong mode of expressing the unchangeable punishment of him 
who sins against the Holy Ghost. "It shall not be forgiven him, neither in this 
world, neither in the world to come." But it does not warrant us to say that any 
are forgiven in the world to come; and St. Paul assures us, "Behold, now is the 
acce[ted time; behold, now is the day of salvation," 2 Cor. vi. 2. The second 
passage must be greatly wrested if we attempt to make anything more from it than 
what appears on its very face. Christ, who by his Spirit inspired Noah the preacher 
of righteous- ness, preached to the antediluvian sinners, now, and when the apostle 
Peter wrote, confined in the prison to which all unbelievers are for ever consigned. 
This doctrine of purgatory is, however, in harmony with the other parts of the 
popish creed, as it evidently leaves the work of pardon through Christ incomplete, 
and leaves even the best to make atonement to justice in another world! (6.) The 
sacrifice of the mass is one of the peculiar doctrines of popery. For not believing 
in this, many a one has been sent by the papists in a chariot of fire, to join 
"the noble army of martyrs." The mass is similar to what Protestants call the 
communion service. High mass is the same thing more lengthened and showy. In the 
early ages of the church, the congregation was dismissed before the celebration 
of the Lore's Supper, none but the communicants being allowed to remain. The officiating 
minister said, "Ita missa est," and the congregation with- drew; hence in process 
of time asrose the name. The mass is held to be a true and proper sacrifice for 
sin; and a sacrifice for the living and the dead! Here again is a reflection on 
the merits of the Divine Redeem- er, and a vile anti-scriptural doctrine, the 
work of human invention. When Christ died on the cross, his work was "finished," 
John xix. 30; and the apostle assures us that "by one offering he hath perfected 
for ever them that are sanctified, " Heb. x. 14. Besides, a sacrifice must have 
a victim; but at best it is but the commemoration of the offering of the one only 
and spotless Victim - "the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world." 
Every time that mass is offered, Christ is in- sulted and dishonoured. There is 
no praise to the mass, any more than to human merit, given by the redeemed in 
heaven; but their song is, "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain, to receive power, 
and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing," Rev. 
v. 12. (7.) Transubstantiation is closely connected with the preceding doc- trine. 
A momentary glance only can here be taken of this leading article of popery. In 
the Romish church the belief of this doctrine was often made a test of the faith 
of an individual, and was admirably evaded in those memorable lines of Queen Elizabeth:- 
"Christ was the word that spake it; He took the bread, and brake it; And what 
that word doth make it, That I believe and take it." Revelation is often above 
reason; as, for example, in describing the nature and existence of God: "Canst 
thou by searching find out God? canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection?" 
Job xi.7. Revelation is not contrary to reason, nor contrary to common sense; 
but nothing can be more absurd than the popish pretence of making a bit of wafer 
to be the body of Christ, which body, in that case, has been multiplied like the 
loaves and fishes, and eaten over and over again in all places, for many ages 
to the present time! And the words on which this doctrine is founded are known 
to every scholar of the humblest pretensions to mean no more than "this represents 
my body." A man must want common sense to suppose that Christ really gave his 
body to his disciples, when he administered the last supper, and yet that the 
same body was afterwards crucified, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven. 
The bread is bread that the priest gives, and the wine is wine; and what pretence 
soever he may make, he can make nothing more of it. Having thus briefly touched 
on the leading doctrines of Popery as its ground-work, the due notice of which 
would furnish matter for volumes, our space will only admit of a rapid glance 
is laxity enough among its priests, but woe be to the poor laity that fall within 
its power, even if they be monarchs on their thrones. All must lick the dust before 
the sentence of popes, councils, cardinals, inquisitors, and priests! Operating 
on the peace of whole nations, the curse or excom- munication of the pope has 
unseated the monarch on his throne, and sent the potentate on his knees to ask 
the restorartion of his crown! It will be sufficient to mention the cases of Henry 
IV., Emperor of Germany, and of King John of England. Penances the most absurd 
and degrading have been submitted to by the slaves of popery, for which could 
never in their nature show real sorrow of heart, or make the least atonement for 
sin. What can be the real benefit derived from repeating continually as many Ave 
Marias, Paternosters, or Credos, as the priest may determine? From walking barefoot? 
From licking the dust? Consigning the penitent to a hair-shirt, or obliging or 
advising the poor devotee to inflict sharp castigations on his naked body? II. 
to be successors of St. Peter, claim to sit in the seat of God himself. The man 
who has suffered himself to be called "Dominus Deus Noster Papa" - "OUR LORD GOD 
THE POPE" - is surely the apostate of Scripture, who, "as God, sitteth in the 
temple of God, showing himself that he is God," 2 Thess. ii. 4. No being, how 
great soever he may be supposed to be, can forgive sins, but God only, Mark ii. 
7; but this the bishop of Rome and his priests, authorized by him, claim as their 
prero- gative. With great artifice they will pretend that this is ultimately the 
work of God; but with the most presumptuous assumption they dare to teach their 
deluded votaries that it is the work of the pope and the church! The catechism 
of the council of Trent declares that the Almighty has given to his church the 
keys of the kingdom of heaven, and that the penitent's sins are forgiven by the 
minister of religion, through the power of the keys. The arrogance that presumes 
to dispose at pleasure of heaven itself, may easily be supposed to claim no inferior 
power on earth. Hence the bull of pope Sixtus V. against Henry, king of Navarre, 
and the prince de Cond'e, claims an authority which exceeds all the powers of 
earthly kings and potentates. "And if," says the bull, "it find any of them resisting 
the ordiance of God, it takes more summary vengeance upon them, and hurling them 
from their throne, debases them as the ministers of aspiring Lucifer, whatever 
may be their power, to the lowest abysses of the earth!" Acting under this supposed 
authority, pope Pius V. excommunicated queen Elizabeth, asserting that "him God 
hath consituted prince over all nations and kingdoms, that he might pluck up, 
destroy, dissipate, overturn, plant and build!" In fact, the claims of popery 
for its head, have gone so far as to attribute to the pontiff all power in heaven 
and on earth; and it has been asserted that "the pope could do all things, sin 
excepted;" that "the sentences of punishment of hell;" and that "no appeal could 
be made from the pope to God, because he is the Christ of God!" Accursed apostasy! 
where a sinful man, whose carcase must soon pay the forfeiture of sin, and rot 
in corruption, the best emblem of his own church, presumes to claim the homage 
of mankind, and the prerogatives that belong only to Deity! III. THE CHURCH OF 
ROME IS INIQUITOUS IN ITS PRACTICES. And what else is to be expected from a church 
which gives permission to do whatever is sinful. The daring sale of indulgences 
by Tetzel, when they excited the abhorrence of Christendom, was publicly condemned 
by the nuncio of pope Leo X. Tetzed, in his zeal to raise money for the holy see, 
probably went further than it was thought prudent to express so publicly, for 
he even asserted that any one might be permitted to commit the grossest debauchery, 
and offer violence to the holy Virgin herself, and be forgi- ven by the power 
if the pope, whose arms were equal to the cross of Christ! But after the death 
of Tetzel, A.D. 1519, a list of fees to the people for absolutions, dispensations, 
etc., was published in Paris, A.D. 1520. Absolutions, for fornication in a church 
was to be obtained for nine shillings; for murdering a layman, seven shillings 
and six- pence; for killing a father, mother, or wife, ten shillings and six- 
pence; for a priest keeping a concubine, ten shillings and sixpence; for a layman 
keeping a concubine, the same sum; and for other crimes the mention of which would 
but defile these pages. "Such is the celebrated tax-book of the Apostolic Chancery, 
the publication of which stamps the church of Rome with eternal infamy." This 
publication was indeed, at last, partially condemned, but not till it had been 
a hundred years in circulation. But let us see if the holy popes have been more 
holy than their doc- trines, licenses, or agents. No; a worse set of men never 
corrupted the earth. From the time of Gregory the Great, in the sixth century, 
to the latest period, the popes have been more or less of abandoned principles. 
There have been covetous popes, proud popes, profane popes, unchaste popes, dishonest 
popes, murdering popes, all of whose names and charac- ters may be seen in any 
impartial history of these pretended representa- tives upon earth of Him who was 
"holy, harmless, and undefiled!" As were the popes, so we must expect to find 
the priest hood. The "forbidding to marry," a gross mark of the man of sin, has 
led the popish clergy to practise all kinds of iniquity with greediness; and the 
secret interviews, at the confessional, with females of every class and character 
afford facilities for the indulgences of forbidden propensi- ties, of which the 
priests have not failed to avail themselves. Facts in abundance could be related 
to justify this charge, but it is not pleas- ant to dwell upon them, and they 
are too well known to require reference to authorities. The monasteries and nunneries 
have been often described as the seats of iniquity; and, in fact, the latter were 
no better than brothels, of the very worst description. In the days of Henry VIII., 
when these monasteries were fully explored in England, the abbots, priors, and 
monks kapt as many women each as any lascivious Mohammedan could desire, and their 
crimes renewed the existence of Sodom and Gomarrah! IV. THE CHURCH OF ROME IS 
CRUEL IN ITS SPIRIT. Those who are conversant with its writers know the hatred 
which it breeds towards heretics. The council of Trent, besides anathematizing 
all the great doctrines of the gospel, consigned their defenders to eternal torments. 
"Cursed be all heretics," cried the cardinal of Lorraine, at the close of its 
last session; and "Cursed! cursed!" responded all the prelates. "Cursed! cursed!" 
echoed back the lofty dome of the old cathedral of Trent. Never had there been 
so much cursing "in any other synod, since the world was made." Here, too, the 
pages might be filled with specimens of this spirit. But let it suffice to remark 
how different from the spirit of Jesus, when he reproved hes disciples for wishing 
to call down fire from heaven to consume the Samaritans: "He turned, and rebuked 
them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of," Luke ix. 55. Carrying 
out her principles, the popish apostate has deluged the earth with the blood of 
her victims. The murders committed by queen Mary, and by the Irish papists, are 
facts too well known in history to be denied. Hundreds of martyrs have perished 
at the stake, thousands in dungeons, and millions form the aggregate of unfortunate 
Protestants, that have fallen under the bitter spirit of popery. Papist have imitated 
Saul of Tarsus, when he was the messenger of death to Damascus, and haled men 
and women, committing them to prison; and are the facsimiles of those persecutors 
whom our Lord warns his disciples to expect: "Yea, the time cometh, that whosoever 
killeth you will think that he doeth God service," John xvi. 2. Torturing, shooting, 
hanging, strangling, burning alive, starving to death, in short, every variety 
of suffering that dia- bolical ingenuity could invent, has been employed to glut 
the infernal appetites of the demons of the papacy! Anong these the holy fathers 
of the inquisition have shared no inconsiderable part, and have become "drunk 
with the blood of the saints." Spain and Italy have been the slaughter-houses 
for the Protestants. Nor are the barbarities of popery confined to those lands; 
at the present moment their horrid cruelties are not unknown in Sclavonia, and 
bordering countries. We may say of these blood-thirsty men, as Jacob said of Simeon 
and Levi, "Instruments of cruelty are in their habitations. O my soul, come not 
thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united!" 
Gen. xlix. 5, 6. V. THE CHURCH OF ROME IS WORDLY IN ITS POLICY. Its object is 
to gain dominion; to get a footing in every court; to direct the affairs of kingdoms 
and empires; and to accumulate wealth. The Jesuits, though at times expelled or 
pretendedly so from Rome, have been its awful emissa- ries to augment its power. 
The intrigues and deceptions of these men would fill volumes, and the conveniency 
of their creed to deny or affirm anything, or assume any p0rofession as it may 
serve their purpose, is too well known to need recapitulating here. These men 
have at times assumed so much that every papal state has alternately ejected them; 
and large numbers are now in this country - doubtless many under false colours 
- waiting the most favouable opportunities to corrupt the rising generation, and, 
as far as possible, restore the dark days of former ages. The Jesuits are unchangeable. 
So is Popery. And to show that these observations are not without being confirmed 
by facts, one sufficiently strong may here be quoted. After the Reformation had 
been carried a considerable length in the minority of King James VI. of Scotland, 
it was in danger of being overthrown by the artifice of the duke of Lennox, a 
papist and a creature of the Jesuit court, who had acquired undue ascendancy over 
the young king. The ministry of the church were alarmed, and more especially when 
they saw several Jesuits and seminary priests arrive from abroad, and by the open 
revolt of some who had hitherto professed the Protestant faith. They warned their 
hearers of the state of things. Lennox at once publicly renounced the popish religion. 
But the jealousy of the nation was reveved and inflamed by the interception of 
letters from Rome, granting a dispensation to the Roman Catholics to profess the 
Protestant tenets for a time, provided they preserved an inward attachment to 
the ancient faith, and embraced every opportunity of advancing it in secret. This 
discovery was the cause of originating the national covenant. Confession is of 
most important use in establishing this dominion over men, and even over states 
and cabinets. Every member of the family is inadvertently made a spy. Every secret 
is known to the confessor. The king and the subject become alike the slaves of 
the church! Such a machinery is one of the most profound pieces of policy that 
could ever be employed by arbitrary states. Entering into the deepest recesses 
of the human bosom, it brings to light every hidden thing, and at once assumes 
the control of every heart. Thus have papists learned to rule the world! VI. THE 
CHURCH OF ROME IS SELFISH IN ITS MOTIVES. There is nothing in it noble, expansive, 
or benevolent. While it calls itself the "Catholic" church, it is the most sectarian 
of all churches, shutting from heaven all that do not enter within its pale. It 
never teaches its votaries to wish "grace, mercy, and peace" to any but those 
of its own community. If the most lovely Christians in the world are not papist, 
they cannot offer up for them the benevolent wish, "Grace be with all them that 
love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity." Whatever the church teaches, or whatever 
it does, doctrines, sacraments, disscipline, all are made to operate if filling 
her own gaping coffers, ever crying, "Give, give!" Idolatrous as she is in other 
matters, money is her chief idol. Her churches have been notorious for accumulating 
wealth, and so also have her convents and monasteries; and the contriv- ances 
for that purpose have been most subtle and successful. The doc- trine of purgatory, 
in particular, has been a mine of wealth to the church. By consigning good and 
bad to that indescribable yet horreble state, and keeping them there at the pleasure 
of the keys, mass upon mass has been heaped up mountains high, like Ossa upon 
Pelion; so that the poor deluded relatives of the departed have exhausted their 
money and parience in raising the golden ascent, by which to scale the heavens 
with more facility! Without going back to the disgusting period which called forth 
the Reformation, it is sufficient to state, that these vile sources of revenue 
are still especially made productive at certain periods. The Jubilee bulls every 
twenty-five years call the faithful to Rome by promising "a plenary indulgence, 
remission, and pardon of all their sins." In Spain, a lucrative traffic is driven 
in this article of papal merchandise. Four bulls containing special indulgences 
are annually sent thither from Rome, which are bought by almost all the Spaniards, 
at prices suited to the condition of the purchasers. One bull gives plenary indulgences 
to commit what would otherwise be a mortal sin, by eating various articles of 
food during Lent. Another relates to frauds on property, allowing the guilty participants 
to retain it under certain qualifications. And what is called the Defunct bull 
obtains a plenary indulgence for any dead person, if his soul should happen to 
be still in purgatory! But no release from pugatory without money! Not a single 
mass nor paternoster can be offered up for a poor sinner without money! And the 
pope and the priest will allow the soul to suffer all the horrible torments which 
in their books and pictures are described as inflicted on the impenitent through 
countless ages, unless they have money to turn the keys, and release the poor 
victims from their misery. Truly, the "spirit of Popery" is the spirit of the 
evil one - "the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience." VII. 
THE CHURCH OF ROME IS IDOLATROUS IN ITS WORSHIP. The worshipping of any creature, 
how exalted soever he may be, or the likeness of any- thing "in the heaven abouve, 
or in the earth beneath," is idolatry. The Virgin Mary, the popes, the saints, 
the very bones of the saints, have been and are the objects of papal idolatries. 
So much homage is paid to the Virgin Mary that it has been well observed by a 
modern deceased writer, that it looks as if the papists thought that there were 
four subsistences in the Godhead, the Virgin Mary being the fourth. The "One Mediator," 
"Jesus Christ the righteous," is lost in the crowds, or rather the clouds of petitions 
offered up to the Virgin. This idolatry has no seeming authority anywhere. Pages 
1-35 of the Foxe's Book of Martyrs and AN UNIVERSAL HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN MARTYRDOM. 
Page 1  BOOK I An account of the ecclesiastical matters 
which passed in the Church of Christ from its first establishment till the period 
of three hundred years; particularly showing the differences between the ancient 
and present Church of Rome; in which the absurdity, impiety, and blas- phemous 
doctrines of that Church in modern times are fully illustrated. CHRIST, in the 
gospel of St. Matthew, chap. xvi., hearing the confession of Simon Peter, who 
first openly acknowledged him to be the Son of God, and perceiving the secret 
hand of his Father therein, answered again; and alluding to his name, called him 
a rock, upon which rock he would build his church so strong, that the gates of 
hell should not prevail against it, &c. In these words three things are to 
be noted. First, that Christ will have a church in this world. Secondly, that 
the same church should be mightily impugned, not only by the world, but also by 
the utmost strength and powers of all hell. And, thirdly, that the same church, 
notwithstanding the efforts of the devil and all his malice, should continue. 
This prophecy of Christ we see wonderfully verified, insomuch that the whole course 
of the church to this day, seems nothing else but a verification of it. First, 
that Christ hath set up a church, needs no proof. Secondly, what force, what sides 
and sorts of men, of princes, kings, monarchs, governors, and rulers of this world, 
with their subjects publicly and privately, with all their strength and cunning, 
have bent themselves against this church. And, thirdly, how the said church, not 
withstanding all this, hath yet endured. To bring these events home to the minds 
of Christians, it will be necessary to treat in the following order: First, of 
the suffering time of the church, which continued from the apostles age about 
three hundred years. Secondly, of the flourishing time of the church, which lasted 
other three hundred years. Thirdly, of the declining time of the church, which 
comprehends other three hundred years, or about the thousandth year after the 
ceasing of persecution. During which space of time, the church, although ambi- 
tious and proud, was much altered from the simple sincerity of the primitive time; 
yet in outward profession of doctrine and religion, it was something tolerable, 
notwithstanding some corruption of doctrine, with superstition and hypocrisy, 
had then crept in. Page 2 Fourthly, followed the time of Antichrist, or, as it 
is scripturally called, the loosing of Satan, or desolation of the church, which 
contains the space of four hundred years. In this time both Christian doctrine 
and sincerity of life was almost extinguished; particularly in the chief heads 
and rulers of the west church, through the means of the Roman bishops, especially 
from Gregory the seventh, called Hildebrand, Innocentius the third, and the friars 
who crept in with him, till the time of John Wickliffe and John Huss, during a 
space of four hundred years. Fifthly and lastly, after this time of Antichrist 
reigning in the church of God by violence and tyranny, followed the reformation, 
or, as it may properly be called, the purging of the church of God, wherein Antichrist 
begins to be revealed, and his anti-christian doctrine to be detected, the number 
of his church decreasing, and the number of the true church increasing greatly. 
With respect to the church of Rome, in all the ages above specified, it challenged 
itself the supreme title, and ringleading of the whole universal church on earth, 
by whose direction all other churches have been governed. In writing therefore 
of the church of Christ, one cannot but intermeddle with the acts and proceedings 
of the said church, because the doings and orderings of all other churches, from 
time to time, as well in England as in other nations, have chiefly depended upon 
it; in order to give a general description, briefly to show, as in a summary table, 
the misguiding of that church, comparing in former primitive state of the church 
of Rome with the latter times of the same, and then to proceed more at large with 
all the particulars thereof. The title and style of that church was such, that 
it surpassed all other churches: being called the Holy Universal Mother Church, 
which could not err; and the bishop thereof, Holy Father the Pope, Bishop Univer- 
sal, Prince of Priests, Supreme Head of the Universal Church, and Vicar of Christ 
on Earth, who must not be judged, having all knowledge of Scripture, and all laws 
contained within his breast. The jurisdiction of that bishop was such, that, challenging 
to himself both the swords, that is, both the keys of the scripture and the scepter 
of the laity, he not only subdued all bishops under him, but also advanced himself 
above kings and emperors, causing some of them to lie under his feet, some to 
hold his stirrup, others lead his horse by the bridle, to kiss his feet, and placing 
and displacing emperors, kings, dukes, and earls, where and when he listed, taking 
upon him to translate the empire at his pleasure; first from Greece to France, 
from France to Germany, preferring and deposing whom he pleased, confirming them 
which Page 3 were elected. Also being emperor himself, sede va-cante, pretending 
authority or power to invest bishops, to give benefices, to spoil churches, to 
give authority to bind and loose, to call general councils, to judge over them, 
to set up religions, to canonize saints, to take appeals, to bind consciences, 
to make laws, to dispense with the law and word of God, to deliver from purgatory, 
to command angels, &c. This doctrine was tedious to students, pernicious to 
men's consciences, injurious to Christ, and contrary in itself. But it should 
be noted, that all these deformities, vain title, pretended jurisdiction, heret- 
ical doctrine, and schismatical life, came not into the church of Rome at once, 
nor sprang with the beginning of the same church, but with long working, and continuance 
of time, by little and little crept in, and came not to full perfection till the 
time partly of pope Sylvester, partly of pope Gregory the seventh in 1170, partly 
of Innocent the third, and finally of pope Boniface the eighth in 1300. Of these 
four popes, the first brought in the title, in the year of the Lord 670, which 
was never before publicly enacted and received or acknowledged in the church of 
Rome. The second brought in jurisdiction. The third, which was pope Innocent, 
with his rabble of monks and friars (amongst whom were Thomas Aquinas, Petrus 
Lombardus, Johannes Scotus) and such other bishops as succeeded in the see after 
him, corrupted and obscured the sincerity of Christ's doctrine and manners. And 
lastly, pope Boniface the eighth, and Clement the fifth, added the temporal sword 
to be carried before them. And they decreed, that no emperor (were he never so 
justly elected) should be sufficient and lawful, without the pope's power admission. 
This was in the year 1300, whereby the pope's power was now brought to its full 
pride and perfection. And thus arose the corruption of the Romish church in continuance 
of years by degrees, and not at one time, as is here shown. Hence the church of 
Rome, as it is now governed with this titular jurisdiction, and institution of 
doctrine, never descended from the primitive age of the apostles, or from their 
succession, nisi tantum equivoce, et non uni- voce; like as Sancta Maria picta 
non est Sancta Maria, et homo pictus non est homo: that is, as the picture of 
the Holy Virgin is not the Holy Virgin, and as a man painted on the wall is not 
a man: so it is to be said of the church of Rome, that although it hath the name 
of the church Apostolic, and doth bring forth a long genealogy of outward succession 
from the apostles, as the Pharisees in Christ's time brought their descent from 
Abraham their father; yet all this is but only equivoce, that is, the name only, 
and not in effect or matter. With respect to the order and qualities of life, 
let us ask of this Roman Page 4 clergy, where was this church of theirs which 
now is, in the ancient time of the primitive church of Rome; with this pomp and 
pride; with this riches and superfluity; with this gloria mundi, and name of cardinals; 
with this extortion, bribing, buying and selling of spiritual dignities; these 
annats, reformations, procurations, exactions, and other practices for money; 
this avarice insatiable, ambition intoler- able, fleshly filthiness most destable, 
barbarousness and negligence in preaching, promise-breaking faithlessness, poisoning 
and supplanting one another; with such schisms and divisions, which never were 
more practiced than in the elections and courts of Rome within these seven hundred 
years; with such extreme cruelty, malice, and tyranny in burning and persecuting 
their poor brethren to death? If a man were to write at large all the schisms 
that have been in the church of Rome since the time of Damasus the first, what 
a volume would it require? Or if here should be recorded all whom this church 
hath burnt and put to death, who would be able to number them? If there were no 
other difference in the matter, but only corruption of life, all that we would 
tolerate, or impute to the common frailty of man, and charge them no farther than 
we might charge ourselves. But besides this deformity of life, wherein they have 
strayed from the former steps of the true church of Rome, we have to charge them 
in greater points, more nearly affecting the substantial ground of the church. 
Although Victor, bishop of Rome, in the year 200, went about to excommunicate 
the eastern churches for the observance of Easter day; yet neither did he proceed 
therein, nor was he permitted by Ireneus so to do. And although Boniface the first, 
writing to the bishops of Carthage, required of them to send up their appellations 
to the church of Rome, alleging the decree of the Nicene council for his authority; 
the bishops and clergy of Carthage assem- bling together in a general council 
(called the sixth council of Carthage) to the number of two hundred and seventeen 
bishops, after that they had perused the decrees in the authentic copies of the 
Nicene council, and found no such order, made a public decree, that none out of 
that country should make any appeal beyond the see, &c. It is no wonder if 
appeals were forbidden them to be made to Rome; for here in England the kings 
would not permit any to appeal from them to Rome, till Henry II. from political 
motives submitted to the influence of pope Alexander III. on account of the murder 
of Thomas a Becket. And also in France the like prohibitions were expressly made 
by Ludovicus Pius, anno 1264, which forbade, by a public instrument called Prag- 
matica sanctio, all exactions of the pope's court within that realm. The like 
was done also by king Philip, named Le Bel, anno 1296, which not only restrained 
all sending or going of his subjects to Rome, but also that no money, armour, 
nor subsidy should be transported out of his realm. King Charles the fifth, surnamed 
the Wise, and his son likewise, Charles the sixth, also punished as traitors certain 
sedi- tious persons for appealing to Rome. The like resistance was made in France, 
against the pope's reservations, preventions, and other practices of his usurped 
jurisdiction, in the days of pope Martin the fifth, anno 1418, when king Henry 
the sixth in England, and king Charles Page 5 the seventh in France, both accorded 
with the pope in investing and in the collation of benefices; yet notwithstanding 
the high court of parliament in France did not admit the same, but still maintained 
the old liberty and customs of the French church. And when the duke of Bedford 
came with the king's letters patent to have the pope's procu- rations and reservations 
admitted, the parliament would not agree to it, but the king's procurator-general 
was obliged to interfere. The Roman emperors made frequent attempts to curtail 
and check the powers of the popes. The emperor Honorius enacted a law, that none 
should be made bishops of Rome through ambition, charging all ecclesiastical ministers 
to cease from ambition; appointing; moreover, that if two were elected together, 
neither of them should be taken, but the election to proceed to another, who was 
to be chosen by a full consent of voices. To this may be added also the law and 
constitution of Justinian the emperor, ratified and renewed afterwards in the 
council of Paris, in the time of king Ludovicus Pius; where all bishops and priests 
were expressly forbidden to excommunicate. And if any should proceed contrary 
to this law, then the excommunicate person to be absolved by the authority of 
a higher decree, and the excommunicate to be seques- tered from the communion, 
so long as should seem convenient to him that had the execution thereof, as is 
expressed 24. q. 3. De illicita. Justinian also, in his laws and constitutions, 
ordained many things of high importance in church matters, such as to have a determinate 
number of churchmen or clerks in churches; also concerning monasteries and monks; 
how bishops and priests should be ordained; the removing of ecclesiastical persons 
from one church to another; the constitution of the churches in Africa; and that 
the holy mysteries should not be performed in private houses, so that whoever 
should attempt the contrary should be deprived. Const. 58. Also concerning the 
order and manner of funerals; and that bishops should not keep from their flock. 
The same Justinian granted to the clergy of Constantinople the privilege of the 
secular court in cases only civil and such as touched not the distur- bance of 
the bishop: in all criminal causes he left them to the judgment of the secular 
court. He also gave laws and decrees for breach of matrimony. And in his Const. 
123, after the doctrine of St. Paul, he commanded all bishops and priests to sound 
out their service and to celebrate the mysteries, not after a secret manner, but 
with a loud voice, so as they might not only be heard, but also that the faithful 
people might understand what was said and done; whereby we learn that divine prayers 
and service was then in the vulgar tongue. These and numerous other instances 
that could be adduced, shew that even in the early ages of papacy the sovereigns 
of Europe were jealous of, and adverse to, the institutions and authority of the 
popes; insomuch that they thought it necessary to point out to the catholic bishops 
and Page 6 priests what they ought to consider as their duty. Carolus Magnus, 
besides his other laws and political edicts, called five synods, one at Mentz, 
the second at Rome, the third at Rheims, the fourth at Cabilone, the fifth at 
Arelate, where sundry rites and ordinances were given to the clergy, about eight 
hundred and ten years after Christ. The same Carolus also decreed, that only the 
canonical books of Scripture should be read in the church and none other; which 
before was also decreed anno 417, in the third general council of Carthage. This 
monarch also exhorted bishops and priests, to preach the word with a godly injunction; 
and ordered them to dispense with the superstition which is used at certain places 
in the burial of the dead. The said kings and emperors likewise forbade that any 
freeman or citizen should enter the profession of a monk, without licence asked 
of the king; and added a double cause for this regulation, first, because many 
not for mere devotion, but for idleness, and avoiding the king's wars, do give 
themselves to religion; again, that many be craftily circumvented and deluded 
by subtle covetous persons seeking to get from that which they have; that no young 
children or boys should be shaven, or enter any profession, without the will of 
their parents; and that no young maiden should take the veil or profession of 
a nun before she came to sufficient discretion of years to discern and choose 
what to follow. That none should be interred or buried thenceforth within the 
church: which also was decreed by Theodosius and Valentinianus forty years before 
them. The said Carolus, two and twenty years before this emperor, enacted that 
murderers, and such as were guilty of death by the law, should have no sanctuary 
by flying into the church, &c. which also was decreed by Justinian three hundred 
years before Carolus. Amongst the numerous other improprieties of the modern church 
of Rome may be mentioned their vowsons and pluralities of benefices, which were 
then things as much unknown as they are now pernicious to the church, by taking 
away all free election of ministers from the flock of Christ. As these inconveniences 
came and crept in chiefly by the pretended authori- ty and jurisdiction abused 
in this latter church of Rome; so it cannot be denied, but the said latter church 
of Rome hath taken and attributed to itself much more than either the limits of 
God's word gives, or as stands with the example of the old Roman church, in these 
three things especially. The first is this, that whatsoever the Scripture giveth 
and referreth, either to the whole church universally, or to every particu- lar 
church severally, this present church of Rome doth arrogate to itself absolutely 
and only; both doing injury to other churches, and also abusing the Scriptures 
of God. For though the Scripture doth give page 7 authority to bind and loose, 
it limiteth it neither to person or place, that is, not to the city of Rome more 
than other cities, nor to the see of Peter more than to other apostles; but giveth 
it clearly to the church, whereof Peter did bear the figure, so that wheresoever 
the true church of Christ is, there is annexed power to bind and loose, given 
and taken merely as from Christ, and not immediately by the pope or bishop of 
Peter's see. The second point wherein this present church of Rome abuses its jurisdiction 
contrary to the Scripture and steps of the old Roman church, is this, that it 
extendeth its authority farther and more amply, than either the warrant of the 
word, or example of time, will give. For although the church of Rome hath (as 
other particular churches have) authority to bind and absolve, yet it hath no 
authority to absolve subjects from their oath, subjection, and loyalty to their 
rulers and magistrates, to dispense with perjury, to pronounce remission where 
no earnest repentance is seen before, to number remission by days and years, to 
dispense with things expressly in the word forbidden, or to restrain that which 
the word maketh free, to divide religion into reli- gions, to bind and burthen 
consciences with constitutions of men, to excommunicate for worldly matters, such 
as not ringing of bells at the bishop's coming, for not bringing litter for their 
horses, for not paying their fees and rents, for withholding the church goods, 
for holding on their prince's side in princely cases, for not going at the pope's 
commandment, for not agreeing to the pope's election in another prince's realm, 
with other such things more vain than these, &c. Again, although the Scripture 
giveth leave and authority to the bishop and church of Rome to minister sacraments; 
yet it giveth no authority to make sacraments, much less to worship sacraments. 
And though their authority serveth to baptise men, yet it extendeth not to christen 
bells; neither have any authority by any word of God to add to the word of God, 
or take from the same, to set up unwritten verities under pain of damnation, to 
make other articles of belief, to institute strange worship, otherwise than he 
hath prescribed who hath told us how he would be worshipped, &c. The third 
abuse of the pope's jurisdiction is, that as in spiritual jurisdiction they have 
vehemently exceeded the bounds of Scripture, so they have impudently intermeddled 
themselves in the temporal jurisdiction, wherein they have nothing to do. Insomuch 
that they have translated their empire, they have deposed emperors, kings, princes, 
rulers, and senators of Rome, and set up others or the same again at their pleasure; 
they have also proclaimed wars, and have warred themselves. And though emperors 
in ancient times have dignified them with titles, have enlarged them with donations, 
and they received their confirmation by the emperors, yet, like ungrateful clients 
to such benefactors, they afterwards stamped upon their necks, made them hold 
their stirrup, and also the bridle of their horse; have likewise caused them to 
seek confirmation at their hand; and, in fact, have made them- selves emperors, 
sede vacante, et in discordia electionis, and also have been senators of the city; 
moreover, have extorted by their own hands the plenary fulness of power and jurisdiction 
of both the swords, especially since the time of pope Hildebrand; which Hildebrand 
deposing Henry, the fourth emperor, made him give attendance at his city gate. 
page 8 And after him pope Boniface the eighth shewed himself to the people on 
the first day like a bishop, with keys before him; and the next day in his robes 
imperial, having a naked sword borne before him, like an emperor; this happened 
in the year 1298. Thus having sufficiently shewn the manner of life, title, jurisdiction, 
and government of the pope's see (in all which points it is to be seen how this 
latter church of Rome hath receded from the true ancient church of Rome) it now 
remains to proceed to the fourth and last point, which is of doctrine, wherein 
consisteth the chief matter that is with us and against them, and which proves 
that they are neither to be reputed for true catholics, being altered so far from 
them; nor we other than heretics, if we should now join with them. For the proof 
whereof, let us examine the doctrine and rites of the said church of Rome now 
used, and compare the same with the teaching of the ancient catholics, to the 
intent that such persons as have been hitherto, and yet are seduced by the false 
statements and image of this pretended church, perceiving what lieth within it, 
may be warned betimes either to avoid the peril, or if not, to blame none but 
themselves for their own willful destruction. And though I could here charge the 
new fangled church of the pope with seven or eight heinous crimes, such as blasphemy, 
idolatry, heresy, superstition, absurdity, vanity, cruelty, &c. yet to pass 
this matter with them, these two things I will and dare boldly affirm, that in 
this doctrine of the pope, now taught in the church of Rome, is neither any consolation 
of con- science, nor salvation of man's soul. For seeing there is no life nor 
soul's health but only in Christ, nor any promise of salvation or com- fort made 
but only by faith in the Son of God, what assurance can there be of perfect peace, 
life, or salvation, where that which only maketh all, is least made of, and other 
things which are of least import are most esteemed? And, therefore, as it may 
be truly said that this doctrine of the pope is void of all true comfort and salvation, 
so likewise it seemeth that those which addict themselves so devoutly to the pope's 
learning, were never earnestly afflicted in conscience, never humbled in spirit, 
nor broken in heart; never entered into any serious feeling of God's judgment, 
nor ever felt the strength of the law and of death. For if they had, they would 
soon have seen what a horrible thing it is to appear before God the judge, or 
once to think on him (as Luther says) without Christ; and, on the contrary, they 
would know what a glory, what a kingdom, what liberty and life it were to be in 
Christ Jesus by faith. And thus were the old Romans first taught by St. Paul writing 
to them. The same did Cornelius the Roman, the first that was baptized of the 
Gentiles, learn of St. Peter when he received the Holy Ghost, not by the deeds 
of the law, but only by hearing the faith of Jesus preached. And in the same doctrine 
the said church of the Romans many years continued so long as they were in affliction. 
And in the same doctrine the bishop of Rome with his Romans now also should still 
remain, if they were such ancient Catholics as they pretend, and page 9 would 
follow the old mother church of Rome; but what wonder if the Romans now in so 
long a tract of time have lost their first sap, seeing that the church of the 
Galatians, in the very time of St. Paul, their schoolmaster, he being amongst 
them, had scarcely turned his back but they almost turned from the doctrine of 
faith. And lest any should think that we here protest against the corrupt errors 
and deformities of this latter church of Rome from motives of any rancour, rather 
than necessary causes and demonstrations, I shall take some little pains to descry 
the particular branches and contents of the pope's doctrine, now set forth, to 
the intent that all true christian readers, comparing the one with the other, 
may discern what great alteration there is between the church of Rome that now 
is, and the church of Rome that then was planted by the apostles in the primitive 
times. And to open to the simple reader some way whereby he may the better judge 
in such matters of doctrine, and not be deceived in discerning truth from error. 
First, we will mention certain principles or general positions, as infallible 
rules or truths of the Scripture, whereby all other doctrines and opinions of 
men being tried and examined, may the more easily be judged whether they be true 
or contrary to the holy Scripture. Page 10 CERTAIN PRINCIPLES, OR GENERAL VERITIES, 
FOUNDED UPON THE TRUTH OF GOD'S WORD l. As sin and death came originally by the 
disobedience of one to all men of his generation by nature, so righteousness and 
life came origi- nally by the obedience of one to all men regenerated of him by 
faith and baptism. Rom. 5. 2. The promise of God was freely given to our first 
parents without their deserving; that the seed of the woman should break the serpent's 
head. Gen. 3. 3. Promise was given freely to Abraham before he deserved any thing, 
that in his seed all nations should be blessed. Gen. 12. 4. To the word of God 
neither must we add or take from it. Deut. 4. 5. He that doth the works of the 
law shall live therein Lev.18 Gal. 3. 6. Accursed is he who abideth not in every 
thing that is written in the book of the law. Deut. 27. Gal. 3. 7. God only is 
to be worshipped. Deut. 6. Luke 4. 8. All our righteousness is like a defiled 
cloth. Isa. 64. 9. In all my holy hill they shall not kill or slay, saith the 
Lord. Isa. 11; 65. 10. God loveth mercy and obedience more than sacrifice. Hos. 
6.ISam. 15. 11. The law worketh anger, condemneth and oppresseth sin. Rom. 3. 
12. The end of the law is Christ, for righteousness to every one that believeth. 
Rom. 10. 13. Whosoever believeth and is baptized, shall be saved. Matth. ult. 
14. A man is justified by faith, without works; freely by grace, not of ourselves. 
Gal. 2. Ephes. 2. 15. There is no remission of sins without blood. Heb. 9. 16. 
Whatsoever is not of faith is sin. Rom. 14. Without faith it is impossible to 
please God. Heb. 11. 17. One mediator between God and man, Christ Jesus. I Tim. 
2. And he is the propitiation for our sins. I John 2. 18. Whosoever seeketh by 
the law to be justified, is fallen from grace. Gal. 5: 19. In Christ be all the 
promises of God, Est & Amen. 2 Cor. 1. 20. Let every soul be subject to superior 
powers, giving to Caesar that which is Caesar's, and to God that which is God's. 
Rom. 13. These principles and infallible rules of Scripture, which no man can 
deny, prove that the doctrine of the pope's church is not catholic, but full of 
errors and heresies, as in the sequel will be more expressly and particularly 
in the Pope's Doctrines, contrary to the Rules of God's Word, and the First Institution 
of the Church of Rome. OF FAITH AND OF JUSTIFICATION. First, as to the only means 
and instrumental cause of our justification, whereby the merits of Christ's passion 
is applied to us and made ours, ye heard before how St. Paul ascribes the same 
only to faith, as appearsby all his letters, especially to the Romans; where he, 
excluding all kind of works, ascribes all our salvation, justification, righteousness, 
reconcilia- tion, and peace with God only to faith in Christ. Contrary to which 
doctrine, the pope and his church hath set up sundry other means of their own 
devising, whereby the merits of Christ's passion, they say, are applied to us 
and made ours, to the putting away of sins, and for our justification, as hope, 
charity, sacrifice of the mass, auric- ular confession, satisfaction, merit of 
saints, and holy orders, the pope's pardons, &c. So that Christ's sacrifice, 
stripes, and suffering, by this teaching, do not heal us, nor are beneficial to 
us, although we believe never so will, unless we had also these works and merits 
above recited. This error and heresy of the church of Rome, though it seems at 
first sight to the natural reason of man to be of small impor- tance, yet if it 
be earnestly considered, it is in very deed the most pernicious heresy that ever 
crept into the church; upon which, as the only foundation, all or the most part 
of all the errors, absurdities, and inconveniences of the pope's church are grounded. 
For this being once admitted, that a man is not justified by his faith in Christ 
alone, but that other means must be sought by our own working and merits, to apply 
the merits of Christ's passion unto us; then is there neither any certainty left 
of our salvation, nor end in setting up new means and merits of our own devising 
for remission of sins. Neither has there been any heresy that either hath rebelled 
more presumptuously against the high majesty of God the Father, nor more perniciously 
hath injured the souls of the simple, than this doctrine. Secondly, the christian 
reader in the gospel, reading of the great grace and sweet promises of God given 
to mankind in Christ his son, might thereby take much comfort of soul, and be 
at rest and peace with the Lord his God; but there comes in the pestiferous doctrine 
of these heretics, wherewith Page 11 they obscure this free grace of God to choke 
the sweet comforts of man in the Holy Ghost, and oppress Christian liberty, and 
bring us into spiritual bondage. Thirdly, as in this their impious doctrine they 
shew themselves manifest enemies to God's grace, so they are no less injuri- ous 
to christian men, whom they leave in a doubtful distrust of God's favour and of 
their salvation, contrary to the word and will of God, and right institution of 
the apostolic doctrine. OF SIN. Of sin likewise they teach not rightly, nor after 
the institution of the apostles and the ancient church of Rome; as they consider 
not the deepness and largeness of sin, supposing it still to be nothing else but 
the inward actions with consent of will, or the outward, such as are against will: 
whereas the essence of sin extends not only to these, but also comprehends the 
blindness and ignorance of the mind, lack of knowledge, the untowardness of man's 
mind, the privy rebellion of the heart against the law of God, the undelighting 
will of man to God and his word, &c. OF PENANCE OR REPENTANCE. Of penance, 
this corrupt Lateran church of Rome has made a sacrament (contrary to the fourth 
principle), which penance, say they, standeth of three parts, contrition, confession, 
and satis-faction canonical. Contrition, as they teach, may be had by strength 
of free-will, without the law and the Holy Ghost, per actus elicitis, through 
man's own action and endeavour. Which contrition first must be sufficient, and 
so it meriteth remission of sin. In confession they require a full rehearsal of 
all sins, whereby the priest knowing the crimes, may minister satisfaction accordingly. 
And this rehearsing of sins, ex opere operato, deserveth remission, contrary to 
the fourteenth principle before mentioned. Satisfactions they call opera indebita, 
enjoyed by the ghostly father. And this satisfaction (say they) taketh away and 
changeth eternal punishment into temporal pains, which pains also it doth mitigate. 
And again, these satisfactions may be taken away by the pope's indulgence, &c. 
OF FREE WILL. Concerning free-will, as it may in some case be admitted, that men 
without grace may do some outward functions of the law, and keep some outward 
observances or traditions; so as touching things spiritual and appertaining to 
salvation, the strength of man being not regenerate by grace, is so infirm and 
impotent that he can perform nothing neither in doing nor willing well; though, 
after he be regenerated by grace, may work and do well, but yet that there still 
remains, notwithstanding, a great imperfection of flesh, and a perpetual repugnance 
between the flesh and spirit. And thus was the original church of the ancient 
Romans first instructed, from which we may see now how far this latter church 
of Rome has degenerated, which affirms, that men without grace may perform the 
obedience of the law, and prepare themselves to grace by working, so that those 
works may be meritorious and obtain grace. Which grace once obtained, then men 
may (say they) perfectly perform the page 12 full obedience of the law, and accomplish 
those spiritual actions and works which God requires, and to those works of condignity 
deserve everlasting life. As to the infirmity which still remains in nature, that 
they do not regard nor once speak of. OF INVOCATION AND ADORATION. Besides these 
uncatholic and almost unchristian absurdities and defec- tion from the apostolical 
faith above specified, let us consider the manner of their invocation, not to 
God alone, as they should, but to dead men, saying that saints are to be called 
upon, tanquam mediatores intercessiones, as mediators of intercession; Christum 
vero tanquam mediatorem salutis, and Christ was a mediator only in time of his 
pas- sion, which is repugnant to the words of St. Paul, writing to the old Romans, 
chap. viii., where he, speaking of the intercession, of Christ, saith, "who is 
even at the right hand of God, who also maketh inter- cession for us," &c. 
And if Christ be a mediator of salvation, what needs then any other intercession 
of saints for our sins? Or what does he want more of the saints, who is sure to 
be saved only by Christ? Hitherto also pertains the worshipping of relics, and 
the false adora- tion of sacraments, that is, the outward signs of the thing signified, 
contrary to the seventh principle before stated. Add to this also the profanation 
of the Lord's supper, contrary to the use for which it was ordained, in reserving 
it after the communion ministered, in setting it to sale for money, and falsely 
persuading both themselves and others, that the priest doth merit both to himself 
who speaks, and to him who hears ex opere operato, sine bono motu utentis, &c. 
that is, only by the mere doing of the work, though the party that useth the same 
hath no motion in him. OF SACRAMENTS, BAPTISM, AND THE LORD'S SUPPER. With respect 
to sacraments, their doctrine is likewise corrupt and erroneous. In the sacrament 
of baptism they are to be reproved, not only for adding to the simple words of 
Christ's institution divers many new-found rites and fantasies of men, but also 
the use of the old church of Rome was only to baptise men, they baptise also bells, 
and apply the words of baptism to water, fire, candles, stocks, and stones, &c. 
But especially in the supper of the Lord their doctrine most filthily swerves 
from the right meaning of the scripture, and should be exploded out of all christian 
churches. The first error is their idolatrous abuse by worshipping, adoring, censing, 
knocking, and kneeling to it, in reserving also and carrying about in pomp and 
processions in towns and fields. Secondly, also in substance thereof their teaching 
is monstrous, leaving no substance of bread and wine to remain, but only the real 
body and blood of Christ, putting no difference between calling and making. Because 
Christ called bread his body, therefore, say they, he made it his body, and so 
of a wholesome sacrament make a perilous idol: and that which the old church of 
Rome did ever take to be a mystery, they turn into a blind mist of mere accidents 
to deceive the people; and to worship a thing made, for their maker; a creature 
for their creator; and that which was threshed out of a wheaten sheaf, they set 
up in the Page 13 church and worship for a saviour; and when they have worshipped 
him, then they offer him to his Father; and when they have offered him, then they 
eat him up, or else close him fast in a cell, where if he corrupt and putrify 
before he be eaten, then they burn him to powder and ashes. And notwithstanding 
they know well by scripture that the body of Christ can never corrupt and putrify, 
yet for all this corruption will they needs make it the body of Christ, and burn 
all them who believe not that which is against true christian belief. OF MATRIMONY. 
Contrary to the ordinances of the scripture, the new catholics of the pope's church 
call marriage a state of imperfection, and prefer single life be it never so impure, 
before the former, pretending that where the one replenishes the earth, the other 
fills heaven. Ministers and priests such as are found to have wives, they not 
only remove out of their place, but also pronounce sentence of death upon them, 
and account their children illegitimate. Again, as good as the third part of the 
year they exempt and suspend from liberty of marriage. Besides all this, they 
have added a novel prohibition of spiritual kindred, that is, that such as have 
been gossips, or godfathers and godmothers together in christening another man's 
child, must not by their law marry together. Finally, in this doctrine and cases 
of matrimony, they gain much money from the people, nourish adultery, and fill 
the world with offences that give great occasion of murdering infants. OF MAGISTRATES 
AND CIVIL GOVERNMENT. It is known what rules and lessons St. Paul gave to the 
old Romans concerning magistrates, to whose authority he would have all human 
creatures subjected, as they are the ministers of God, having the sword given 
unto them, wherewith they ought to repress false doctrine and idolatry, and maintain 
that which is true and right, Rom. xiii. Now let us survey the pope's proceedings, 
and mark how far he transgresses in this, as he doth in all other points, from 
true christianity. 1. First, The pope with all his clergy, exempt themselves from 
all civil obedience. 2. They arrogate to themselves authority to ordain and constitute, 
without leave or knowledge of the ordinary magistrate. 3. They take upon themselves 
to depose and set up rulers and magistrates when they please. OF PURGATORY. The 
paradoxes, or rather the fantasies, of the latter church of Rome, concerning purgatory, 
are monstrous, and neither old nor apostolical. 1. First (they say) there is a 
purgatory where souls burn in fire after this life. 2. The pain of purgatory differs 
nothing from the pains of hell, but only that it has an end; the pains of hell 
have none. Page 14 3. The painful suffering of this fire scours away the sins 
before committed in the body. 4. The time of these pains endures in some longer, 
in some less, according as their sins deserve. 5. After the time of their pains 
has expired, then the mercy of God translates them to heavenly bliss, which the 
body of Christ hath bought for them. 6. The pains of purgatory are so great, that 
if all the beggars of the world were seen on the one side, and but one soul in 
purgatory on the other side, the whole world would pity more that one, than all 
the others. 7. The whole time of punishment in this purgatory must continue till 
the fire has scoured away the spots of every sinful soul there burning, unless 
there come some release. 8. Helps and releases that may shorten the time of their 
purgation, may be obtained by the pope's pardon and indulgences, sacrifices of 
the altar, dirges and trentals, prayer, fasting, &c. Lack of belief of purgatory 
bringeth to hell. In short, let us examine the whole religion of this latter church 
of Rome, and we shall find it to consist altogether in outward and ceremonial 
exercises; as outward confession, absolution at the priest's hand, outward sacrifice 
of the mass, buying of pardons, purchasing of obiits, external worshipping of 
images and relics, pilgrimage to this place or that, building of churches, founding 
of monasteries, outward works of the law, outward gestures, garments, colours, 
choice of meats, dif- ference of times and places, peculiar rites and observances, 
set prayers, and number of prayers prescribed, fasting of vigils, keeping of holidays, 
coming to church, hearing of service, external succession of bishops and of Peter's 
see, external form and notes of the church, &c. So that by this religion to 
make a true christian and a good catholic, there is scarcely any working of the 
Holy Ghost required. As for example, to make this matter more demonstrable, let 
us define a chris- tian man after the pope's making, whereby we may see the better 
what is to be judged of the scope of his doctrine. A CHRISTIAN MAN, AFTER THE 
POPE'S MAKING, DEFINED. According to the Catholic religion, a true christian man 
is thus defined: first, to be baptised in the Latin tongue (which the godfathers 
profess they cannot understand), then confirmed by the bishops; the mother of 
the child to be purified; after he is grown in years, then to come to the church 
to keep his fasting days, to fast the lent, to come under benedicite; that is, 
to be confessed of the priest, to do his penance, at Easter to take his rites, 
to hear mass and divine service, to set up candles before images, to creep to 
the cross, to take holy bread and water, to go in procession, to carry his palms 
and candle, and to take ashes; to fast the ember days, rogation days, and vigils; 
to keep the holidays, to pay his tithes and offerings, to go on pilgrimage, to 
buy pardons, to worship his Maker over the priest's head, and to receive the pope 
for his supreme lord, and to obey his laws; to receive St. Nicholas' clerks, to 
have his beads, and to give to the high altar; to take orders if he will be a 
priest, to keep his vow, and Page 15 not to marry; when he is sick to be anointed 
and take the rites of the holy church, to be buried in the church-yard, to be 
rung for, to be sung for, to be buried in a friar's cowl, and to conform living 
and dying to the Romish rule. All these points being observed, who can deny but 
this is a devout man, and perfect christian catholic, and sure to be saved, as 
a true faithful child of the holy mother church? Now look upon this definition, 
and say, good reader, what faith or spirit, or what working of the Holy Ghost 
in all this doctrine is to be required. The grace of our Lord Jesus give the true 
light of his gospel to shine in our hearts. Amen. SECTION II. Containing a history 
of the first Ten Persecutions of the Primitive Church, from the year of our Lord, 
67, and the reign of Nero Domitius, till the time of Constantine the Great: in 
which are detailed the lives and actions of the principal Christian martyrs of 
both sexes, who suffered for their faith in Europe and in Africa. The dreadful 
martyrdoms we are now about to describe, arose from the persecutions of the Christians 
by pagan fury, in the primitive ages of the church, during the space of three 
hundred years, until the time of Constantine the great. It is both wonderful and 
horrible to peruse the descriptions of the sufferings of those godly martyrs, 
as they are described by ancient historians. Their torments were as various as 
the ingenuity of man, excited by the devil, could devise; and their numbers were 
truly incredible. "Some," says Robanus, "were slain with the sword; some burnt 
with fire; some scourged with whips; some stabbed with forks of iron; some fastened 
to the cross or gibbet; some drowned in the sea; some had their skins plucked 
off; some their tongues cut out; some were stoned to death; some frozen with cold; 
some starved with hunger; some with their hands cut off, or otherwise dismembered, 
were left naked to the open shame of the world." Augustine, speaking of these 
martyrs, says, that though their punishments were various, yet the constancy in 
all was the same. And notwithstanding the sharpness of so many torments, and cruelty 
of the tormentors, such was the number of these faithful saints, that as Hierome, 
in his epistle to Cromatius and Heliodorus, observes, "There is no day in the 
whole year, unto which the number of five thousand martyrs cannot be ascribed, 
except only the first day of January." The first martyr to our holy religion was 
its Blessed Founder Page 16 himself. His history is sufficiently known, as it 
has been handed down to us in the New Testament; nevertheless it will be proper 
here to give an outline of his sufferings, and more particularly as they will 
be followed by those of the apostles and evangelists. (A.D. 1 to 18.) The persecutions 
by the emperors took place long after the death of our Saviour. It is known that 
in the reign of Herod, the angel Gabriel was sent by divine command to the Virgin 
Mary. This maiden was betrothed to a carpenter named Joseph, who resided at Nazareth, 
a city of Galilee; but the marriage had not then taken place; for it was the custom 
of the eastern nations to contact persons of each sex from their childhood, though 
the alliance was not permitted till years of maturity. The angel informed Mary 
how highly she was favoured of God, and that she should conceive a son by the 
Holy Spirit, which happened accordingly; for traveling to Bethlehem to pay the 
capitation-tax then levied, the town was so crowded that they could get lodgings 
only in a stable, where the Holy Virgin gave birth to our Blessed Redeemer, which 
was announced to the world by a star and an angel: the wise men of the east saw 
the former, and the shepherds the latter. After Jesus had been circumcised, he 
was presented in the temple by the Holy Virgin; upon which occasion Simeon exclaimed 
in the celebrated words mentioned in the liturgy: "Lord, now lettest thou thy 
servant depart in peace, according to thy word: for mine eyes have seen thy salvation." 
Luke ii. 29, 30. Jesus, in his youth, conversed with the most learned doctors 
in the temple, and soon after was baptized by John in the river Jordan, when the 
Holy Ghost descended upon him in the form of a dove, and a voice was heard audibly 
to pronounce these words: "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." 
After this Christ fasted forty days and nights in the wilderness, where he was 
tempted by the devil, but resisted all his allurements. He performed his first 
miracle at Cana, in Galilee; he likewise conversed with the good Samaritan, and 
restored to life a nobleman's dead child. While traveling through Galilee he restored 
the blind to sight, he cured the lame, the lepers, &c. Among other benevol- 
ent actions, he cured at the pool of Bethseda, a paralytic man who had been lame 
thirty-eight years, bidding him take up his bed and walk; and he afterwards cured 
a man whose right hand was shrunk up and withered, with many acts of a similar 
nature. When he had chosen his twelve apostles, he preached the celebrated sermon 
on the Mount; after which he performed several miracles, particularly the feeding 
of the Page 17 multitude, and the walking on the surface of the sea. On the cele- 
bration of the passover, Jesus supped with his disciples; he informed them that 
one of them would betray him, and another deny him: in short he preached his farewell 
sermon. A multitude of armed men soon after- wards surrounded him, and Judas kissed 
him, in order to point him out to the soldiers, who were not acquainted with his 
person. In the con- flict occasioned by the apprehension of Jesus, Peter cut off 
the ear of Malchus, the servant of the high-priest, for which Jesus reproved him, 
and, by touching the wound, healed it. (A. D. 34.) Peter and John followed Jesus 
to the house of Annas, who refusing to judge him, sent him bound to Caiaphas, 
in whose house Peter denied Christ, as he had predicted; but, on Christ reminding 
him of his perfidy, the apostle went out and wept bitterly. When the council had 
assembled in the morning, the Jews mocked Jesus, and the elders suborned false 
witnesses against him: the principal accusation being, that he had said, "I will 
destroy this temple made with hands, and within three days I will build another 
made without hands." Caiaphas then asked him if he was Christ the Son of God, 
or not; being answered in the affirmative he was accused of blasphemy, and condemned 
to death by Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor, who, though conscious of his innocence, 
yielded to the solicitations of the Jews, and condemned him to be crucified. His 
remarkable expression at the time of passing sentence proved how much he was convinced 
that the Lord was persecuted. Previous to the crucifixion, the Jews, by way of 
derision, clothed Christ in a regal robe, put a crown of thorns upon his head, 
and a reed, for a sceptre, in his hand; they then mocked him with ironical compliments, 
spat in his face, smote his cheeks, and taking the reed out of his hand, they 
struck him with it upon the head. Pilate would have released him, but the general 
cry was, Crucify him, crucify him; which occasioned the governor to call for a 
basin of water, and having washed his hands, he declared himself innocent of the 
blood of Christ, whom he termed a just person. But the Jews said, "Let his blood 
be upon us, and our children:" and the governor found himself obliged to comply 
with their wishes. Their imprecation, too, has manifestly taken place, as they 
have ever since been a people scattered and cursed. While they were leading Christ 
to the place of crucifixion, Page 18 he was obliged to bear the cross, which being 
unable long to sustain, his enemies compelled one Simon, a native of Cyrene, to 
carry it the rest of the way. Mount Calvary was fixed on for the place of execu- 
tion, where, having arrived, the soldiers offered Christ a mixture of gall and 
vinegar to drink, which he refused. Having stripped him, they nailed him to the 
cross, and crucified him between two malefactors. On being fastened to the cross, 
he uttered this benevolent prayer for his enemies: "Father, forgive them, for 
they know not what they do." Four soldiers who crucified him, now cut his mantle 
to pieces, and divided it between them; but his coat being without seam, they 
cast lots for it. While Christ remained in the agonies of death, the Jews mocked 
him, and said, "If thou art the son of God, come down from the cross." The chief 
priests and scribes also reviled him, and said, "He saved others, but cannot save 
himself." One of the criminals who was crucified with him, also cried out, and 
said, "If thou art the Messiah, save thyself and us;" but the other malefactor, 
having great faith, exclaimed, "Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom." 
To which Christ replied, "This day shalt thou be with me in paradise." When Christ 
was upon the cross, the earth was covered with darkness, and the stars appeared 
at noon-day, which struck the people and even the Jews with terror. In the midst 
of his tortures, He cried out, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me!" and 
then expressed a desire to drink, when one of the soldiers gave him, upon the 
point of a reed, a sponge dipped in vinegar, which however he refused. About three 
o'clock in the after- noon he gave up the ghost, and at that moment a violent 
earthquake commenced, when the rocks were rent, the mountains trembled, and the 
dead emerged from the graves. These and other prodigies attended the death of 
Christ, and such was the mortal end of the Redeemer of mankind. It is not a subject 
of wonder that the heathens who lived so long after him, endeavoured by persecution 
and the most horrid cruelties, to prevent the propagation of that source of comfort 
and happiness in all affliction, which has resulted from the blessed system of 
faith that our Saviour confirmed with his blood. ACCOUNT OF THE LIVES, 
&c. I. St. Stephen. This early martyr was elected, with six 
others, as a deacon of the first Christian church. He was also an able and successful 
preacher. The principal persons belonging to five Jewish synagogues entered into 
dispute with him; but he, by the soundness of his doctrine, and the Page 19 strength 
of his arguments, overcame them all, which so much irri- tated them, that they 
bribed false witnesses to accuse him of blasphem- ing God and Moses. On being 
carried before the council, he made a noble defence; but this so much exasperated 
his judges, that they resolved to condemn him. At the instant Stephen saw a vision 
from heaven, representing Jesus, in his glorified state, sitting at the right 
hand of God. This vision so enraptured him, that he exclaimed, "Behold I see the 
heavens open, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God." This caused 
him to be condemned, and having dragged him out of the city they stoned him to 
death. On the spot where he was martyred, Eudocia, the empress of Theodosius, 
erected a superb church, and the memory of the martyr is annually celebrated on 
the 26th day of December. The death of Stephen was succeeded by a severe persecution 
in Jerusalem, in which 2000 Christians, with Nicanor the deacon, were martyred, 
and many others obliged to leave their country.  II. ST. JAMES THE GREAT 
He was a Galilean, and the son of Zebedee, a fisherman, the elder brother of St. 
John, and related to Christ himself; for his mother Salome was cousin to the Virgin 
Mary. Being one day with his father fishing in the sea of Galilee, he and his 
brother John were called by the Saviour to become his disciples. They cheerfully 
obeyed the mandate, and leaving their father, followed Jesus. It is to be observed, 
that Christ placed greater confidence in them than in any other of the apostles, 
Peter excepted. Christ called these brothers Boanerges, or sons of thunder, on 
account of their vigorous minds and zealous spirits. When Herod Agrippa was made 
governor of Judea by the emperor Caligula, he raised a persecution against the 
Christians, and particularly selected James as an object of his vengeance. This 
martyr, on being condemned to death, showed such intrepidity and constancy of 
mind, that even his accuser was struck with admiration, and became a convert to 
christianity. This transition so enraged the people in power, that they condemned 
him likewise to death; when the apostle, and his penitent accuser, were both beheaded 
on the same day and with the same sword. These events took place in the year of 
Christ 44; and the 25th of July was fixed by the church for the commemoration 
of James's martyrdom. About the same period, Timon and Parmenas, two of the seven 
deacons, suffered martyrdom, the former at Corinth, and the latter at Philippi, 
in Macedonia.  III. ST. PHILIP This apostle and martyr was born at Bethsaida, 
in Galilee, and was the first called by the name of disciple. He was employed 
in several important missions by Christ, and being deputed to preach in Upper 
Asia, Page 20 laboured very diligently in his apostleship. He then travelled into 
Phrygia, and arriving at Heliopolis, found the inhabitants to sunk in idolatry, 
as to worship a large serpent. St. Philip, however, was the means of converting 
many of them to christianity, and even procured the death of the serpent. This 
so enraged the magistrates, that they com- mitted him to prison, had him severely 
scourged, and afterwards cruci- fied. His friend, St. Bartholomew, found an opportunity 
of taking down the body, and burying it; for which, however, he was very near 
suffering the same fate. The martyrdom of Philip happened eight years after that 
of James the Great, A. D. 52; and his name, together with that of St. James the 
Less, is commemorated on the 1st of May. IV. ST. MATTHEW This evangelist, 
apostle, and martyr, was born at Nazareth, in Galilee; but resided chiefly in 
Capernaum, on account of his business, which was that of a tax-gatherer, to collect 
tribute of such as had to pass the sea of Galilee. On being called as a disciple, 
he immediately complied, and left every thing to follow Christ. After the ascension 
of his Lord, he continued preaching the gospel in Judea about nine years. Intending 
to leave Judea, to go and preach among the Gentiles, he wrote his gospel in Hebrew, 
for the use of the Jewish converts; but it was afterwards translated into Greek 
by St. James the Less. He then went to Ethiopia, ordained preachers, settled churches, 
and made many converts. He afterwards proceeded to Parthia, where he had the same 
success; but returning to Ethiopia, he was slain by a halberd in the city of Nadabar, 
about the year of Christ 60; and his festival is kept by the church on the 21st 
day of September. He was inoffensive in his conduct, and remarkably temperate 
in his mode of living.  V. ST. MARK This evangelist and martyr was born 
of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. It is supposed that he was converted to 
christianity by St. Peter, whom he served as an amanuensis, and whom he attended 
in all his travels. Being entreated by the converts at Rome to commit to writing 
the admirable discourses they had heard from St. Peter and himself, he complied 
with their request, and composed his gospel in the Greek language. He then went 
to Egypt, and constituted a bishopric at Alexan- dria: afterwards he proceeded 
to Lybia, where he made many converts. On returning to Alexandria, some of the 
Egyptians, exasperated at his success, determined on his death. They tied his 
feet, dragged him through the streets, left him bruised in a dungeon all night, 
and the next day burned his body. This took place on the 25th of April, on which 
day the church commemorates his martyrdom. His bones were care- fully gathered 
up by the Christians, decently interred, and afterwards removed to Venice, where 
he is honoured as the tutelar saint and patron of the state.  VI. ST. JAMES 
THE LESS This apostle and martyr was so called to distinguish him from St. 
James the Great. He was the son of Joseph, the reputed father of Christ; Page 
21 and after the Lord's ascension was elected bishop of Jerusalem. He wrote his 
general epistles to all Christians and converts whatever, to sup- press a dangerous 
error then propagating, viz. "That faith in Christ was alone sufficient for salvation, 
without good works." The Jews, being at this time greatly enraged that St. Paul 
had escaped their fury, by appealing to Rome, determined to wreak their vengeance 
on James, who was now ninety-four years of age: they accordingly threw him down, 
beat, bruised, and stoned him; and then dashed out his brains with a club, such 
as was used by fullers in dressing cloths. His festival, together with that of 
St. Philip, is kept on the first of May.  VII. ST. MATTHIAS This martyr 
was called to the apostleship after the death of Christ, to supply the vacant 
place of Judas, who had betrayed his master. He was also one of the seventy disciples. 
He was martyred at Jerusalem, by being first stoned, and then beheaded; and the 
24th of February is observed for the celebration of his festival.  VIII. ST. 
ANDREW This apostle and martyr was the brother of St. Peter, and preached 
the gospel to many Asiatic nations. On arriving at Edessa, the governor of the 
country, named Egeas, threatened him for preaching against the idols they worshipped. 
St. Andrew, persisting in the propagation of his Page 22 doctrines, was ordered 
to be crucified, two ends of the cross being fixed transversely in the ground. 
He boldly told his accusers, that he would not have preached the glory of the 
cross, had he feared to die on it. And again, when they came to crucify him, he 
said that he coveted the cross, and longed to embrace it. He was fastened to the 
cross, not with nails, but cords; that his death might be more slow. In this situa- 
tion he continued two days, preaching the greatest part of the time to the people; 
and expired on the 30th of November, which is commemorated as his festival.  
IX. ST. PETER This great apostle and martyr was born at Bethsaida in Galilee, 
being the son of Jonas, a fisherman, which employment St. Peter himself followed. 
He was persuaded by his brother to turn Christian, when Christ gave him the name 
of Cephas, implying, in the Syriac language, a rock. He was called, at the same 
time as his brother, to be an apostle, gave uncommon proofs of his zeal for the 
service of Christ, and always appeared as the principal speaker among the apostles. 
He had, however, the weakness to deny his Master after his apprehension, though 
he defended him at the time; but the sincerity of his repentance proved that he 
soon became deeply convinced of the greatness of his crime. After the death of 
Christ, the Jews still continued to persecute the Christians, and ordered several 
of the apostles, among whom was Peter, to be scourged. This punishment they bore 
with the greatest fortitude, and rejoiced that they were thought worthy to suffer 
for the sake of their Redeemer. When Herod Agrippa caused St. James the Great 
to be put to death, and found that it pleased the Jews, he resolved, in order 
to ingratiate himself with the people, that Peter should be the next sacrifice. 
He was accordingly apprehended, and thrown into prison; but an angel of the Lord 
released him, which so enraged Herod, that he ordered the sentinels who guarded 
the dungeon in which he had been confined, to be put to death. St. Peter, after 
various miracles, retired to Rome, where he defeated the artifices, and confounded 
the magic of Simon Magus, a great favourite of the emperor Nero: he likewise converted 
to christianity one of the concubines of that monarch, which so exasperated the 
tyrant, that he ordered both St. Peter and St. Paul to be apprehended. During 
the time of their confinement, they converted two of the captains of the guard, 
and forty-seven other persons to christianity. Having been nine months in prison, 
Peter was brought from thence for execution, when after being severely scourged, 
He was cruci- fied with his head downwards; which position, however, was at his 
own request. His festival is observed on the 29th of June, on which day he Page 
23 as well as Paul suffered. His body being taken down, embalmed, and buried in 
the Vatican, a church was erected on the spot; but this being destroyed by the 
emperor Heliogabalus, the body was concealed till the 20th bishop of Rome, Cornelius, 
conveyed it again to the Vatican; afterwards Constantine the Great erected one 
of the most stately churches in the universe over the place. Before we quit this 
article, it is requisite to observe, that previous to the death of St. Peter, 
his wife suffered martyrdom for the faith of Christ, when he exhorted her, as 
she was going to be put to death, to remember her Saviour. X. ST. PAUL 
This apostle and martyr was a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, born at Tarsus in 
Cilicia. He was at first a great enemy to, and persecutor of the Christians; but 
after his miraculous conversion, he became a strenuous supporter of christianity. 
At Iconium, St. Paul and St. Barnabas were near being stoned to death by the enraged 
Jews; on which they fled to Lyconia. At Lystra, St. Paul was stoned, dragged out 
of the city, and left for dead. He, however, happily revived, and escaped to Derbe. 
At Philippi, Paul and Silas were imprisoned and whipped; and both were again persecuted 
at Thessalonica. Being afterwards taken at Jerusalem, he was sent to Cesarea, 
but appealed to Caesar at Rome. Here he continued a prisoner at large for two 
years; and at length being released, he visited the churches of Greece and Rome, 
and preached in France and Spain. Returning to Rome, he was again apprehended, 
and by the order of Nero, martyred, by beheading. Two days are dedicated to Page24 
the commemoration of this apostle; the one to his conversion, which is on the 
25th of January, and the other to his martyrdom, which is on the 29th of June, 
A. D. 72.  XI. ST. JUDE This apostle and martyr, the brother of James, 
was commonly called Thaddaeus. Being sent to Edessa, he wrought many miracles, 
and made many converts, which exciting the resentment of people in power, he was 
crucified A. D. 72; and the 28th of October is, by the church, dedicated to his 
memory.  XII. ST. BARTHOLOMEW This apostle and martyr preached in several 
countries, performed many miracles, and healed various diseases. He translated 
St. Matthew's gospel into the Indian language, and propagated it in that country; 
but at length, the idolators growing impatient with his doctrines, severely beat 
and crucified him. He was scarcely alive when taken down and beheaded. The anniversary 
of his martyrdom is on the 24th of August.  XIII. ST. THOMAS He was called 
by this name in Syriac, but Didymus in Greek; he was an apostle and martyr, and 
preached in Parthia and India, where dis- pleasing the pagan priests, he was martyred 
by being thrust through with a spear. His death is commemorated on the 21st of 
December. XIV. ST. LUKE THE EVANGELIST This martyr was the author of the 
third most excellent gospel; and also of the Acts of the Apostles. He travelled 
with St. Paul to Rome, and preached to divers barbarous nations, till the priests 
of Greece hanged him on an olive-tree. The anniversary of his martyrdom is on 
the 18th of October.  XV. ST. SIMON This apostle and martyr was distinguished 
from his zeal by the name of Zelotes. He preached with great success in Mauritania, 
and other parts of Africa, and even in Britain, where, though he made many converts, 
he was crucified, A. D. 74; and the church, joining him with St. Jude, commemorates 
his festival on the 28th of October.  XVI. ST. JOHN He was distinguished 
as a prophet, an apostle, a divine, an evangelist, and a martyr. He is called 
the beloved disciple, and was brother to James the Great. He was previously a 
disciple of John the baptist, and afterwards not only one of the twelve apostles, 
but one of the three to whom Christ communicated the most secret passages of his 
life. He founded churches at Smyrna, Pergamos, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea, 
and Thyatria, to which he directs his book of Revelations. Being at Ephesus, he 
was ordered by the emperor Domitian to be sent bound to Rome, where he was condemned 
to be cast into a caldron of boiling oil. But here a miracle was wrought in his 
favour, the oil did him no injury; Page 25 and Domitian, not being able to put 
him to death, banished him to Patmos to labour in the mines, A. D. 73. He was, 
however, recalled by Nerva, who succeeded Domitian, but was deemed a martyr on 
account of his having undergone an execution, though it did not take effect. He 
wrote his epistles, gospel, and Revelation, each in a different style; but they 
are all equally admired. He was the only apostle who escaped a violent death, 
and lived the longest of any, he being nearly 100 years of age at the time of 
his death. The church devotes the 27th of December to his memory. XVII. ST. 
BARNABAS He was a native of Cyprus, but of Jewish parents: the time of his 
death is uncertain; but it is supposed to have been about the year of Christ 73; 
and his festival is kept on the 11th of June. ACCOUNT OF THE FIRST PRIMITIVE 
PERSECUTION Beginning in the year 67, under the reign of the emperor Nero. 
The first persecution in the primitive ages of the church, was under Nero Domitius, 
the sixth emperor of Rome, A. D. 67. This monarch reigned for the space of five 
years with tolerable credit to himself; but then gave way to the greatest extravagance 
of temper, and to the most atrocious barbarities. Among other diabolical outrages, 
he ordered that the city of Rome should be set on fire, which was done by his 
officers, guards, and servants. While the city was in flames, he went up to the 
tower of Maecenas, played upon his harp, sung the song of the burning of Troy, 
and declared, "That he wished the ruin of all things before his death." Among 
the noble buildings burnt was the Circus, the place appropriated to civic sports: 
it was half a mile in length, of an oval form, with rows of seats rising above 
each other, and capable of receiving with ease upwards of 100,000 spectators. 
Many other palaces and houses were consumed; and several thousands of the people 
perished in the flames, were smothered, or buried beneath the ruins. This dreadful 
conflagration continued nine days. Nero, finding that his conduct was greatly 
blamed, and a severe odium cast upon him, determined to charge the whole upon 
the Christians, at once to excuse himself, and have an opportunity of fresh persecutions. 
The barbarities inflicted on the Christians, during the first persecution, were 
such as excited the sympathy of even the Romans themselves. Page 26 Nero nicely 
refined upon cruelty, and contrived all manner of punish- ments for his victims. 
He had some sewed up in the skins of wild beasts, and then worried by dogs till 
they expired; and others dressed in shirts made stiff with wax, fixed to axletrees, 
and set on fire in his garden. This persecution was general throughout the Roman 
empire; but it increased rather than diminished the spirit of christianity. Besides 
St. Paul and St. Peter, many others, whose names have not been transmitted to 
posterity, and who were mostly their converts and followers, suffered; the facts 
concerning the principal of them we shall proceed to describe. ERASTUS, the chamberlain 
of Corinth, was converted by St. Paul, and determined to follow the fortunes of 
that apostle. He resigned his office, and accompanied the apostle in his voyages 
and travels, till the latter left him in Macedonia, where he was first made bishop 
of that providence by the Christians. He afterwards suffered martyrdom, being 
tortured to death by the pagans at Philippi. ARIS- TARCHUS, the Macedonian, was 
born in Thessalonica, and being converted by St. Paul became his constant companion. 
He was with the apostle at Ephesus, during a commotion raised in that city by 
Demetrius the silversmith. They both received severe insults on the occasion from 
the populace, which they bore with christian patience, giving good advice in return 
for ill usage, and not in the least resenting any indignity. Aristarchus accompanied 
St. Paul from Ephesus into Greece, where they were very successful in propagating 
the gospel, and converting many to christianity. Having left Greece they traversed 
a great part of Asia, and made a considerable stay in Judea, where they were also 
very pros- perous in making converts. After this Aristarchus went with St. Paul 
to Rome, where he suffered the same fate as the apostle; for being seized as a 
Christian, he was beheaded by the command of Nero. TROPHIMUS, an Ephesian by birth, 
and a Gentile by religion, was converted by St. Paul to the christian faith. On 
his conversion he accompanied his master in his travels; and on his account the 
Jews raised great disturbance in the temple at Jerusalem, the last time St. Paul 
was in that city. They even attempted to murder the apostle, for having introduced 
a Greek into the temple; such an one being looked upon by the Jews with detestation. 
Lysias, the captain of the guard, however, interposed, and rescued St. Paul by 
force from the hands of the Jews. On quitting Jerusalem, Trophimus followed his 
master to Rome, and did him very essential service. He then attended him to Spain, 
and passing through Gaul, the apostle made him bishop of that providence, and 
left him in the city of Arles. There he continued about twelve months, when he 
paid another visit to St. Paul in Asia, and went with him for the last time to 
Rome, where he was witness to the martyrdom of his master, which was but the forerunner 
of his own: for being soon after seized on account of his faith, he was beheaded 
by order of the emperor Nero. JOSEPH, commonly called Barsabas, was a primitive 
disciple, and is usually deemed one of the seventy. He was, in some degree, related 
to the Redeemer; and he became a candidate, together with Matthias, to fill Page 
27 the vacant place of Judas Iscariot, to which Matthias was elected. Ecclesiastical 
writers make very little other mention of Joseph; but Papias informs us, that 
he was once compelled to drink poison, which did not do him the least injury, 
agreeably with the promise of the Lord to those who believe in him. He was during 
his life a zealous preacher of the gospel; and having received many insults from 
the Jews, at length obtained martyrdom, being murdered by the pagans in Judea. 
ANANIAS, bishop of Damascus, is celebrated in the scared writings as the person 
who cured St. Paul of the blindness with which he was struck by the amazing brightness 
which shone upon him at his conversion. He was one of the seventy, and was martyred 
in the city of Damascus. After his death a christian church was built over the 
place of his burial, which is now converted into a Turkish mosque.  ACCOUNT 
emperor Domitian was naturally of a cruel disposition; he first slew his brother, 
and then raised a second persecution against the Chris- tians. His rage was such, 
that he even put to death several Roman senators; some through malice, and others 
to confiscate their estates. He then commanded all the lineage of David to be 
sacrificed. Two Christians were brought before the emperor, and accused of being 
of the tribe of Judah, and line of David; but from their answers, he despised 
them as idiots, and dismissed them accordingly. He, however, was determined to 
be more secure upon other occasions; and on this plea he took away the property 
of many Christians, put several to death, and banished others. Among the numerous 
martyrs that suffered during this persecution was Simeon, the bishop of Jerusalem, 
who was crucified; and St. John, who was boiled in oil, and afterwards banished 
to Patmos. Flavia, the daughter of a Roman senator, was likewise banished to Pontus; 
and a cruel law was made, "That no Christian, once brought before the tribunal, 
should be exempted from punishment without renouncing his religion." During this 
reign there were various tales published in order to injure the Christians. Among 
other falsehoods, they were accused of indecent nightly meetings, of a rebellious 
turbul- ent spirit, of being inimical to the Roman empire, of murdering their 
children, and even of being cannibals; and at this time, such was the infatuation 
of the Pagans, that if famine, pestilence, or earthquakes, afflicted any of the 
Roman provinces, it was charged on the Christians. These persecutions naturally 
multiplied the number of informers; and many, for the sake of gain, swore away 
the lives of the innocent. When any Christians were brought before the magistrates, 
a test was proposed, when, if they refused to take the oath, death was pronounced 
against them; and if they confessed themselves Christians, the sentence was the 
same. The various kinds of punishments and inflicted cruelties were, during this 
persecution, imprisonment, racking, searing, broiling, burn- ing, scourging, stoning, 
hanging, and worrying. Many were lacerated with Page 28 red hot pincers, and others 
were thrown upon the horns of wild bulls. After having suffered these cruelties, 
the friends of the deceased Christians were refused the privilege of burying their 
remains. The following were the most remarkable individual martyrs who suffered 
during this persecution. DIONYSIUS the Areopagite, was an Athenian by birth, and 
educated in all the useful and ornamental literature of Greece. He travelled into 
Egypt to study astronomy, and made particular observations on the great supernatural 
eclipse, which happened at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion. On his return 
to Athens he was highly honoured by the people, and at length promoted to the 
dignity of senator of that celebrated city. Becoming a convert to the gospel, 
he advanced from the worthy pagan magistrate to the pious christian pastor; for 
even while involved in the darkness of idolatry, he was as morally just as when 
he became a disciple and minister of Christ. After his conver- sion, the sanctity 
of his conversion and purity of his manners recom- mended him so strongly to the 
Christians in general, that he was appointed bishop of Athens. He discharged this 
duty with the utmost diligence till the second year of his persecution, A. D. 
69, when he was apprehended, and received the crown of martyrdom, by being beheaded. 
NICOMEDES, a Christian of distinction at Rome, during Domitian's persecution, 
made great efforts to serve the afflicted; comforting the poor, visiting the imprisoned, 
exhorting the wavering, and confirming the faithful. For those and other pious 
actions he was seized as a Christian, and was sentenced and scourged to death. 
PROTASIUS and GERVASIUS were martyred at Milan; but the particular circumstances 
attending their death are not recorded. TIMOTHY, the celebrated disciple of St. 
Paul, and bishop of Ephesus, was born at Lystra in the province of Lycaonia; his 
father was a Gentile, and his mother a Jewess; but both his parents and his grandmother 
embraced christianity, by which means Timothy was taught from his infancy the 
precepts of the gospel. Upon St. Paul's reaching Lycaonia, he ordained Timothy, 
and made him the companion of his labours. St. Paul mentions him with peculiar 
esteem, and declares, that he could find no one so truly united to him, both in 
heart and mind. Timothy attended St. Paul to Macedonia, where, together with Silas, 
he laboured in the propagation of the gospel. When St. Paul went to Achaia, Timothy 
was left behind to strengthen the faith of those already converted, and induce 
others to adopt the true faith. St. Paul at length sent for Timothy to Athens, 
and then despatched him to Thessalonica, to protest to the suffering Christians 
there against the terrors of the persecution which then prevailed. Having performed 
his mission, he returned to Athens, and there assisted St. Paul and Silas in composing 
the two epistles to the Thessalonians. He then accompanied the apostle to Corinth, 
Jerusalem, and Ephesus. After performing several of his commissions for him and 
attending him on various journeys, the apostle constituted Timothy bishop of Ephesus, 
though he was only thirty years of age; and in two admirable epistles gave him 
instructions for his conduct. Timothy was so temperate in his living, that St. 
Paul blamed him for being too Page 29 abstemious, and recommended to him the moderate 
use of wine to recruit his strength and spirits. St. Paul sent to Timothy to come 
to him in his last confinement at Rome; and after that great apostle's martyrdom, 
he returned to Ephesus, where he zealously governed the church till nearly the 
close of the century. At this period the Pagans were about to celebrate a feast, 
the principal ceremonies of which were, that the people should carry sticks in 
their hands, go masked, and bear about the streets the images of their gods. When 
Timothy met the procession, he severely reproved them for their ridiculous idolatry, 
which so exasperated the people, that they fell upon him with their clubs, and 
beat him in so dreadful a manner, that he expired of the bruises two days after. 
one year elapsed between the second and third Roman persecutions. Upon Nerva succeeding 
Domitian, he gave a respite to the Christians; but reigning only thirteen months, 
his successor Trajan, in the tenth year of his reign, and in the year 108, began 
the third persecution against them. While this persecution raged, Plinius Secundus, 
a heathen philosopher, wrote to the emperor in favour of the Christians, to whose 
epistle Trajan returned this indecisive answer:- "That Christians ought not to 
be sought after, but when brought before the magistracy they should be punished." 
Provoked by this reply, Tertullian exclaimed in the following words: "O confused 
sentence! he would not have them sought for as innocent men, and yet would have 
them punished as guilty." His officers were uncertain, if carried on with severity, 
how to interpret the meaning of his decree. Trajan, however, soon after wrote 
to Jerusalem, and gave orders to exterminate the stock of David; in consequence 
of which, all that could be found of that race were put to death. About this period 
the emperor Trajan was succeeded by Adrian, Page 30 who continued the persecution 
with the greatest rigour. When Phocas, bishop of Pontus, refusing to sacrifice 
to Neptune, was, by his immediate order, cast first into a hot lime-kiln, and 
being drawn from thence, was thrown into a scalding bath till he expired. Trajan 
likewise commanded the martyrdom of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch. This holy man, 
when an infant, Christ took in his arms, and showed to his disciples; as one that 
would be a pattern of humility and innocence: he received the gospel afterwards 
from St. John the evangelist, and was exceedingly zealous in his mission and ministry. 
He boldly vindicated the faith of Christ before the emperor, for which he was 
cast into prison, and was tormented with in a cruel manner; for, after being dreadfully 
scourged, he was compelled to hold fire in his hands, and, at the same time, papers 
dipped in oil were put to his sides and lighted! His flesh was then torn with 
hot pincers, and at last he was despatched by the fury of wild beasts. Ignatius 
had either presentiment or information of his fate; for writing to Polycarp at 
Smyrna, he thus described his adven- tures; "From Syria, even till I came to Rome, 
had I battle with beasts, as well by sea as land, both day and night, being bound 
in the midst of a cruel legion of soldiers who, the more benefits they received 
at my hands, behaved so much the worse unto me. But being now well acquainted 
with their injuries, I am taught every day more and more. And would to God I were 
once come to the beasts which are prepared for me; which also I wish with gaping 
mouths were ready to come upon me, whom also I will provoke that they, without 
delay, may devour me. And if they will not, unless they be provoked, I will then 
enforce them against myself. Now begin I to be a scholar; I esteem no visible 
things, not yet invisible things, so that I may get or obtain Christ Jesus. Let 
the fire, the gallows, the wild beasts, the breaking of bones, the pulling asunder 
of members, the bruising of my whole body, and the torments of the devil and hell 
itself come upon me, so that I may win Christ Jesus!" SYMPHROSA, a widow and her 
seven sons, were commanded by this emperor to sacrifice to the heathen deities. 
Refusing to comply with the impious request, the emperor, in a rage, told her, 
that for her obstinacy, herself and her sons should be slain, and ordered her 
to be carried to the temple of Hercules, where she was scourged while she hung 
up by the hair of her head: then a large stone was fastened to her neck, and she 
was thrown into a river. The sons were bound to seven posts, and being drawn up 
by pulleys, their limbs were dislocated: these tortures, not affecting their resolution, 
they were thus martyred - Cresentius, the eldest, was stabbed in the throat: Julian, 
the second, in the breast; Nemesius, the third, in the heart; Primitius, the fourth, 
in the navel; Justice, the fifth, in the back; Stacteus, the sixth, in the side; 
and Eugenius, the youngest, was sawed asunder. About this time, Alexander, bishop 
of Rome, with his two deacons, were martyred; as were Quirinus and Hermes, with 
their families; Zenon, a Roman nobleman, and Page 31 about ten thousand other 
Christians. Many were crucified on Mount Ararat, crowned with thorns, and spears 
run into their sides, in imitation of Christ's passion. Eustachius, a brave and 
successful Roman commander, was ordered by the emperor to join an idolatrous sacrifice, 
in celebration of some of his own victories; but his faith was so strong, that 
he noble refused it. Enraged at the denial, the ungrateful emperor forgot the 
services of his skillful commander, and ordered him and his whole family to be 
martyred. During the martyrdom of Faustines and Jovita, brothers and citizens 
of Bressia, their torments were so many, and their patience so firm, that Calocerius, 
a pagan, beholding them, was struck with admiration, and exclaimed, in ecstasy, 
"Great is the God of the Christians!" for which he was apprehended and put to 
death. Many other cruelties and rigours were exercised against the Christians, 
till Quodratus, bishop of Athens, made a learned apology in their favour before 
the emperor, who happened to be there; and Aris- tides, a philosopher of the same 
city, wrote an elegant epistle, which caused Adrian to relax in his severities, 
and relent in their favour. He went so far as to command that no Christian should 
be punished on the score of religion or opinion only; but this gave occasion against 
them to the Jews and pagans, for then they began to suborn false witnesses, to 
accuse them of crimes against the state. The history of Nicephorus makes mention 
of Anthia, a godly woman, who committed her son Eleuther- ius to Anicetus, bishop 
of Rome, to be brought up in the doctrines of the christian faith. He afterwards 
became bishop in Apulia, and was there beheaded with his mother Anthia. Justus 
also and Pastor, two brethren, ended their lives in a city of Spain called Complutum, 
by an exemplary martyrdom. Adrian died in the year 138, and was succeeded by Antoninus 
Pius, so amiable a monarch, that his people gave him the title of "The Father 
of Vitrues." Immediately on his accession to the throne, he published an edict, 
forbidding further persecution of the Christians, and concluded it in these words:- 
"If any hereafter shall vex or trouble the Christians, having no other cause but 
that they are such, let the accused be released, and the accusers be punished." 
This stopped the persecution, and the Christians enjoyed a respite from their 
sufferings during this emperor's reign, though their enemies took every occasion 
to do them what injuries they could. Page 32  ACCOUNT OF THE FOURTH PRIMITIVE 
PIUS was succeeded by Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Verus, who began the fourth persecution, 
in which many Christians were martyred, particularly in several parts of Asia, 
and France. Such were the cruel- ties used in this persecution, that many of the 
spectators shuddered with horror at the sight, and were astonished at the intrepidity 
of the sufferers. Some of the martyrs were obliged to pass, with their already 
wounded feet, over thorns, nails, sharp shells, &c; others were scourged till 
their sinews and veins lay bare; and after suffering most excruciating tortures, 
they were destroyed by the most terrible deaths. GERMANICUS, a young and holy 
Christian, being delivered to the beasts on account of his faith, behaved with 
such astonishing courage, that several pagans became converts to a faith which 
inspired so much fortitude. This so enraged others, that they cried he merited 
death, as they did also of Polycarp, the pious and venerable bishop of Smyrna. 
At the death of Germanicus, many of the multitude wondering at the beloved martyr 
for his constancy and virtue, began suddenly to cry with a loud voice, "Destroy 
the wicked men, let Polycarp be sought for." And whilst a great uproar and tumult 
began to be raised upon these cries, a certain Phrygian, named Quintus, lately 
arrived, was so afflicted at the sight of the wild beats, that he rushed to the 
judgment seat, and abused the judges, for which he was put to death without mercy 
or delay. POLYCARPUS hearing that persons were seeking to apprehend him, escaped, 
but was discovered by a child. From his circumstance, and having dreamed that 
his bed suddenly became on fire, and was consumed in a moment, he concluded that 
it was God's will he should suffer martyrdom. He therefore did not attempt to 
make a second escape when he had an opportunity of doing it. Those who apprehended 
him were amazed at his serene countenance and gravity. After feasting them, he 
desired an hour for prayer, which being allowed, he prayed with such fervency, 
that his guards repented they had been instrumental in taking him. He was, however, 
carried before the pro-consul, condemned, and conducted to the market place. Wood 
being provided, the holy man earnestly prayed to Heaven, after being bound to 
the stake; and as the flames grew vehement, the executioners gave away on each 
side, the heat becoming intolerable. In the mean time the bishop sung praises 
to God in the midst of the flames, but remained unconsumed therein, and the burning 
of the wood spreading a fragrance around, the guards were much surprised. Determined, 
however, to put an end to his life, they struck spears into his body, when the 
quantity of blood that issued from the wounds Page 33 extinguished the flames. 
After considerable attempts, they put him to death, and burnt his body when dead, 
not being able to consume it while living. Twelve other Christians who had been 
intimate with Polycarp, were soon after martyred. METRODORUS, a minister who preached 
boldly, and Pionius, who made some excellent apologies for the christian faith, 
were likewise burnt. Carpus and Papilus, two worthy Christians, and Agathonica, 
a pious woman, suffered martyrdom at Pergamopolis in Asia, about the same period. 
FELICITAS, an illustrious Roman lady of a considerable family, and great virtues, 
was a devout Christian. She had seven sons, whom she had educated with the most 
exemplary piety. The empire being about this time grievously troubled with earthquakes, 
famine, and inundations, the Christians were accused as the cause, and Felicitas 
was included in the accusation. The lady and her family being seized, the emperor 
gave orders to Publius, the Roman governor, to proceed against her. Upon this 
Publius began with the mother, thinking that if he could prevail to change her 
religion, the example would have great influence with her sons. Finding her inflexible, 
he changed his entreaties to menaces, and threatened destruction to herself and 
family. She despised his threats as she had done his promises; on which he began 
with the sons, whom he examined separately. They all, however, remained steadfast 
in the faith, and unanimous in their opinions, on which the whole family were 
ordered for execution. Januarius, the eldest, was scourged and pressed to death 
with weights; Fleix and Philip, the two next, had their brains dashed out with 
clubs; Syvanus, the fourth, was murdered by being thrown from a precipice; and 
the three younger sons, viz. Alexander, Vitalis, and Mertialis were all beheaded. 
The mother was beheaded with the same sword as the three latter. JUSTIN, the celebrated 
philosopher, fell a martyr in this persecution. He was a native of Neapolis, in 
Samaria, and was born A.D. 103. He had the best education the times could afford, 
and travelled into Egypt, the country where the polite tour of that age was made 
for improvement. At Alexandria he was informed of every thing relative to the 
seventy interpreters of the sacred writings, and shewn the rooms, or rather cells, 
in which their work was performed. Justin was a great lover of truth, and an universal 
scholar; he investigated the Stoic and Peripatetic philosophy, and attempted the 
Pythagorean system; but the behaviour of one of its professors disgusting him, 
he applied himself to the Platonic, in which he took great delight. About the 
year 133, when he was thirty years of age, he became a convert to christianity. 
Justin wrote an elegant epistle to the Gentiles, to convert them to the faith 
he had newly acquired, and lived in so pure and innocent a manner, that Page 34 
he well deserved the title of a christian philosopher. He likewise employed his 
talents in convincing the Jews of the truth of the chris- tian rites, and spent 
much time in travelling, till he took up his abode in Rome, and fixed his habitation 
on the Veminal mount. He kept a public school, taught many who afterwards became 
great men, and wrote a treatise to confute heresies of all kinds. As the pagans 
began to treat the Christians with great severity, Justin wrote his first apology 
in their favour, and addressed it to the emperor Antoninus, to two princes whom 
he had adopted as his sons, and to the senate and people of Rome in general. This 
piece, which occasioned the emperor to publish an edict in favour of the Christians, 
displays great learning and genius. A short time after, he entered into frequent 
contests with Crescens, a person of a vicious life, but a celebrated cynic philosopher; 
and his arguments appeared so powerful, yet disgusting to the cynic, that he resolved 
on his destruction, which in the sequel he accomplished. The second apology of 
Justin was occasioned by the following circumstances: a man and his wife who were 
both evil charac- ters, resided at Rome. The woman, however, becoming a convert 
to christianity, attempted to reclaim her husband; but not succeeding, she sued 
for a divorce, which so exasperated him, that he accused her of being a Christian. 
Upon her petition, he dropped the prosecution and levelled his malice against 
Ptolemeus, who had converted her. Ptolemeus was condemned to die; and one Lucius, 
with another person, for expressing themselves too freely upon the occasion, met 
with the same fate. Justin's apology upon these severities gave Crescens an opportun- 
ity of prejudicing the emperor against the writer of it; upon which Justin and 
six of his companions were apprehended. Being commanded as usual to deny their 
faith, and sacrifice to the pagan idols, they refused to do either; they were, 
therefore, condemned to be first scourged and then beheaded. It appears that only 
seven pieces of the writings of this celebrated martyr, and great philosopher, 
are now extant, viz: The Two Apologies; An Exhortation to the Gentiles; An Oration 
to the Greeks; A Treatise on Divine Monarchy; A Dialogue with Trypho the Jew; 
and An Epistle to Diagnetus. His Oratio, and Parenesis and Grecos, are well known. 
About this time many were beheaded for refusing to sacrifice to the image of Jupiter: 
in particular Concordus, a deacon of the city of Spoleto, being carried before 
the image, and ordered to worship it, not only refused, but spat in its face; 
for which he was severely tormented, and afterwards had his head cut off with 
a sword. At this time some of the northern nations having armed against Rome, 
the emperor marched to encounter them; he was, however, drawn into an ambuscade, 
and dreaded the loss of his whole army. Surrounded by mountains and enemies, and 
perishing with thirst, the troops were driven to the last extremity. All the pagan 
deities were invoked in vain; when the men belonging to the militine, or thundering 
legion, who were nearly all Christians, were commanded to call upon God for succour: 
they immediately withdrew from the rest, prostrated themselves upon the earth, 
and prayed fervently. A miraculous deliverance immediately ensued: a prodigious 
quantity of rain fell, which being caught by the men, and filling the dykes, furnished 
a sudden and astonishing relief. Page 35 The emperor, in his epistle to the Roman 
senate, wherein the expedition is described, after mentioning the difficulties 
to which he had been driven, speaks of the Christians in the following manner. 
"When I saw myself not able to encounter with the enemies, I craved aid of our 
nation's gods; but finding no relief at their hands, and being cooped up by the 
enemy, I caused those men whom we call Christians, to be sent for; who being mustered, 
I found a considerable number of them, against whom I was more incensed than I 
had just cause, as I afterwards found: for, by a marvellous power, they forthwith 
used their endeavours, not with ammunition, drums, and trumpets, abhorring such 
preparations and furniture, but only praying to, and trusting in their God, whom 
they carry about with them in their consciences. It is therefore to be believed, 
although we call them wicked men, that they worship God in their hearts; for they, 
falling prostrate on the ground, prayed, not only for me, but for the army also 
which was with me, beseeching God to help me in our extreme want of food and fresh 
water (for we had been five days without water, and in our enemies land, even 
in the midst of Germany): I say, falling upon their faces, they prayed to a God 
unknown to me, and immediately thereon fell from heaven a most cool and pleasant 
shower; but amongst our enemies great store of hail, mixed with thunder and lightning: 
so that we soon perceived the invincible aid of the most mighty God to be with 
us; therefore we give these men leave to profess christianity, lest, by their 
prayers, we be punished by the like: and I thereby make myself the author of all 
the evil that shall arise from the persecution of the Christian religion." It 
appears that the storm which so miraculously flashed in the faces of the enemy 
so intimidated them, that part deserted to the Roman army, the rest were defeated, 
and the revolted provinces were entirely recovered. This affair occasioned the 
persecution to subside for some time, at least in those parts immediately under 
the inspection of the emperor; for we find that it soon after raged in France, 
particularly at Lyons, where the torture, to which many Christians were put, almost 
exceeds the powers of description. All manner of punishments were adopted, torments, 
and painful deaths; such as being banished, plundered, hanged, burnt. Even the 
servants and slaves of opulent Christians were racked and tortured, to make them 
accuse their masters and employers. The following were the principal of these 
martyrs: Vetius Agathus, a young man, who having pleaded the Christian cause, 
was asked if he was a Christian; when answering in the affirmative, he was condemned 
to death. Many, animated by this young man's intrepidity, boldly owned their faith 
and suffered like him. Blandina, a Christian, but of weak constitution, being 
seized and tortured on account of her religion, received so much strength form 
Heaven, that her torturers became frequently tired; and were surprised at her 
being able to bear her torments for so great a length of time, and with such resolution. 
Sanctus, a deacon of Vienna, was put to the Page 36 torture, which he bore with 
great fortitude, and only cried. "I am a Christian." Red hot plates of brass were 
placed upon those parts of the body that were tenderest, which contracted the 
sinews; but remaining inflexible, he was reconducted to prison. Being brought 
from his place of confinement a few days afterwards, his tormentors were astonished 
to find his wounds healed, and his person perfect: however they again proceeded 
to torture him; but not being able, at that time to take his life, they remanded 
him to prison, where he remained for some time, and was at length beheaded. Biblias, 
a timid woman, had been an apostate, but having returned to the faith, was martyred, 
and bore her sufferings with great patience. Attalus, of Pergamus, was another 
sufferer; and Pothinus, the venerable bishop of Lyons, who was ninety years of 
age, was so treated by the enraged mob, that he expired two days after their outrage 
in the prison. At Lyons, exclusive of those already mentioned, the martyrs were 
compelled to sit in hot iron chairs till their flesh broiled. This was inflicted 
with peculiar severity on Sanctus, already mentioned, and some others. Some were 
sown up in nets, and thrown on the horns of wild bulls; and the carcases of those 
who died in prison, previous to the appointed time of execution, were thrown to 
dogs. Indeed, so far did the malice of the pagans proceed, that they set guards 
over the bodies while the beasts were devouring them, lest the friends of the 
deceased should get them by stealth; and the offals left by the dogs were ordered 
to be burnt. The martyrs of Lyons are said to have been forty-eight in number, 
and their executions happened in the year of Christ, 177. They all died with great 
fortitude, glorifying God and the Redeemer. Besides the above martyrs of Lyons, 
whom Mr. Fox enumerated together, many others suffered in that city, and different 
parts of the empire, soon after. Of these the principal were, Epipodius and Alexander, 
celebrated for their great friendship, and their chris- tian union. The former 
was born at Lyons, the latter in Greece; they were of great assistance to each 
other, by the continual practice of all manner of christian virtues and godliness. 
At the time the perse- cution began to rage at Lyons, they were in the prime of 
life, and to avoid its severities, they thought proper to withdraw to a neighbouring 
village. Here they were, for some time, concealed by a christian widow, named 
Alice. But the rage of their persecutors sought after them with indefatigable 
industry, and pursued them to their place of concealment, whence they were committed 
to prison without examination. At the expi- ration of three days, being brought 
before the governor, they were examined in the presence of a crowd of heathens, 
when they confessed the divinity of Christ; on which the governor, being enraged 
at what he termed their insolence, said, "What signifies all the former executions, 
if some yet remain who dare acknowledge Christ!" They were then separated, that 
they should not condole with each other, and he began to tamper with Epipodius, 
the younger of the two. He pretended to pity his condition, and entreated him 
not to ruin himself by obstinacy. "Our deities," continued he, "are worshipped 
by the great- er part of the people in the universe, and their rulers; we adore 
them with feasting and mirth, while you adore a crucified man: we, to honour Page 
37 them, launch into pleasures; you, by your faith, are debarred from all that 
indulges the senses. Our religion enjoins feasting, your's fast- ing; our's the 
joys of licentious blandishments, your's the barren virtue of chastity. Can you 
expect protection from one who could not secure himself from the persecutions 
of a contemptible mob? Then quit a profession of such austerity, and enjoy those 
gratifications which the world affords, and which your youthful years demand." 
Epipodius, in reply, contemning his compassion, said, "Your pretended tenderness 
is actual cruelty; and the agreeable life you describe is replete with everlasting 
death. Christ suffered for us, that our pleasures should be immortal, and hath 
prepared for his followers an eternity of bliss. The frame of man being composed 
of two parts, body and soul; the first as mean and perishable, should be rendered 
subservient to the latter. Your idolatrous feasts may gratify the mortal, but 
they injure the immortal part: that cannot, therefore, be enjoying life which 
destroys the most valuable moiety of your fame. Your pleasures lead to eternal 
death, and our pains to eternal happiness." For this admirable speech, Epipodius 
was severely beaten, and then put to the rack; upon which being stretched, his 
flesh was torn with iron hooks. Having borne his tor- ments with incredible patience 
and fortitude, he was taken from the rack and beheaded. Alexander, his companion, 
was brought before the judge two days after his friend's execution; and on his 
absolute refusal to renounce christianity, he was placed on the rack and beaten 
by three executioners, who relieved each other. He bore his sufferings with as 
much fortitude as his friend had done, and the next day was crucified. These martyrs 
suffered A.D. 179; the first on the 20th of April, and the other in three days 
after. Valerian and Marcellus, who were nearly related to each other, were imprisoned 
at Lyons, in the year 177, for being Christians. By some means, however, they 
made their escape, and travelled different roads. The latter made several converts 
in the territories of Besancon and Chalons; but being apprehended, was carried 
before Priscus, the governor of those parts. This magistrate, knowing Marcellus 
to be a Christian, ordered him to be fastened to some branches of a tree, which 
were drawn for that purpose. When he was tied to different branches, they were 
let go, with a design to tear him to pieces by the suddenness of the rebound. 
This invention failing, he was conducted to Chalons, to be present at some idolatrous 
sacrifices, refusing to assist in them, he was put to the torture, and afterwards 
fixed up on to the neck in the ground, in which position he expired, A.D. 179, 
after remaining three days. Valerian was also apprehended, and, by the order of 
Priscus, was first brought to the rack, and then beheaded in the same year as 
his relation Marcellus. About the same time the following martyrs suffered: Benignus, 
at Dijon; Spensippus, and others, at Langres; Androches, Thyrseus, and Felix, 
at Salieu; Sympoviam and Florella, at Antun; Severinus, Felican, and Exuperus, 
at Vienna; Cecilia, the virgin, at Sicily; and Thrasus, bishop of Phrygia, at 
Smyrna. In the year 180 the emperor Antoninus died, and was succeeded by his son 
Commodus, who did not imitate his father in any respect. He had neither his virtues 
nor his vices; he was without his learning and Page 38 his morality, and at the 
same time without his prejudices against christianity. His principal weakness 
was pride, and to that may be chiefly ascribed the errors of his reign; for having 
fancied himself Hercules, he sacrificed those of every creed to his vanity, who 
refused to subscribe to his own absurd opinions. In this reign Apollonius, a Roman 
senator, became a martyr. This eminent person was skilled in all the polite literature 
of those times, and in all the purest precepts taught by the blessed Redeemer. 
He was accused by his own slave Severus, upon an unjust and contradictory, but 
unrepealed edict of the emperor Trajan. This law condemned the accused to die, 
unless he recanted his opinion; and at the same time ordered the execution of 
the accuser for slander. Apollonius, upon this ridiculous statute was accused; 
for though his slave Severus knew he must die for the accusation, yet such was 
his diabolical malice and desire of revenge, that he courted death in order to 
involve his master in the same destruction. As Apollonius refused to recant his 
opinions, he was, by order of his peers the Roman senators, to whom he had appealed, 
condemned to be beheaded. The sentence was executed on the 18th day of April, 
A. D. 186, his accuser having previously had his legs broken, and been put to 
death. About this time succeeded Anicetus, Soter, and Eleutherus, about the year 
of our Lord 189. This Eleutherus, at the request of Lucius, King of Bri- tain, 
sent to him Damianus and Fugatius, by whom the king was converted to the christian 
faith, and baptized about the year 179. Eusebius, Vincentius, Potentianus, and 
Peregrinus, for refusing to worship Commodus as Hercules, were likewise martyred. 
Julius, a Roman senator, Page 39 becoming a convert to christianity, was ordered 
by the emperor to sacri- fice to him as Hercules. This Julius absolutely refused, 
and publicly professed himself a Christian. On this account, after remaining in 
prison a considerable time, he was in the year 190, pursuant to his sentence, 
ROMAN EMPERORS. In the year 191, the emperor Commodus dying, was succeeded 
by Pertinax, and he was succeeded by Julianus, both of whom reigned but a short 
time. On the death of the latter, Severus became emperor in the year 192. When 
he had been recovered from a severe fit of sickness by a Christian, he became 
a great favourer of Christians generally and even permitted his son Caracalla 
to be nursed by a female of that persuasion. Hence, during the reigns of the emperors 
who successively succeeded Commodus, and some years of his reign, the Christians 
had a respite for several years from persecution. But the prejudice and fury of 
the ignorant multitude again prevailed, and the obsolete laws were put in execution 
against them. The pagans were alarmed at the progress of christianity, and revived 
the calumny of placing incidental misfortunes to the account of its professors. 
Fire, sword, wild beasts, and imprisonments, were resorted to, and even the dead 
bodies of Christians were torn from their graves, and submitted to every insult: 
yet the gospel withstood the attacks of its barbarous enemies. Tertullian, who 
lived in this age, informs us, that if the Christians had collectively withdrawn 
themselves from the Roman territories, the empire would have been greatly depopu- 
lated. Victor, bishop of Rome, suffered martyrdom in the first year of the third 
century, viz. A.D. 201, though the circumstances are not ascertained. Leonidas, 
the father of the celebrated Origen, was beheaded for being a Christian. Previous 
to the execution, his son, in order to encourage him, wrote to him in these remarkable 
words: "Beware, Sir, that your care for us does not make you change your resolution." 
Many of Origen's hearers likewise suffered martyrdom; particularly two brothers, 
named Plutarchus and Serenus: another Serenus, Heron, and Heraclides were beheaded. 
Rhais had boiling pitch poured upon her head, and was then burnt. Marcella her 
mother, and Potamiena her sister, were executed in the same manner as Rhais. Basilides, 
an officer be- longing to the army, who was ordered to attend their execution, 
became a convert on witnessing their fortitude. When Basilides, as an officer, 
was required to take a certain oath, he refused, saying, that he could not swear 
by the Roman idols, as he was a Christian. The people could Page 40 not at first 
believe what they heard; but he had no sooner confirmed his assertion, than he 
was dragged before the judge, committed to prison, and beheaded immediately. Irenaeus, 
bishop of Lyons, was born in Greece, and received a christian education. It is 
generally supposed, that the account of the persecution at Lyons was written by 
him. He succeeded the martyr Pothinus as bishop of Lyons, and ruled his diocese 
with great propriety; he was a zealous opposer of heresies in general, and wrote 
a celebrated tract against heresy, which had great influence at the time. Victor, 
the bishop of Rome, wanting to impose a particular mode of keeping Easter there, 
it occasioned some disorder amongst the Chris- tians. In particular, Irenaeus 
wrote him a synodical epistle in the name of the Gallic churches. This zeal, in 
favour of christianity, pointed him out as an object of resentment to the emperor; 
and he was accordingly beheaded in A. D. 202. The persecutions about this time 
extended to Africa, and many were martyred in that part of the globe; the principal 
of whom was Perpetua, a married lady of about twenty-six years of age, with an 
infant child at her breast. She was seized for being a Christian. Her father, 
who tenderly loved her, went to console her during her confinement, and attempted 
to persuade her to renounce christianity. Perpetua, however, resisted every entreaty. 
This resolu- tion so much incensed her father, that he beat her severely, and 
did not visit her for some days after; and, in the mean time, she and some others 
who were confined were baptised, as they were before only catechumens. On being 
carried before the pro-consul Minutius, she was commanded to sacrifice to the 
idols: refusing, she was ordered to a dark dungeon, and deprived of her child. 
Two deacons, however, Tertius and Pomponius, who had the care of persecuted Christians, 
allowed her some hours daily to inhale the fresh air, during which time she had 
the satisfaction of being allowed to nourish her infant. Forseeing that she should 
not long be permitted to take care of it, she recommended it strongly to her mother's 
attention. Her father at length paid her a second visit, and again entreated her 
to renounce christianity. His behaviour was now all tenderness and humanity; but 
inflexible to all human influence, she knew she must leave every thing for Christ's 
sake; and she only said to him, "God's will must be done." He then, with an almost 
bursting heart, left her to her fate. Perpetua gave the strongest proof of fortitude 
and strength of mind on her trial. The judge entreated her to consider her father's 
tears, her infant's helplessness, and her own life; but triumphing over all the 
sentiments of nature, she forgot the thought of both mental and corporeal pain, 
and determined to sacrifice all the feelings of human sensibility, to that immortality 
offered by Christ. In vain did they attempt to persuade her that their offers 
were gentle, and her own religion otherwise. Aware that she must die, her father's 
parental tenderness returned, and in his anxiety he attempted to carry her off, 
on which he received a severe blow from one of the officers. Irritated at this, 
the daughter immediately declared, that she felt that blow more severely than 
if she had received it herself. Being conducted back to prison, she waited for 
Page 41 the execution, when several other persons were to be executed with her; 
of these were Felicitas, a married Christian lady, who was with child at the time 
of her trial. The procurator, when he examined her, entreated her to have pity 
upon herself and her condition; but she replied, that his compassion was useless, 
for no thought of self-preservation could induce her to any idolatrous proposition. 
She was delivered in prison of a girl, which was adopted by a christian woman 
as her own. Revocatus was a catechumen of Carthage, and a slave. The names of 
the other prisoners who were to suffer upon this occasion, were Satur, Saturninus, 
and Secundulus. When the day of execution arrived, they were led to the amphitheatre. 
Satur, Saturninus, and Revocatus, having the fortitude to denounce God's judgments 
upon their persecutors, they were ordered to run the gauntlet between the hunters, 
such as had the care of the wild beasts. The hunters being drawn up in two ranks, 
they ran between, and as they passed were severely lashed. Felicitas and Perpetua 
were about to be stripped, in order to be thrown to a beast; but some of the spectators, 
through decency, desired that they might remain as they were clothed, which request 
was granted. The beast made his first attack upon Perpetua, and stunned her; he 
then attacked Felicitas, and wounded her much; but not killing them, the executioner 
did that office with a sword. Revocatus and Satur were destroyed in the same manner; 
Satur- ninus was beheaded; and Secundulus died in prison. These executions took 
place the month of March, A. D. 205. The crimes and false accusa- tions laid against 
the Christians at this time, were sedition and rebellion against the emperor, 
sacrilege, murder of infants, incestuous pollution, eating raw flesh, libidinous 
converse, for which the people called gnostici were disgraced. It was objected 
against them that they worshipped the head of an ass, a report propagated by the 
Jews. They were charged also with worshipping the sun, because before the sun 
rose, they met together, singing their morning mns to the Lord, and because they 
prayed together towards the east; but particularly because they would not with 
them worship the idolatrous gods of their adversaries. Seperatus, and twelve others, 
were likewise beheaded; as was Androclus in France. Ascelepiades, bishop of Antioch, 
suffered many tortures, but was spared his life. Cecilia, a young lady of a good 
family in Rome, was married to a gentleman named Valerian. Being a Christian herself, 
she soon persuaded her husband to embrace the same faith; and his conversion was 
speedily followed by that of Tibertius his brother. This information drew upon 
them all the vengeance of the laws; the two brothers were beheaded; and the officer 
who led them to execution becoming their convert, suffered in a similar manner. 
When the lady was apprehended, she was doomed to death in the following manner: 
she was placed in a scalding bath, and having remained there a considerable time, 
her head was stuck off with a sword, A. D. 222. Page 42 Calistus, bishop of Rome, 
was martyred A. D. 224; but the manner of his death is not recorded: and in A.D. 
232, Urban, bishop of Rome, met the same fate. Agapetus, a boy of Preneste, in 
Italy, who was only fifteen years of age, refusing to sacrifice to the idols, 
was severely scourged and then hanged up by the feet, and boiling water poured 
over him. He was afterwards worried by wild beasts, and at last beheaded. The 
officer, named Antiochus, who superintended this execution, while it was performing, 
fell suddenly from his judicial seat and cried out in extreme agony from sudden 
Maximus, who was emperor in A.D. 235, raised a persecution against the Christians; 
and in Cappadocia, the president Semiramus, made great efforts to exterminate 
the Christians from that kingdom. A Roman soldier, who refused to wear a laurel 
crown bestowed on him by the emperor, and confessed himself a Christian, was scourged, 
imprisoned, and put to death. Pontianus, bishop of Rome, for preaching against 
idolatry, was banished to Sardinia, and there destroyed. Anteros, a Grecian, who 
succeeded this bishop in the see of Rome, gave so much offence to the government 
by collecting the acts of the martyrs, that, he suffered martyrdom, after having 
held his dignity only forty days. Pammachius, a Roman senator, with his family 
and other Christians, to the number of forty-two, were, on account of their religion, 
all beheaded in one day, and their heads fixed on the city gates. Simpli- cius, 
another senator, suffered martyrdom in a similar way. Calepodius, a christian 
minister, after being inhumanly treated, and barbarously dragged about the streets, 
was thrown into the river Tiber with a millstone fastened about his neck. Quiritus, 
a Roman nobleman, with his family and domestics, were, on account of their christian 
principles, put to most excruciating torture, and then the most painful death. 
This nobleman suffered the confiscation of his effects, poverty, reviling, imprisonment, 
scourging, torture, and loss of life, for the sake of his Redeemer. Martina, a 
noble and beautiful virgin, suffered martyrdom for Christ, being variously tortured, 
and afterwards beheaded; and Hippolitus, a christian prelate, was tied to a wild 
horse, and dragged through fields, stony places, and brambles, till he died. While 
this persecution continued, numerous Christians were slain without trial, and 
buried in indiscriminate heaps: sometimes fifty or sixty being cast into a pit 
together. Maximus, died in A.D. 238; he was succeeded by Gordian, during whose 
reign, and that of his successor Philip, the church was free from persecution 
for the space of more than ten years; but in the year 249, a violent persecution 
broke out in Alexandria. It is, however, worthy of remark, that this was done 
at the instigation of a pagan priest, without the emperor's knowledge. At this 
time the fury of the people being great against the Christians, they broke open 
their houses, stole the best of their property, destroyed the rest, and murdered 
the owners; the universal cry was, "Burn them, burn Page 43 them! kill them!" 
The names of the martyrs, three excepted, and the particulars of this affair, 
however, have not been recorded. The three martyrs known were, Metus, an aged 
and venerable Christian, who refusing to blaspheme his Saviour, was beaten with 
clubs, pierced with sharp reeds, and at length stoned to death. Quinta, a christian 
woman, being carried to the temple, and refusing to worship the idols there, was 
dragged by her feet over sharp stones, scourged with whips, and at last killed 
in the same manner as Metus. And Appollonia, an ancient maiden lady, confessing 
herself a Christian, the mob dashed out her teeth with their fists, and threatened 
to burn her alive. A fire was accordingly prepared for the purpose, and she was 
fastened to a stake: requesting to be unloosed, it was done, on a supposition 
that she meant to recant, when, to their astonishment, she immediately threw herself 
into the flames and was consumed.  ACCOUNT OF THE SEVENTH GENERAL PERSECUTION 
UNDER THE ROMAN EMPERORS. In the year 249, Decius being emperor of Rome, a 
dreadful persecution was begun against the Christians. This was occasioned partly 
by the hatred he bore to his predecessor Philip, who was deemed a Christian, and 
partly by his jealousy concerning the amazing progress of Christian- ity; for 
the heathen temples were almost forsaken, and the Christian churches crowded with 
proselytes. Decius, provoked at this, attempted, as he said, to extirpate the 
name of Christian; and, unfortunately for the cause of the gospel, many errors 
had about this time crept into the church: the Christians were at variance with 
each other, and a variety of contentions ensued among them. The heathens in general 
were ambi- tious to enforce the imperial decrees upon this occasion, and looked 
upon the murder of a Christian as a merit to be coveted. The martyrs were, therefore, 
innumerable. Fabian, bishop of Rome, was the first person of eminence who felt 
the severity of this persecution. The deceased emperor, Philip, had, on account 
of his integrity, committed his treasure to the care of this good man; but Decius, 
not finding so much as his avarice led him to expect, determined to wreak his 
vengeance on the good prelate. He was accordingly seized, and on the 20th of January, 
A.D. 250, suffered martyrdom, by decapitation. Abdon and Semen, two Persians, 
were apprehended as strangers; but being found Chris- tians, were put to death, 
on account of their faith. Moyses, a priest, was beheaded for the same reason. 
Julian, a native of Celicia, as we are informed by St. Chrysostom, was seized 
for being a Christian. He was frequently tortured, but still remained inflexible; 
and though often brought from prison for execution, was again remanded, to suffer 
greater cruelties. He, at length, was obliged to travel for twelve months together, 
from town to town, that he might be exposed to the insults of the populace. When 
all endeavours to make him recant his religion were found ineffectual, he was 
brought before a judge, stripped, and whipped in a dreadful manner. He was then 
put into a Page 44 leathern bag, with a number of serpents and scorpions; and 
in that condition thrown into the sea. Peter, a young man, amiable for the superior 
qualities of his body and mind, was apprehended for being a Christian, at Lampsacus, 
on the Hellespont, and carried before Optimus, pro-consul of Asia. On being commanded 
to sacrifice to Venus, he said, "I am astonished that you should wish me to sacrifice 
to an infamous woman, whose debaucheries even your own historians record, and 
whose life consisted of such actions as your laws would punish. No! I shall offer 
the true God the sacrifice of praise and prayer." Optimus, on hearing this, ordered 
the prisoner to be stretched upon a wheel, by which his bones were broken in a 
shocking manner; but his torments only inspired him with fresh courage; he smiled 
on his persecutors, and seemed, by the serenity of his countenance, not to upbraid, 
but to applaud his tormentors. At length the pro-consul ordered him to be beheaded, 
and the command was immediately executed. Nichomachus, being brought before the 
pro-consul as a Christian, was ordered to sacrifice to the pagan idols. He answered, 
"I cannot pay that respect to devils which is due only to the Almighty." The speech 
so enraged the pro- consul, that Nichomachus was put to the rack. He bore the 
torture for some time with patience and great resolution; but, at length, when 
ready to expire with pain, he had the weakness to abjure his faith, and become 
an apostate. He had no sooner given this proof of his frailty than he fell into 
the greatest agonies, dropped down, and expired immediately. Denisa, a young woman, 
only sixteen years of age, who beheld this signal judgment, suddenly exclaimed; 
"O, unhappy wretch, why would you buy a moment's ease, at the expense of a miserable 
eternity;" Optimus hearing this, called to her, and asked if she was a Christian? 
She replied in the affirmative; and being commanded to sacrifice to the idols, 
refused. Optimus enraged at her resolution, gave her over to two libertines, who 
took her to their own home, and would have ruined her, but for her astonishing 
courage. At midnight they were appalled by a frightful vision, when both of them 
fell at the feet of Denisa, and implored her prayers that they might not feel 
the effects of divine vengeance for their brutality. But this event did not diminish 
the cruelty of Optimus; for the lady was beheaded soon after by his command. Andrew 
and Paul, two companions of Nichomachus the martyr, on confessing themselves Christians, 
were condemned to die, and delivered to the multitude to be stoned. Accordingly, 
A.D. 251, they suffered martyrdom by stoning, and expired, calling on the blessed 
Redeemer. Alexander and Empimacus, of Alexandria, were apprehended for being Christians, 
and on confessing the accusation, were beat with staves, torn with hooks, and 
at length burnt. We are informed by Eusebius, that four female martyrs suffered 
on the same day, and at the same place, but not in the same manner; for these 
were beheaded. Lucian and Marcian, two pagans and magicians, becoming converts 
to Christianity, to make amends for their former errors, adopted the life of hermits, 
and subsisted upon bread and water. After spending some time in this manner, they 
reflected that their life was inefficacious, and determined to leave their soli- 
tude to make converts to Christianity. With this pious and laudable Page 45 resolution 
they became zealous preachers. Persecution, however, raging at the time, they 
were seized upon, and carried before Sabinus, governor of Bithynia. On being asked 
by what authority they took upon them- selves to preach, Lucian answered "That 
the law of charity and humanity obliged all men to endeavour to convert their 
neighbors, and to do every thing in their power to rescue them from the snares 
of the devil." Marcian said, "Their conversion was by the same grace which was 
given to St. Paul, who, from a zealous persecutor of the church, became a preacher 
of the gospel." When the pro-consul found that he could not prevail on them to 
renounce their faith, he condemned them to be burnt alive, and the sentence was 
soon after executed. Trypho and Respicius, two eminent men, were seized as Christians, 
and imprisoned at Nice. They were soon after put to the rack, which they bore 
with admirable patience for three hours, and uttered the praises of the Almighty 
the whole time. They were then exposed naked in the open air, which benumbed all 
their limbs. When remanded to prison, they remained there for a considerable time; 
and then the cruelties of their persecutors were again evinced. Their feet were 
pierced with nails; they were dragged through the streets, scourged, torn with 
hooks, scorched with lighted torches, and at length beheaded, on the 1st of February, 
A.D. 251. Agatha, a Sicilian lady, was remarkable for her beauty and endowments: 
the former was so great that Quintain, governor of Sicily, became enamoured of 
her, and made many attempts upon her virtue. The governor being known as a great 
libertine and a bigoted pagan, the lady thought proper to withdraw from the town; 
but being discovered in her retreat, she was apprehended and brought to Catana, 
when, finding herself in the power of an enemy both to her soul and body, she 
recommended herself to the protection of the Almighty, and prayed for death. In 
order if possible to gratify his passion, the governor transferred the virtuous 
lady to Aphrodica, an infamous and licentious woman, who tried every artifice 
to win her to prostitution; but all her efforts were in vain. When Aphrodica acquainted 
Quintain with the inefficacy of her endea- vours, he changed his desire into resentment, 
and, on her confessing that she was a Christian, he determined to gratify his 
revenge. He therefore ordered her to be scourged, burnt with hot irons, and torn 
with sharp hooks. Having borne these torments, with admirable forti- tude, she 
was next laid upon live coals, intermingled with glass, and being carried back 
to prison, she there expired on the 5th of February, A. D. 251. Cyril, bishop 
of Gortyna, was seized by order of Lucius, the governor of that place, who first 
exhorted him to obey the imperial mandate, offer sacrifice to idols, and save 
his venerable person from destruction; for he was then eighty-four years of age. 
The good prelate replied, that he could not agree to any such requisitions; but 
as he had long taught others to save their souls, now he should only think of 
his own salvation. When the governor found all his persuasion in vain, he pronounced 
sentence against the venerable Christian in these words - "I Page 46 order that 
Cyril, who has lost his senses, and is a declared enemy of our gods, shall be 
burn alive." The good and worthy prelate heard this sentence without emotion, 
walked cheerfully to the place of execution, and underwent his martyrdom with 
a resolution which astonished all, and converted some. In the island of Crete 
persecution raged with great fury: the governor being exceedingly active in executing 
the imperial decrees, that place streamed with the blood of many Christians. The 
principal Cretan martyrs whose names have been transmitted to us, are these - 
Theodulus, Saturnius, and Europus, inhabitants of Gortyna, who had been confirmed 
in their faith by Cyril, bishop of that city: Eunicianus, Zeticus, Cleomenes, 
Agathopas, Bastides, and Euristus, were brought from different parts of the island 
on accusations relating to their profession of Christianity. On their trial they 
were commanded to sacrifice to Jupiter, and declining, the judge threatened them 
with the severest tortures. To these menaces they unanimously answered, "That 
to suffer for the sake of the Supreme Being would, to them, be the sublim- est 
of pleasures." The judge then attempted to gain their veneration for the heathen 
deities, by descanting on their merits, and recounting some of their mythological 
histories. This gave the prisoners an opportunity of remarking on the absurdity 
of such fictions, and of pointing out the folly of paying adoration to ideal deities 
and material images. Provoked to hear his favourite idols ridiculed, the governor 
ordered them to be put to the rack, the tortures of which they sustained with 
surprising fortitude. They at length suffered martyrdom, A. D. 251; being all 
beheaded at the same time. Babylas, a Christian of a liberal education, Page 47 
became bishop of Antioch in A. D. 237, on the demise of Zebinus. He acted with 
inimitable zeal, and governed the church during the most tempestuous times with 
admirable prudence. The first misfortune that happened to Antioch during his mission, 
was the siege by Saphor, king of Persia; who having overrun all Syria, took and 
plundered this city among others, and used the christian inhabitants with greater 
severity than the rest. His cruelties, however, were not lasting, for Gordian, 
the emperor, appearing at the head of a powerful army, Antioch was retaken, the 
Persians driven entirely out of Syria, and pursued into their own country, while 
several places in the Persian territories fell into the hands of the emperor. 
Gordian dying, in the reign of Decius, that emperor came to Antioch, where, having 
a desire to visit an assembly of Christians, Babylas opposed him, and refused 
to let him enter. The emperor dissembled his anger for the time; but soon sending 
for the bishop, he sharply reproved him for his insolence, and ordered him to 
sacrifice to the pagan deities as an expiation for his supposed crime. Having 
refused this, he was committed to prison, loaded with chains, treated with great 
severity, and then beheaded, together with three young men who had been his pupils. 
On going to the place of execution, the bishop exclaimed, "Behold me and the children 
that the Lord hath given me." They were martyred, A.D. 251, and the chains worn 
by the bishop in prison were buried with him. Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, 
about this time was cast into prison on account of his religion, where he died 
through the severity of his confinement. When Serapian was apprehended at Alexandria, 
he had his bones broken, and was thrown from a high loft, and killed by the fall. 
Julianus, an old man, lame with the gout; and Cronion, another Christian, were 
bound on the backs of camels, severely scourged, and then thrown into a fire and 
consumed. A spectator who seemed to commiserate them was ordered to be beheaded, 
as a punishment for his sympathy and tenderness. Macar, a Lybian Christian, was 
burnt. Horonater and Isidorus, Egyptians, with Dioschorus, a boy of fifteen, after 
suffering many torments, met with a similar fate; and Nemesion, another Egyptian, 
was first tried as a thief; but being acquitted, was accused of Christianity, 
which confessing, he was scourged, tortured, and finally burnt. Ischyrian, the 
Christian servant of an Egyptian nobleman and magistrate, was run through with 
a pike by his own master, for refusing to sacrifice to idols. Venatius, a youth 
of fifteen, was martyred in Italy; and forty virgins, at Antioch, after being 
imprisoned and scourged, were destroyed by fire. The emperor Decius erected a 
pagan temple at Ephesus, in the year 251, he commanded all who were in that city 
to sacrifice to the idols. This order was nobly refused by seven of his own soldiers, 
viz. Maximianus, Martianus, Joannes, Malchus, Dyonisius, Constantinus, and Seraion. 
The emperor wishing to prevail on the soldiers to prevent their fate by his entreaties 
and lenity, gave them a respite till he returned from a journey. In the absence 
of the emperor they escaped, and Page 48 hid hemselves in a cavern; but he was 
informed of it on his return, the mouth of the cavern was closed up, and they 
all were starved or smothered to death. Theodora, a beautiful young lady of Antioch, 
on refusing to sacrifice to the Roman idols, was condemned to the brothel, that 
her virtue might be sacrificed. Didymus, a Christian, then dis- guised himself 
in the habit of a Roman soldier, went to the house, informed Theodora who he was, 
and prevailed on her to make her escape in his dress. Being found in the brothel 
instead of the lady, he was taken before the president, to whom confessing the 
truth, sentenced of death was immediately pronounced against him. In the meant 
time, Theo- dora, hearing that her deliverer was likely to suffer, came to the 
judge, threw herself at his feet, and begged that the sentence might fall only 
on her as the guilty person; but the inflexible judge con- demned both; and they 
were executed accordingly, being first beheaded, and their bodies afterwards burnt. 
Secundianus having been accused as a Christian, was conveyed to prison by some 
soldiers. On their way, Verianus and Marcellinus said, "Where are you carrying 
the innocent?" This interrogatory occasioned them to be seized; and all three, 
after having been tortured, were hanged, and their heads were cut off when they 
were dead. Origen, the celebrated presbyter and catechist of Alexandria, at the 
age of sixty-four, was seized, thrown into a loath- some prison, loaded with chains, 
his feet placed in the stocks, and his legs extended to the utmost for several 
days. He was threatened with fire, and tormented by every means that the most 
infernal imagination could suggest. But his Christian fortitude sustained him. 
Such was the rigour of the judge, that his tortures were ordered to be as lingering 
as possible, that death might not too soon put a period to his miseries. During 
this cruel interval, the emperor Decius died, and Gallus, who succeeded him, engaging 
in a war with the Goths, the Christians met with a respite. Thus Origen obtained 
his enlargement, and retiring to Tyre, he remained there till his death, which 
happened when he was in the sixty-ninth year of his age. Page 49 In the city of 
Antioch, Vincentius, lib. II, speaks of forty virgins, martyrs, who suffered in 
the persecution of Decius. In the country of Phrygia, and in the town of Lampsar, 
Vincentius also speaks of one Peter, who was there apprehended, and suffered bitter 
torments for Christ's name, under Optimus, the pro-consul: and in Troada he also 
speaks of other martyrs that suffered, whose names were Andrew, Paul, Nichomachus, 
and Dionysia, a virgin. He adds, that in Babylon, many christian confessors were 
found who were led away into Spain to be executed. In the country of Cappadocia, 
and the city of Cesarea, Germanus, Theophilus, Cesarius, and Vitalis, suffered 
martyrdom for Christ; and in the same book mention is also made of Polychronius, 
bishop of Babylon, and of Nestor, bishop of Cesarea, who died martyrs. At Perside, 
in the town of Cardalia, Olympiades and Maximus. In Tyrus also, Anatolia, a virgin, 
and Audax, a senator, gave their lives for a testimony to the name of Christ. 
Gallus having concluded his wars, a plague broke out in the empire; and sacrifices 
to the pagan deities were ordered by the emperor to appease their wrath. On the 
Christians refusing to comply with these rites, they were charged with being the 
authors of the calamity: thus the persecution spread from the interior to the 
extreme parts of the empire, and many fell martyrs to the impetuosity of the rabble, 
as well as the prejudice of the magistrates. Cornelius, the Christian bishop of 
Rome, was, among others, seized upon this occasion. He was first banished to Centum-Celle, 
now called Civitia Vecchia; and after having been cruelly scourged, was, on the 
14th of September, A.D. 252, beheaded; having been bishop fifteen months and ten 
days. Lucius, who succeeded Cornelius as bishop of Rome, was the son of Porphyrius, 
and a Roman by birth. His vigilance as a pastor, occasioned him to be banished; 
but in a short time he was permitted to return from exile. Soon after, however, 
he was apprehended, and behead- ed, March the 4th, A.D. 253. This bishop was succeeded 
by Stephanus, a Page 50 man of fiery temper, who held the dignity few years, and 
might probably have fallen a martyr, had not the emperor been murdered by his 
general Emilian, when a profound peace succeeded throughout the empire, and persecution 
was suffered to subside. Many of the errors which crept into the Church at this 
time, arose from placing human reason in competition with revelation; but the 
fallacy of such arguments being proved by some able divines, the opinions they 
had created vanished before the sublimity and power of christian truth.  ACCOUNT 
of Gallus, Emilian, the general, having many enemies in the army, was slain, and 
Valerian elected to the empire. This emperor, for the space of four years, governed 
with moderation, and treated the Christians with peculiar lenity and respect; 
but in the year 257, an Egyptian magician, named Macriamus, gained a great ascendency 
over him, and persuaded him to persecute the Christians. Edicts were accordingly 
published, and the persecution which began in the month of April, continued for 
three years and six months. The martyrs that fell in this persecution were innumerable, 
and their tortures and deaths are various. The most eminent were the following 
- Rufina and Secunda, two beautiful and accomplished ladies, daughters of Asterius, 
a gentleman of eminence in Rome. Rufina the elder, was designed in marriage for 
Armentarius, a young nobleman; and Secunda, the younger, for Verinus, a person 
of rank and immense wealth. These suitors, at the time the persecution com- menced, 
were both Christians; but when danger appeared, to save their fortunes they renounced 
their faith. They took great pains to persuade the ladies to do the same, but 
failed in their purpose; and as a method of safety, Rufina and Secunda left the 
kingdom. The lovers finding them- selves disappointed informed against the ladies, 
who being apprehended as Christians, were brought before Junius Donatus, governor 
of Rome. After many remonstrances, and having undergone several tortures, they 
sealed their martyrdom with their blood, by being beheaded in the year 257. In 
the same year, Stephen, bishop of Rome, was beheaded, and about that time Saturninus, 
bishop of Thoulouse, was attacked and seized by the rabble of that place, for 
preventing, as they alleged, their oracles from speaking. On refusing to sacrifice 
to the idols, he was treated with many barbarous indignities, and then fastened 
by the feet to the tail of a bull. On a certain signal the enraged animal was 
driven down the steps of the temple, by which the martyr's brains were dashed 
out; and the small number of Christians in Thoulouse had not for some time courage 
sufficient to carry off the dead body; at length two women conveyed it away, and 
deposed it in a ditch. This martyr was an ortho- dox and learned primitive Christian, 
and his doctrines are held in high estimation. Page 51 Stephen was succeeded by 
Sextus as bishop of Rome. He is supposed to be a Greek by birth, or extraction, 
and had for some time served in the capacity of a deacon under Stephen. His great 
fidelity, singular wisdom and courage, distinguished him on many occasions; and 
the fortunate conclusion of a controversy with some heretics is generally ascribed 
to his prudence. Marcianus, who had the management of the Roman government in 
the year 258, procured an order from the emperor Valerian to put to death all 
the Christian clergy in Rome. The senate having testified their obedience to the 
imperial mandate, Sextus was one of the first who felt the severity of the edict. 
Cyprian tells us that he was beheaded August 6, A. D. 258, and that six of his 
deacons suffered with him. Laurentius, generally called St. Laurence, the principal 
of the deacons, who taught and preached under Sextus, followed him to the place 
of execution; when Sextus predicted that he should meet him in heaven three days 
after. Laurentius considering this as a certain indication of his own approaching 
martyrdom, at his return collected all the Christian poor, and distributed amongst 
them the treasures of the church which had been committed to his care, thinking 
the money could not be better disposed of, or less liable to fall into the hands 
of the heathens. His conduct alarmed the persecutors, who seized on him, and commanded 
him to give an immediate account to the emperor of the church treasures. Laurentius 
promised to satisfy them, but begged a short respite to put things in proper order; 
three days being granted him, he was suffered to depart. Then with great diligence 
he collected together a great number of aged, helpless, and impotent poor, and 
repaired to the magistrate, presenting them to him, saying, "These are the true 
treasures of the church." Provoked at the disappointment, and fancying the matter 
meant in ridicule, the governor ordered him to be immediately scourged. He was 
beaten with iron rods, set upon a wooden horse, and had his limbs dislo- cated. 
He endured these tortures with such fortitude and perseverance, that he was ordered 
to be fastened to a large gridiron, with a slow fire under it, that his death 
might be more tedious. But his astonishing constancy during these trials, and 
his serenity of countenance under such excruciating torments, gave the spectators 
so exalted an idea of the dignity and truth of the Christian religion, that many 
immediately became converts. Having lain for some time upon the gridiron, the 
martyr called out to the emperor, who was present, in a kind of jocose Latin couplet, 
which may be thus translated: "This side is broil'd sufficient to be food For 
all who wish it to be done and good." On this the executioner turned him, and 
after having lain a considerable time longer, he had still strength and spirit 
enough to triumph over the tyrant, by telling him, with great serenity, that he 
was roasted enough, and only wanted serving up. He then cheerfully lifted up his 
eyes to heaven, and with calmness yielded his spirit to the Almighty. This happened 
August 10, A.D. 258. Page 52 Among the several converts to Christianity from this 
event, was a soldier called Romanus who attended the martyrdom. He had taken the 
opportunity of the martyr's imprisonment to make some inquiries concerning the 
Christian faith, and it was reported that he had received baptism at the hands 
of his captive. Be this as it may, he declared himself a christian immediately 
after the death of Laurentius, and soon followed him by a less lingering and torturing 
martyrdom to the world of blessed spirits in heaven. On his avowal of the christian 
faith, he was scourged and beheaded. He had a companion in both his faith and 
suffer- ing, named Hypolitus, to whom he was much attached, and who evinced no 
desire to escape the fate of his courageous friend. Fourteen years before this 
period persecution raged in Africa with peculiar violence, and many thousands 
received the crown of martyrdom, among whom the following were the most distinguished 
characters:- Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, an eminent prelate, and a pious ornament 
of the church. His doctrines were orthodox and pure; his language easy and elegant; 
and his manners graceful. He was said to be so perfectly a master of rhetoric 
and logic, and so complete in the practice of elocution and the princi- ples of 
philosophy, that he was made professor of those sciences in his native city of 
Carthage, where he became so popular, and taught with such success, that many 
of his students afterwards became shining orna- ments of polite erudition. He 
was educated in his youth in the maxims of the heathen, and having a considerable 
fortune, he lived in great splendour and pomp. Gorgeous in attire, luxurious in 
feasting, vain of a numerous retinue, and fond of every kind of fashionable parade, 
he seemed to fancy that man was born to gratify all his appetites, and created 
for pleasure alone. About the year 246, Cecilius, a Christian minister of Carthage, 
became the instrument of Cyprian's conversion; on which account, and for the great 
love that he always afterwards bore for his adviser, he was termed Cecilius Cyprian. 
Before his baptism, he studied the scriptures with care, and being struck with 
the excellence of the truths they contained, he determined to practise the virtues 
they recommended. After baptism he sold his estate, distributed the money among 
the poor, dressed himself in plain attire, and commenced a life of austerity and 
solitude. Soon after he was made a presbyter; and being greatly admired for his 
virtues and his works, on the death of Donatus, in A.D. 248, he was almost unanimously 
elected bishop of Carthage. The care of Cyprian not only extended over Carthage, 
but to Numidia and Mauritania. In all his transactions he took great care to ask 
the advice of his clergy, knowing, that unanimity alone could be of service to 
the church: this being one of his maxims, "That the bishop was in the church, 
and the church in the bishop; so that unity can only be preserved by a close connection 
between the pastor and his flock." In the year 250, Cyprian was publicly proscribed 
by the emperor Decius, under the appellation of Cecilius Cyprian, bishop of the 
Cyprians; and the universal cry of the Pagans was, "Cyprian to the lions, Cyprian 
to the beasts!" The bishop, however, withdrew from the rage of the popu- lace, 
and his effects were immediately confiscated. Page 53 During his retirement he 
wrote thirty pious letters to his flock: but several schisms then crept into the 
church gave him great uneasiness. The rigour of the persecution abating, he returned 
to Carthage, and did every thing in his power to expel erroneous opinions and 
false doc- trines. A terrible plague now breaking out at Carthage, it was as usual 
laid to the charge of the Christians; and the magistrates began to persecute them 
accordingly: this occasioned an epistle from them to Cyprian, in answer to which 
he vindicates the cause of Christianity. Page 54 Cyprian was brought before the 
pro-consul Aspasius Paternus, A. D. 257, when being commanded to conform to the 
religion of the empire, he boldly made a confession of his faith. This did not 
occasion his death, but an order was made for his banishment and he was exiled 
to a little city on the Libyan sea. On the death of the pro-consul who banished 
him, he returned to Carthage, but was soon after seized, and carried before the 
new governor, who condemned him to be beheaded; and on the 14th of September, 
A.D. 258, this sentence was executed. This bishop was a pious Christian, an excellent 
philosopher, and an accurate and eloquent preacher. His disciples who were martyred 
in this persecution were, Lucius Flavian, Victoricus, Remus, Montanus, Donatian, 
Julian, and Primolus. Perhaps one of the most dreadful events in the history of 
martyrdom was that which took place at Utica, where 300 Christians were, by the 
orders of the pro-consul, placed around a burning lime-kiln. A pan of coals and 
incense being prepared, they were commanded either to sacrifice to Jupiter, or 
to be thrown into the kiln. Unanimously refusing, they bravely jumped into the 
pit, and were suffocated imme- diately. Fructuosus, bishop of Tarragon, in Spain, 
and his two deacons, Augarius and Eulogius, for avowing themselves Christians, 
were consumed by fire. Malchus, Alexander, and Priscius, three Christians of Pales- 
tine, with a woman of the same place, voluntarily avowed themselves to be Christians: 
for which they were sentenced to be devoured by tigers, which sentence was accordingly 
executed. Donatilla, Maxima, and Secunda, three virgins of Tuburga, had gall and 
vinegar given them to drink, were then severely scourged, tormented on a gibbet, 
rubbed with lime, scorched on a gridiron, worried by wild beasts, and at last 
beheaded. Before the last act of barbarity took place they were however dead, 
and the headsman was said to admire the singular serenity of their counte- nances. 
Pontius a native of the city of Simela, near the Alps, being apprehended as a 
Christian, was tortured on the rack, worried by wild beasts, half burnt, then 
beheaded, and his body thrown into the river. Protus and Hyacinthus likewise suffered 
martyrdom about the same period. A singular and miserable fate befel the emperor 
Valerian, who had so long and so terribly persecuted the Christians. This tyrant, 
by a Page 55 stratagem, was taken prisoner by Sophores, emperor of Persia, who 
carried him into his own country, and there treated him with the most unexampled 
indignity, making him kneel down as the meanest slave, and treading upon him as 
a footstool when he mounted his horse, saying, in a vaunting manner, "This posture 
is a greater proof which way the victory went, than all the pictures the Roman 
artists can draw." Having kept him, for the space of seven years, in this abject 
state of slavery, he at last caused his eyes to be put out, though he was then 
eighty-three years of age; and his desire of revenge not being satis- fied, he 
soon after ordered his body to be flayed alive, and rubbed with salt, under which 
torments he expired; and thus fell one of the most tyrannical emperors of Rome, 
and one of the greatest persecutors of the Christian church. Gallienus, the son 
of Valerian, succeeded him A. D. 260, and during his reigns the empire suffered 
many commotions, par- ticularly earthquakes, pestilence, inundations, intestine 
broils, and incursions of barbarians. This emperor reflecting, that when his father 
favoured the Christians, he prospered, and that when he persecuted them he was 
unsuccessful, determined to relax the persecution; so that (a few martyrs excepted) 
the church enjoyed peace for some years. The chief of those few martyrs, was Marinus, 
a centurion, who being apprehended as a christian, had but three hours allowed 
him to deliber- ate, whether he would sacrifice to the pagan deities, or become 
a martyr; and wavering during this interval a christian prelate placed the gospel 
and the sword before him, and demanded which he would choose. Marinus took the 
sword without hesitation. On meeting again with the governor, he made a noble 
confession of his faith, and was soon after beheaded, in the year 262.  ACCOUNT 
the emperor Aurelian commenced a persecution against the Christians: the principal 
sufferer was Felix, bishop of Rome. This prelate was advanced to the Roman see 
in 274, and was beheaded in the same year on the 22nd of December. Agapetus, a 
young gentleman, who sold his estate and gave the money to the poor, was seized 
as a Chris- tian, tortured, and then brought to Preneste, a city within a day's 
journey of Rome, where he was beheaded. These are the only martyrs left upon record 
during his reign, as it was soon put a stop to by the emperor being murdered by 
his own domestics, at Byzantium. Aurelian was succeeded by Tacitus, who was followed 
by Probus, as was the latter Page 56 by Carnius: this emperor being struck with 
death by lightning, his sons, Carnius and Numerian, succeeded him; and during 
these reigns the church enjoyed rest. Diocletian mounting the imperial throne, 
A. D. 284, at first shewed great favour to the Christians. In the year 286, he 
associ- ated Maximian with him in the empire; when Felician and Primus, two Christian 
brothers, were put to death before any general persecution broke out. They were 
seized by an order from the imperial court; and owning themselves Christians, 
were scourged, tortured, and finally beheaded. Marcus and Marcellianus, twin natives 
of Rome, and of noble descent, whose parents were heathens, but the tutors, to 
whom the education of the children were entrusted, brought them up as Christians, 
were also apprehended on account of their faith, were severely tortured, and then 
condemned to death. A respite of a month was obtained for them by their friends, 
when their parents and other relations attempted to bring them back to paganism, 
but in vain. At last their constancy subdued their persuaders, and the whole family 
became converts to a faith they had just before opposed. Tranquillinus, the father 
of the two young men, was sent for by the prefect to give an account of the success 
of his endeavours, when he confessed, that so far from having persuaded his sons 
to forsake the faith they had embraced, hews became a Christian himself. He then 
stopped till the magistrate had overcome his surprise, and resuming his discourse, 
he used such powerful arguments that he made a convert of the prefect, who soon 
after sold his estate, resigned his command, and spent the remainder of his days 
in a pious retirement. The prefect, who succeeded this singular convert, had none 
of the dispo- sition of his predecessor: he was morose and severe, and soon seized 
upon the whole of this Christian race, who were accordingly martyred by being 
tied to posts, and having their feet pierced with nails. After remaining in this 
situation for a day and night, their sufferings were put an end to by thrusting 
lances through their bodies. Zoe, the wife of the gaoler, who had the care of 
these martyrs, being greatly edified by their discourse, had a desire to become 
a Christian: this, as she was dumb with a palsy, she could only express by gestures. 
They gave her instruction in the faith, and told her to pray in her heart to God 
to relieve her from he disorder. She did so, and was at length relieved: for her 
paralytic disorder by degrees left her, her speech returned, and like Zacharias 
she glorified God. This enforced her belief, and con- firmed her a Christian: 
and her husband, finding her cured, became a convert himself. These conversions 
made a great noise, and the prose- lytes were apprehended. Zoe was commanded to 
sacrifice to Mars, which refusing, she was hanged on a tree, and a fire of straw 
lighted under her. When her body was taken down it was thrown into a river, a 
large Page 57 being fastened round her neck. Tibertius, a native of Rome, was 
of a family of rank and distinction. Being accused as a Christian, he was commanded 
either to sacrifice to idols, or to walk upon burning coals. He chose the latter, 
and is said to have walked over them without damage, when Fabian passed sentence 
upon him that he should be beheaded; which was executed in the month of August, 
A. D. 286, and his body was afterwards buried by some pious Christians. A remarkable 
affair occurred in A.D. 286. A legion of soldiers, consisting of 6666 men, contained 
none but Christians. This was called the Theban legion, because the men had been 
raised in Tebais: they were guartered in the East till the emperor Maximian ordered 
them to march to Gaul, to assist him against the rebels of Burgundy; when passing 
the Alps into Gaul, under the command of Mauritius, Candidus, and Exuperuis, their 
commanders, they at length joined the emperor. About this time, Maximian ordered 
a general sacrifice, at which the whole army were to assist; and he commanded 
that they should take oaths of allegiance, and swear, at the same time, to assist 
him in the extirpation of Christianity in Gaul. Terrified at these orders, each 
individual of the Theban legion absolutely refused either to sacrifice, or take 
the oaths prescribed. This so enraged Maximian, that he ordered the legion to 
be decimated, that is, every tenth man to be selected from the rest, and put to 
the sword. This cruel order having been put into execution, those who remained 
alive were still inflexible, when a second decimation took place, and every tenth 
man of those living were again put to the sword. This second severity made no 
more impression than the first; the soldiers pre- served their fortitude and their 
principle; but, by the advice of their officers, drew up a remonstrance to the 
emperor, in which they told him that they were his subjects and his soldiers, 
but could not at the same time forget the Almighty; that they received their pay 
from him, and their existence from God. "While your commands," said they," are 
not contradictory to those of our common Master, we shall always be ready to obey, 
as we have been hitherto: but when the orders of our prince and those of the Almighty 
differ, we must always obey the latter. Our arms are devoted to the emperor's 
use, and shall be directed against his enemies; but we cannot submit to stain 
our hands with Christian blood; and how, indeed, could you, O emperor, be sure 
of our allegiance and fidelity, should we violate our obligation to our God, in 
whose service we were solemnly engaged before we entered the army? You command 
us to search out and to destroy the Christians: it is not necessary to look any 
further for persons of that denomination; we ourselves are such, and we glory 
in the name. We saw our companions fall without the least opposition or murmuring, 
and thought them happy in dying for the sake of Christ. Nothing shall make us 
lift up our hands against our sovereign; we had rather die wrongfully, and by 
that means preserve our innocence, then live under a load of guilt: whatever you 
command we are ready to suffer; we confess ourselves to be Christians, and therefore 
cannot persecute Christians, nor sacrifice to idols." Such a declaration it Page 
58 might be presumed would have prevailed with the emperor, but it had a contrary 
effect: for, enraged at their perseverance and unanimity, he commanded that the 
whole legion should be put to death, which was accordingly executed by the other 
troops, who cut them to pieces with their swords. This barbarous transaction occured 
on the 22nd of September, A. D. 286; and such was the inveterate malice of Maximian, 
that he sent to destroy every man of a few detachments that had been drafted from 
the Theban legion, and despatched to Italy. A veteran soldier of another legion, 
whose name was Victor, met the executioners of this bloody business. As they appeared 
rather merry, he enquired into the cause of their jocularity, and being informed 
of the whole affair, he sharply reproved them for their barbarity. This excited 
their curiosity to ask him if he was of the same faith as those who had suffered. 
On answering in the affirmative, several of the soldiers fell upon him, and despatched 
him. ALBAN, from whom St. Alban's received its name, was the first British martyr. 
This island had received the gospel of Christ from Lucius, the first Christian 
king, but did not suffer by the rage of persecution. This man was originally a 
pagan, but being of a very humane disposition, he sheltered a Christian ecclesias- 
tic, named Amphibalus, whom some officers were in pursuit of on account of his 
religion. The pious example, and edifying discourses of the refugee, made a great 
impression on the mind of Alban: he longed to become a member of a religion which 
charmed him; the fugitive minister, happy in the opportunity, took great pains 
to instruct him; and before his discovery, perfected Alban's conversion. Alban 
now took a firm resolution to preserve the sentiments of a Christian, or to die 
the death of a martyr. The enemies of Amphibalus having intelligence of the place 
where he was secreted, came to the house of Alban, in order to apprehended him. 
The noble host, desirous of protecting his guest and convert, changed clothes 
with him in order to facilitate his escape; and when the soldiers came, offered 
himself up as the person for whom they were seeking. Being accordingly carried 
before the governor, the deceit was immediately discovered; and Amphibalus being 
absent, that officer determined to wreak his vengeance upon Alban: with this view 
he com- manded the prisoner to advance to the altar, and sacrifice to the pagan 
deities. The brave Alban, however declared that he would not comply with the idolatrous 
injunction, but boldly professed himself to be a Christian. The governor therefore 
ordered him to be scourged, but he bore the punishment with great fortitude, and 
seemed to acquire new resolution from his sufferings: he was then beheaded. The 
venerable Bede states, that upon this occasion, the executioner suddenly became 
a convert to christianity, and entreated permission either to die for Alban or 
with him. Obtaining the latter request, they were beheaded by a soldier, who voluntarily 
undertook the task. This happened on the 22nd of June A. D. 287, at Verulam, now 
St. Alban's, where a magnificent church was erected to his memory about the time 
of Constantine the Great. This edifice was destroyed in the Saxon wars, but was 
rebuilt by Offa, king of Mercia, and a monastery erected adjoining to it, some 
remains of which are still visible. FAITH, a christian female, of Acquitain, in 
France, being informed that there was a design to seize Page 59 her, anticipated 
the intention, by surrendering herself a prisoner; and being inflexible in her 
faith, was ordered to be broiled upon a gridiron and then beheaded, which sentence 
was executed A. D. 287. Capacius, a Christian, concealed himself from the persecutors, 
but being informed of the fortitude of Faith, he openly avowed his religion, and 
delivered himself up to the governor, who had him first tortured, and then behead- 
ed. Quintin was a Christian, and a native of Rome, but he determined to attempt 
the propagation of the gospel in Gaul. He accordingly went to Picardy, attended 
by one Lucian, and they preached together at Amiens; after which Lucian went to 
Beauvals where he suffered martyrdom. Quintin, however, remained in Picardy, and 
was very zealous in his ministry. His continual prayers to the Almighty were to 
increase his faith, and strengthen his faculties to propagate the gospel. Being 
seized upon as a Christian, he was stretched with pullies till his joints were 
dislocated: his body was then torn with wire scourges, and boiling oil and pitch 
poured on his naked flesh: lighted torches were applied to his sides and armpits; 
and after he had been thus tortured, he was remanded back to prison. He died of 
his wounds and bruises at a village not far from Amiens, before the year was closed, 
and his body was thrown, by order of Varus the governor, into the river Somme. 
the efforts of the heathen to exterminate the Christians and abolish their mode 
of faith, yet they increased so greatly as to render themselves formidable by 
their numbers. They, however, forgot the precepts of their Redeemer, and instead 
of adopting his humility, they gave themselves up to vain attire, living sumptuously, 
building stately edifices for churches, and thus provoking envy and hatred. Galerius, 
the adopted son of Diocletian, stimulated by his mother, a bigoted pagan, persuaded 
the emperor to commence the persecution. It began on the 23rd of February A. D. 
303, being the day on which the Terminalia were celebrated, and on which, as the 
pagans boasted, they hoped to put a termination to christianity. The persecution 
opened in Nicomedia. The perfect of that city repaired on a certain morning to 
the Christians' church, which his officers were commanded to break open, and then 
commit the sacred books it contained to the flames. Diocletian and Galerius, who 
were present, ordered their attendants to level the church with the ground. This 
was followed by a severe edict, commanding the destruction of all other christian 
churches and books; and an order soon succeeded, the object of which was to render 
Chris- tians of all denominations outlaws, and consequently, to make them incapable 
of holding any place of trust, profit, or dignity, or of receiving any protection 
from the legal institutions of the realm. An immediate martyrdom was the result 
of this edict; for a bold Christian not only tore it down from the place to which 
it was affixed, but Page 60 execrated the name of the emperor for his injustice 
and cruelty: he was in consequence seized, severely tortured, and then burnt alive. 
The Christian prelates were likewise apprehended and imprisoned; and Galerius 
privately ordered the imperial palace to be set on fire, that the Christians might 
be charged as the incendiaries, and a plausible pretext given for carrying on 
the persecution with the greatest severity. A general sacrifice was then commanded, 
which occasioned various martyrdoms. Among others, a Christian named Peter was 
tortured, broiled, and then burnt; several deacons and presbyters were seized 
and executed by various means; and the bishop of Nicomedia himself was beheaded. 
So great was the persecution that there was no distinction made of age or sex, 
but all fell indiscriminate sacrifices to their opinions. Many houses were set 
on fire, and whole christian families perished in the flames; others had stones 
fastened about their necks, and were driven into the sea. The persecution became 
general in all the Roman provinces, but more particularly in the East; and as 
it lasted ten years, it is impossible to ascertain the numbers martyred, or to 
enumerate the various modes of martyrdom: some were beheaded in Arabia; many devoured 
by wild beasts in Phenicia; great numbers were broiled on gridirons in Syria; 
others had their bones broken, and in that manner were left to expire, in Cappadocia; 
and in Mesopotamia several were hung with their heads downwards over slow fires, 
and suffocated. In Pontus, a variety of tortures were used; pins were thrust under 
the nails of the prisoners, melted lead was poured upon them, and other exquisite 
tortures were inflicted, without however shaking their faith. In Egypt, some Christians 
were buried alive in the earth, others were drowned in the Nile, many were hung 
in the air till they perished, and great numbers were thrown into large fires, 
and suffocating kilns. Scourges, racks, daggers, swords, poison, crosses, and 
famine, were made use of in various parts to destroy the Christians; and invention 
was exhausted to devise new tortures against them. A town of Phrygia, consisting 
entirely of Christians, was surrounded by a number of pagan soldiers, who set 
it on fire, and all the inhabit- ants perished in the flames. At last, several 
governors of provinces represented to the imperial court, that "it was unfit to 
pollute the cities with the blood of the inhabitants, or to defame the government 
of the emperors with the death of so many subjects." Hence many were respited 
from execution; but though they were not put to death, they were subjected to 
every species of indignity and suffering. Many had their ears cut off, their noses 
slit, their right eyes put out, their limbs dislocated, and their flesh seared 
in conspicuous places with red hot irons. Among the most distinguished persons, 
who forfeited their lives during this bloody persecution, was Sebastian, a celebrated 
holy man, born at Narbonne in Gaul, instructed in the principles of chris- tianity 
at Milan, and afterwards an officer of the imperial guard at Rome. He remained 
a true Christian in the midst of idolatry, unal- lured by the splendor of a court, 
and untainted by evil examples around him; esteemed by the most eminent, beloved 
by his equals, and admired by his inferiors, he lived happily, and kept his faith 
and station, till the rigour of persecution deprived him of the latter with his 
life. Page 61 He was informed against, and betrayed to Fabian the Roman praetor, 
by Torquatus, a pretended Christian; but being of a rank too considerable to be 
put to death without the emperor's express orders, Diocletian was acquainted with 
the persecution. On hearing the accusation, he sent for Sebastian, and charged 
him with ingratitude in betraying the con- fidence reposed in him, and being an 
enemy to the gods of the empire and to himself. To this he answered that his religion 
was not of a pernicious tendency but the opposite; that it did not stimulate him 
to anything against the welfare of the empire or the emperor, and that the greatest 
proof he could give of his fidelity, was praying to the only true God for the 
health and prosperity of his person and government. Incensed at this reply, the 
emperor ordered him to be taken to a field near the city, termed the Campus Martius, 
and there to be shot to death with arrows; which sentence was speedily executed. 
A few Christians attending at the place of execution, in order to give his body 
burial, perceived signs of life in him, and removing him to a place of security, 
they in a short time effected his recovery, and prepared him for a second martyrdom. 
So soon as he was able to walk, he placed himself in the emperor's way as he was 
going to the temple. The unexpected appearance of a person supposed to be dead, 
greatly astonished the emperor, nor did the words of the martyr less surprise 
him; for he began with great severity to reprehend him for his various cruelties, 
and for his unreasonable prejudices against christianity. Having overcome his 
surprise, he ordered Sebastian to be seized, carried to a place near the palace, 
and beaten to death. That the Christians should not either bury or recover his 
body, he ordered that it should be thrown into a common sewer. Nevertheless, a 
christian lady, named Lucina, found means to remove it and bury it in the catacombs. 
At this time the Christians, upon mature consideration, thought it unlawful to 
bear arms under a heathen emperor. Their reasons were:- That they thereby were 
under the necessity of profaning the Christian sabbath. - That they were obliged, 
with the rest of the army, frequently to be present at idolatrous sacrifices before 
the temples of idols - That they were compelled to follow the imperial standards, 
which were dedicated to heathen deities, and bore their representations. These 
reasons induced many to refuse to enter into the imperial army; the Roman constitution 
obliging all young men, of a certain stature, to make several campaigns. MAXIMILIAN, 
the son of Fabius Victor, being pointed out as a proper person to bear arms, was 
ordered by Dion, the pro-consul, to be measured, that he might be enlisted in 
the service. He, however, boldly declared himself a Chris- tian, and refused to 
do miltary duty. Being found of the proper height, Dion gave directions that he 
should be marked as a soldier, according to the usual custom. He strenuously opposed 
this order, and told Dion that he could not possibly engage in the service. The 
pro-consul instantly replied, that he should either serve as a soldier, or die 
for disobedience. "Do as you please with me (replied Maximilian); behead me if 
you think proper; I am already a soldier of Christ, and cannot serve any other 
power." Page 62 Dion, wishing notwithstanding to save the young man, commanded 
his father to use his authority over him, to persuade him to comply; but Victor 
coolly replied, "My son knows best what he has to do." Dion again demanded of 
Maximilian, with some acrimony, if he was yet disposed to receive the mark. To 
which the young man replied, he had already received the mark of Christ. "Have 
you! (exclaimed the pro-consul in a rage) then I shall quickly send you to Christ." 
"As soon as you please (answered Maximilian), that is all I wish or desire." The 
pro-consul then pronounced this sentence upon him, "that for disobedience in refusing 
to bear arms, and for professing the christian faith, he should lose his head." 
This sentence he heard with great intrepidity, and exclaimed with apparent rapture, 
"God be praised!" At the place of execution, he exhorted those who were Christians 
to remain so; and such as were not, to embrace a faith which led to eternal salvation. 
Then addressing his father with a cheerful countenance, he desired that the military 
habit intended for him might be given to the executioner; and after taking leave 
of him, said, he hoped they should meet again in the other world, and be happy 
to all eternity. He then received the fatal stroke. The father beheld the execution 
with amazing fortitude, and saw the head of his son severed from his body without 
any emotion, but such as seemed to proceed from a conscious pleasure in being 
the parent of one whose piety and courage rendered him so great an example for 
the christian world. Vitus, a Sicilian of a considerable family, was trained a 
Christian from his infancy. His virtues increased with his ears, his constancy 
supported him under all afflictions, and his faith was superior to the utmost 
perils and trials. Hylas, his father, who was a pagan, finding that he had been 
instructed in the principles of christianity by his nurse, used all his endeavours 
to bring him back to paganism; but finding all efforts in vain, he forgot the 
feelings of a parent, and informed against him to Valerian, governor of Sicily, 
who was very active in persecuting the Christians at this period. When apprehended 
upon the information of his father, Vitus was little more than twelve years of 
age; the governor therefore thought to frighten him out of his faith, and accordingly 
threatened and ordered him to be severely scourged. After this, the governor sent 
him back to his father, thinking that what he had suffered would make him change 
his principles; but in this he was mistaken; and Hylas, finding his son inflexible, 
basely allowed nature to sink under superstition, and determined to sacrifice 
his son to the idols. On being apprised of his design, Vitus escaped to Lucania, 
where being seized, he was, by order of Valerian, put to death, June 14, A. D. 
303. His nurse, Crescentia, who brought him up as a Christian, and Modestus, a 
person who escaped with him, were martyred at the same time. VICTOR, a Christian 
of good family at Maresilles, who spent great part of the night in visiting the 
afflicted, and confirming the weak; and his fortune in relieving the distresses 
of poor Christians. His beneficence becoming known, he was seized by the emperor's 
orders, and carried before two prefects, who advised him to embrace paganism, 
and not forfeit the favour of his prince, on account of a dead man, as they styled 
Christ. In answer he replied, "That he preferred the service of that man, who 
was in reality the Son of God, and had risen from the grave, to all the advantages 
he Page 63 could receive from the emperor's favour: that he was a soldier of Christ, 
and would therefore take care that the post he held under an earthly prince, should 
never interfere with his duty to the King of heaven." For this reply, Victor was 
loaded with reproaches, but being a man of rank, he was sent to the emperor to 
receive his final sentence. When brought before him, the emperor, under the severest 
penalties, commanded him to sacrifice to the Roman idols: and on his refusal, 
Maximilian ordered him to be bound, and dragged through the streets. During the 
execution of this order, he was treated by the enraged populace with all manner 
of indignities. Remaining inflexible, his courage was deemed obstinacy: to which 
he replied, "That the ready disposition of the disciples of Christ to undergo 
any sufferings for his sake, and the joy with which they met the most ignominious 
and painful death, were sufficient proofs of their assurance of the object of 
that hope." He added, "That he was ready to give an example of what he had said 
in his own person." When stretched on the rack, he turned his eyes towards heaven, 
and prayed to God to give him patience; after which he underwent the tortures 
with admirable fortitude. The executioners being tired with multiplying his tortures, 
he was taken from the rack to a dungeon. During his confinement, he convinced 
his gaolers, named Alexander, Felician, and Longinus. This affair coming to the 
knowledge of the emperor, he ordered them to be put to death, and the gaolers 
were immediately beheaded. Victor was afterwards again put on the rack, beaten 
with clubs, and then sent to his dungeon. Being a third time examined, he persevered 
in his principles: a small altar was then brought, and he was commanded to offer 
incense upon it immediately; but instead of complying he boldly stepped forward, 
and with his foot over- threw both altar and idol! The emperor, who was present, 
was so enraged at this, that he ordered the foot which had kicked the altar, to 
be immediately cut off; and Victor was afterwards sentenced to be thrown into 
a mill, and crushed to pieces with the stones. This horrid sentence was carried 
into execution: Victor was thrown into the mill, but part of the apparatus breaking, 
he was drawn from it terribly bruised; and the emperor, not having patience to 
stay till the machinery was repaired, ordered his head to be struck off without 
delay. While Maximus, governor of Cilicia, was at Tarsus, three Christians were 
brought before him by Demetrius, a military officer. Tarachus the eldest and first 
in rank, was addressed by Maximus, who asked him what he was. The prisoner replied, 
"a Christian." This reply offending the governor, he again made the demand, and 
was answered in a similar manner. The governor then told him, that he ought to 
sacrifice to the gods, as the only way to promo- tion, riches, and honours; and 
that the emperors themselves did what he recommended him to perform. Tarachus 
answered, that avarice was a sin, and gold itself an idol as abominable as any 
other; since it promoted frauds, treacheries, robberies, and murders; it induced 
men to deceive each other, by which in time they deceived themselves, and bribed 
the weak to their own eternal destruction. As for promotion, he desired it not, 
as he could not conscience accept of any place which would subject him to pay 
adoration to idols; and with regard to honours, he desired Page 64 none greater 
than the honourable title of Christian. As to the emperors themselves being pagans, 
he added, with the same undaunted spirit, that they were deceived in adoring senseless 
idols, and evidently misled by the machinations of the devil himself. For the 
boldness of this speech, his jaws were ordered to be broken. He was then stripped, 
scourged, loaded with chains, and thrown into a dismal dungeon, to remain there 
till the trials of the other two prisoners. Probus was then brought before Maximus, 
who, as usual, asked his name. Undauntedly the prisoner answered, the most valuable 
name he could boast of was that of a Chris- tian. To this Maximus replied in the 
following words, "Your name of Christian will be of little service to you, be 
therefore guided by me; sacrifice to the gods, engage my friendship, and the favour 
of the emperor." Probus nobly answered, "that as he had relinquished a consid- 
erable fortune to become a soldier of Christ, it might appear evident, that he 
neither cared for his friendship, nor the favour of the emperor. "Probus was then 
scourged; and Demetrius, the officer, observing to him how his blood flowed, advised 
him to comply; but his only answer was, that those severities were agreeable to 
him. "What!" cried Maximus, "does he still persist in his madness?" To which Probus 
rejoined, "that character is wrongly bestowed on one who refuses to worship idols, 
or what is worse, devils." After being scourged on every part of his body, suffering 
with as much intrepidity as before, and still repeating, "the more my body suffers 
and loses blood, the more my soul will grow vigorous, and be a gainer," he was 
committed to gaol, loaded with irons, and his hands and feet were stretched on 
the stocks. Andronicus was next brought up, when being asked the usual question, 
he said, "I am a Christian, a native of Ephesus, and descended from one of the 
first families in that city." He was ordered to undergo punishments similar to 
those of Tarachus and Probus, and then was remanded to prison. Having been confined 
some days, the three prisoners were again brought before Maximus, who began to 
reason with Tarachus, saying, that as age was honoured from the supposition of 
its being accompanied by wisdom, he was in hopes that what had already past must, 
upon deliberation, have caused a change in his sentiments. Finding himself mistaken, 
he ordered him to be tortured by various means; fire was placed in the palms of 
his hands; he was hung up by his feet, and smoaked with wet straw; a mixture of 
salt and vinegar was poured into his nostrils: and in this state he was remanded 
to his dungeon. Probus being called, and asked if he would sacrifice, replied, 
"I come better prepared to die than before; for what I have already suffered, 
has only confirmed and strengthened me in my resolution. Employ your whole power 
upon me, and you will find, that neither you, nor your masters the emperors, nor 
the gods whom you serve, nor the devil who is your father, shall oblige me to 
adore idols whom I know not." The governor however attempted to reason with him, 
paid extravagant praises to the pagan deities, and pressed him to sacrifice to 
Jupiter; but Probus turned his causuistry into ridicule, and said, "Shall I pay 
divine honours to Jupiter, to one who married his own sister to an infamous debauchee, 
as he is even acknowledged to have Page 65 done by your own priests and poets." 
Provoked at this speech, the governor ordered him to be struck upon the mouth, 
for uttering what he called blasphemy: his body was then seared with hot irons, 
he was put to the rack, and afterwards scourged; his head was then shaved, and 
red hot coals placed upon the crown; and after all these tortures, he was remanded 
to prison. When Andronicus was again brought before Maximus, the latter attempted 
to deceive him, by pretending that Tarachus and Probus had repented of their obstinacy, 
and owned the gods of the empire. To this the prisoner answered, "Lay not, O governor, 
such a weakness to the charge of those who have appeared before me in this cause, 
nor imagine it to be in your power to shake my fixed resolution with artful speeches. 
I cannot believe that they have disobeyed the laws of their fathers, renounced 
their hopes in our God, and consented to your extravagant orders: nor will I fall 
short of them in faith and dependence upon our common Saviour. Thus armed, I neither 
know your gods nor fear your authority; fulfil your threats, execute your most 
sanguinary inventions, and employ every cruel art in your power on me; I am prepared 
to bear it for the sake of Christ." For this answer he was cruelly scourged, and 
his wounds were afterwards rubbed with salt; but being well again in a short time, 
the governor reproached the gaoler for having suffered some physician to attend 
to him. The gaoler declared, that no person whatever had been near him, or the 
other prisoners, and that he would forfeit his head if any allegation of the kind 
could be proved against him. Andronicus corroborated the testimony of the gaoler, 
and added, that the God whom he served was the most powerful of physi- cians. 
These intrepid Christians were brought to a third examination, when they retained 
their constancy, were again tortured, and at length ordered for execution. Being 
brought to the amphitheatre, several beasts were let loose upon them; but none 
of the animals, though hungry, would touch them. Maximus was so surprised and 
incensed at this circumstance, that he severely reprehended the keeper, and ordered 
him to produce a beast that would execute the business for which he was wanted. 
The keeper then brought out a large bear, that had that day destroyed three men; 
but this creature, and a fierce lioness, also refused to touch the Christians. 
Finding the design of destroying them by the means of wild beasts ineffectual, 
Maximus ordered them to be slain by a sword, which was accordingly done on the 
11th of October, A. D. 303. The resolute martyrs all declared that as death was 
the common lot of men, they wished to meet it for the sake of Christ; and to resign 
that life to faith, which must otherwise be the prey of disease. ROMANUS, a native 
of Palestine, was deacon of the church of Cesarea, at the commencement of Diocletian's 
persecution. He was Antioch when the imperial order arrived for sacrificing to 
idols, and was greatly afflicted to see many Chris- tians, through fear, submit 
to the idolatrous mandate, and deny their faith to preserve their existence. While 
censuring some of their conduct, he was informed against to the emperor, and soon 
after appre- hended. Being brought to the tribunal, he confessed himself a Christian, 
Page 66 and said he was willing to suffer any thing which he was pleased to inflict 
upon him for his confession. When condemned for his faith, he was scourged, put 
to the rack, his body torn with hooks, his flesh cut with knives, his face scarified, 
his teeth beat from their sockets, and his hair plucked up by the roots. Thus 
cruelly mangled, he turned to the governor, and calmly thanked him for what he 
had done, and for having opened so many mouths to preach the doctrines of christianity; 
"for," said he, "every wound is a mouth, to sing the praises of the Lord." The 
following circumstance, which happened upon this occasion, is related by Prudentius 
and other writers. Romanus offered to stand to the decision of a young child, 
whose age must be free from malice, and to put the truth of the Christian religion 
upon that test. Ascepiades is said to have accepted of the proposal. A child about 
seven years of age was called out of the crowd, and being asked whether he thought 
it to be true, that men ought to worship but one God in Christ, or to worship 
many gods, he answered, that he thought, whatsoever men affirm to be God, must 
be but one, and this one is Christ, he must of necessity be God; "for that there 
are many gods," continued the boy, "we children cannot believe." The governor 
amazed at this, was highly enraged with the child, and calling him a little villain 
and a young traitor, asked him who taught him that lesson. To which the child 
replied, "My mother, with whose milk I sucked in this lesson, that I must believe 
in Christ." This so incensed the governor, that he ordered the infant to be severely 
whipped; insomuch that the beholders could not refrain from tears, the mother 
of the child only excepted, who reproved him for asking for a draught of water, 
charging him to thirst for that cup which the infants of Bethlehem had drank of, 
and bidding him remember Isaac, who willingly offered himself to death by his 
father's hand. While the woman was giving her son this lesson, the executioner 
plucked the skin and hair from the crown of his head; his mother at the same time 
saying to him, "though you suffer here, my child, you shall shortly be with him, 
who shall adorn thy naked head with a crown of eternal glory." Upon which the 
child smiled upon her and his executioners, and bore their stripes with silent 
fortitude. Romanus soon after was ordered to be strangled, and the child to be 
beheaded; which sentence was executed on the 17th of November, A. D. 303. Marcellinus 
was an ecclesiastic at Rome; being apprehended on account of his religion, he 
was ordered to be privately executed in the forest, and was accordingly beheaded 
there. Peter, a Christian, apprehended for the same cause, was executed at the 
same time and place. Also about this period, Smagardus, Largus, and Cyracus, a 
deacon of the christian church, were martyred; but the mode of their death is 
not specified. Susanna, the niece of Caius, bishop of Rome, was enjoined by the 
emperor Diocletian to marry a noble pagan, who was nearly related to him: but 
she refused the honour, on account of being a Christian, which so enraged the 
emperor, that she was immediately afterwards beheaded by his order. Dorotheus, 
chamberlain of the house- Page 67 hold to Diocletian, was a Christian, and took 
great pains to make con- verts. He was assisted by Gorgonius, another Christian 
belonging to the palace: they were both high in the emperor's favour, but they 
soon proved that worldly honours and temporary pleasures were nothing when set 
in competition with the joys of immortality; for being informed against, they 
were first tortured and then strangled. Peter, an eunuch belonging to the emperor, 
was a Christian of singular humility, in- somuch that he did nay servile office 
to serve the afflicted, and gave whatever he possessed to those who needed assistance. 
Having been informed against, and confessing the charge, he was scourged till 
his flesh was torn in a terrible manner; then salt and vinegar were thrown upon 
the wounds, and after suffering these tortures with the utmost tranquillity, he 
was laid on a gridiron, and broiled over a slow fire till he expired in the greatest 
agony. Cyprian, known by the title of magician, to distinguish him from Cyprian, 
bishop of Carthage, was a native of Antioch. He received a liberal education in 
his youth, and applied himself to astrology; after which he travelled through 
India, Egypt, and Greece. He afterwards settled near Babylon, and being skilled 
in Chaldean mysteries, he employed his talents in endeavouring to draw women from 
chastity and conjugal faith, and in persecuting the Chris- tians and ridiculing 
christianity. He became acquainted with Justina, a young lady of Antioch, of high 
birth, beauty, and accomplishments, who had been educated in idolatry; but being 
converted to christianity, she induced her father and mother to embrace the same 
faith. Her modesty was remarkable. A pagan gentleman strongly attached to her, 
not being able to obtain a favourable return to his addresses, applied for assistance 
to Cyrian, who undertook the design, but with a treacherous intent; for under 
the pretence of acting for his friend, he determined if possible, to possess the 
lady himself. To effect this, he employed all his skill; but his endeavours proving 
ineffectual, he was convinced that a superior power protected her from his evil 
intentions. Consequent reflection, caused him to search into the truths of christianity, 
and his enquiry became so beneficial, that he renounced paganism. His repentance 
was sincere; he determined to reform his conduct, and to make every amends in 
his power for the crimes he had committed. He burnt his books of astrology and 
magic, received baptism, and became animated with a power- ful spirit of piety. 
The conversion of Cyprian had a great effect on the pagan gentleman who paid his 
addresses to Justina, and he also in a short time embraced christianity. During 
the persecution of Diocletian, Cyprian and Justina were seized upon as Christians, 
when the former was torn with pincers, and the latter chastised; and after suffering 
other torments, both were beheaded. Sergius was an officer in the Roman army, 
and attended the emperor Maximian into Syria. Being accused as a Chris- tian, 
he was ordered to sacrifice to Jupiter; but refusing, he was stripped of his military 
habit, and, in derision, dressed in woman's clothes. He was then compelled to 
walk a considerable way with nails in his sandals, and had an end put to his sufferings 
by being beheaded. Bacchius, an officer of the same rank with Sergius, being apprehended 
at Page 68 the same time, underwent similar sufferings, and was beheaded on the 
same day, A.D. 303. A Spanish lady of a Christian family, named Eulalia, who was 
remarkable in her youth for her sweetness of temper and solidity of understanding, 
was apprehended as a Christian. The magistrate attempted, by the mildest means, 
to bring her over to paganism, but she answered him in so ironical a manner, and 
ridiculed the pagan deities with such wit, that, incensed at her behaviour, he 
ordered her to be tortured. Accordingly her sides were torn by hooks, and her 
breasts burnt in the most shocking manner, till the fire catching her head and 
face, she expired. This happened in December A. D. 303. The emperor Diocletian 
becoming ill, in the year 304, the persecution was carried on by Galerius, and 
the governors of the several provinces, when many fell victims to the zeal or 
malice of the persecutions: among whom the fol- lowing persons are enumerated:- 
Vincent, a Spanish Christian, brought up by Valerius, bishop of Saragossa, who, 
on account of his great merits, ordained him a deacon. When the persecution reached 
Spain, Dacian, the governor of Tarragona, ordered Valerius the bishop, and Vincent 
the deacon, to be seized, loaded with irons, and imprisoned. Some time after Dacian 
examined them with great asperity, and threatened them with death, unless they 
renounced their principles. Vincent undertaking to speak for both, avowed their 
full determination to persist in the faith. Hereupon, Dacian, in a rage at his 
freedom of speech, declared that unless he immediately offered incense to the 
gods, he should fall a sacrifice. But the prisoners being firm in their resolution, 
Valerius was banished, and the whole of Dacian's rage directed against Vincent, 
who was racked, had his limbs dislocated, his flesh torn with hooks, and was laid 
on a gridiron, which had not only a fire placed under it, but spikes at the top, 
which run into his flesh. These torments neither destroying him or changing his 
resolution, he was remanded to prison, and confined in a dark dungeon. Orders 
were also given not to allow him any provisions whatever, and that the news of 
his death should be carried to Dacian as soon as known. When the keepers thought 
him starved they entered the dungeon, but instead of seeing a corpse as they expect- 
ed, they beheld Vincent at prayers, his wounds in a great measure healed, and 
his body in tolerable health. This speedy recovery and preservation had such an 
effect upon the keepers, that it became the means of their conversion. Dacian 
however, instead of being softened, was enraged at the triumph of Vincent over 
his cruelties, and gave orders for new tortures to be prepared, so severe as to 
compel him to sink under them. But his malice was again disappointed, for before 
the instruments could be prepared, God took him to himself, and he died with all 
the serenity of a good conscience, and with as much calmness as if he had only 
fallen into a gentle sleep. Dacian then ordered that his body should be exposed 
in the fields to the birds of prey; but they not offering to touch it, he commanded 
that it should be thrown into the river, which was done accordingly. His death 
happened on the 22nd of January, 304. It was in this year the persecution of Diocletian 
began to prevail, and many Christians were put to cruel tortures, and the most 
Page 69 painful deaths; the most eminent and particular of these were, Satur- 
ninus, a priest of Abilina in Africa. He used to preach and administer the sacrament 
to a society of Christians, who privately assembled at the house of Octavius Felix; 
for the severity of the times was such, that they could not publicly observe their 
religious duties. Having been informed against, Saturninus, with four of his children, 
and several other persons, were apprehended; and that their punishment might be 
the more exemplary and public, they were sent to Carthage, the capital of Africa, 
where they were examined before Anulinus, the pro-consul of that quarter. Saturninus, 
on the examination, gave such spirited answers, and vindicated the christian religion 
with eloquence that shewed he was worthy to preside over an assembly possessing 
a faith of purity and truth. Anulinus, enraged at his arguments, ordered him to 
be silenced by being put to a variety of tortures, such as scourging, tearing 
his flesh with hooks, and burning with hot irons. Having been thus inhumanly treated, 
he was remanded to prison and there starved to death. His four children, notwithstanding 
they were variously tormented, remained steady in their faith; on which they were 
sent to the dungeon in which their father was confined, where they calmly and 
even cheer- fully shared his fate. There were eight other Christians tortured 
on the same day as Saturninus, and much in the same manner. Two expired on the 
spot through the severity of their sufferings, and the other six being remanded 
to prison, were suffocated for want of a pure air. Thelico, a pious Christian; 
Dativus, a noble Roman senator; Victoria, a young lady of considerable family 
and fortune, with some others of less consideration, who had been all auditors 
of Saturninus, were seized at the time, tortured in a similar manner, and perished 
by the same means. About the same time three sisters, Chionia, Agape, and Irene, 
were seized at Thessalonica. They had been educated in the christian faith, but 
had taken great precautions to remain unknown. They therefore re- tired to a solitary 
place, and spent their hours in performing religious duties. Being, however, discovered 
and seized, they renounced their former timidity, blamed themselves for being 
fearful, and begged to God to strengthen them against the great trial they had 
to undergo. When Agape was examined before Dulcatius, the governor, and was asked 
whether she was disposed to comply with the law of the land, and obey the mandate 
of the emperor, she answered, That being a Christian, she could not comply with 
any law which commanded the worship of idols and devils; that her resolution was 
fixed, and nothing should deter her from maintaining it. Her sister Chionia answered 
in the same manner; when the governor, not being able to draw them from their 
faith, pronounced sentence of condemnation on them, in consequence of which they 
were burnt, March 25, A.D. 304. Irene was then brought before the governor, who 
fancied that the death of her sisters would have an effect upon her fears, and 
that the dread of similar suffering would engage her to comply with his proposals. 
He therefore exhorted her to acknowledge the heathen deities, to sacrifice[ Note: 
On page 93 word "when" changed to "then" par 2 line 7.] to them, to partake of 
the victims, and to deliver Page 70 up her books relative to christianity. But 
she firmly refused to comply with any of them. The governor then asked her, who 
persuaded her and her sisters to keep those books and writings. She answered, 
It was that God who commanded them to love him to the last; for which reason she 
was resolved to submit to be burned alive rather than give them up into the hands 
of his professed enemies. When the governor found that he could make no impression 
on her, he ordered her to be exposed naked in the streets; which shameful order 
having been executed, she was burnt, April 1, A. D. 304, on the same spot where 
her sisters had suffered before her. Agatho, a man of a pious turn of mind, with 
Cassice, Philippa, and Eutychia, were martyred about the same time; as was Marcellinus, 
bishop of Rome, who succeeded Caius in that see. He was greatly perplexed during 
this persecution; and having strongly resisted paying divine honours to Diocletian, 
who wished to exact them from the people, and to appear as a god, he was at length 
seized and committed to a dungeon. He suffered martyrdom, by a variety of tortures, 
in the year 304. Theodo- tus, a Dalmatian, kept an inn at Aneyra. Being a Christian, 
and of a very humane disposition, he devoted a great part of his time to visit 
the afflicted, and a great part of his property to relieve the poor. Theotecnus, 
governor of these parts, whose cruelty was equalled by nothing but his bigotry, 
received the mandate for persecuting the Christians with great satisfaction, and 
wrote the emperor word that he would do his utmost endeavours to root out christianity 
from every place under his jurisdiction. Thus encouraged by the governor, the 
pagans began to inform against and persecute the Christians. Great numbers were 
seized and imprisoned; their goods were destroyed, and their estates confiscated. 
Many fled to the woods, or retired to caves, where some supported themselves by 
feeding upon roots, and others perished by famine. Many were starved in the city, 
by means of the following singular stratagem: the governor gave orders that no 
provi- sions whatever should be exposed to sale in the markets, without having 
been first consecrated to the idols; hence the Christians were compelled to eat 
idolatrous food, or to starve and perish. The latter dreadful alternative was 
chosen by most of them, who, to peserve the purity of their faith, heroically 
gave up their lives. It was in these dreadful times, Theodotus did all that he 
could to comfort the imprisoned, and buried the bodies of several who had been 
martyred, though it was for- bidden on pain of death. He likewise privately assisted 
many with food; for having laid in a great stock of corn and wine, he sold it 
at a low price, and often gave it away. Polychronicus, a Christian, being seized, 
forfeited his faith, in order to preserve his life, and informed against his friend 
Theodotus, who hearing of this treachery, surrendered himself to the governor 
of his own accord. On his arrival in the court, he surveyed the instruments of 
torture with a smile, and seemed totally regardless of their operation. When placed 
at the bar, the governor informed him, that it was still in his power to save 
himself, by sacrificing to the gods of the empire. "And, (he continued,) if you 
renounce your faith in Christ, I promise you my friendship, and the Page 71 emperor's 
protection, and will constitute you one of the magistrates of the town." Theodotus 
displayed great courage and eloquence in his an- swer: he refused to renounce 
his faith, declined the friendship of the governor and protection of the emperor, 
and treated their idols with the greatest contempt. The pagans on this were extremely 
clamorous against the prisoner, and demanded that he should be immediately punished. 
The priests in particular rent their clothes, and tore their chaplets, the badges 
of their offices, through rage. The governor complied with their desire, when 
Theodotus was scourged, torn with hooks, and then placed upon the rack. After 
this, vinegar was poured into his wounds, his flesh was seared with burning torches, 
and his teeth were knocked out of their sockets. He was then remanded to prison; 
and as he went, pointing to his mangled body, he said to the people, "It was but 
just that Christians should suffer for him who suffered for us all." Five days 
afterwards he was brought from prison, tortured, and then beheaded. Victor, a 
native of Ancyra, was accused by the priests of Diana for having abused their 
goddess. For this imputed crime he was seized and committed to prison, his house 
plundered, his family turned out of doors, and his estate forfeited. When put 
to the rack, his resolution failed through the variety and severity of his torments. 
Being carried back to prison, that he might make a full recantation he suffered 
for his apostasy; his wounds mortified, and put an end to his life. A Christian, 
of the name of Timothy, being carried before Urban, governor of Palestine, was 
sentenced to be burnt to death by a slow fire; which sentence was executed at 
Gaza, on the 19th day of August, A. D. 104. Philip, bishop of Heraclea, had in 
every act of his life, appeared a devoted Christian; the chief of his disciples 
were Severus a priest, and Hermes a deacon; who did much to promote the cause 
of christianity. This worthy bishop was advised to conceal himself, in order to 
avoid the storm of the persecution; but he reproved those who counselled him to 
do so, telling them that their courage would be enhanced by their sufferings, 
and that death had no terror for the virtuous. He therefore publicly performed 
his duty. An officer named Aristomachus, being employed to shut up the christian 
church in Heraclea, Philip took great pains to convince him, that shutting up 
buildings made by hands could not destroy christianity, while the living temples 
of the Lord remained; for the true faith consisted not in the places where God 
adored, but in the hearts of those who adore God. Being denied entrance into the 
church where he used to preach, Philip took up his station at the door, and there 
exhorted people to patience, perseverance, and godliness. For this he was seized 
and carried before the governor, who severely reprimanded him, and then continued 
to speak sternly in these words - "Bring all the vessels used in your worship, 
and the scriptures which you read and teach the people, and surrender them to 
me, before you are forced to do it by tortures." "If," replied the bishop, "you 
take any pleasure in seeing us suffer, we are prepared for the worst you can do. 
This infirm body is in your power; use it as you please. The vessels you demand 
shall be delivered up, for God is not honoured by gold and Page 72 silver, but 
by fear and love; but as to our sacred books, it is neither proper for me to part 
with them, not for you to receive them." This answer so much incensed the governor, 
that he ordered him to torture. Hermes, expressing himself freely against such 
barbarities, was ordered to be scoured at the same time. The pagans having proceeded 
to the place where the scriptures and the church plate were kept, immediately 
seized them; they likewise unroofed the church, walled up the doors, melted down 
the plate, and burnt the scriptures. When Philip was taken to the market place, 
he was ordered to sacrifice to the Roman deities in general, and to a very handsome 
image of Hercules in particular; to which command, he made an animated address 
on the real nature of the deity; and concluded, that from what he had already 
said, it appeared that the heathens worshipped what might lawfully be trodden 
on, and made gods of such things as Providence had designed for common use. The 
governor then tried the constancy of Hermer, but finding him as in- flexible as 
the bishop, he committed them both to prison. Soon after this, the governor's 
time of ruling those parts being expired, a new governor named Justin arrived; 
but he was equally cruel as his predeces- sor. Philip was then dragged by the 
feet through the streets, severely scourged, and brought again to the governor, 
who charged him with ob- stinate rashness in continuing disobedient to the imperial 
decrees; but he boldly replied that he was obliged to prefer heaven to earth, 
and to obey God rather than man. On this the governor immediately passed sen- 
tence on him to be burnt, which was executed accordingly, and he ex- pired, singing 
praises to God in the midst of the fire. Hermes, for behaving in a similar manner, 
and Severus, who had surrendered himself resolutely to suffer with his friends, 
endured the same fate. Such were the effects of a diabolical zeal for the adoration 
of idols. St. Ambrose asserts that Agricola was a Christian of so amiable a disposi- 
tion, that he even gained the esteem and admiration of the pagans. Being apprehended 
as a Christian, he was crucified in imitation of the death of our Saviour; and 
his body, together with the cross, were buried at Bologna in Italy, in one grave. 
Vitalis, the servant and convert of Agricola, was seized on the same charge as 
his master, and being put to the severity of the torture, died under the hands 
of his tormentors. Carphorus, Victorius, Severus, and Severanus, were brothers, 
and all employed in places of great trust and honour in the city of Rome. Having 
exclaimed against worshipping idols, they were apprehended, and scourged with 
a whip, to the ends of which were fastened leaden balls. This punishment was exercised 
with such rigour, that the pious brothers fell martyrs to its severity. A Christian 
of Aquileia, named Chrysogonus, was beheaded by order of Diocletian, for having 
instructed Anastasia, a young lady of that city, in the christian faith. This 
lady was descended from an illustrious Roman family. Her mother, named Flavia, 
was a Christian, and dying while her daughter was an infant, she bequeathed her 
to the care of Chrysogonus, with a strict injunction to instruct her in the principles 
of christianity. This Chrysogonus punctually performed; but the father of the 
lady, who was a pagan, gave Page 73 her in marriage to a person of his own persuasion, 
named Publius, who was of a good family, but had bad morals, and having spent 
his wife's and his own patrimony, he had the baseness to inform against her as 
a Christian. Publius soon after dying, she was released; but continuing to perform 
many charitable actions to Christians, she was again apprehended, and delivered 
up to Florus, governor of Illyricum. Florus commanded that she should be put to 
the torture; when finding her constant in the faith, he ordered her to be burnt, 
which was executed on December 25, A.D. 304; the event taking place about a month 
after the martyrdom of Chrysogonus, her instructor. In the same year, Mouris and 
Thea, two christian women of Gaza, were martyred in that city. The former died 
under the hands of her tormentors, and the latter perished in prison of the wounds 
she had received. Timothy, a deacon of Mauri- tania, and Maura his wife, had not 
been married above three weeks, when they were separated from each other by the 
persecution. Timothy was carried before Arrianus, the governor of Thebais, who 
did all in his power to induce him to embrace the pagan superstition. Perceiving 
his endeavours vain, and knowing that Timothy had the keeping of the holy scriptures, 
the governor commanded him to deliver them up, that they might be burnt: to which 
Timothy answered, "Had I children I would sooner deliver them up to be sacrificed, 
than part from the word of God." The governor, incensed at this reply, ordered 
his eyes to be put out with hot irons, saying, "The books shall at least be useless 
to you, for you shall not see to read them." He endured the punishment with such 
patience that the governor was the more exasperated, and ordered him to be hung 
up by the feet, with a weight tied about his neck, and a gag in his mouth. This 
treatment he bore with the greatest courage, when some person acquainted the governor 
that he had been but newly married to a wife of whom he was extremely fond. Arrianus 
accordingly ordered Maura to be sent for, and promised a handsome reward, with 
the life of her husband, if she could prevail upon him to sacrifice to the idols. 
Maura, wavering in her faith, tempted by a bribe, and impelled by an unbounded 
affection for her husband, undertook the impious affair. When conducted to him, 
she assailed his constancy with all the persuasive language of affection. When 
the gag was taken out of his mouth in order to give him an opportunity of replying, 
instead of consenting to his wife's entreaties, as they expected, he blamed her 
mistaken love, and declared his resolution of dying for the faith. Maura repeated 
her importunities, till her husband reproved her so strongly for her weakness, 
that she returned to his way of thinking, and resolved to imitate his courage 
and fidelity, and either to accompany or follow him to glory. Timothy advised 
her to repair her fault by declaring that resolution to the governor, by whose 
order she had undertaken the sinful commission. On which being strengthened by 
his exhortations, and the grace of God, she went to Arrianus and told him, that 
she was united to her husband in opinion as well as love, and was ready to suffer 
any thing to atone for her late crime, in wishing to make him an apostate. The 
governor immediately ordered her to be Page 74 tortured, which was executed with 
great severity; and after this Timothy and Maura were crucified near each other, 
A. D. 304. A bishop of Assisium, named Sabinus, refusing to sacrifice to Jupiter, 
and pushing the idol from him, had his hands cut off by the order of the governor 
of Tuscany. After patiently suffering this barbarity, he was committed to prison, 
where he remained a considerable time without any assistance or relief but what 
he received form a christian widow, whose blind grandson had been restored by 
him to sight. The governor who was himself afflicted in his sight, on hearing 
this intelligence, began to consider the behaviour of the Christians, and the 
tenets of christianity in a more favourable light, and sending for Sabinus, he 
informed him that he now entertained very different sentiments to what he had 
hitherto done, both with respect to him and his faith; then throwing himself at 
the feet of Sabinus, he entreated him to afford him assistance and to undertake 
the cure of his body and soul. The undissembled fevour with which he spoke convinced 
Sabinus of his sincerity; he was accordingly baptized, and the disorder in his 
eyes immediately left them: this conversion of the governor was followed by that 
of his whole family, and some of his friends. When the tyrant Maximian was informed 
of these circumstances, he immediately ordered the governor and all his family 
to be beheaded. Immediately after their execution, Sabinus was scourged to death; 
and two ecclesiastics, named Marcellus and Experantius, who officiated under Sabinus, 
where scourged in a most dreadful manner; but remaining constant in their faith, 
their flesh was torn with hooks till they expired. This took place in December, 
A. D. 304. It now happened that, weary of the farce of state, and public business, 
the emperors Diocletian and Maximian resigned the imperial diadem, and were succeeded 
by Constantius and Galerius; the former, a prince of the most mild and humane 
disposition, and the latter remarkable for his tyranny and cruel- ty. These divided 
the empire into two equal governments; Galerius ruling the East, and Constantius 
in the West; and the people in the two governments felt the effects of the different 
dispositions of the two emperors; for those in the West were governed in the mildest 
manner, but such as resided in the East felt all the miseries of cruelty and oppression. 
As Galerius bore an implacable hatred to Christians, we are Page 75 informed, 
that "he not only condemned them to tortures, but to be burnt in slow fires, in 
this horrible manner: they were first chained to a post, then a gentle fire put 
to the soles of their feet, which con- tracted the callus till it fell from the 
bone; then flambeaux just Page 76 extinguished were put to all parts of their 
bodies, so that they might be tortured all over; and care was taken to keep them 
alive, by throwing cold water in their faces, and giving them some to wash their 
mouths, lest their throats should be dried up with thirst, and choke them. Thus 
their miseries were lengthened out, till at last, their skins being consumed, 
and they just ready to expire, were thrown into a great fire, and had their bodies 
burned to ashes, after which their ashes were thrown into some river." Of the 
Christians martyred by the order of Galerius, the most eminent are these:- Amphianus 
was a gentleman of distinction in Lycia, and a scholar of Eusebius; pressing through 
the crowd while the proclamation for sacrificing to idols was read, he caught 
the governor Urbianus by the hand, and severely reproved him for his wickedness. 
On which the governor, incensed at the freedom, ordered him to be put to torture, 
and then thrown into the sea. Edesius, brother of the last mentioned martyr, was, 
about the same time, martyred at Alexandria, in a terrible manner. Julitta, a 
Lyconian of royal descent, Page 77 was a christian lady of great humility, constancy, 
and integrity. When the edict for sacrificing to idols was published at Iconium, 
she with- drew from that city, taking with her only her young son Cyricus, and 
two female servants. She was, however, seized at Tarsus, and being carried before 
Alexander, the governor, she acknowledged that she was a Christian. For this confession 
her son was taken from her, and she was immediately put to the rack, and tortured 
with great severity; but she bore her sufferings with true Christian resignation. 
The child however cried bitterly to get at his mother; when the governor observing 
the beauty and melted at the tears of the infant, took him upon his knee, and 
endeavoured to pacify him. Nothing, however, could quiet Cyricus; he still called 
upon the name of his mother, and at length, in imitation of her words, lisped 
out, "I am a Christian." This innocent expression turned the governor's compassion 
into rage; and throwing the child furiously against the pavement, he dashed out 
its brains. The mother, who from the rack beheld the transaction, thanked the 
Almighty that her child was gone before her; and she should have no anxiety concerning 
his future welfare. To complete the torture, Julitta had boiling pitch poured 
on her feet, her sides torn with hooks, and received the end of her martyrdom 
by being beheaded, April 16, A. D. 305. Pantaleon, a native of Nicomedia, received 
an elegant education from his father, who was a pagan, and was taught the precepts 
of the gospel by his mother, who was a Christian. Applying to the study of medicine, 
he became eminent in the knowledge of physic, and in process of time was appointed 
physician to the emperor Galerius. The name of this man in Greek signi- fies humane, 
and the appellation well suited his nature, for he was one of the most benevolent 
men of his time; but his extraordinary reputation roused the jealousy of the pagan 
physicians, who accused him to the emperor. Galerius on finding him a Christian, 
ordered him to be tortured, and then beheaded, which sentence was executed on 
July 27, AD. 305. Hermolaus, a venerable and pious Christian, of great age, and 
an intimate acquaintance of Pantaleon, suffered martyrdom for his faith on the 
same day, and in the same manner. Julitta, of Cappadocia, was a lady of distinguished 
capacity, great virtue, and uncommon courage: she was martyred on account of a 
lawsuit, of which Basil, bishop of Cesarea, gives an account as follows:- "She 
had a troublesome suit with one of the principal men in Cesarea, who was unjustly 
possessed of a consider- able part of her estate, and had seized both her servants 
and cattle. This oppressive usurper had found means to bribe the judges in his 
favour, and hired persons to swear, that the land and goods in dispute were his 
property. Julitta, supported by the justness of her cause, thought that she had 
nothing more to do but to give the magistrates an ingenuous account of her title. 
When the cause came to be tried, the defendant, instead of supporting his claim, 
urged that the law would not suffer him to engage at that bar with one of a different 
religion; so that he could not proceed in his defence, unless the lady, who was 
the plaintiff, renounced christianity. The judge was too well instructed not Page 
78 to second the motion, and gave it as his opinion, that that he insisted upon 
was according to the laws of the empire. He then ordered an altar to be brought 
in, and some fire to be put on it, and incense to be prepared, and then told the 
parties, that if they expected, either of them, to enjoy any benefit from the 
laws, they must both of them offer incense to the gods.The usurper who was a heathen, 
immediately complied; but Julitta made it appear that her faith was much dearer 
to her than her goods, or even than life itself. 'No, (said she), my affection 
to what is undoubtedly my own, shall never hinder me from sacrificing my all, 
and even my life, if required, rather than violate my fidelity to my God and Saviour.' 
For this declaration she was condemned to be burnt." Eustratius, secretary to 
the governor of Armenia, was thrown into a furnace, for exhorting some Christians, 
who had been apprehended, to persevere in their faith. Auxentius and Eugenius, 
two of Eustratius's adherents, were burnt at Nicopolis; Mardarius, another friend 
of his, expired under torment; and Orestes, a military officer, was broiled to 
death on a gridiron for wearing a golden cross at his breast. Theodore, a Syrian 
by birth, a soldier and a Christian, set fire to the temple of Cybele, in Amasia, 
through indignation at the idolatrous worship practised in it, for which he was 
scourged, and on February 18, AD. 306, burnt to death. Dorothea, a Christian of 
Cappadocia, was, by the gover- nor's order, placed under the care of two women, 
who had become apos- tates to the faith, in order that she might be induced to 
follow their example. But her discourses had such an effect upon them, that they 
became re-converted, and were put to death for not succeeding: soon after which, 
Dorothea was tortured, and then beheaded. Pancratius was a native of Phrygia, 
but being made a Christian and brought to Rome, by his uncle, he there suffered 
martyrdom, by being beheaded after the decease of his uncle, who died a natural 
death a little time before. Cyrinus, Nazarius, Nabor, and Basilides, four worthy 
christian officers at Rome, were thrown into prison for their faith, scourged 
with rods of wire, and then beheaded. Two Roman military officers, Nicander and 
Marcian, were apprehended on account of their faith. As they were both men of 
great abilities, the utmost endeavours were made to induce them to renounce christianity; 
but being without effect, they were ordered to be beheaded. The execution was 
attended by vast crowds of the popu- lace, among whom were the wives of the two 
sufferers. The consort of Nicander was a Christian, and encouraged her husband 
to meet his fate with fortitude; but the wife of Marcian being a pagan, entreated 
her husband to save himself, for the sake of her and her child. Marcian, Page 
79 however, reproved her for her idolatry and folly, but before the stroke was 
given he embraced her and the infant. Nicander likewise took leave of his wife 
in the most affectionate manner; and then both, with great resolution, received 
the crown of martyrdom. Besides these there were several others, whose names and 
sufferings are not recorded by the ancient historians. In the kingdom of Naples 
several martyrdoms took place: in particular, Januarius, bishop of Beneventum; 
Sosius, deacon of Misene; Proculus, another deacon; Eutyches and Acutius, two 
laymen; Festus, governor of Campania, to be devoured by wild beasts for professing 
christianity. The animals, however, not touching them, they were beheaded. Marcellus, 
a centurion, of the Trajan legion, was posted at Tangier, and being a Christian, 
suffered martyrdom, under the following circumstances:- While he was there, the 
emperor's birthday was kept, and the sacrifices to the pagan idols made a considerable 
part of that solemnity. All the subjects of the empire were expected on that occasion 
to conform to the blind religion of their prince; but Marcel- lus, who had been 
well instructed in the duties of his profession, expressed his detestation of 
those profane practices, by throwing away his belt, the badge of his military 
character, declaring aloud that he was a soldier of Christ, the eternal king. 
He then quitted his arms, and added, that from that moment he ceased to serve 
the emperor; and that he thus expressed his contempt of the gods of the empire, 
which were no better than deaf and dumb idols. "If," continued he, "their imperial 
majesties impose the obligation of sacrificing to them and their gods, as a necessary 
condition of their service, I here throw up my commission and quit the army." 
Marcellus's behaviour and speeches occasioned an order for his being beheaded. 
Cassian, secretary to the court which tried Marcellus, expressing his disapprobation 
of such proceedings, was ordered into custody; when avowing himself a Christian, 
he met with the same fate. Quirinus, bishop of Siscia, being carried before Matenius, 
the governor, was ordered to sacrifice to the pagan deities, agreeable to the 
edicts of various Roman emperors, but refus- ing, was ordered to be severely scourged. 
When under the hand of the executioner, the governor was urgent with im to sacrifice, 
and offered to make him a priest of Jupiter: to which Quirinus replied, that he 
was already engaged in the priestly office, while he thus offered a sacri- fice 
to the true God. "I," continued he, "scarce feel my torments, and am ready to 
suffer still greater, that my example may show those whom God has committed to 
my care, the way to the glory we wish for." The governor then sent him to prison, 
and ordered him to be heavily ironed: after which he was sent to Amantius, the 
governor of Parmonia, now Hungary, who loaded him with chains, and carried him 
through the princi- pal towns of the Danube, exposing him to general ridicule. 
At length arriving at Sabaria, and finding that Quirinus would not renounce his 
faith, he ordered him to be cast into a river, with a stone fastened to his neck. 
The sentence was accordingly put into execution, and Quirinus, floating about 
for some time, exhorted the people in the most pious terms, concluding his admonitions 
with this prayer:- "It is no new Page 80 thing, O all-powerful Jesus! for thee 
to stop the course of rivers, or to cause a man to walk upon the water, as thou 
didst thy servant Peter: the people have already seen the proof of thy power in 
me; grant me not to lay down my life for thy sake, O my God!" After uttering these 
words, he immediately sunk: This happened June 4, A. D. 308: his body was afterwards 
taken up, and buried by some Christian brethren. Five Egyptian Christians being 
on a visit to their afflicted brethren in Cesarea, were apprehended and carried 
before Firmilian, the governor of Palestine, who, on questioning them, was answered 
by one in the name of the rest, that they were Christians, and belonged to the 
New Jerusalem, and had their names recorded in the book of life. The governor 
was surprised at the answer, as he knew Vespasian and his son Titus had destroyed 
the ancient Jerusalem; and that the inconsiderable town erected by Adrian upon 
the spot, was called Elia Capitolina: he therefore enquired more particularly 
concerning it. The Christian who had spoken before, again replied, and pursuing 
the allegory, described, with great force of imagination, the beauty, riches, 
and strength of the place. Firmilian still mistaking the Christian's meaning, 
by under- standing his words in a literal sense, became much alarmed; for not 
dreaming that a heavenly city was alluded to, he fancied that the Christians were 
strengthening and fortifying some place, in order to revolt from their allegiance 
to the emperor. Prejudiced by this mistake, and enraged at the supposed disloyalty, 
he condemned the five prisoners to be cruelly tormented and then beheaded; which 
sentence was executed on the 16th of February, A. D. 309. Pamphilius, a native 
of Phenicia, of a considerable family, was a man of such extensive learning, that 
he was called a second Origen. He was received among the clergy at Cesarea, where 
he spent his time in the practice of every christian virtue. He copied the greatest 
parts of the works of Origen with his own hand, and, assisted by Eusebius, gave 
a correct copy of the Old Testament, which had suffered greatly by the ignorance 
or negligence of former transcribers. He likewise gave public lectures on religious 
and literary subjects, in an academy which he had erected for that purpose, till 
the year 307, when he was apprehended and carried before Urban, the governor of 
Palestine, who exerted himself to induce him to embrace paganism. Finding his 
endeavours vain, he began to threaten him; but Pamphilius maintained his resolution, 
upon which he was ordered to be severely tortured, and then sent to prison. Soon 
after, Urban, having displeased the emperor, was displaced and beheaded; but another 
was appointed in his room, who was equally prejudiced against the Christians. 
Pamphilius suffered martyrdom under the new governor, by being beheaded; together 
with Valens, a deacon of the church of Jerusalem; and Paul, a layman, of Jamnia, 
in Palestine. Porphyrius, the servant of Pamphilius, was burnt by a straw fire, 
for only requesting leave to bury the body of his master and other martyrs. Theodolus, 
a venerable and faithful servant to Firmilian, the governor, being accused of 
the Christian faith, confessed the charge, and was, by order of his master, crucified 
on February 17, A. D. 309: on the same day, Julian, a Page 81 Cappadocian, was 
burnt. Marcellus, bishop of Rome, being banished on account of his faith, fell 
a martyr to the miseries he suffered in exile, A. D. 310, on the 16th of January. 
Peter, the sixteenth bishop of Alexandria, by order of Maximinus Cesar, who reigned 
in the East, was martyred November 25, A. D. 311. Lucian, a learned Syrian, was 
a man of so benevolent a temper, that he disposed of the greatest part of his 
fortune in charitable donations. He was apprehended as a Christian, imprisoned 
for the space of nine years, put to the rack, rolled upon sharp flints, and being 
tortured to death, his body was thrown into the sea; but it was afterwards cast 
on shore, and received Christian inter- ment. Valentine, a priest, suffered the 
same fate at Rome; and Erasmus, a bishop, was martyred in Campania. Cosmus and 
Damian, Arabians and brothers, were martyred in Cilicia; Adrian, an imperial officer, 
was beheaded in Rome; Barbara, a young lady, was martyred at Nicomedia; Lucia, 
a Christian virgin, was put to death at Syracuse; and Serena, the empress of Diocletian, 
did not escape martyrdom when she declared herself a Christian. Gordius, a native 
of Cesarea, and a centurion in the Roman army, was first tortured, and then burnt; 
Menas, an Egyptian soldier, was beheaded; and Barlaam, a noble martyr, having 
endured the utmost torments even to the point of death, his tormentors laid him 
on a pagan altar, and put frankincense into his hand, which they lighted, that 
the heat and force of the fire might oblige him to scatter the burning incense 
on the altar, to enable them to say that he had sacri- ficed; but they were disappointed, 
for the flame went round his hand, which appeared covered with red hot embers, 
while he uttered this exclamation of the psalmist: "Blessed be the Lord my God, 
who teacheth my hands to war, and my fingers to fight." After which he surrendered 
his soul to the Redeemer. The pagans about this time shut up the doors of a church 
in which a Christian congregation were assembled, and having set fire to the building, 
every person perished. Constantine the Great at length determined to redress the 
grievances of the Christians, for which purpose he raised an army of 30,000 foot 
and 8000 horse, with which he marched towards Rome, against Maxentius, the emperor. 
But he reflected on the fatal miscarriages of his predecessors, who had maintained 
a multiplicity of gods, and reposed an entire confidence in their assistance. 
On the other hand, he considered that while his father adored only one God, he 
continually prospered. He therefore rejected the adoration of idols, and implored 
the assistance of the Almighty; who heard his prayers, and answered them in a 
manner so surprising and miraculous, that Eusebius acknowledges it could not have 
been credible, had he not received it from the emperor's own mouth, who publicly 
and solemnly ratified the truth with a solemn oath. The ex- traordinary narrative 
is as follows:- "The army arriving near Rome, the emperor was employed in devout 
ejaculations on the 27th of October, about three o'clock in the afternoon, when, 
the sun declining, there suddenly appeared to him a pillar of light in the heavens, 
in the form of a cross, with this plain inscription, In hoc signo vinces, "In 
this sign thou shalt conquer." Constantine was greatly surprised at the Page 82 
astonishing sight, which was also visible to the whole army, who equally wondered 
at it with himself. The officers and commanders, prompted by the augurs and soothsayers, 
looked upon it as an inauspicious omen, portending an unfortunate expedition. 
The emperor himself did not understand it, till at length CHRIST appeared to him 
in a vision, with the cross in his hand, commanding him to make it a royal standard, 
and cause it to be continually carried before his army, as an ensign both of victory 
and safety. Early the next morning, Constantine informed his friends and officers 
of what he had seen in the night, and sending for proper workmen, sat down by 
them, and described to them the form of the standard, which he then ordered them 
to make with the greatest art and magnificence. They made it thus: a long spear, 
plated with gold, with a traverse piece at the top, in the form of a cross, to 
which was fastened a four square purple banner, embroidered with gold, and beset 
with precious stones, which reflected the brightest lustre: towards the top was 
depicted the emperor between his two sons: above the cross stood a crown, overlaid 
with gold and jewels, within which was placed the sacred symbol, namely the two 
first letters of Christ in Greek, X and P, one intersecting the other. This device 
he afterwards bore, not only upon his shields, but also upon his coins, many of 
which are still extant. In the subsequent engagement with Maxentius, he defeated 
him, and entered the city of Rome in triumph. A law was now published in favour 
of the Christians, in which Licinius joined with Constantine, and a copy of it 
was sent to Maximus in the East. Maximus was a bigoted pagan, and greatly disliked 
the edict; but being afraid of Constantine, did not openly avow his disapprobation. 
At length Maximus invaded the territories of Licinius, but being defeated, he 
was so chagrined, that he put an end to his life by poison. The death of Maxentius 
has already been described in a previous note. Licinius was not a Christian in 
his heart, but affected to appear as such, through the dread of Con- stantine's 
power; for even after publishing several edicts in favour of the Christians, he 
put to death Blase, Bishop of Sebaste, several bishops and priests of Egypt and 
Lybia, who were cut to pieces, and thrown into the sea; and forty soldiers of 
the garrison of Sebaste, who suffered martyrdom by fire. These things offended 
Constantine the Great; and he marched against Licinius, who was defeated by him, 
and afterwards slain by his own soldiers. St. George, the tutelar saint and the 
patron of England, was born in Cappadocia, of Christian parents, who brought him 
up according to the tenets of the gospel. His father dying when he was young, 
he travelled with his mother into Palestine, which was her native country. Here 
she claimed a patrimonial estate, which Page 83 afterwards descended to her son. 
St. George being active, and of great spirit, became a soldier, and was made a 
tribune or colonel. In this post he exhibited great proofs of his courage, and 
was promoted in the army of the emperor Diocletian. During the persecution, St. 
George threw up his command, went boldly to the senate-house, and avowed his being 
a Christian, taking occasion at the same time to remonstrate against paganism. 
This so greatly provoked the senate, that St. George was ordered to be tortured, 
which he underwent with much constancy. He was afterwards, by the emperor's command, 
dragged through the streets and beheaded. The calendar commemorates his martyrdom 
on the 23rd of April. In the catalogue of holy martyrs, who suffered in the tenth 
persecution, many more are mentioned, particularly Philoromus, a man of noble 
birth, and great possessions in Alexandria, who, being persuaded by his friends 
to favour himself, to respect his wife, to consider his children and family, not 
only rejected the counsel, but also neglected the threats and torments of the 
judge, to keep the confession of Christ inviolate to death. Of like estate and 
dignity was Procopius in Palestina, who after conversion brake his images of silver 
and gold, and distributed the value of them to the poor, and after all kind of 
torments, racking, tearing of his flesh, at length had his head struck off. Georgius, 
a young man of Cappadocia, boldly inveighing against the impious idolatry of the 
emperors, was apprehended and cast into prison, then torn with irons, burnt with 
lime, stretched with cords; after that, his hands and feet being cut off, his 
tortures were closed, and his crown of martyrdom was completed by beheading. We 
cannot close out our account of the ten persecutions under the Roman emperors, 
without calling the attention of the Christian reader to the evident indignation 
which the Almighty manifested towards the persecu- tors. History shews that no 
nation or individual can prosper where Christ Jesus, the Son of God, is contemned. 
After these events, the Romans were not only plagued and destroyed by their own 
emperors, but also by civil wars, three of which happened in two years at Rome, 
after the death of Nero. In the days of Tiberius, five thousand Romans were maimed 
or slain at one time by the fall of a theatre. By the destruction of the Jews, 
about this time, there were destroyed by Titus and Vespa- sian his father, eleven 
thousand, besides those whom Vespasian slew in Page 84 subduing Galilee, and those 
who were sent into Egypt, and other provinc- es to slavery, to the number of seventeen 
thousand. Two thousand were brought with Titus in his triumph; many of whom he 
gave to be devoured by the wild beasts, and the rest were most cruelly slain. 
By this case all nations may take example, what it is to reject the visitation 
of God's truth, and much more to persecute those who are sent by God for their 
salvation. And though the vengeance of God thus was shewn upon both Jews and Romans, 
for their contempt of Christ, whom God so pun- ished by their own emperors; yet 
neither the emperors themselves, for persecuting Christ in his members, escaped 
without their just reward. For during the space of these first three hundred years, 
few or none of them escaped some miserable end. First we record the poisoning 
of Tiberius, and the slaughter of the three Neros after him. Then Domitius Galba 
within seven months was slain by Otho. And Otho afterwards killed himself, being 
overcome by Vitellius. Vitellius shortly after was drawn through the city of Rome, 
and after being tormented was thrown into the Tiber. Titus was thought to be poisoned 
by Domitian his brother; and Domitian was slain in his chamber by the consent 
of his wife. Commodus was murdered by Narcissus. Pertinax and Julianus met a similar 
fate. Severus was slain in England; his son Bassianus killed his brother Geta, 
and he was murdered by Martialis. Macrinus with his son Diadumenus were both slain 
by their own soldiers. Heliogabulus was killed by his people, drawn through the 
city, and cast into the Tiber. Alexander Severus, although in life and virtues 
he was much superior to other emperors, yet met with the like end, being slain 
at Mentz with his godly mother Mammea, by Maximinus, whom the emperor from a mule- 
driver had advanced to great dignities. Maximinus also, three years after, was 
slain by his soldiers. Maximus and Balbinus, in like manner, were both massacred 
in Rome. Gordon was slain by Philip. Decius was drowned, and his son slain at 
the same time in battle. Gallus and Volusianus his sons, were both slain by a 
conspiracy of Emilianus, who rose against them in war, and within three months 
was slain himself. Next to Emilianus succeeded Valerian and Galienus his son. 
Valerian was taken prisoner by the Persians, and there contemned by Sapores their 
king, who used him for a stool to leap upon his horse; while his son Galienus, 
sleeping at Rome, either would not or could not revenge his father's ignominy. 
After the taking of Valerian, as many emperors rose up as there were provinces 
in the Roman Monarchy. At length Galienus was killed by Aureolus, who warred against 
him. Aure- lian was slain by his secretary. Tacitus and Florinus his brother: 
the first reigned six months, and was murdered at Tarsus Probus, although a good 
civil emperor, was destroyed by his soldiers. After him Carus, the next emperor, 
was slain by lightning. Next to Carus followed the impious Diocletian, with Maximian, 
Valerius, Maximinus, Maxentius, and Licinius, under whom (during the time of Diocletian) 
the greatest persecution was excited against Christians for ten years. Diocletian 
and Maximian deposed themselves from the empire. The miserable end of Galer- ius 
had been already described. Maximinius, in his war, being tormented Page 85 with 
pain, died in misery. Maxentius was vanquished by Constantine, and drowned in 
the Tiber. Lincinius, being overcome by Constantine the Great, was deposed from 
his empire, and afterwards slain by his sol- diers. On the other hand, after the 
time of constantine, when the faith of Christ was received into the imperial seat, 
we read of scarcely an emperor destroyed or molested. This it may be seen that 
the punishment of God, though deferred is, certain to alight on the wicked; and 
if he has hitherto withheld his hand from visiting our sins in this realm, let 
us not on that account be high minded, but humbly thank him for his tender mercies; 
and while we bow before him in faith, let us endeavour to preserve his worship 
free from that ungodliness and superstition of which is now purged. So shall we 
be happy in this fleeting world, and obtain everlasting life in the world to come, 
through the intercession of our blessed Redeemer, who offered up his life on the 
cross for our salvation. ---------------------  BOOK II. 
Containing an account of the persecution in Persia under Sapores; the persecutions 
under the Arian ascendancy; those under Julian the Apos- tate, the Goths and Vandals; 
and in various parts of the world; with many other particulars. SECTION I. 
THE PERSECUTION OF THE CHRISTIANS IN PERSIA. The gospel having spread itself 
into Persia, the pagan priests became greatly alarmed, and dreaded the loss of 
their influence over the public mind. They therefore complained to the emperor, 
that Christians were enemies to the state, and held a treasonable correspondence 
with the Romans, the great enemies of Persia. The emperor, being averse to Christianity, 
readily believed what was said against its disciples, and gave orders to persecute 
them throughout his empire. On account of this mandate many fell martyrs, the 
sufferings of the most eminent of whom we shall here relate. Simeon, archbishop 
of Seleucia, with many other ecclesiastics, to the number of 128, were apprehended 
and accused of having betrayed the affairs of Persia to the Romans. The emperor 
being greatly exasperated against them, ordered Simeon to be brought before him. 
The archbishop in his presence boldly acknowledged his faith, and defended the 
cause of Christianity. The emperor offended at his freedom, ordered him to kneel 
before him, as he had done in former interviews. To this Simeon answered, "That 
being now brought before him a prisoner, for the truth of his religion, and the 
sake of his God, it was not lawful for him to kneel, let he should be thought 
to worship and betray his faith." On this the emperor told him, that if Page 86 
he did not kneel, he and all the Christians in his dominions should be put to 
death; but Simeon rejected with disdain the proposal to kneel. The emperor then 
ordered him to be sent to prison. A short time after, Simeon and his fellow-prisoners 
were examined, and commanded to worship the sun, agreeable to the Persian custom; 
but this they resolutely and unanimously refused. The emperor then sentenced them 
to be beheaded, and the sentence was executed without delay, exception, or remorse. 
An aged eunuch, named Usthazares, who had been tutor to the emperor, and was in 
great estimation at court, on observing Simeon proceeding to prison, saluted him. 
Simeon, however, (as Usthazares had formerly been a Christian, and since apostatized 
to oblige the emperor) would not return his salute, but reproved him for his apostasy. 
This so affected the eunuch, that he burst into tears, and exclaimed, "Ah! how 
shall I hereafter look upon my God, whom I have denied, when Simeon, my old companion 
and familiar acquaintance, disdains to give me a gentle word, or to return my 
salute!" The emperor learning that this ancient tutor was afflicted, sent for 
him, and asked him whether he desired any thing which could be procured for him; 
to which the eunuch replied, That there was nothing that he wanted, which this 
earth could afford; but that his grief was of another kind, and for which he justly 
mourned, namely, that to oblige him he had denied his God, and had worshipped 
the sun, against his own conscience; for which, continued he, I am deserving a 
double death, first, for denying Christ, and secondly, for dissembling with my 
king. The emperor, offended at this explanation, ordered Usthazares to be beheaded. 
While going to execution, he desired that a messenger might be sent to the emperor, 
to request that it might be proclaimed, "That Usthazares did not die for any crime 
against the king or state; but only that being a Christian, he would not deny 
his God." This petition was granted, and was a great satisfaction to Usthazares, 
whose chief reason for desiring it was, because his apostasy from Christ has caused 
many others to follow his example; but now, hearing that he died for no crime 
by his religion, they might return to Christ. Usthazares then cheerfully yielded 
his neck to the executioner. On Good Friday after his execution, an edict was 
published to put to death all who confessed themselves Christians, which caused 
the destruction of multitudes. About this time the empress of Persia falling sick, 
the sisters of Simeon, the archbishop, were accused by some of the magi of causing 
this calamity. This report being credited, they were, by the emperor's orders, 
sawed in quarters, and their limbs fixed upon poles, between which the empress 
passed as a charm to effect the restoration of her health. Acepsimus, and many 
other clergymen, were seized upon, and ordered to adore the sun; which refusing, 
they were scourged, and then tortured to death, or kept in prison till they expired. 
Athalas, a priest, though not put to death, was so miserably racked, that his 
arms were rendered useless: and he was ever after obliged to be fed like a child. 
In short, by this edict, above 16,000 either suffered horribly by torture, or 
lost their lives by some barbarous execution. Page 87 When Constantine the Great 
was informed of the persecutions in Persia, he was much concerned, and began to 
reflect in what manner he should redress the grievances of the victims, when an 
ambassador arrived from the Persian emperor upon some political business. Constantine 
received him civilly, granted his demands, and wrote a letter to the Persian monarch 
in favour of the Christians, in which he alluded to the venge- ance that had fallen 
on persecutors, and the success that had at- tended those who had refrained from 
the persecution: and then refer- ring to the tyrants and persecuting emperors 
of his own time, he said, "I subdued those solely by faith in Christ; in which 
God was my helper, who gave me victory in battle, and made me triumph over my 
enemies; and hath so enlarged to me the bounds of the Romish empire, that it extends 
from the Western Ocean, almost to the uttermost parts of the East. For this purpose 
I neither offered sacrifice to the ancient deities, nor made use of charm or divination, 
but only prayer to Almighty God, and followed the cross of Christ: and how glad 
should I be to hear that the throne of Persia flourished by embracing the Christians; 
that so you with me, and they with you, may enjoy all the felicity your souls 
could desire; and no doubt but you would, as God, the Almighty Creator of all 
things, would become your protector and defender. These men, therefore, I commend 
to our mercy; I commit them unto you, desiring you to embrace them with humanity; 
for in so doing, you will procure to yourself grace through faith, and bestow 
on me a benefit worthy of my thanks." In consequence of this appeal, the persecution 
ended during the life of Sapores; but it was renewed under his successors, when 
the following were the principal sufferers:- Hormisdas, a Persian nobleman, being 
convicted of Christianity, was ordered to attend the emperor's elephants naked. 
This disgusting task he performed for some time, when the emperor one day looking 
out of a window which commanded the yard where the elephants were kept, saw Hormisdas 
performing his office. Determining to try him once more, he gave orders that a 
shirt should be put on him, and that he should be brought into his presence. The 
emperor asked him if he would now deny Christ. On which Hormisdas tore off his 
shirt, and said, "If you think I will deny my faith for the sake of a shirt, take 
your gift again." The emperor then banished him from Persia, and he died in exile. 
Theodoret, a deacon, was imprisoned for two years, and on being released, was 
ordered not to preach the doctrine of Christ. He however did his utmost to propagate 
the gospel, for which he was miserably tormented, by having sharp reeds thrust 
under his nails; and then a knotty branch of a tree was forced into his body, 
and he expired in the most excruciating agony. Bademus, a Christian of Mesopotamia, 
gave away his fortune to the poor, and devoted his life to religious retirement. 
This Christian, with seven others, was seized and cruelly tortured. The Christians, 
who where apprehended with Bademus, received martyrdom, though the manner is not 
recorded; and Bademus, after having been four months in prison, was beheaded by 
Narses, an apostate Christian, who acted as the executioner, in order to convince 
the emperor that he was sincere in his renunciation of the Christian faith. Page 
denominated Arian, had its origin from Arius, a native of Lybia, and a priest 
of Alexandria, who, in A. D. 318, began to publish his errors. He was condemned 
by a council of the Lybian and Egyptian bishops, and the sentence was confirmed 
by the council of Nice in A.D. 325. After the death of Constantine the Great, 
the Arians found means to ingratiate themselves into the favour of Constantius, 
his son and successor in the East; and hence a persecution was raised against 
the orthodox bishops and clergy. The celebrated Athanasius, and other bishops, 
were banished at this period, and their sees filled with Arians. In Egypt and 
Lybia, thirty bishops were martyred and many other Christians cruelly tormented. 
George, the first Arian bishop of Alex- andria, under the authority of the emperor, 
began a persecution in that city, and its environs, which was continued some time 
with the utmost severity. He was assisted by Catophonius, governor of Egypt; Sebastian, 
general of the Egyptian forces; Faustinus, the treasurer; and a Roman officer, 
named Heraclius. So great was this persecution, that the clergy were driven from 
Alexandria, their churches were shut, and the severities practised by the Arian 
heretics became as great as those that had been exercised by the pagan idolaters. 
If a man accused of being an orthodox Christian made his escape, his whole family 
were massacred, and his effects forfeited. By this means, being deprived of all 
places of public worship in the city of Alexandria, the persecuted used to perform 
their devotion in a desert at some distance from it. On a Trinity Sunday, when 
they had met, George, the Arian bishop, engaged Sebastian, the general, to fall 
upon them with his soldiers, while they were at prayers; and several fell a sacrifice 
to the fury of the troops. The modes of cruelty were various, and the degrees 
equally diversified; for they were beaten on their faces till their features were 
disfigured; or were lashed with twigs of palmtrees with such violence, that they 
expired under the blows, or by the mortification of the wounds. Several whose 
lives had been spared, were banished to the deserts of Africa, where amidst their 
sufferings, they passed their time in prayer, and general acts of piety and devotion. 
Secundus, an ortho- dox priest, differing in point of doctrine from a prelate 
of the same name, the bishop, who had imbibed the peculiarities of Arianism, determined 
to put Secundus to death, for rejecting opinions which he himself had thought 
proper to embrace. He went with one Stephen, as much an Arian as himself, sought 
out Secundus privately, fell upon and murdered him: the holy martyr, just before 
he expired, called upon Christ to receive his soul, and to forgive his enemies. 
At this time, being dissatisfied with the cruelties exercised upon the orthodox 
Christians in Alexandria, the principal persecutors applied to the emperor for 
an order to banish them from Egypt and Lybia, and to put their churches into possession 
of the Arians. They obtained their request, and an order was sent for that purpose 
to Sebastian, the Page 89 commander in chief of the Roman forces in those provinces: 
the general signified the emperor's pleasure to all the subgovernors and officers. 
Thus a great number of the clergy were seized, and imprisoned for examination; 
when it appearing that they adopted the opinions of Athanasius, an order was signed 
for their banishment into uncultivated and mostly uninhabited regions. While the 
orthodox clergy were thus used, many of the laity were condemned to the mines, 
or compelled to work in the quarries. Some few indeed escaped to other countries, 
and several were weak enough to renounce their faith, in order to avoid the severity 
of the persecution. Paul, the bishop of Constantinople, was a Macedonian, and 
was designed from his birth for the clerical office. When Alexander, the predecessor 
of Paul, was on his deathbed, he was consulted by some of the clergy on the choice 
of a successor: he told them, "That if they were disposed to choose a person of 
an exemplary life, and thoroughly capable of instructing the people, Paul was 
the man; but if they had rather have a person of a well-composed appearance, acquainted 
with worldly affairs, and fit for the conver- sation of a court, they might then 
choose Macedonius." The latter was a deacon in the church of Constantinople, in 
which office he had spent many years, and gained great experience; and the dying 
prelate did both him and Paul justice in the different characters he gave them. 
Nevertheless, the Arians gave out, that Alexander had bestowed great commendations 
on Macedonius for sanctity, and had only given Paul the reputation of eloquence, 
and a capacity for business; after some struggle, the orthodox party carried their 
point, and Paul was consecrated. Macedonius, being offended at this preference, 
did his utmost to calumniate the new bishop: but not gaining belief, he dropped 
the charge, and reconciled himself to Paul. This was not the case with Eusebius 
of Nicomedia, who resumed the accusations under two heads, as follows:- "1. That 
he had led a disorderly life before his consecration. 2. That he had been placed 
in the see of Constantinople without the consent of the bishops of Nicomedia and 
Heraclea, two metropolitans, who ought to have been consulted upon that occasion." 
Eusebius, to support these accusations, procured the emperor's authori- ty, by 
representing that Paul, having been chosen during the absence of Constantius, 
the imperial dignity had been insulted. This artifice succeeded, and Paul being 
deposed Eusebius was placed in his stead. Thus Paul having lost all his authority 
in the East, retired to the territories of Constans, in the West, where he was 
well received by the orthodox prelates and clergy. At Rome he visited Athanansius, 
and assisted at a council held there by Julius, the bishop of that see. Letters 
being written by this council to the eastern prelates, Paul returned to Constantinople, 
but was not restored to his bishopric till the death of Eusebius. The Arians, 
however, constituting Macedonius their diocesan, by the title of bishop of Constantinople, 
a civil war ensued, in which many were put to death. Constantius the emperor, 
who was then at Antioch, hearing of the schism, laid the whole blame upon Paul, 
and ordered that he should be driven from Constantinople. But Hermogenes, the 
officer who had received the emperor's order, attempted Page 90 in vain to put 
it into execution; for the orthodox Christians rising in defence of Paul, Hermogenes 
was killed. This greatly exasperated the emperor, who left Antioch in the depth 
of winter, and returned to constantinople, resolving to punish the Christians. 
He, however, contented himself with banishing Paul and suspending Macedonius. 
After this, Paul retired again to the territories of Constans, implored the protection 
of that emperor, and by his intercession, was restored to his see. His re-establishment 
exasperated his enemies, who were constantly employed in secret and open attempts 
against his life, against which the affections of his people were his only security. 
Being convinced that the emperor had no other motive for allowing his stay at 
Constantinople but the dread of disobliging his brother, Paul could not think 
himself perfectly safe in his bishopric; and being much concerned at what the 
orthodox bishops suffered from the power and malice of the Arian faction, joined 
Athanasius, who was then in Italy, in soliciting a general council. The council 
was held at Sardica, in Illyricum, in the year 347, at which were present three 
hundred bishops of the western, and seventy-three of the eastern empire. But disagreeing 
in many points, the Arian bishops of the East retired to Philippolis, in Thrace 
and forming a conference there, they termed it the council of Sardica; from which 
place they pretended to issue an excommunication against Julius, bishop of Rome; 
Paul, bishop of Con- stantinople; Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria: and several 
other prelates. In the year 350, the emperor Constans died, which gave the Arians 
fresh courage, and they applied to the emperor Constantius, who being inclined 
towards them, he wrote an order to the prefect Philip, to remove Paul from the 
bishopric of Constantinople, and to restore Macedonius. Paul was exiled to Cucucus, 
and confined in a dark dungeon for six days without food, and then strangled. 
He met death with uncommon fortitude. The Arian party now made Gregory of Cappadocia, 
an obscure person, bishop of Alexandria, after having deposed Athanasius for his 
strict adherence to the orthodox faith. In the accomplishment of this affair, 
they were assisted by Philagerius, governor of Egypt, who was an apostate, and 
who authorised them to commit all manner of out- rage. Arming themselves with 
swords and clubs, they broke into one of the principal churches of Alexandria, 
where numbers of orthodox Chris- tians were assembled at their devotions; and 
falling upon them in a barbarous manner, without the least respect to sex or age, 
most of them were destroyed. Potamo, a venerable bishop of Heraclea, who had formerly 
lost one of his eyes in Diocletian's persecution, fell a martyr upon this occasion; 
being so cruelly scourged and beaten that he died of his wounds. The Arians also 
broke into many places, public and private, under pretence of searching for Athanasius, 
and committed innumerable barbarities; robbing orphans, plundering the houses 
of widows, impris- oning the clergy, burning churches and dwelling-houses belonging 
to the orthodox Christians, besides other enormous cruelties, which were perpetuated 
by a mob of fanatics, under a name which every part of their temper and conduct 
Julian the Apostate, was the son of Julius Constantius, and the nephew of Constantine 
the Great. He studied the rudiments of grammar under the inspection of Madronius, 
a heathen eunuch of Constantinople. His father sent him afterwards to Nicomedia, 
to be instructed in the Christian religion by the bishop Eusebius, his kinsman; 
but his principles were corrupted by the pernicious doctrines of Maximus the magician, 
and Ecebolius a professor of rhetoric. Constantius died in the year 361, when 
Julian succeeded him; but he had no sooner attained the imperial dignity, than 
he renounced Christianity and embraced paganism. He restored idolatrous worship, 
by opening the several temples that had been shut up, rebuilding such as were 
destroyed, and ordering the magistrates and people to follow his example; but 
he issued no public edicts against Christianity. He recalled all banished pagans, 
allowed the free exercise of religion to every sect; but deprived all Christians 
of office at court, in the magistracy, or in the army. He was chaste, temperate, 
vigilant, laborious and apparently pious; so that by his hypocrisy and pretended 
virtues, he for a time did more mischief to Christianity than the most profligate 
of his predecessors; especially as he deprived the christian clergy of the privileges 
which had been granted them by Constantine the Great. Accordingly, this persecution 
was more dangerous than any of the former, since Julian, under the mask of clemency, 
practised the greatest cruelty in striving to denude many thousands of their true 
belief; and the christian faith was in more danger of being subverted than it 
ever had been, by means of a monarch at once witty and wicked, learned and hypocritical: 
who, at first, made his attempts by flattering gifts and favours - bestowing offices 
and dignities; and then, by prohibiting christian schools, he compelled the children 
of the gospel either to become idolaters or remain illiterate. Julian ordered 
that Christians might be treated coldly upon all occa- sions and in all parts 
of the empire, and employed witty persons to turn them and their principles into 
ridicule. Many were likewise mar- tyred in his reign: for though he did not publicly 
persecute them him- self, he connived at their being murdered by his governors 
and offic- ers; and though he affected never to patronize these murderers, he 
never offered to punish them for their delinquency. We shall recount the names, 
sufferings, and martyrdoms of such as have been transmitted to posterity. By his 
opposition to Arianism, Basil made himself famous, which, brought upon him the 
vengeance of the Arian bishop Constantinople, who issued an order to prevent him 
from preaching. He continued, however, to perform his duty at Ancyra, the capital 
of Gala- tia, till his enemies accused him of being an incendiary, and a dis- 
turber of the public peace. The monarch, however, was too intent on an expedition 
to Persia, to take notice of the accusation, and their malice at that time was 
wholly frustrated. Basil therefore continued to preach against the idolatry of 
paganism on the one hand, and the errors Page 92 of Arianism on the other; and 
earnestly exhorted the people to serve Christ in the purity of faith and fervency 
of truth. By this conduct both heathens and Arians were exasperated against him, 
and the conse- quence might be conjectured. One day meeting with a number of pagans 
going in procession to a sacrifice, he boldly expressed his abhorrence to the 
idolatrous proceedings, and inveighed against the absurd worship. This liberty 
caused the people to seize him, and carry him before Saturninus, the governor, 
when they brought three accusations against him, viz. reviling the gods, abusing 
the emperor, and disturbing the peace of the city. Having heard these accusations, 
Saturninus desired to know the sentiments of Basil from his own mouth; when finding 
him a strenuous Christian, he ordered him first to be put to the rack, and then 
committed to prison. The governor wrote an account of his proceedings to the emperor, 
who was at this time very busy in establishing the worship of Cybele, the fictitious 
mother of the fabu- lous deities. Julian, on receiving the letter, sent Pagosus 
and Elipi- dius, two apostates, to Ancyra, the city where Basil was confined, 
to employ both promises and threatenings to constrain him to renounce his faith; 
and in case of their failure, they had orders to surrender him to the power of 
the governor. The emperor's agents tampered with Basil in vain by means of promises, 
threatenings, and the rack: he was firm in his faith, and remained in prison when 
the emperor by accident came to Ancyra. As soon as the people knew of Julian's 
approach, they met him in grand procession, and presented to him their idol, the 
goddess Hecate. The two agents then gave the emperor an account of what Basil 
had suffered, and of his firm resistance. Julian, on this, determined to examine 
the sufferer himself, when that holy man being brought before him, the emperor 
did everything in his power to dissuade him from persevering in the faith. Basil, 
however, not only continued firm, but with a prophetic spirit foretold the death 
of the emperor and that he might be tormented in the other world. Julian then 
lost his usual affection of clemency, and told Basil in great anger, that though 
he had an inclination to pardon him at first, yet he had put it out of his power 
to save his life by the insolence of his behaviour. He then commanded that the 
body of Basil should be torn every day in seven different parts, till his skin 
and flesh were entirely mangled. The inhuman sentence was executed with rigour, 
and the martyr expired under its severities on the 28th of June, A. D. 362. About 
the same time, Donatus, bishop of Arezzo, and Hilarinus, a hermit, suffered for 
the faith; the first being beheaded, and the latter scourged to death. One Gordian, 
a Roman magistrate, having a Christian before him for examination, was so charmed 
with the confession of his faith, that he not only discharged the prisoner, but 
became himself a Christian. This so enraged the Roman perfect, that he ordered 
him to be scourged and beheaded. Two brothers, named John and Paul, of a good 
family, and in high offices under the emperor, on being accused of professing 
Christianity, were deprived of their posts, and allowed ten days to consider whether 
they would renounce their faith and be promoted, or retain their faith and be 
martyred. Resolutely choosing the latter alternative, they were both beheaded. 
Artemius, commander in chief of Page 93 the Roman forces in Egypt, being a Christian, 
had two charges exhibited against him by the pagans - That he had demolished several 
idols in the reign of Constantine; and that he had assisted the bishop of Alexandria 
in plundering the temples. Julian, who was then at Antioch, on hearing these charges, 
ordered the general to repair thither to answer them. On his arrival he boldly 
confessed the charges, when he was first deprived of his commission, then of his 
estate, and finally of his head. Cas- sian, a school master of Imola, in the province 
of Romagno, for refusing to sacrifice to idols, was taken before a judge; who 
being apprised of his profession, and informed that many of the boys had an aversion 
to him on account of the strictness with which he kept them to their stud- ies, 
determined they should have permission to murder him. He was accordingly delivered 
to the boys, with his hands tied behind him, who fell upon him with rods, whips, 
and steel pencils, which were then used in writing, and at length murdered him. 
This singular martyrdom happened on the 13th of August, A. D. 362. Maximilian 
and Bonosus, two officers of the Heculean guards, upon Julian taking away Constantine 
the Great's standard of the cross of Christ, threw up their commissions. Being 
apprehended, the governor had them separately examined, and finding them inflexible, 
he ordered Bonosus to be beaten with whips with leaden bullets on the thongs, 
and Maximilian to be scourged with the usual weapon. When remanded to prison, 
they were allowed nothing but bread and water, and the bread was marked with the 
seal of the emperor, the impression of which was an idol; on account of this they 
refused to eat it. They were soon afterwards re-examined, and then beheaded. Bibiana 
was the daughter of Flavian and Dafrosa, two Christians. Flavian, her father, 
held a considerable post under the government, but being banished for his faith, 
died in exile. Dafrosa, her mother, was, for the same reason, ordered to be starved; 
but Apro- nianus, governor of Rome, to accelerate her death, had her beheaded. 
Bibiana and her sister Demetria, after the death of her parents, were stripped 
of all their effects, and being brought before the governor, were ordered to renounce 
their religion. Demetria suddenly died in the governor's presence, and Bibiana 
resolutely refused to renounce her faith, on which account she was scourged to 
death. About the end of the year 363, the persecution raged with more than usual 
violence. In Palestine many were burnt alive, others were dragged by their feet 
through the streets till they expired; some were scalded to death, many stoned, 
and great numbers had their brains beaten out with clubs. In lexandria innumerable 
martyrs suffered by the sword, burning, crucifix- ion, and stoning. In Thrace, 
Emilianus was burnt at the stake; and Domitius was murdered in a cave, whither 
he had fled for concealment. Sozomenus asscribes the rage of the Arethusians against 
Christian virgins to the efforts of Constantine, who had prevented their being 
exposed in the temple of Venus at Heliopolis. Theodorus, for singing the Page 
94 praises of God, was apprehended and put to the rack, though not to death. After 
being taken down, he was asked how he could so patiently endure such exquisite 
tortures; to which he returned this remarkable reply:"At first I felt some pain, 
but afterwards there appeared to stand by me a young man, who wiped the sweat 
from my face, and frequently refreshed me with cold water, which so delighted 
me, that I regretted being let down." Marcus, bishop of Arethusa, having destroyed 
a pagan temple in that city, erected a christian church in its room, on which 
account he was accused to Julian as a Christian. The persecutors stripped and 
cruelly beat him. He was then thrust into a filthy sewer till he was almost suffocated; 
afterwards he was goaded with sharp- pointed sticks; and lastly he was hung up 
in a basket in the heat of the sun, after being smeared over with honey, in order 
to be tormented to death by wasps. As soon as he was hung up, they asked him if 
he would rebuild their temple. To which he answered, that he would neither rebuild 
it nor advance a single do it towards its being rebuilt; upon which they left 
him, and he fell a martyr to the venom of the insects. Maxentius and Juventius, 
two christian officers, were put to death about the same time, for reproving the 
emperor on account of his idola- tries. Eusebius and Nesabus, two brethren, with 
Nestor also, for their christianity, were dragged through the streets and murdered 
by the idolatrous people of Gaza. When Julian formed an expedition against the 
Persians, he imposed a large fine upon every one who refused to sacri- fice to 
the idols, and by that means gained a great sum from the Chris- tians towards 
defraying the expence. Many of the officers in collecting these fines, exacted 
more than was due, and some of them tortured the Christians to make them pay what 
they demanded, telling them in deri- sion, "that when they were injured they ought 
to take it patiently, for so their God commanded them." The inhabitants of Cesarea 
were fined three hundred weight of gold, and several of the clergy obliged to 
serve in the wars, as a punishment for having overthrown the temples of Jupit- 
er, Fortune, and Apollo. The governor at Meris, in Phrygia, having cleansed and 
opened a pagan temple, the Christians in the night broke in and demolished the 
idols. Next day the governor ordered all Christians that accidentally came in 
the way to be seized, that he might make examples of them, and by this means he 
would have executed several innocent persons; but those who really perpetrated 
the act, being too just to suffer such retaliation, voluntarily delivered themselves 
up; when they were scourged severely, and then put to a cruel and lingering death. 
Julian died of a wound which he received in his Persian expedi- tion, A. D. 363, 
and even while expiring he uttered the most horrid blasphemies. He was succeeded 
by Jovian, who restored peace to the church. After the decease of Jovian, vallentinian 
succeeded to the empire, and associated with himself Valens, who had the command 
in the East. The latter was a great favourer of Arianism, and so incensed Page 
95 against the Christians, that on a certain day he ordered all in Edessa to be 
slain while they were at their devotion in the churches. The officers, however, 
being more compassionate than the emperor, pri- vately gave notice to the Christians 
not to assemble on the day appointed, so that they might escape death. The Christians 
thanked the officers for their advice, but disregarded both that and the emperor's 
menaces rather than neglect their duty. They repaired to the church, and the troops 
were put in motion to destroy them. As they marched along, a woman, with a child 
in her arms, broke through the ranks, when the officer ordered her to be brought 
before him, and asked her where she was going. She replied to church, whither 
others were making all the haste they could. "Have you not heard," said the officer, 
"of the emperor's order, to put to death all who are found there?" "I have," said 
she, "and for that reason I make the more haste." "And whither," said the officer, 
"do you lead that child?" "I take him," replied she, "with me, that he also may 
be numbered among the martyrs." Upon this the humane officer returned to the emperor, 
and told him that all the Christians were prepared to die in defence of their 
faith, represented to him the rashness of murdering so great a multitude, and 
entreated him to drop the design, at least for the present: reluctantly he complied 
with the humane advice. Urbanus, Menidemus, and Theodorus, with several other 
orthodox clergymen, to the number of fourscore, at Constantinople, petitioned 
the emperor to relieve them from the oppressions and cruelties of the Arians. 
But the tyrant, instead of redressing their grievances, ordered them all to be 
embarked in a ship, and the vessel to be set on fire. This infernal order being 
executed, they all perished in the flames. Page 96  SECTION IV THE PERSECUTION 
OF THE CHRISTIANS BY THE GOTHS, &c. During the reign of Constantine the 
Great several Scythian Goths embraced Christianity, the light of the gospel having 
spread considerably in Scythia, though the two kings who ruled that country and 
the majority of the people continued pagans. Fritegern, king of the Western Goths, 
was an ally of the Romans; but Athanaric, king of the Eastern Goths, was at war 
with them. The Christians, in the domin- ions of the former, lived unmolested; 
but the latter, having been defeated by the Romans, wreaked his vengeance on his 
Christian subjects. Sabas, a Christian, was the first who felt the king's resentment. 
He was humble and modest, yet fervent and zealous for the advancement of the church. 
Indeed the sanctity of his life and the purity of his manners gave the greatest 
force to his doctrines. In the year 370, Athanaric gave orders that all persons 
in his dominions should sacri- fice to the pagan deities, and eat the meat which 
had been offered to idols, or be put to death for disobedience. Some humane pagans, 
who had christian relations, endeavoured to save them by offering them meat which 
had not received the idolatrous consecration, while the magis- trates were made 
to believe that all had been done according to their direction. But Sabas too 
well knew St. Paul's principles, to imagine that the sin lay in eating: he knew 
that giving the enemies of the faith an advantage over the weak rendered that 
action criminal in Christians. He, therefore, not only refused to comply with 
what was proposed to him, but publicly declared, that those who sheltered themselves 
under that artifice were not true Christians. Sabas was soon after appre- hended 
on account of his faith, and carried before a magistrate, who enquired into his 
fortune and circumstances; when finding that he was a person of obscure station, 
he was dismissed with contempt. He then went to spend the Easter with Sansala, 
a christian priest of great piety; but on the third night after his arrival they 
were both seized by a party of soldiers. The priest was allowed to dress himself 
and to ride, but Sabas was obliged to leave his clothes behind him and to walk; 
and, during the journey, they drove him through thorns and briars, beating him 
almost continually. This cruelty he bore without a single murmur. In the evening 
they extended him between two beams, fasten- ing his legs to the one and his arms 
to the other; and in that posture left him for the night. The woman of the house, 
however, went and released him; but though he was now at liberty, he did not avail 
himself of the opportunity to make his escape. The next morning the persecutors 
began to tamper with Sabas and the priest to renounce their religion, and eat 
the meat consecrated to the idols. They, however, positively declared that they 
were ready to suffer the most cruel death rather than comply. Sansala was at length 
discharged, and Sabas was ordered to be drowned. Nicetas was of Gothic extraction; 
his parents lived near the banks of the Danube, and though he had long been a 
Page 97 Christian he never met with injury on that account, till the persecu- 
tion was begun by Athanaric. That monarch ordered an idol to be drawn on a chariot 
through all places where the Christians lived; and that it should be stopped at 
the door of every one who professed the gospel, and the christian inhabitants 
ordered to pay it adoration. On a refusal being given, the house was immediately 
set on fire, and all within consumed. This happened to Nicetas, who, on account 
of his religion, refusing to pay the respect demanded to the idol, had his house 
burnt, and himself was consumed in it. The celebrated Eusebius, bishop of Samostatia, 
was a distinguished example in ecclesiastical history, and was one of the most 
eminent champions of Christ against the Arian heresy. The Arians having advanced 
Miletus to the sea of Antioch, thinking Eusebius of their party, the warrant of 
advancement was placed in his hands. When Miletus preached his first sermon, the 
Arians, to their great surprise, found they had been greatly mistaken in him, 
for his doctrines were pure. They, therefore, persuaded the emperor to displace 
him, and likewise to get the instrument out of the hands of Eusebius. Miletus 
was accordingly deposed, and the emperor sent to Eusebius to deliver the instrument: 
but he answered that he could not give up a trust reposed in him by so great a 
number, without the consent of all concerned in it. The emperor, incensed at this 
reply, wrote to him, that he had commissioned the bearer of the letter to cut 
off his right hand, if he refused to surrender the instrument in ques- tion: which 
threat was added to awe him into compliance. Eusebius, however, without the least 
emotion, offered his hands, and declared he would lose them both rather than part 
with the deed. The emperor was greatly surprised at this resolution, and professed 
a high esteem for him ever after. The Arians now looked upon Eusebius as a dangerous 
enemy. At the time Jovian restored peace to the church, Miletus con- vened a council 
at Antioch, which consisted of Eusebius and twenty- five other prelates, who unanimously 
confirmed the doctrines of the council of Nice. At this time the see of Cesarea 
becoming vacant, Euse- bius was instrumental in promoting Basil to it, on which 
occasion Gregory the younger calls him, "The pillar of truth, the light of the 
world, the fortress of the church, the rule of faith, the support of the faithful, 
and an instrument in the hands of God for bestowing fa- vours on his people." 
When the Arians were the most vigilant to propa- gate their success; Eusebius 
was assiduous in taking measures to prevent their success; and his zeal was always 
so governed by prudence, but his attempts seldom failed, till at length the emperor, 
at their instigation, granted an order for banishing him into Thrace. He was at 
Samostatia when the messenger came with his commission; it was late in the evening, 
and Eusebius, who was beloved by his people, begged he would make no noise, but 
conceal his business; "for," says he, "if it be known, the people will fall on 
you, throw you into the river, and then I shall be charged with your death." Eusebius 
went through his usual devotions, and when the night was far advanced he left 
his house on foot, attended by only one trusty servant, who carried a pillow and 
book after him. Page 98 Thus accommodated he took a boat, and proceeded to Zeugma, 
about seventy miles down the river. The people next day missing Eusebius, and 
hearing which way he was gone, followed in a great number of boats, and overtaking 
would have rescued him, entreating him, with tears in their eyes, not to abandon 
them. Their cordiality deeply affected him; but he said he must go according to 
the emperor's order, putting them in mind of the authority of St. Paul for paying 
due reverence to the civil power. On finding they could not prevail, they provided 
him with things that would comfort him in his journey, and then left him. It happened 
that Thrace was now a scene of confusion, by means of the war carried on between 
the Goths and the emperor's forces; and in these contests, the life of Eusebius 
was in great danger. At length the emperor, in order to terminate the war with 
the greatest expedition, resolved to march against the Goths in person; but first, 
to engage the prayers of the Christians, he gave peace to the church, and allowed 
the prelates to return to their several stations. Thus was Eusebius restored to 
his see, which, however, he did not long enjoy, for an Arian woman threw a tile 
at him from the top of a house, fracturing his skull and terminating his life. 
This happened in the year 380. The bishop of Apamea, a prelate of great merit, 
was very active in endeavouring to suppress idolatry in his own diocese, on which 
account his life was in continual danger, till Cynegius, the prefect, arrived 
with a considerable body of troops, which kept the pagans in awe. This officer's 
design was to abolish idolatry, to effect which he determined to destroy the temple 
of Jupiter. He, however, found this a difficult attempt; for the building was 
so strong, the stones so unwieldy, and the cement so durable, that he despaired 
of being able to accomplish the work; when a poor labouring Christian, recommended 
by Marcellus, undertook to accomplish what the prefect had abandoned, and the 
business was executed in the following manner:- The man examined the edifice, 
and finding it surrounded by a gallery, supported by stately pillars ten yards 
in circumference, he knew it would be more to his purpose to weaken the foundation 
than to attack the body of the building; with this view he dug at the bottom of 
the pillars, and shored them with timber beams. When he had thus undermined three 
of the strongest pil- lars, he set fire to the wood, when the pillars fell, drew 
twelve more with them, and brought down one whole side of the building; upon which 
the Christians flocked from all parts of the town, and praised God for the demolition 
of the temple. The bishop and prefect continued de- stroying a great number of 
idol temples, when being at a town called Aulo upon this business, while the troops 
were busy in demolishing the buildings, some pagans privately seized upon the 
venerable prelate, and burnt him, A. D. 393. Page 99  SECTION V.  THE 
from Spain to Africa in the fifth century, under their leader Genseric, committed 
many cruelties. They persecuted the Christians wherever they went, and laid waste 
the country as they passed, in order that those left behind, who had escaped, 
might not be able to live. They plundered the churches, and murdered the bishops 
and ministers by a variety of cruel devices. They also wreaked their venge- ance 
on several of the nobility, whom they loaded with heavy burdens, and obliged them 
to carry their baggage; and if they did not travel fast enough, they goaded them 
with sharp weapons, so that several died under their burdens. Old men found no 
mercy, and even innocent and feeble infants felt the rage of their barbarity. 
Stately buildings were burned or destroyed; and the chief churches in Carthage 
were perverted to heretical worship, or put to profane uses; and where any castles 
held out against them, they brought great numbers of Christians and slew them, 
leaving their bodies under the walls, that the besieged might be forced to surrender 
by means of the offensive stench which arose from them. When they had seized and 
plundered the city of Carthage, they put the bishop and all the clergy into a 
leaky ship, and committed it to the mercy of the waves, thinking that they must 
all perish; but the vessel, through Divine Providence, arrived safe at Naples. 
Several Christians were beaten, scourged, and banished to Capsur, where it pleased 
God to make them the means of converting many of the Moors to Christianity; but 
this coming to the knowledge of Genseric, he sent orders, that they and their 
converts should be tied by the feet to chariots, and dragged till their life was 
extinct. Pempinian, bishop of Mansuetes, was burnt to death with plates of hot 
iron. The bishop of Urice was also burnt. The bishop of Habensa was banished, 
for refus- ing to deliver up the sacred books which were in his possession; and 
a whole congregation, assembled in a church at their devotions, together with 
the clergymen who was conducting the service, were murdered by the barbarians 
who broke in upon them. Armogastus felt the rage of this persecution; Victor, 
the learned bishop of Vita, who was acquainted with Armogastus, and who wrote 
the history of this persecution, informs us, that "his legs were tied, and his 
forehead bound with cords severely; which, though tightened, made not the least 
impression on his flesh, not left any mark on his skin. After this, he was hung 
up by the feet; but in that posture seemed to be as much at his ease as if he 
reposed on a bed. Theodoric, one of the king's sons, finding all attempts on his 
life Page 100 had hitherto proved unsuccessful, ordered his head to be struck 
off; but Jocundus, a priest, dissuaded him, by telling him it would be much better 
to destroy him gradually as a violent death would procure him the reputation of 
a martyr. The prince therefore sent him to the mines, and some time after removed 
him to a place near Carthage, where he was employed in tending cattle. While Armogastus 
was thus engaged, he became exceedingly ill, and imagining that the end of his 
labours was near, he communicated his thoughts to Felix, a virtuous Christian, 
employed in hat prince's service, from whom he received consolation. His disorder 
soon deprived him of life, and he was buried by Felix according to his own desire. 
There was a devout Christian, named Archinemus, upon whom various artifices were 
employed in vain to make him renounce his faith. At length Genseric himself undertook 
to per- suade him, but finding his endeavours ineffectual, he sentenced him to 
be beheaded. At the same time he privately ordered the executioner really to perform 
his office, if the prisoner seemed intimidated: "for then," said he, "the crown 
of martyrdom will be lost to him; but if he seems courageous, and willing to die, 
strike not, for I do not intend that he shall have the honour of being deemed 
a martyr." The execu- tioner finding Archinemus happy in the thought of dying 
for the sake of Christ, brought him back again. He was soon after banished, and 
never heard of more, though it is conjectured that he was privately murdered by 
the king's order. Eugenius, bishop of Carthage, was eminent for his learning and 
piety, which brought upon him the hatred of the Arians, who took great pains to 
set the king Huneric against him and his orthodox brethren, several thousand of 
whom were banished to a desert, where many perished. Huneric also sent an edict 
to Eugenius, which he commanded him to read in the cathedral on Ascension-day, 
A. D. 483. By this it was ordered that the orthodox bishops should meet at Carthage 
on the first of February, for the purpose of disputing with the Arian prelates. 
The king's stratagem was discovered by Eugenius, and several other bishops, particularly 
Victor bishop of Vita, the learned author of the account of this persecution; 
and they determined after deliberation, to send a petition to the king: it was 
written by eugenius and presented by a person who had great interest at court. 
It stated, that the African prelates did not decline the proposed conference from 
the weakness of their cause, or a distrust of their own abilities to maintain 
their mode of faith; but as the whole church was concerned in the dispute, they 
were of opinion that they could not engage in it without the bishops of Europe 
and Asia. Huneric answered, that what they desired was impossible, unless the 
whole world was in his hands. Upon this Eugenius desired his majesty would be 
pleased to write to Odoacer, king of Italy, and other princes in his interest; 
and allow him to send to the bishops, that the common faith might be thus authori- 
tatively advocated. Disregarding this remonstrance, the king insisted upon being 
obeyed; and then, previous to the time appointed, banished several of the most 
learned of the orthodox prelates on various pre- tences, that the Arians might 
have the advantage. At the time appointed Page 101 for the conference, the orthodox 
clergy chose ten of their number to speak in the name of the rest. Cyrilla, an 
Arian, took the title of patriarch upon the occasion, and was seated on a magnificent 
throne. The Arian prelates were allowed to sit near him, but the orthodox bishops 
were obliged to stand. They complained of this partial treatment as an infringement 
of their liberty; and Eugenius, perceiving that they did not intend coming to 
any candid decision, proposed to adjourn; but instead of complying with this, 
each orthodox prelate was threatened by the king's order with a hundred blows. 
Eugenius protested against such violence, but in vain; the prelates were turned 
out of the place unheard, their churches were shut up, and the revenues of their 
bisho- prics confiscated. They were then compelled to quit Carthage, and lay without 
the walls of that city, exposed to all the inclemency of the weather. The king 
passing out at one of the gates, the orthodox clergy presented themselves before 
him, and modestly complained of the treat- ment they had received: but instead 
of redressing their grievances, Huneric ordered his guards to chastise them. The 
soldiers, in consequence, treated them unmercifully; and the king ordered them 
to appear on a future day at a certain place, where, at the time appointed, they 
assembled; when one of his officers showed them a paper, and informed them that 
the king was inclined to forget what was past, and to restore them to their livings, 
if they would swear to the truth of what that paper contained. The prelates, surprised 
at this proposal declared that they could not in conscience swear to the truth 
of that to which they were total strangers; but it they were suffered to read 
the writing, and approved of the contents, they would take the oath. The officer 
answered, that he would tell them the contents, which were of a political nature, 
and only required them to swear that they were willing prince Hilderic should 
succeed his father on the throne. Several of the prelates innocently thinking 
there could be no harm in taking such an oath, complied; but the rest, with greater 
caution, refused the oath, as they judged some artifice was in contemplation. 
While they were disagreeing upon this head, the officer took advantage of their 
discord, and committed them to separate prisons those who were willing to swear 
to one, and those who were unwilling to another; but they had not been long in 
confinement before the artifice was exposed by an order from the king for the 
banishment of both parties. Those who had been willing to swear were banished, 
under the pretence of offering to break the established precept of the Scripture. 
"Swear not at all;" and those who had refused to swear, were banished as enemies 
to the legal succession. The former were obliged to work as slaves in distant 
colonies, and the latter were sent to the island of Corsica to cut timber. Eugenius 
was exiled to Tripoli, where Anthony a violent Arian bishop, threw him into a 
dungeon, and made him suffer severe hardship, in order to destroy him by a lingering 
death. The dampness of the place gave Eugenius the palsy, which Anthony hearing 
of went to the gaol, and finding him weak and lying on the floor, he poured strong 
vinegar down his throat to choke him. It had, however, a contrary effect; instead 
of suffocating, it promoted copious perspira- tion, which removed the palsy and 
restored him to health. When Huneric Page 102 died, his successor recalled Eugenius 
and the rest of the orthodox clergy. The Arians taking the alarm, persuaded him 
to banish them again, which hid did; when Engenius, being exiled to Languedoc 
in France, died there of the hardships he underwent, on the 6th of September, 
in the year 505. A widow lady of fortune, named Dionysia, being apprehended as 
an orthodox Christian, was stripped, exposed in a most indecent manner, and severely 
scourged. Her son, a mere youth, was seized at the same time, but seemed afraid 
of the torture, and looked piteously at his mother, who ordered him not to fear 
torment, but to be constant to the faith in which she had brought him up. When 
he was upon the rack, she again comforted him with her pious speeches. On this 
the youth patiently persevered, and resigned his soul to his Creator. The mother 
saw the death of her son, and soon after herself received the crown of martyr- 
dom. Cyrilla,the Arian bishop of Carthage, was a furious persecutor, and a determined 
enemy to those Christians who professed the faith in puri- ty. He persuaded the 
king that he could never prosper in his under- takings, or enjoy his kingdom in 
peace, while he suffered any of the orthodox Christians to practise their principles: 
and the monarch believing he prediction, sent for several of the most eminent 
Chris- tians, who were obnoxious to the prelate. He at first attempted to draw 
them from their faith by flattery, and to bribe them by the promise of immediate 
worldly rewards; but they were firm and constant, declaring resolutely against 
Arianism, and saying, "We acknowledge but one Lord, and one faith; you may therefore 
do whatever you please with our bodies, for it is better that we should suffer 
a few temporary pains than to endure everlasting misery." The king being greatly 
exasperated at this remark, sent them to a dungeon, and ordered them to be put 
in irons. The keeper, however, suffered their friends to have access to them; 
by which they became daily more confirmed in heir resolution of dying for the 
sake of their Redeemer. The king heard of the indulgence they received, and was 
exceedingly angry, sending orders that they should be closely confined, and loaded 
with still heavier fetters. He then began to consider by what means he should 
put them to death, and at length determined to imitate the barbarity of the emperor 
Valens, who caused fourscore clergymen to be burnt in a ship. Resolving upon this 
infernal precedent, he ordered these Christians to be put on board a vessel filled 
with combustible materials, and set on fire. The names of those who suffered by 
this cruel expedient were, Rusticus, Severus, Liberatus, Rogatus, Servus, Septimus 
and Boniface. Page 103  BOOK III. SECTION I. 
THE SEVENTH CENTURY. Proterius was made a priest by Cyril, bishop of Alexandria. 
On the death of Cyril, the see of Alexandria was filled by Dioscorus, an inveterate 
enemy both to the memory and family of his predecessor. Dioscorus, however, knowing 
the reputation of Proterius, and his great interest, did all in his power to gain 
his confidence and favour, thinking he might be of service to him in carrying 
on his evil intentions; but Proterius was not to be corrupted, and no prospect 
of worldly preferment could bribe him to forego his duty. At length Dioscorus 
being condemned by the council of Chalcedon for having embraced the errors of 
Eutyches, was desposed, and Proterius chosen to fill the see, and approved of 
by the emperor. On this an insurrection broke out, the city of Alexandria being 
divided into two factions; one espousing the cause of the old, and the other of 
the new prelate. Proterius was in imminent danger from a set of schismatics, who 
would neither obey the decision of the council not the emperor's commands. The 
disorders becoming serious, the governor of Thebias marched with a body of troops 
in order to quell them. The people, however, were in a kind of phrenzy: when they 
heard of the approach of the governor, they armed themselves, marched out of Alexan- 
dria, gave him battle, and defeated him. The intelligence of this affair so exasperated 
the emperor, that he sent a detachment of two thousand men against them; whose 
appearance, and the prudence of the governor of Alexandria, whose name was Florus, 
soon restored peace to the city. Still the discontented party beheld Proterius 
with resentment, so that he was obliged to have a guard for his personal safety; 
and at length, though naturally of a mild temper, was compelled to excommunicate 
some of his foes, and obtain their banishment from Alexandria. When the emperor 
Marcian's death, which happened two years after, gave a new turn to affairs, the 
exiles returned to Alexandria, renewed their cabals against Proterius, and resolved 
to be revenged on him for what they had suffered. Timothy, a priest, who was at 
the head of the design that had been formed against Proterius, employed every 
art to ruin his credit, drawing the people from his communion, and raising himself 
to the see. At last taking advantage of the absence of Dionysius, who commanded 
the forces of that province, and was then in Upper Egypt, he seized on the great 
church, and was uncanonically consecrated by two bishops of his faction, who had 
been desposed for heresy. He continued the exercise of the episcopal functions, 
till the commander's return, who, hearing of the disorders that had been committed, 
and that Timothy was the chief author of them, expelled and exiled him. Page 104 
This affair so enraged the Eutychians, that they determined to take vengeance 
on Proterius, who fled to the altar for sanctuary: but on Good Friday, A. D. 457, 
a large body of them rushed into the church, and murdered the prelate; after which 
they dragged his body through the streets, cut it in pieces, burnt it, and dispersed 
the ashes. When the Vandals sacked Carthage, a lady named Julia, was taken prisoner, 
and after being sold and resold as a slave, she became the property of a Syrian 
pagan, named Eusebius. Her master frequently took her with him upon his voyages: 
in one of these they touched upon the island of Corsi- ca, where Eusebius joined 
in an idolatrous festival; but Julia kept from it. The heathens complained of 
this conduct, as disrespectful to their gods, and informed the governor Felix 
of it, who sent for Eusebius, and demanded what young woman it was who had refused 
to join in worship to the gods. Eusebius replied, that the young woman was a Christian, 
and that all his authority over her could not induce her to renounce her religion; 
but she was a very diligent and faithful servant. Felix pressed him to exert himself, 
either to oblige her to assist at the pagan worship, or to part with her; and 
offered to give him his own price, or four of his best female slaves in exchange 
for her, which the pagan refused. When Felix found him inflexible, he determined 
to get her into his power by artifice, and invited Eusebius to an entertainment, 
when having intoxicated him, he sent for Julia in the name of her mas- ter. The 
slave, not suspecting the design, immediately went; when the governor told her 
that he would procure her liberty, if she would sacri- fice to the heathen gods; 
but not being able to prevail, he ordered her to be severely beaten, and finding 
her still resolute, he commanded that the hair of her head should be plucked by 
the roots. This barbarity having no greater effect, he sentenced her to be hanged. 
Scarcely was Julia dead when Eusebius recovered from his intoxication, and under- 
standing what had past, he in the first transports of his resentment thought of 
complaining to the emperor, who being a Christian, would have punished the perfidy 
of the governor; but reflecting that Felix had only acted with zeal for the deities 
he himself adored, he determined to put up with the loss, and retire from the 
place. Hermengildus, a Gothic prince, was the eldest son of Leovigildus, king 
of the Goths, in Spain. This prince, who was originally an Arian, became a convert 
to the ortho- dox faith, by means of his wife, whose name was Ingonda. The king, 
on hearing that his son had changed his religious sentiments, stripped him of 
the command at Seville, where he was governor, and threatened to put him to death, 
unless he renounced the new faith. On this the prince, in order to prevent the 
execution of his father's menaces, began to prepare for defence; and many of the 
orthodox persuasion in Spain declared on his side. Exasperated at this act of 
rebellion, the king began to punish all the orthodox Christians who could be seized 
and thus origi- nated a very severe persecution. He marched against his son at 
the head of a powerful army; and knowing that he could not oppose the formidable 
force that his father was bringing against him, the prince implored the assistance 
of the Roman troops left to garrison those parts of Spain which the emperor still 
possessed. Page 105 The Roman commander undertook to assist Hermengildus, but 
being bribed by the king he broke his promise. Leovigildus then made it his business, 
as much as possible, to detach the orthodox Christians from the interest of his 
son; and in this he was too successful, for it was effected in 581, by convening 
the Arian prelates at Toledo, who abolished the prac- tice of re-baptising such 
as came over to their sect; and he drew up a captious profession of faith which 
deceived many, and prevailed upon them to quit the interest of Hermengildus. Finding 
himself forsaken by numbers in whom he most confided, the prince was obliged to 
retreat towards Seville, where he soon after shut himself up, and sent to Con- 
stantinople for assistance from the emperor. The death of that monarch, however, 
prevented him from receiving relief; for Maurice, who succeeded him, had no opportunity 
to afford any succour to Hermengildus. The king, who knew of the conduct of his 
son, proceeded to Seville and laid siege to it: the prince defended the place 
with great bravery, and held out for twelve months; but finding that it must soon 
be taken, he privately made his escape, and fled to the Roman troops to beg protection. 
Being informed that they intended to give him up, he hastily fled to Corduba, 
and from thence went to Asseto, which he fortified and prepared for his defence. 
On the escape of the prince from Seville that city surrendered, and the king having 
placed a garrison in it, pursued his son, laid siege to Asseto, and soon obliged 
it to surrender. The prince being driven to this distress, flew to a church, when 
the king respecting the sanctity of the place, sent an officer, named Reccaredus, 
to assure him of par- don, upon his submitting to ask it. The prince believing 
his father to be sincere, immediately went and threw himself at his feet: the 
king, however, instead of forgiving him, loaded him with chains, and carried him 
to Seville, where he endeavoured by promises and menaces to make him renounce 
the christian faith. Nevertheless, the prince remained true, and at Easter, when 
the king sent an Arian bishop to him to administer the eucharist, Hermengildus 
refused to receive it; which so enraged the king, that he ordered some of his 
guards to go and cut him to pieces. Anastasius, a Persian, was brought up a Pagan, 
and bore arms as a sol- dier under Cosroes, king of Persia, at the time that monarch 
plundered Jerusalem. Among other things they are said to have carried off the 
very cross on which Christ was crucified. Anastasius could not imagine why the 
Christians had such veneration for a person who died so mean a death as that of 
crucifixion; for that mode of death was held by the Persians in the greatest contempt. 
At length some Christian captives instructed him in the Christian mystery, and 
being charmed with the purity of the faith, he left the army, and retired to Syria: 
here he learned the trade of a goldsmith, and then going to Jerusalem, he supported 
himself by that business, was baptized by Modestus, vicar-general of Jerusalem, 
and stayed a week with his godfather Elias. When the time was over, and he was 
to quit the white clothes which he wore at his baptism, according to the practice 
of the church, he desired the priest to put him in a way of renouncing the world. 
Elias recommended him to Justin, abbot of a semi- nary four miles from Jerusalem, 
who employed a person to instruct him in Page 106 the Greek tongue, and teach 
him the Psalms; and then admitted him into his community. Anastasius passed seven 
years in that house, dividing his time between humble domestic employments, and 
administering the word of God; and at length he conceived a strong desire to lay 
down his life for his Redeemer. On going to Cesarea, which was in the hands of 
the Per- sians, he was taken a spy, and brought before Marzabanes, the governor, 
to whom he owned that he was a Christian, and was sent to prison. Many attempts 
were made to convert him, and at length Justin being apprised of his sufferings, 
recommended him to the prayers of the whole communi- ty, and sent two of his people 
to encourage him to perseverance. At last the governor wrote to the king concerning 
Anastasius, and the sovereign did all in his power to engage him to renounce his 
religion, but finding his endeavours vain, he ordered him to be executed in a 
singular and severe manner: he was hung up by one hand, with a weight fastened 
to his foot; and after being strangled, his head was cut off, and sent to the 
king. Martin, bishop of Rome, was born at Todi, in Italy. He was natu- rally virtuous, 
and his parents bestowed on him an excellent education. He took orders, and on 
the death of Theodore, bishop of Rome, was ad- vanced to that important see by 
an unanimous election, in which all parties gave him the fullest praise, and admitted 
that he well merited a trust of such importance. The first vexation he received 
in his episco- pal capacity, was from a set of heretics called Monothelites; who 
not daring, after the express decisions of the council of Chalcedon, to maintain 
the unity of nature in Christ, artfully asserted that he had but one will, one 
operation of mind. This sect was patronized by the emperor Heraclius; and the 
first who attempted to stop the progress of these errors was Sophronius, bishop 
of Jerusalem. Martin, who on this occasion coincided with the bishop of Jerusalem, 
called a council con- sisting of 105 bishops, and they unanimously condemned the 
errors in question. But the emperor provoked at these proceedings, ordered Olym- 
pius, his lieutenant in Italy, to repair to Rome and seize the bishop. The lieutenant 
performed the journey; but on his arrival at Rome he found the prelate too much 
beloved to induce him to attempt any open violence: he therefore suborned a ruffian 
to assassinate the bishop at the altar; but the fellow, after promising compliance, 
was seized with such horror of conscience, that he had not the power to execute 
the bloody deed. Olympius finding it would be difficult to destroy Martin, put 
himself at the head of his troops, and marched against the Saracens, who had made 
inroads into Italy; but during this expedition he died. His successor was Calliopas, 
who received express orders to seize Martin, which, with the assistance of a considerable 
body of soldiers, he ef- fected; shewing the clergy the imperial mandate, which 
commanded him to disposses Martin of his bishopric, and convey him prisoner to 
Constanti- nople. Having endured various hardships, during a tedious voyage, he 
reached Constantinople, and was thrown into prison. While in confine- ment, he 
wrote two epistles to the emperor to refute the calumnies forged against him concerning 
his faith and loyalty: for a proof of the Page 107 soundness of the former, he 
appealed to the testimony of the whole clergy, and his own solemn protestation 
to defend the truth as long as he lived; and in answer to objections against the 
latter, he declared he never sent either money, letters, or advice to the Saracens; 
but only remitted a sum for the relief of poor Christians among those people. 
He concluded with saying, that nothing could be more false than what the heretics 
had alleged against him concerning the blessed Virgin, whom he firmly believed 
to be the mother of God, and worthy of all honour after her divine Son. In this 
second letter he gave a particular account of his being seized at Rome, and his 
indisposition and ill usage after he was dragged from that city; and ended with 
wishing and hoping his perse- cutors would repent of their conduct, when the object 
of their hatred should be removed from this world. The fatigues that Martin had 
under- gone, and his infirmities were so great, that on the day appointed for 
his trial, he was brought out of prison in a chair, unable to walk. When he sat 
a moment before the court, the judge commanded him to stand, which not being able 
to do, two men were ordered to hold him up. Twenty witnesses were produced against 
him, who swore as they were directed, and charged him with assumed and imaginary 
crimes. Martin began his defence, but as soon as he entered upon an investigation 
of the errors which he had combated, one of the senators stopped him, and said, 
that he was only examined respecting civil affairs, and consequently eccle- siastical 
matters must not be introduced. Martin was then ordered to be exposed in the most 
public places of the town, and to be divested of all marks of distinction; rigours 
which he bore with Christian patience and submission, and without a murmuring 
word. After laying some months in prison, he was sent to an island at some distance, 
and there barbaroulsy put to death. John, bishop of Bergamo in Lombardy, a learned 
man and a good Christian, did his utmost to clear the church from the errors of 
Arianism, and joining with John, bishop of Milan, he was very successful against 
the heretics. Grimoald an Arian, having usurped the throne of Lombardy, the orthodox 
Christians feared that heresy would rise once more in that country; but the bishop 
of Bergamo used such persuasive arguments with Grimoald, that he brought him to 
profess the orthodox faith. On the death of Grimoald, and his son who succeeded 
him, Panthar- it came to the crown, and again introduced those errors which had 
been combated with such spirit by the true clergy. The bishop of Bergamo exerted 
himself strenuously to prevent the heresy from spreading, on which account he 
was assassinated on the 11th of July A. D. 683. Kilien was born in Ireland, and 
received from his parents a pious and Christian education. His favourite study 
was theology, and hence he was very assiduous in bringing many to the light of 
the gospel. In the course of time he crossed the sea, with eleven other persons, 
in order to make converts on the continent. On landing, they directed their route 
to the circle of Franconia, in Germany. On arriving at the city of Wurtzburg, 
they found the people in general with their governor Gozbert to be Page 108 pagans; 
but conceived great hopes of converting them to the gospel faith. Previous to 
making this attempt, however, he deemed it necessary to go to Rome, in order to 
obtain his mission from the pontiff. He according went thither, attended by one 
Coloman a priest, and Totman a deacon, two of those who had accompanied him from 
Ireland, and found Conon in Peter's chair. He gave them a favourable reception, 
and being informed of Kilien's business at Rome, after some questions about his 
faith and doctrine, consecrated him bishop, with full permission to preach to 
the infidels wherever he found them. Thus authorized, Kilien returned to Wurtzburg, 
where he opened his mission; but he had not long been employed in this labour 
when Gozbert sent for him, and desired to know the nature and tendency of the 
new religion, which he so boldly recommended. The new bishop had several conferences 
with the governor on the subject, and God gave such a blessing to his endeavours, 
that Goz- bert not only received the faith and was baptised, but gave him leave 
to preach wherever he pleased in his dominions. Gozbert also commanded the attention 
of his pagan subjects to what our prelate had to offer; and the greater part of 
them became Christians in less than two years. Gozbert had married his brother's 
widow, but Kilien, though he held the sinfulness of the king, did not choose to 
rebuke him till he was thor- oughly confirmed in his faith. When he thought him 
fully instructed in the principles of christianity, he entreated him, as the last 
proof of the sincerity of his conversion, to quit the person whom he had hitherto 
looked upon as a wife, as he could not retain with her without commit- ting sin. 
Gozbert, surprised at the proposal, told the bishop this was the hardest demand 
he had ever made upon him. "But," said he, "since I have renounced my own inclinations 
and pleasures in so many particulars for the love of God, I will make the work 
complete, by complying with your advice in this too." The wife of the governor 
in consequence, determined to be revenged on those who had persuaded Gozbert into 
such a resolution. She accordingly sent to the place where they usually assem- 
bled, and had them all beheaded. Kilien, and his companions, submitted without 
resistance, the former telling them, that they need not fear those who had no 
power of the soul, but could only kill the body, which in a short time, would 
of itself decay. This happened, A. D. 689, and the martyrs were privately buried 
in the night, together with their books, clothes, and all that they had. It is 
said that some days after this impious tragedy Gozbert, surprised that he had 
not seen Kilien lately, ordered diligent search to be made for him. Geilana, his 
wife, to stop the inquiry, reported that he and his companions had left the town, 
without giving any account of their movements; but the execution- er, filled with 
remorse, ran about like a mad man, and declared that the spirit of Kilien was 
consuming his conscience. Thus distracted he was seized, and Gozbert was considering 
what to do, when a creature of the wife's and a pretended convert advised him 
to leave the God of the Christians, to do himself justice on his enemies, and 
proposed the event as a test of his power. Gozbert was weak enough to tempt God, 
by putting it on that issue; and the murderer being set at liberty, went raving 
mad, tore his own flesh with his teeth, and died in a miserable condi- Page 109 
tion. Geilana was so agonized in her conscience, that she soon after expired in 
despair; while Gozbert's criminal condescension was punished by a violent death, 
and in a few years his whole race was exterminated.  SECTION II.  THE 
OF THE TENTH CENTURY. Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, and father of the German 
church, was an Englishman, and is looked upon in ecclesistical history, as one 
of the Page 110 brightest ornaments of his country. His name originally was Winfred, 
or Winfrith, and he was born at Kirton, in Devonshire, then part of the West-Saxon 
kingdom. When only six years of age, he discovered a pro- pensity to study, and 
was solicitous to gain information on religious subjects; and some evangelical 
missionaries coming by chance to Kirton, happened to fix their abode at his father's 
house, and profiting by their discourse, he determined to devote himself to a 
religious life. When he informed his father of his resolution, he would have dissuaded 
him from it; but finding him fully resolved, he permitted him to go and reside 
at a monastery in Exeter. Wolfrad, the abbot, observing that he possessed a bright 
genius, had him removed to Nustcelle, a seminary of learning in the diocese of 
Winchester, where he would have a great opportunity of attaining improvement. 
The abbot of Nutscelle, who was celebrated for his superior learning, took uncommon 
pains with the young pupil, who, in time, became a prodigy in divine knowledge, 
and was, at length, employed in the college as a principal teacher. We are informed 
by the ancient Saxon historians, that those who studied under him had no need 
to remove to any other place to finish what they had begun, for he gave them lessons 
in grammar, poetry, rhetoric, and philosophy, and explained the holy scriptures 
in the literal, moral, and mystical sens- es. His example was as instructive as 
his lectures, and while he formed his scholars to learning by his dictates, he 
encouraged them to the practice of virtue by his own prudent conduct. The abbot, 
finding him qualified for the priesthood, obliged him to receive that holy order, 
when he was about thirty years old. From this he began to labour for the salvation 
of his fellow-creatures; in the progress of which he gave the first proofs of 
that apostolical zeal, which afterwards made such glori- ous conquests in this 
once savage and barbarous part of the world. There arose an important occasion 
to assemble a synod of bishops in the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and it was judged 
expedient to depute one of their body to the archbishop of Canterbury to inform 
him of the exigency of affairs; and Boniface being proposed, was unanimously chosen 
by the synod. He discharged this trust with great prudence, and obtained the applause 
of every member of the synod; but far from being vain of the reputation he had 
acquired, he proposed to forsake his country, rela- tions, and friends, in order 
to be of service to the faith, and extend Christianity on the continent. At first, 
the abbot and monks of Nuts- celle would have dissuaded him from his purpose; 
but finding him reso- lute, two of their number were ordered to assist him. Boniface 
accord- ingly left Nutscelle, and arrived in Friesland about the year 716; when 
he found that country in the utmost disorder and confusion. It had belonged to 
the crown of France, but was at this time in the possession of prince Radbord, 
who had established paganism in it, persecuted the Christians, and was at war 
with Charles Martel, mayor of the palace of Austrastia. Boniface, therefore, went 
to Utrecht, where he found the Page 111 infidel prince, and made him a tender 
of the gospel; but he being obdu- rate, Boniface imagined the time for converting 
that nation was not yet come, and returned to his monastery in England. He had 
not been many months there when the abbot died. Boniface undertook to comfort 
his brethren under the calamity, and discovered such zeal and charity in the transaction, 
that they desired he would supply the place of their de- ceased father and friend. 
Either, however, he never accepted of the post, or quitted it very soon; for he 
obtained letters from Daniel, bishop of Winchester his diocesan, recommending 
him to the pope, and all the bishops, abbots, and princes, he should find in his 
way to Rome, where he arrived in the beginning of the year 719. He was received 
by Gregory the Second with great friendship, and after several conferences with 
him, finding him full of zeal, he dismissed him with a commission to preach the 
gospel to the pagans, wherever he found them. Having passed through Lombardy and 
Bavaria, he came to Thuringia, which country had before received the light of 
the gospel; but at the time he arrived there it had made little progress. The 
first exertions of Boniface were to bring the corrupted Christians back to a profession 
of the gospel in its purity; and having completed this pious work with great assiduity, 
and hearing that Radbord, whom he had formerly attempted to convert, was dead, 
he repaired to Utrecht, to assist Willebrod, the first bishop of that city. During 
three years these worthy pastors laboured in extirpat- ing idolatry and propagating 
the faith in north Holland; and so far succeeded, that most of the people received 
baptism, and many of the pagan temples were converted into christian churches. 
At this time Willebrod being infirm, thought he could not do better than appoint 
Boniface to succeed him; but this the English missionary absolutely refused, pleading 
he could not stay so long in any place, as he had many other evangelical labours 
to perform. Willebrod consented to his depar- ture, and Boniface repaired to Hesse, 
where he brought to a knowledge of the truth two brothers, who though they called 
themselves Christians, were sunk into most of the errors of paganism. They, however, 
became such zealous converts, that they gave their estate to Boniface, who instead 
of applying its revenues to his own use, built and endowed a religious community 
with them; after which he proceeded to Saxony, where he converted some thousands 
to the christian faith. Exerting himself in this new field with prodigious success 
about a year, he dispatched one of his companions to Rome, with an account of 
what he had done; upon which Gregory II, sent him a letter, desiring him to repair 
to that city. On his arrival, the bishop gave him every mark of esteem and affection, 
and was resolved not to let him return to his labours without the episcopal character, 
that he might pursue them with more authority and to greater advantage. He was 
accordingly consecrated on the last day of November, 723: from which time he took 
upon himself the name of Boniface. On being qualified for forming new churches, 
he left Rome having with him six letters from the pope; one to Charles Martel; 
a second to all bishops, priests, dukes, and counts; a third to the clergy and 
people under his more immediate direction; a fourth to the five princes of Thuringia 
and their christian subjects; a fifth to the pagans Page 112 in every dominion; 
and a sixth to the whole body of Saxons. The purport of these was, to recommend 
him to the protection of the christian pow- ers, and exhort the pagans to hear 
him, and exchange their errors and superstitions for the pure religion of Christ. 
Having made converts in different parts, he returned to his mission in Germany, 
and was very successful, though he met with many that would have been Christians 
only in a partial degree. They were ready enough to acknowledge Christ, but did 
not care to adhere strictly to his precepts: and some were so far deluded, as 
to be exceeding fond of worshipping a large oak-tree, which was dedicated to Jupiter. 
This tree Boniface ordered to be cut down; and when the pagans, finding that Jupiter 
did not take any notice of those who had destroyed it, owned the weakness of their 
cause, and desired to receive Christian baptism. Being naturally diffident of 
his own abilities, Boniface had frequent recourse to such persons as he thought 
might be of service to him in his present difficult station. Pope Gregory and 
Daniel, his old diocesan, were his most able and fre- quent counsellors; but by 
the care of the bishops of Winchester, he received from this island large supplies 
of missionaries who rendered him valuable aid, and greatly advanced the gospel 
in Europe. In the year 731, Gregory the Third succeeded to the pontifical chair, 
on whose accession Boniface sent proper persons to Rome, to acquaint him with 
the success of his labours, testifying his allegiance, and desiring assis- tance 
in some difficulties which occurred in his mission. The pope not only answered 
the message by assuring him of the communion and friend- ship of the see of Rome, 
but as a mark of respect sent him the mantle of office newly consecrated, granted 
him the title of archbishop, or metro- politan of all Germany, and empowered him 
to erect new bishoprics wher- ever he should have opportunity. Boniface not only 
did this, but also built several monasteries. He then made a third journey to 
Rome in 738, when Gregory the Third, who had as great an esteem as his predecessors 
for him, detained him the larger portion of the year. At length having left Rome, 
he went to Bavaria, upon the invitation of Odillo, duke of that country, to reform 
some abuses introduced by persons who had never received holy orders. At this 
time Bavaria had only one bishop; he therefore, pursuant to his commission from 
Rome, erected three new bishoprics, one at Saltzburg, a second at Freisignen, 
and a third at Ratisbon, and thus the country was divided into four dioceses; 
a regula- tion which was soon after confirmed by the pope. Boniface next estab- 
lished four other bishoprics in Germany: at Erford, for Thuringia; at Barabourg, 
for Hesse; at Wurtzburg, for Franconia; at Achstat, for Bavaria. The bishopric 
of Barabourg is at present translated to Pader- born, in Westphalia. Willebald, 
the original author of the life of Boniface, was by him made bishop of Achstat. 
In the year 741, Gregory the Third was succeeded in the popedom by Zachary, who 
confirmed Boni- face in his power and approved of all he had one in Germany, making 
him at the same time archbishop of Mentz, and metropolitan over thirteen bishoprics. 
He did not however, lose his simplicity, or forget his Page 113 character in his 
ecclesiastical dignity and ministerial popularity. During this period Pepin was 
declared king of France; and it being that prince's ambition to be crowned by 
the most holy prelate he could find, Boniface was solicited to perform that ceremony, 
which he did at Sois- sons in 752. The next year his great age and many infirmities 
so af- flicted him, that, with the consent of the new king, and the bishops of 
his diocese, he consecrated Lullus, his countryman and faithful disci- ple, and 
placed him in the see of Mentz, desiring him to finish the church at Fulda, and 
see him buried in it, as his end was approaching. He then took a boat for the 
Rhine, and went to Friesland, where he converted and baptised several thousands 
of the natives, demolished the temples, and raised christian churches on their 
ruins. He appointed a day for confirming a number of new converts, and ordered 
them to assem- ble in an open plain near the river Bourde, whither he repaired 
the day before; and pitching a tent, determined to remain on the spot all night, 
in order to be ready in the morning early. Several pagans having intel- ligence 
of this intention, poured down upon him and the companions of his mission in the 
night, with a view to massacre them. The servants of Boniface would have repelled 
the barbarians by force of arms; but he told them and his clergy, that the moment 
he had long wished for was now come, and exhorted his assistants in the ministry 
to prepare themselves for martyrdom. While he was thus employed, the pagans rushed 
in upon them, and killed him and fifty-two of his companions and attendants. This 
happened on June 5, A. D. 755. Thus fell the great father of the Germanic church, 
the honour of England, and the glory of his barbarous age. Forty-two persons of 
Armorian, in Upper Phrygia, were martyred in the year 845, by the Saracens, the 
circumstances of which are thus related: In the reign of Theophilus, the Saracens 
ravaged many parts of the eastern empire, gained considerable advantage over the 
Christians, and at length laid siege to the city of Armorian. The garrison bravely 
defended the place for a considerable time, and would have obliged their enemies 
to raise the siege, but the place was betrayed by a renegado. Many were put to 
the sword; and two general officers, with some persons of distinction, were carried 
prisoners to Bagdad, where they were loaded Page 114 with chains and thrown into 
a dungeon. They continued in prison for some time without seeing any persons but 
their gaolers, or having scarcely food enough for their subsistence. At length 
they were in- formed that nothing could preserve their lives but renouncing their 
religion and embracing Mahometanism. To induce them to comply, the caliph pretended 
great zeal for their welfare, and declared that he looked upon converts in a more 
glorious light than conquests. Agreeably with these maxims he sent some of the 
most artful Mahometans, with money and clothes, and the promise of other advantages 
which they might secure to themselves by an abjuration of christianity; but the 
martyrs rejected the proposal with horror and contempt. After this they were attacked 
with the fallacious and delusive argument which the Mahometans still use in favour 
of themselves, and were desired to judge of the merits of the cause by the success 
of those who were engaged in it, and choose that religion which they saw flourished 
most, and was best rewarded with the good things of this life, which they called 
the blessings of heaven. Yet the noble prisoners were proof against all temptation, 
and argued stren- uously in opposition to the authority of the false prophet. 
This in- censed the Mahometans, and drew greater hardships upon the Christians 
during their confinement, which lasted seven years. Boldizius, the renegado who 
had betrayed Armorian, then brought them the welcome news that their sufferings 
would end in martyrdom the next day: when taken from their dungeon, they were 
again solicited to embrace the tenets of Mahomet; but neither threats nor promises 
could induce them to adopt what they declared to be the doctrines of an impostor. 
Perceiving that their faith could not be shaken, the caliph ordered them to be 
executed. Theodore, one of the number, had formerly received priest's orders, 
and officiated as a clergyman; but afterwards quitting the church, he had followed 
a military life, and raised himself by the sword to consider- able posts of honour, 
which he enjoyed at the time when he was taken prisoner. The officer who attended 
the execution, being apprized of these circumstances, said to Theodore, "You might, 
indeed, pretend to be ranked amongst the Christians, while you served in their 
church as a priest; but the profession you have taken up, which engages you in 
bloodshed, is so contrary to your former employment, that you should not now think 
of passing upon us for one of that religion. When you quitted the altar for the 
camp you renounced Jesus Christ. Why then will you dissemble any longer? Would 
you not act more conformably to a resolution of saving your life by owning our 
great prophet?" Theodore, covered with religious confusion at this speech but 
still unshaken in his faith, made the following answer:- "It is true I did in 
some measure abandon my God when I engaged in the army, and scarce deserve the 
name of a Chris- tian; but the Almighty has given me the grace to see myself in 
a true light, and made me sensible of my fault; and I hope he will be pleased 
to accept my life as the only sacrifice I can now offer to expiate my guilt." 
This firm answer confounded the officer, who only replied, that Page 115 he should 
presently have an opportunity of giving that proof of his fidelity to his Master. 
Upon which, Theodore and the rest, forty-two in number, were beheaded. Two ladies 
of distinction, Mary and Flora, suf- fered martyrdom at the same time. Flora was 
daughter of an eminent Mahometan at Seville; from whence he removed to Corduba, 
where the Saracen king resided and kept his court. Her father dying when she was 
young, Flora was left to the care of her mother, who being a Christian, brought 
her up in the true faith, and inspired her with sentiments of virtue and religion. 
Her brother being a professed enemy to christiani- ty, and of a barbarous and 
savage temper, Flora was for some time ob- liged to use great caution in the practice 
of such virtues as must have exposed her to persecution. She was too zealous to 
bear this restraint long; for which reason she left Corduba, in company with her 
sister. Her departure soon alarmed her brother, who guessed her motives, and in 
revenge informed against several Christians of Corduba; for as he did not know 
whither his sister was gone, he determined to wreak his venge- ance on such Christians 
as were present. When Flora was informed of these proceedings, she considered 
herself as the cause of what the Christians had suffered at Corduba, and having 
an inward conviction that God called her to fight for her faith, she returned 
to that city, and proceeded to the persecutors, among them whom she found her 
brother. "If," said this glorious martyr, "I am the object of our inquiry; if 
the servants of God are tormented on my account, I now freely offer myself to 
your disposal. I declare that I believe in Jesus Christ, glory in his cross, and 
profess the doctrines which he taught." None of the company seemed so much enraged 
at this declaration as her brother, who, after some threats, struck her; but soon 
endeavoured to win her by expressions of pretended kindness. Finding her insensible 
to all he could say, he then informed against her. He insinuated, that Flora had 
been educated in the religion of Mahomet, but had renounced it at the suggestion 
of Christians, who inspired her with the utmost contempt of the great prophet. 
When she was called to answer to the charge, she declared she had never owned 
Mahomet, but sucked the Christian religion in with her milk, and was from infancy 
devoted to the Redeemer of man- kind. The magistrate finding her resolute, delivered 
her to her brother, and gave him orders to use his utmost endeavours to make her 
a Mohome- tan. She soon found an opportunity of escaping over a wall in the night, 
and of secreting herself in the house of a Christian. She then withdrew to Tucci, 
a village of Andalusia, where she met with her sister, and they never separated 
again till her martyrdom. Mary, who was martyred at the same time, was the daughter 
of a Christian tradesman at Estrema- dura, who afterwards removed to a town near 
Corduba. When the persecu- tion began under Abderrama, king of the Saracens, in 
Spain, Mary's brother was one who fell a victim to the rage of the infidels. Hearing 
Page 116 of his martyrdom, she was filled with confusion at being left behind 
by one younger than herself, and went to Corduba, where, going into a church, 
she found Flora, who had left her retreat on the same motive. Conversing together, 
and finding they acted upon the same heroic princi- ples, and proposed the same 
glorious end of their labours, they agreed to go together, and declare their faith 
before the judge. Accordingly they proceeded to the magistrate, where Flora boldly 
told him, she looked on Mahomet as no better than a false prophet, and adulterer, 
and a magician. Mary also told the magistrate, that she professed the same faith, 
and entertained the same sentiments as Flora, and that she was sister to Walabonzus, 
who had already suffered for being a Christian. This behaviour so enraged the 
magistrate, that he ordered them to be committed to prison for some time, and 
then to be beheaded. The horrid sentence was executed on the 4th of November, 
A. D. 850. Perfectus was born at Corduba, and brought up in the christian faith. 
He made himself master of all the useful and polite literature of that age; and 
at length took priest's orders, and performed the duties of his office with great 
assiduity and punctuality. One day walking in the streets of Corduba, some Arabians 
entered into conversation with him, and among other questions, asked him his opinion 
of Jesus Christ and of Mahomet. Perfectus gave them an exact account of the christian 
faith, respecting the divinity of Christ, and the redemption of mankind: but would 
not deliver his sentiments concerning Mahomet. The Arabians pressed him to speak 
freely; but he said that what he should utter would not be agree- able to their 
ideas, and therefore he would be silent, as he did not wish to offend any one: 
they however still entreated him to utter his thoughts, declaring at the same 
time, that they would not be offended at any thing he should say. Believing them 
sincere, and hoping this might be the favourable time allotted by God for their 
conversion, Perfectus told them that the Christians looked on Mahomet as one of 
the false prophets foretold in the gospel, who were to seduce and deceive great 
numbers to their eternal ruin. To illustrate this assertion, he descant- ed on 
some of the actions of the impostor; endeavoured to show the impious doctrines, 
and abominable absurdities of the Alcoran; and ex- horted them, in very strong 
terms, to quit the miserable state in which they then were, and which would certainly 
be followed by eternal perdi- tion. The infidels could not hear such a discourse 
without conceiving indignation against the speaker. They thought proper, however, 
to disguise their resentment; but were resolved not to let him escape. At first, 
indeed, they were unwilling to use any violence, because they had given him a 
solemn assurance he should come to no harm: but they were soon eased of that scruple, 
and, watching a favourable opportunity, seized on him, hurried him away to one 
of their chief magistrates, and accused him of blaspheming their great prophet. 
On this the judge or- dered him to be put in chains and confined in prison, till 
the feast of their Ramadan, or Lent, when he should be made a victim to Mahomet. 
He heard the determination with joy, and prepared for his martyrdom with great 
fervency. At the time appointed he was led to the place of execu- tion, where 
he again made a confession of his faith, declared Mahomet an Page 117 impostor, 
and insisted that the Alcoran was filled with absurdities and blasphemies. In 
consequence of this he was sentenced to be beheaded, and was executed A. D. 850. 
His body was interred by the Christians. Win- ceslaus, duke of Bohemia, was educated 
in the faith of Christ. His father Wrattislaus, the preceding duke, was a valiant 
prince, and a pious Christian; but Drahomira, his mother, was a pagan, whose morals 
were as bad as her religion: she consented, however, to entrust her mother, Ludmilla, 
with the education of her eldest son. That holy lady had resided at Prague ever 
since the death of Boriver, her husband, the first duke of Bohemia who embraced 
the faith of Christ; and Winceslaus was sent to that city, to be brought up under 
her. Ludmilla undertook to form his heart to devotion and the love of God, and 
was assisted in the work by Paul her chaplain, a man of great sanctity and prudence, 
who likewise endeavoured to cultivate his mind in other branches of knowl- edge. 
The young prince consented to their endeavours; and by the grace of God, who had 
prepared him for their instructions, caused him to make astonishing progress: 
he was sent to a college at Budweis, about sixty miles from Prague, where several 
young persons of the first rank were placed, and studied under an excellent master, 
a native of Neisse in Silesia. When Wrattislaus died, his son Winceslaus was very 
young, on which account, Drahomira, his mother, declared herself regent during 
his minority. This princess, not having any one to controul her, gave vent to 
her rage against christianity. She began her administration with an order for 
shutting up the churches, repealed the laws in favour of the Christians, and removed 
all magistrates of that profession, supplying their places with pagans. Thus finding 
themselves encouraged, the pagans upon every frivolous pretence murdered the Christians 
with impunity; and if a Christian in his own defence killed a pagan, his life 
and that of nine other Christians were forfeited. Ludmilla was afflicted at these 
proceedings, as she could not behold a religion which she professed despised, 
a religion too which her consort had established with so much difficulty and zeal. 
Yet she could not think of any expedient to prevent the total extirpation of christianity 
in Bohemia, except persuading Winceslaus, young as he was, to assume the reins 
of government. Winces- laus at first declined engaging in this task; but upon 
his grandmother promising to assist him with her advice, he complied with her 
request: and, to prevent further disputes, divided the country between himself 
and his younger brother Bolislaw, whose name is still retained by a town and a 
considerable district of that country. Drahomira now attached herself to Bolislaw, 
who was a pagan, and implicitly followed her max- ims. Concerning the behaviour 
of Winceslaus after his assuming the sovereignty, and the fate of the aged and 
worthy Ludmilla, the annals of Bohemia state these particulars: "Winceslaus, pursuant 
to the impres- sions of virtue which he had received from his grandmother and 
others employed in his education, was more careful than ever to preserve the innocence 
of his morals, and acquired some new degree of wisdom and Page 118 goodness every 
day. He was as humble, sober, and chaste, was master of his own motions, and in 
full possession of soverign authority, as when under the government of those on 
whom he was taught to look as his superiors. He spent great part of the night 
in prayer, and the whole day in acts of piety; directing all his views to the 
establishment of peace, justice, and religion in his dominions. He was assisted 
in these char- itable and Christian labours by able ministers; and nothing of 
conse- quence was done without the advice of Ludmilla. This excellent princess 
being informed that Drahomira, transported with rage at the success of her directions, 
had formed a design against her life, and that it would scarcely be in her power 
to save herself, was so far from being dis- turbed at the apprehension of death, 
or desisting from what had made her odious to that wicked woman, that she exerted 
herself more vigorously than ever for the maintenance of religion, and confirming 
the prince in his resolutions. Being now assured that her death was near, and 
that several persons were employed to dispatch her at the first convenient opportunity, 
she called her servants together, acknowledged their fidel- ity in her service 
with a liberal hand, and distributed her goods and money among the poor. Thus 
divested of all she possessed in the world, she went to her chapel, received the 
holy eucharist, and then employed herself in prayer, recommended her soul to God, 
and expected his will with the utmost tranquillity and resignation. This was her 
situation, when two ruffians entered the chapel, seized on her, and strangled 
her with her own veil. The young duke severely felt the loss of his grand- mother, 
yet he did not punish the offenders, knowing that they had been instigated to 
what they did by his mother. He therefore addressed him- self to God only, entreated 
the throne of grace for his mother's pardon and conversion, and patiently submitted 
to the dispensations of Provi- dence. As many factions were erected in his dominions 
by means of his mother and brother, and as Winceslaus himself seemed of an unwarlike 
disposition, a neighbouring prince, Radislaus of Gurima, determined to invade 
that part of Bohemia which belonged to him. He accordingly entered Bohemia at 
the head of a considerable army, and immediately commenced hostilities. Winceslaus, 
on hearing of those proceedings, sent a message to the invader, to know what offence 
he had given him, and what terms he required to quit his dominions. Radislaus, 
mistaking the temper of Winceslaus, looked upon this message as arising from timidity; 
he therefore answered in a haughty manner, made frivolous excuses for having commenced 
the quarrel, and concluded by insisting that Winceslaus should surrender to him 
his dominions. This insolent demand obliged Winceslaus to put himself at the head 
of an army in defence of himself and his people. He accordingly raised a considerable 
body of forces, and marched against the enemy. When the two armies were ready 
to engage, Winceslaus obtained a conference with Radislaus, and observed, that 
as it would be unjust to hazard the lives of so many innocent men, the most eligible 
method of putting an end to the dispute would be by single combat. Radislaus accepted 
the proposal with joy, thinking that he was much more expert in the use of arms 
than his antagonist. They according- ly engaged in sight of the two armies, and 
the victory seemed doubtful Page 119 for some time, till, at length, it declared 
in favour of Winceslaus; when his antagonist was obliged to relinquish his pretended 
claim, and retire into his own country. Winceslaus being thus freed from the fears 
of a foreign enemy, turned his thoughts to domestic reformation. He removed corrupt 
judges and magistrates, and filled their places with persons of integrity: he 
put an end to oppression, punished such nobles as tyrannized over their vassals, 
and made other wise regulations, which while they relived the poor and helpless, 
gave great offence to the great and rich, as they abridged their power, and took 
from them their self importance and assumed consequence. Hence many became factious, 
and the malcontents censured his best actions, and spoke contemptuously of his 
application to prayer, fasting, and other acts of religion, which they insinuated 
were low employments for a prince, and incompatible with the courage and policy 
necessary for the government of a state. His mother and brother were still the 
most inveterate of his enemies, and they resolved to remove him by the first favourable 
expedient. Draho- mira and Bolislaw were concerting measures for executing their 
wretched purpose, when they understood that Winceslaus had desired the pope to 
send some priests into his dominions, with whom he proposed to spend the remainder 
of his days in a religious retreat. This news suspended the execution of their 
conspiracy against him for some time; but, perceiving the affair did not come 
to a conclusion as soon as was necessary for their ambitious views, they resumed 
their cruel artifices against him, and gained their ends in the following treacherous 
manner:- Bolislaw having been some time married, his princess at length brought 
him forth a son. This circumstance, which should have diffused joy throughout 
the family, furnished Drahomira and Bolislaw with an idea of the most horrid nature, 
and the innocent infant was made the occasion of perpetrating a deed of unexampled 
cruelty. The scheme concerted between the bigoted Bolislaw and his wicked mother 
was to get Winceslaus into their power. The birth of the child furnished them 
with a pretence, and a polite message was dispatched to the unsuspecting duke 
to partake of an enter- tainment given upon the occasion. Winceslaus not having 
the least suspi- cion of their purpose repaired to the court of Bolislaw, where 
he was received with the greatest appearance of cordiality. He partook of the 
entertainment, and was festive till it grew rather late, when he retired before 
the rest of the company, as he was not fond of late hours, and never neglected 
his devotions to the Almighty before he lay down to rest. When he had withdrawn, 
Drahomira urged Bolislaw to follow his brother instantly, and murder him. The 
prince took his mother's sangui- nary advice, and repairing to his brother's chamber, 
he found him kneel- ing, and in fervent prayer, when he rushed upon him, and plunged 
a dagger to his heart. Thus fell Winceslaus, the third duke of Bohemia, by a most 
infernal act of treachery and fratricide. Adalbert, bishop of Prague, was a Bohemian 
by birth. His parents were persons of rank, but more distinguished for virtue 
and piety than for opulence and lineage. They had the highest expectations of 
their son, and gave him a complete education; but their joy was in some measure 
damped by his falling into Page 120 a dropsy, from which he was with difficulty 
recovered. When cured they sent him to Magdeburg, and committed him to the care 
of the archbishop of that city, who completed his education. The rapid progress 
which Adalbert made in human and divine learning made him dear to the prelate, 
who, to the authority of a teacher, joined all the tenderness of a parent. Having 
spent nine years at Magdeburg, he retired to his own country upon the death of 
the archbishop, and entered himself among the clergy at Prague. Dithmar, bishop 
of Prague, died soon after the return of Adalbert to that city; and, in his last 
moments, expressed great contrition for having been ambitious and solicitous of 
worldly honours and riches. Adalbert, who was present, was so sensibly affected 
at the bishop's dying sentiments, that he received them as an admonition to the 
strict practice of virtue, which he afterwards exercised with the great- est attention, 
spending his time in prayer, and relieving the poor with his fortune. Soon after 
the decease of Dithmar, an assembly was held for the choice of a successor, which 
consisted of the clergy of Prague, and the chief men of Bohemia. Adalbert's character 
determined them to raise him to the vacant see, which they did on the 19th of 
February, 983, and immediately dispatched messengers to Verona to desire that 
Otho II would confirm the election. The emperor granted the request, ordered Adalbert 
to repair to court for investiture, gave him the ring and crosier, and then sent 
him to the archbishop of Mentz for consecration. The ceremony was performed on 
the 29th of June the same year, and he was received at Prague with great demonstrations 
of public joy. He divided the revenue of his see into four parts, according to 
the direction of the canons extant in the fifth century. They first was employed 
in building and ornaments of the church; the second went to the maintenance of 
the clergy; the third was laid out for the relief of the poor; and the fourth 
reserved for the support of himself and family, which always comprehended twelve 
indigent persons, to whom he allowed daily subsist- ence. He performed his duty 
with the utmost assiduity, and spent a great portion of his time in preaching 
and exhorting the people. His conduct was discreet and humane, and his manners 
neither too severe nor too indulgent. Yet some things which he could not remedy 
gave him great uneasiness, particularly having a plurality of wives, and selling 
Chris- tians to the Jews for trivial offences. Hence he determined to consult 
the pope, and made a journey to Rome. John, who then occupied the papal chair, 
received him with cordiality, and advised him to give up his bishopric rather 
than be witness of enormities which he could not reme- dy. He determined to take 
the pope's advice, and to devote the remainder of his days to mortification and 
silence; and began by giving all his treasures to the poor. He was desirous however 
before he entirely secluded himself from mankind, of seeing the Holy Land, and 
set of accordingly in company with three persons. On their way they arrived at 
Mount Cassino, where the chiefs of the monastery received them in a very friendly 
manner, and being apprised of the cause of their journey, when they were about 
to depart, the superior of the monastery addressed himself to Adalbert, observing, 
that the journey he had undertaken would Page 121 give him more trouble and uneasiness 
than he was aware of; that the frequent desire of travelling often proceeded more 
from a restless disposition than real religion. "Therefore," said he, "if you 
will listen to my advice, leave the world at once with sincerity, and settle in 
some religious community, without desiring to see more than you have already seen." 
Adalbert adopted the sentiments of the superior, and took up his residence in 
that monastery, where he then thought he might live entirely recluse: but he was 
mistaken; for the priests by accident came to a knowledge of the rank and dignity 
of their colleague, and began to treat him with great deference and respect, which 
occasioned him to leave the place. Nilus, a Grecian, being then at the head of 
a community not far from Mount Cassino, Adalbert went to him and begged to be 
received into his monastery. He assured him he would comply with his request, 
if the practice of his religious family would be agreeable to him: he told him 
that the house in which he and his people lived was given to them by those of 
Mount Cassino; and therefore it might not be safe for him to receive one that 
had left that community; but he advised him to return to Rome, and apply to Leo, 
who, after putting his virtue and courage to a proper test, conducted him to the 
pope, and, with the consent of that pontiff and the whole college of cardinals, 
gave him the habit on Holy Thursday, in the year 990. Of the three persons by 
whom he had been attended since he had had the pope's advice for resigning his 
bishopric, two of them had now left him; but the third, his brother Gaudentius, 
followed his example, and engaged in the same community. Adalbert, full of humility, 
took a particular pleasure in the lowest employments of the house, and lived an 
excellent pattern of christian simplicity and obedience. The archbishop of Mentz, 
the metropolitan, being exceedingly afflicted at the disorders in the church of 
Prague, and wishing for the return of the bishop, with whose retreat he was not 
for some time acquainted, after five years of absence heard that Adal- bert was 
at Rome, whither he sent a deputation to press his return to his diocese. The 
pope summoned a council to consider of the deputation, and after a warm dispute 
between the monks and deputies, the latter carried their point, and Adalbert was 
ordered to return to his diocese; but at the same time had permission to quit 
his charge again if he found his flock incorrigible as before. The inhabitants 
of Prague met him on his arrival with great joy, and promised obedience to his 
directions: but they soon forgot their promises, and relapsed into their former 
vices, which obliged him a second time to leave them, and return to his monastery. 
Then the archbishop of Mentz sent another deputation to Rome, and desired that 
his suffragan might be again ordered back to his diocese. Gregory V. who was then 
pope, commanded him to return to Prague; and with great reluctance he obeyed. 
The Bohemians, however, did not look upon him as before, but deemed him the censor 
of their faults, and the enemy of their pleasures, and threatened himwith death 
upon his arrival; but not having him yet in their power, contented them- Page 
122 selves with falling on his relations, several of whom they murdered, plundered 
their estates, and set fire to their houses. Adalbert had intelligence of these 
outrageous proceedings, and did not judge it prudent to proceed on his journey. 
He therefore went to the duke of Poland, who had a particular respect for him, 
and engaged that prince to sound the Bohemians in regard to his return; but could 
get no better answer from that wretched people than "that they were sinners hardened 
in iniquity; and Adalbert a saint, and consequently not fit to live among them; 
for which reason he was not to hope for a tolerable recep- tion at Prague." The 
bishop thought this message discharged him from any further concern for that church, 
and began to direct his thoughts to the conversion of infidels; for which purpose 
he repaired to Dantzic, where he converted and baptised many, which so enraged 
the pagan pri- ests, that they fell upon him and dispatched him with darts, on 
the 23rd of April, A. D. 997. Page 123  SECTION III.  A GENERAL ACCOUNT 
OF THE PERSECUTIONS IN THE ELEVENTH CENTURY.  Alphage, afterwards archbishop 
of Canterbury, came from a considerable family in Gloucestershire, and received 
an education suitable to his birth. His parents were Christians, and he seemed 
to inherit all their virtues. He was prudent, humble, pious and chaste; and made 
a rapid progress both in polite literature and theological learning. In order 
to be more at leisure to contemplate the beauties of sacred history, he determined 
to renounce his fortune, quit his home, and become a recluse. He accordingly retired 
to a monastery of Benedictines at Deerhurst, in Gloucestershire, and soon after 
took the monastic habit. Here he lived with the utmost temperance, and spent the 
greater part of his time in prayer. But not thinking the austerities he underwent 
in this monastery sufficiently severe, he retired to a lonely cell near Bath, 
and lived in a manner still more rigid; but some devout persons finding out his 
retreat, his austerity soon became the subject of conversation in the neighbouring 
villages, where many flocked to him and begged to be taken under his pastoral 
care. Consenting to their importunities, he raised a monastery near the cell by 
the contributions of several well-disposed persons; formed his new pupils into 
a community, and placed a prior over them. Having prescribed rules for their regulation, 
he again retired to his cell, fervently wishing to pass the remainder of his days 
in religi- ous security; when the following affair again drew him from his retreat:- 
The see of Winchester being vacant by the death of Ethelwold, a dispute arose 
respecting a successor to that bishopric. The clergy had been driven out of the 
cathedral for their scandalous lives, but were admitted again by king Ethelred, 
upon certain terms of reformation. The monks who had been introduced upon their 
expulsion, looked upon them- selves as the chapter of that church; and hence arose 
a violent contest between them and the clergy who had been re-admitted, about 
the election of a bishop; while both parties were vigorously determined upon promot- 
ing their own favourite. This dispute at last ran so high, that Dunstan, Page 
124 archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, was obliged to inter- pose, 
and he consecrated Alphage to the vacant bishopric, to the general satisfaction 
of all concerned in the election. The behaviour of Alphage was a proof of his 
being equal to the dignity of his vocation. Piety flourished in his diocese; unity 
was established among his clergy and people; and the conduct of the church of 
Winchester made the bishop the admiration of the whole kingdom. Dunstan had an 
extraordinary veneration for Alphage, and when at the point of death, made it 
his ardent request to God that he might succeed him in the see of Canterbury, 
which accord- ingly happened, though not till about eighteen years after Destiny's 
death. In the interval the metropolitan church was governed by three successive 
prelates, the last of whom was Alfric; upon whose decease, 1006, Alphage was raised 
to the see of Canterbury. The people belonging to the diocese of Winchester were 
too sensible of the loss they sus- tained by his translation not to regret his 
removal to Canterbury. Soon after he was made archbishop he went to Rome, and 
received the pall from pope John XVIII. When Alphage had governed the see of Canterbury 
about four years with great reputation, the Danes made an incursion into England. 
Ethelred, who then reigned, was a prince of very weak mind and pusillanimous disposition. 
Being afraid to face the enemy himself, and too irresolute to furnish others with 
the means of acting, he suffered his country to be ravaged with impunity, and 
the greatest depredations to be committed by the enemy. Upon this occasion, archbishop 
Alphage acted with great resolution and humanity: he went boldly to the Danes, 
purchased the freedom of several whom they had made captives, found means to send 
food to others whom he had not money enough to redeem, and even made converts 
of some of the Danes: but the latter circumstance made the Danes, who still continued 
pagans, greater enemies to him than they would otherwise have been, and they were 
determined upon revenge. Edric, an English malcontent and traitor, gave the Danes 
every encour- agement, and assisted them in laying seize to Canterbury. When the 
design of attacking the city was known, many of the principal people made a pecipitate 
flight, and would have persuaded Alphage to follow their example; but he refused 
to listen to such a proposal, assured them he could not think of abandoning his 
flock when his presence was more necessary than ever, and was resolved to hazard 
his life in their defence. While he was employed in assisting his people, Canterbury 
was taken by storm, the enemy poured into the town, and destroyed all that came 
in their way. The monks endeavoured to detain the archbishop in the church, where 
they hoped he might be safe: but concern for his flock made him break from them 
and run into the midst of danger. On this occasion he addressed the enemy, and 
begged the people might be saved, and that they would discharge their whole fury 
upon him. They according- ly seized him, bound, insulted, and abused him, and 
obliged him to remain on the spot till his church was burnt, and the monks were 
mas- sacred. They then decimated all the inhabitants; after which they con- fined 
the archbishop in a dungeon, where they kept him for several months. During his 
confinement they proposed to him to redeem his liber- ty with the sum of 3,000l. 
and to persuade the king to purchase their Page 125 departure out of the kingdom 
with a farther sum of 10,000l. His circum- stances not allowing him to satisfy 
their exorbitant demand, they bound him, and put him to severe torments, to oblige 
him to discover the treasures of his church; upon which they assured him of his 
life and liberty. They then remanded him to prison, confined him six days longer, 
and taking him with them to Greenwich, brought him to trial. He still remained 
inflexible with respect to the church treasures; but exhorted them to forsake 
their idolatry and embrace christianity. This so greatly incensed the Danes, that 
the soldiers dragged him out of the camp, and beat him unmercifully. Alphage bore 
this treatment patiently, and even prayed for his persecutors. One of the soldiers 
who had been converted and baptised by him, was greatly afflicted that his pains 
should be so lingering, as he knew his death was determined on: he, therefore, 
in a kind of barbarous compassion, cut off his head, and thus completed his martyrdom. 
This happened on April 19, A.D. 1012, on the very spot where the church at Greenwich, 
which is dedicated to him, now stands. After death his body was thrown into the 
Thames, but being found the next day, it was buried in the cathedral of St. Paul's 
by the bishops of London and Lincoln; whence it was in the year 1023, removed 
to Canterbury by Ethelwoth, the archbishop of that province. Gerard, a Venetian, 
having devoted himself to the service of God from youth, entered into a religi- 
ous house for some time, and there determined to visit the Holy Land. On arriving 
in Hungary, he became acquainted with Stephen, the king of that country, who acted 
the parts of prince and preacher, and not only regu- lated his subjects by wholesome 
laws, but taught them religious duties. Finding Gerard qualified to instruct his 
people, he tried to detain him in his kingdom; and, at length, founding several 
churches, he made Gerard bishop of that of Chonad. Here the new prelate had a 
very diffi- cult task to perform, the people of his diocese being accustomed to 
idolatry. Gerard however, assiduous in his zeal for the salvation of his flock, 
laboured to bring them to a sense of their duty, and soon had the pleasure to 
find that his endeavours were successful, his sweetness of disposition winning 
greatly upon the people. His success was not con- fined to his own diocese, but 
extended to the adjacent country, where his doctrines successfully spread, and 
many became converts to the pure faith of Christ. Wherever the Gospel made its 
way by his ministry, he took care to establish ecclesiastical discipline for the 
preservation of religion, and made several useful regulations in the public service 
of the church. His exemplary conduct was as instructive as his exhorta- tions, 
and did much to convince his converts of the truth and dignity of their new profession. 
He was remarkable for an uncommon tenderness for the poor, especially those who 
suffered sickness, or were incapable of following their accustomed employments. 
During the life of Stephen, Gerard received every assistance which that excellent 
monarch could afford him; but on his demise, his nephew Peter, who succeeded him, 
was of so different a temper, that Gerard was greatly perplexed. At length, the 
tyranny of Peter exasperated his subjects so much, that they deposed him, and 
placed Ouvo on the throne. They, however, soon found that they had changed from 
bad to worse; for Ouvo proved a greater monster of Page 126 cruelty than his predecessor. 
At Easter, he repaired to Chonad, in order to receive the crown from the hands 
of Gerard. When he arrived, the other prelates of the kingdom, who were assembled, 
assured the prince of their affection for his person, and promised to concur in 
his corona- tion; but Gerard refused to pay that compliment to a public and mali- 
cious enemy; and told him, that he could not look on Peter's exclusion as regular, 
and consequently should not proceed to do any thing to the prejudice of his title: 
he then said that if he persisted in his usurpa- tion, Providence would soon put 
an end to his life and reign. Ouvo, growing more insupportable than his predecessor, 
was brought to the scaffold in the year 1044; upon which Peter was recalled, and 
placed on the throne a second time; but his deposition and retirement had made 
no alteration in his temper, so that he was again deprived of the royal dignity 
in less than two years. An offer was then made of the crown to Andrew, son of 
Ladislaws, cousin-german of Stephen, on condition that he would employ his authority 
in extirpating the Christian religion from Hungary. The ambitious prince consented 
to the proposal, and promised to do his utmost to re-establish the idolatrous 
worship of his deluded ancestors. Gerard, informed of this impious bargain, remonstrated 
against the enormity of Andrew's crime, and persuaded him to withdraw his promise. 
He undertook to go to that prince, attended by three other prelates, full of zeal 
for religion. The king was at Alba Regalis; but as the four bishops were about 
to cross the Danube, they were stopped by a party of soldiers posted there by 
order of a man of quality in the neighbourhood, remarkable for his aversion to 
the christian religion, and to Stephen's memory. They were attacked with a shower 
of stones, and the soldiers beat them unmercifully, and at length dispatched them 
with lances. Their martyrdom happened in the year 1045. Stanislaus, bishop of 
Cracow, was of an illustrious polish family. The piety of his parents was equal 
to their opulence, and they rendered their wealth subservient to every purpose 
of benevolence. Stanislaus was their only child, and when he was of proper age, 
they employed matters in several branches of learning to instruct him. He possessed 
a penetrating genius, retentive memory, and solid understanding; hence study became 
his amusement. His disposition was not inferior to his abilities; and he voluntarily 
gave himself, in the dawn of youth, to such austerities as might have ac- quired 
reputation for a hermit. In process of time he was sent to a seminary of learning 
in Poland, and afterwards to the university of Paris. Continuing several years 
in France, he returned to his own coun- try, and on the demise of his parents 
became possessed of a great for- tune; but he devoted most of his property to 
charitable uses, retaining only a small portion for his own expenses. His views 
were now solely directed to the ministry; but he remained for some time undetermined 
whether he should embrace a monastic life, or engage among the active clergy. 
He was at length persuaded to the latter by Lambert Zula, bishop of Cracow, who 
gave him holy orders, and made him a canon of his cathe- dral. In this capacity 
he lived in a most exemplary manner, and per- formed his duties with unremitting 
assiduity. Lambert was charmed with Page 127 the many virtues which so particularly 
distinguished Stanislaus, and would fain have resigned his bishopric to him, alleging 
as a reason in his great age; but Stanislaus absolutely refused to accept the 
see, for the contrary reason, his own want of years: being then only 36 years 
old, he deemed that too early an age for a man to undertake the import- ant care 
of a diocese. Lambert, however, made him a substitute upon various occasions, 
by which he became thoroughly acquainted with all that related to the bishopric: 
and the former dying on November 25, 1071, all concerned in the choice of a successor 
declared for Stanis- laus: but he declined the acceptance for the same reason 
as before. At length the king, clergy, and nobility unanimously joined in writing 
to pope Alexander the Second who, at their entreaty, sent an express order that 
Stanislaus should accept the bishopric. He then obeyed, and exerted himself to 
the utmost in improving his flock. He was equally careful with respect both to 
clergy and laity, kept a list of all the poor in his diocese, and by feeding the 
hungry, clothing the naked, and adminis- tering remedies to the sick, he proved 
himself not only the godly pas- tor, but the physician and benefactor of the people. 
Bolislaus, the second king of Poland, had many good qualities, but giving way 
too much of his passions, he committed several enormities, till from being deemed 
a good king, he at length had the appellation of CRUEL. The nobility were shocked 
at his conduct, and the clergy saw his proceedings with grief; but Stanislaus 
alone had the courage to tell him of his faults. The king was greatly exasperated 
at his freedom; but awed by the virtues of the bishop, he dissembled his resentment, 
and appearing to be con- vinced of his errors, promised to reform his conduct. 
However, so far from designing to perform his promise, he complained to some of 
his sycophants of the freedom that Stanislaus had taken with him, and they condemned 
the boldness of the bishop. The king soon after attempted the chastity of a married 
lady, who rejected his offers with disdain, which piqued his pride so much that 
he seized her by force and ruined her. This greatly alarmed all the nobility: 
none knew how long his own wife, daughter, or sister, might be safe; they therefore 
assembled, and call- ing the clergy to their assistance, entreated Peter, archbishop 
of Gresne, to remonstrate to the king on the impropriety of his conduct. Nevertheless, 
the archbishop declined the task; for though a man of virtue, he was of an uncommonly 
timid disposition. Several other pre- lates imitated his example, and Stanislaus 
was, as before, the only one who had courage and zeal sufficient to perform what 
he looked upon as an indispensable duty. He, therefore, put himself at the head 
of a select number of ecclesiastics, noblemen, and gentlemen; and proceeding to 
court, addressed the king in a solemn manner on the heinousness of his crime. 
The king, as soon as he had done speaking, flew into a violent passion, complained 
of the want of respect to his royal dignity and vowed revenge for what he called 
an insult to his person. Stanislaus, however, not in the least intimidated by 
his menaces, visited him twice more, and remonstrated with him in a similar manner, 
which only in- creased his anger. The nobility and clergy finding that the admonitions 
of the bishop had not the desired effect upon the king, thought proper Page 128 
to interpose. The nobility entreated the bishop to refrain from exasper- ating 
a monarch of so ferocious a temper; and the clergy endeavoured to persuade the 
king not to be offended with Stanislaus for his charitable remonstrances. But 
the haughty sovereign determined at any rate to get rid of a prelate, who, in 
his opinion, was so censorious; and hearing that the bishop was by himself in 
the chapel of St. Michael, at a small distance from the town, he dispatched some 
soldiers to murder him. The men readily undertook the task; but when they came 
into the presence of Stanislaus, the venerable aspect of the prelate struck them 
with such awe, that they could not effect what they had promised. On their return, 
the king finding they had not obeyed his orders, flew into a rage, snatched a 
dagger from one of them, and ran furiously to the chapel, where, finding Stanislaus 
at the altar, he plunged the weapon into his heart. This occurred on the 8th of 
Before this time the church of Christ was more than tainted with the errors of 
popery, and superstition began to predominate; but a few, who perceived the pernicious 
tendency of such errors, determined to preserve the light of the gospel in its 
purity and splendour, and to disperse the clouds which artful priests had raised 
about it in order to delude the people. The principal of these worthies was Berengarius, 
who, about the year 1000, boldly preached evangelical truth according to its primitive 
simplicity. Many from conviction embraced his doctrine, and were on that account, 
called Berengarians. Berengarius was succeeded by Peter Bruis, who preached at 
Toulouse, under the protection of the earl Hildephonsus; and the tenets of the 
reformers, with the reason of their separation from the church of Rome, were published 
in a book written by Bruis, under the title of ANTICHRIST. In the year 1140, the 
number of the reformed was so great, that the probability of their increasing 
alarmed the pope, who wrote to several princes to banish them from their domin- 
ions, and employed many learned men to write against them. In 1147, Henry, of 
Toulouse, being deemed their most eminent preacher, they were called Henricians; 
and as they would not admit of any proofs relative to religion but what could 
be deduced from the scriptures, the popish party gave them the name of Apostolics. 
Peter Waldo, a native of Lyons, at this time became a strenuous opposer of popery; 
and from him the reformed received the appellation of Waldoys, or Waldenses. Waldo 
was a man eminent for learning and benevolence; his doctrines were very gener- 
ally admired, and he was followed by multitudes of all classes. The bishop of 
Lyons taking umbrage at the freedom with which he treated the pope and the Romish 
clergy, set to admonish him to refrain in future from such discourses; but Waldo 
answered, "That he could not be silent in a cause of importance at the salvation 
of men's souls, wherein he Page 129 must obey God rather than man." His principal 
charges against the pope and popery were, that the Roman Catholics affirm the 
church of Rome to be the infallible church of Christ upon earth, and that the 
pope is its head, and the vicar of Christ; that they hold the absurd doctrine 
of transubstantiation, insisting that the bread and wine given in the sacrament 
is the identical body and blood of Christ who was nailed to the cross; that they 
believe there is a place called purgatory where souls after this life are purged 
from the sins of mortality, and that the pains and penalties here inflicted may 
be abated according to the masses said by and the money paid to the priest; that 
they teach the communion of one kind, and the receiving the bread only to be sufficient 
for the laity, though the clergy must be indulged with both bread and wine; that 
they pray to the Virgin Mary and saints, though their prayers ought to be immediately 
to God; that they pray for souls departed, though God decides their fate immediately 
on the decease of the person; that they will not perform the service of the church 
in a language understood by the people in general; that they place their devotion 
in the number of prayers, and not in the intent of the heart; that they forbid 
marriage to the clergy though Christ allowed it; and that they use many things 
in baptism, though HE used only water. When pope Alexan- der the Third was informed 
of these transactions, he excommunicated Waldo and his adherents, and commanded 
the bishop of Lyons to extermi- nate them. Thus began the papal persecutions against 
the Waldenses. The following were the tenets maintained by the waldenses:- l. 
Holy oil is not to be mingled with water in baptism. 2. Prayers used over things 
inanimate are superstitious. 3. Flesh may be eaten in Lent; the clergy may marry; 
and auricular confession is unnecessary. 4 Confirma- tion is no sacrament; we 
are not bound to pay obedience to the pope; ministers should live upon tithes; 
no dignity sets one clergyman above another, for their superiority can only be 
drawn from real worth. 5. Images in churches are absurd; image-worship is idolatry; 
the pope's indulgences are ridiculous; and the miracles pretended to be done by 
the church of Rome are false. 6. Fornication and public stews ought not to be 
allowed; purgatory is a fiction; and deceased persons, though saints, ought not 
to be prayed to. 7. Extreme unction is not a sacrament; and masses, indulgences, 
and prayers, are of no service to the dead. 8. The Lord's prayer ought to be the 
rule of all other prayers. Waldo remained three years undiscovered in Lyons, though 
the utmost diligence was used to apprehend him, but at length he found an opportunity 
of escaping from the place of his concealment to the mountains of Dauphiny and 
Picardy, which so exasperated Philip, king of France, that he put the latter province, 
which contained most of his followers, under mili- tary execution; destroying 
above 300 gentlemen's seats, erasing some Page 130 walled towns, burning many 
of the reformed, and driving others into Normandy and Germany. Notwithstanding 
these persecutions the reformed religion continued to flourish, and the Waldenses, 
in various parts, became more numerous than ever. At length the pope accused them 
of heresy, and the monks of immorality; the former asserting that they had fallen 
into many errors, and the latter that they committed many evils. These slanders 
however they refuted; but the pope, incensed at their increase, used all manner 
of arts for their extirpation; such as excom- munications, anathemas, canons, 
constitutions, decrees, &c. by which they were rendered incapable of holding 
places of trust, honour, or profit; their lands were seized, their goods confiscated, 
and they were not permitted to be buried in consecrated ground. Some of the Waldenses 
having taken refuge in Spain, Aldephonsus, king of Arragon, at the instigation 
of the pope, published an edict, strictly ordering all Romans catholics to persecute 
them whenever they could be found; and decreeing that all who gave them the least 
assistance should be deemed traitors. The year after this edict Aldephonsus was 
severely punished by the hand of Providence; for his son was defeated in a great 
battle, and 50,000 of his men slain, by which a considerable portion of his kingdom 
fell into the hands of the Moors. The reformed ministers continued to preach boldly 
against the Romish church; and Peter Waldo, in particular, wherever he went, asserted, 
that the pope was antichrist, that mass was an abomination, that the host was 
an idol, and that purgatory was a fable. These proceedings of Waldo and his reformed 
companions, occa- sioned the origin of the inquisition; for pope Innocent III 
elected certain monks inquisitors, to find and deliver over the reformed to the 
secular power. The monks upon the least surmise or information delivered over 
the reformed to the magistrate, and the magistrate delivered them to the executioner; 
for the process was short, as an accusation was deemed adequate to guilt, and 
a fair trial was never granted to the accused. When the pope found that these 
cruel means had not the desired effect, he determined to try others of a more 
mild nature; he therefore sent several learned monks to preach among the Waldenses, 
and induce them to change their opinions. Among these was one Dominic, who was 
extremely zealous in the cause of popery. He instituted an order, which from him 
was called the order of Dominican friars; and the members of this order have ever 
since been principal agents in the various inquisi- tions of the world. The power 
of the inquisitors was unlimited; they proceeded against whom they pleased without 
consideration of age, sex, or rank. If the accusers were ever so infamous, the 
accusation was deemed valid; and even anonymous informations sent by letter were 
thought sufficient evidence. To be rich was a crime equal to heresy; therefore 
many who had money were accused of it, or of being favourers of heretics. The 
dearest friends and kindred could not, without danger, serve any one who was imprisoned 
on account of religion: to convey to those who were confined a little straw, or 
give them a cup of water, was called favouring the heretics: no lawyer dared to 
plead even for his own brother, or to note or register any thing in favour of 
the reformed. The Page 131 malice of the papists, indeed, went beyond the grave, 
and the bones of many Waldenses, who had been long dead, were dug up and burnt. 
If a man on his death-bed were accused of being a follower of Waldo, his estates 
were confiscated, and the heir defrauded of his inheritance; and some were ever 
obliged to make pilgrimages to the Holy Land, while the Domin- icans took possession 
of their houses and properties, and when the owners returned would often pretend 
not to know them. A knight named Enraudus, being accused of embracing the opinions 
of Waldo, was burnt at Paris, A.D. 1201. About twenty years after, such numbers 
of the re- formed were apprehended, that the archbishops of Aix, Arles, and Nar- 
bonne, took compassion on them, and thus expressed themselves to the inquisitors- 
"We hear that you have apprehended such a number of Wal- denses, that it is not 
only impossible to defray the charge of their food and confinement, but to provide 
lime and stone to build prisons for them." In the year 1380, a monk inquisitor, 
named Francis Boralli, had a commission granted him by pope Clement VII to search 
for and punish the Waldenses in Aix, Ambrone, Geneva, Savoy, Orange, Arles, Vienna, 
Venice, and Avignon. He went to Ambrone, and summoned all the inhabit- ants to 
appear before him; when those who were found to be in the re- formed religion, 
were delivered over to the secular power, and burnt; and those who did not appear 
were excommunicated for contumacy, and had their effects confiscated. In the distribution 
of these effects, the clergy had the lion's share, more than two thirds of every 
man's proper- ty who was condemned, and the secular power less than one third, 
and sometimes next to nothing. All the reformed inhabitants of the other places 
named in the commission of this ecclesiastic were equal suffer- ers. In the year 
1400, the waldenses who resided in the valley of Pragela, were, at the instigation 
of some priests, suddenly attacked by a body of troops, who plundered their houses, 
murdered the inhabitants, or drove them to the Alps, where great numbers were 
frozen to death, it being in the depth of winter. In 1460, a persecution was carried 
on in Dauphiny against the same people, by the archbishop of Ambrone who employed 
a monk, named John Vayleti; and this monk proceeded with such violence, that not 
only the Waldenses, but even many papists were suf- ferers: for if any of them 
expressed compassion or pity for the unof- fending people, who were so cruelly 
treated, they were sure to be ac- cused of partiality to heretics, and to share 
their fate. At length Vayleti's proceedings became so intolerable, that a great 
number of the papists themselves signed a petition against him to Louis XI king 
of France, who granted the request of the petitioners, and sent an order to the 
governor of Dauphiny to stop the persecution. Vayleti, however, by order of the 
archbishop, still continued it; for taking advantage of the last clause of the 
edict, he pretended that he did nothing contrary to the king's precept, who had 
ordered punishment to such as affirmed any thing against the holy catholic faith. 
This persecution at length con- cluded with the death of the archbishop, which 
happened in 1487. Pope Innocent VIII in 1488, determined to persecute the Waldenses. 
To this Page 132 end he sent Albert de Capitaneis, archdeacon of Cremona, to France; 
who, on arriving in Dauphiny, craved the assistance of the king's lieutenant to 
exterminate them from the valley of Loyse. The lieutenant readily granted his 
assistance, and marched a body of troops, to the place; but when they arrived 
in the valley, they found that it had been deserted by the inhabitants, who had 
retired to the mountains, and hid themselves in dens and caves of the earth. The 
archdeacon and lieutenant immediately followed them with their troops, and catching 
many cast them headlong from precipices, by which they were dashed to pieces. 
Several, however, retired to the innermost parts of the caverns, and knowing the 
intrica- cies, were able to conceal themselves. The archdeacon and lieutenant 
not being capable of finding them ordered the mouths of the caves to be filled 
with faggots, which being lighted, those within were suffocated. On searching 
the caves, numerous children were found smothered, either in their cradles or 
in their mother's arms; and upon the whole, about 3000 men, women, and children, 
were destroyed in this persecution. After this tragical work, the lieutenant and 
archdeacon proceeded with the troops of Pragelo and Frassaniere, to persecute 
the Waldenses in those parts. But these having heard of the fate of their brethren 
in the valley of Loyse, thought proper to arm themselves; and by fortifying the 
different avenues, and bravely disputing the passages through them, they so harassed 
the troops that the lieutenant was compelled to retire without effecting his purpose. 
In 1594, Anthony Fabria and Christopher de Salience, having a commission to persecute 
the Waldenses of Dauphiny, put some to death, sequestered the estates of others, 
and confiscated the goods of many; but Louis XII coming to the crown in 1598, 
the Wal- denses petitioned him for a restitution of their properties. The king 
determined to have the affair impartially canvassed, and set a commis- sioner 
of his own, together with a commissary from the pope, to make the proper inquiries. 
Witnesses against the Waldenses having been examined, the innocence of those poor 
people evidently appeared, and the king's commissioner therefore declared- "That 
he only desired to be as good a Christian as the worst of them." This favourable 
report being made to the king, he immediately gave orders that the Waldenses should 
have their property restored to them. The archbishop of Ambrone, having the greatest 
quanity of their goods, it was generally imagined that he would set a laudable 
example to others by being the first to restore them. However, to the surprise 
of the people in general, and the affliction of the Waldenses in particular, the 
prelate protested that he would not restore any of the property, for it was incorporated 
and become part of his archbishopric. He, however, with an affectation of candour, 
offered to relinquish several vineyards, of which he had dispossessed the suf- 
ferers, provided the lords of Dauphiny would restore all they had taken from them; 
but this the lords absolutely refused, being as fond of keeping their plunder 
as the archbishop himself. The Waldenses finding that they were not likely to 
recover any of their property, again ap- pealed to the king; and the monarch having 
attended to their complaints, wrote to the archbishop; but that artful and avaricious 
prelate replied,- "That at the commencement of the persecution the Waldenses had 
Page 133 been excommunicated by the pope, in consequence of which their goods 
were distrained; therefore, till the sentence of excommunication was taken off, 
which had occasioned them to be seized they could not be restored with propriety." 
This plea was allowed to be reasonable: and application was ineffectually made 
to the pope to remove the sentence of excommunication; the archbishop having used 
all his interest at the court of Rome to prevent the petition from succeeding. 
Thus were the poor Waldenses robbed of their property, only because they would 
not sacrifice their consciences to the will of their enemies. At length this sect 
having spread from Dauphiny into several other parts, became very numerous in 
Provence. At their first arrival Provence was almost a desert, but by their great 
industry it soon abounded with corn, wine, oil, fruit, &c. The pope, by being 
often near them at his seat at Avignon, heard occasionally many things concerning 
their differences with the church of Rome, which greatly exasperated him, and 
he deter- mined to persecute them on this ground with severity. Proceeding to 
extremities, under the sanction of ecclesiastical authority only, with- out consulting 
the king of France, the latter became alarmed and sent his master of requests, 
and his confessor to examine the affair. On their return they reported that the 
Waldenses were not such dangerous people as they had been represented; that they 
lived with perfect hones- ty, were friendly to all, caused their children to be 
baptised, had them taught the Lord's prayer, creed, and ten commandments; expounded 
the scriptures with purity, kept the Lord's day sacred, feared God, honoured the 
king, and wished well to the state. "Then," said the king, "they are much better 
Christians than myself or my catholic subjects, and therefore they shall not be 
persecuted." The king was as good as his word, and sent orders to stop the persecution. 
Some time after the inhabitants of Merindol received a summons, that the heads 
of the fa- milies of that town should appear before the ecclesiastical court. 
When they appeared, and confessed themselves Waldenses, they were or- dered to 
be burnt, their families outlawed, their habitations laid waste, and the woods 
that surrounded the town cut down two hundred paces square, so that the whole 
should be rendered desolate. The king, however, being informed of this barbarous 
decree, sent to countermand the execution of it; but his order was suppressed 
by cardinal Tournon, and the greatest cruelties were consequently perpetrated 
with impunity. The president of Opede sent several companies of soldiers to burn 
some villages occupied by protestants: this commission they too faithfully executed, 
exceeding it by a brutal treatment of the inhabitants, in which neither infancy, 
age, or sex, was spared. He also proclaimed that none should give any manner of 
assistance or sustenance to the suffer- ers. On reaching another small town, the 
president found only a boy, who had surrendered himself to a soldier, the other 
inhabitants having deserted the place. The boy he ordered to be shot by the soldier 
to whom he had surrendered, and then destroyed every house in the place. He next 
marched against Cabrieres, and began to cannonade it. At this time there were 
not above sixty poor peasants with their families in the Page 134 town; and they 
sent him word that he need not expend powder and shot upon the place, as they 
were willing to open the gate and surrender, provided they might be permitted 
to retire unmolested to Geneva or Germany. This was promised them; but the gates 
were no sooner opened, than the president ordered all the men to be cut to pieces, 
which cruel command was immediately executed. Several women and children were 
driven into a large barn, which was set on fire, and every one perished in the 
flames. Other women and children having taken refuge in a church, the president 
ordered one of his officers to go and kill them all: the captain at first refused, 
saying, "unnecessary cruelty is unbecoming a military man." The president, displeased 
at his reply, said, "I charge you, on pain of being accused of mutiny, immediately 
to obey my orders." When the captain, afraid of the consequences, thought proper 
to comply. The president then sent a detachment of his troops to ravage the town 
of Costa, which was done with the greatest barbarity. At length the judgment of 
God overtook this monster of cruelty; he was afflicted with a dreadful bloody-flux, 
and a painful strangury. In this extremity he sent for a surgeon from Arles, who, 
on examining his disorders, told him they were of a singular nature, and much 
worse than he had ever seen in any other person. He then took occasion to reprehend 
him for his cruel- ties, and told him that unless he repented, he might expect 
the hand of Heaven to fall still heavier upon him. On hearing this, the president 
flew into a violent passion, and ordered his attendants to seize the surgeon as 
a heretic. The surgeon, however, found means to escape, and soon after the president's 
disorder increased to a terrible degree. As he had found some little ease from 
the surgical operations, he again sent for the faithful operator, having been 
informed of the place of his retirement; his message was accompanied with an apology 
for his former behaviour, and a promise of personal security. The surgeon forgiving 
what was past, went to him, but too late to be of any service; for he found the 
tyrant raving like a madman, and crying out that he had a fire within him. After 
blaspheming for some time he expired in dreadful agonies; and his body in a few 
hours became so offensive, that hardly any one could endure the place where it 
lay. John de Roma, a monk, having a commission from the pope to search for heretics, 
executed it with great severity in Provence. The king of France hearing of his 
proceedings, sent an order to the parliament of Provence to apprehend him: the 
monk, however, made his escape to Avignon, and thought to live luxuriously upon 
what he had taken from the Waldenses. But in this he was mistaken, for robbers 
soon after plundered him of the greater part of his treasure; and his grief on 
this account brought on a violent disorder, which turned him, while living, into 
a mass of putrefaction, and soon put a period to his existence. The bishop of 
Aix, with some priests, being at Avignon together, were one day walking along 
the streets with some courtezans, and seeing a man who sold obscene pic- tures, 
they purchased several, and presented them to the women. A book- seller, who had 
a number of bibles in the French language for sale, lived at hand. The bishop 
stepping up to him, said, "How darest thou be so bold as to sell French merchandize 
in this town?" The bookseller Page 135 replied with a kind of sneer, "My lord, 
do you not think that bibles are so good as those pictures which you have bought 
for the ladies?" Enraged at the sarcasm, the bishop exclaimed - "I'll renounce 
my place in para- dise if this fellow be not one of the Waldenses. Take him away, 
take him away to prison." These expressions occasioned him to be cruelly treated 
by the rabble; and the next day he was brought before the judge, who, at the instigation 
of the bishop, condemned him to the flames. He was accordingly burnt, with two 
bibles hanging about his neck, the one before and the other behind.  SECTION 
V. THE PERSECUTIONS OF THE ALBIGENSES. The Albigenses were a people 
of the reformed religion, who inhabited the country of Albi. They were condemned 
on account of religion in the council of Lateran, by order of pope Alexander III, 
but they increased so rapidly, that many cities were inhabited exclusively by 
persons of their persuasion, and several eminent noblemen embraced their doctrines. 
Among the latter were two distinguished noblemen of the name of Raymond, Page 
137 earls of Toulouse and Foix. The pope at length pretended that he wished to 
draw them to the Romish faith by sound argument and clear reasoning, and for this 
end ordered a general conference; in which, however, the popish doctors were entirely 
overcome by the arguments of Arnold, a reformed clergyman, whose reasonings were 
so strong, that they were compelled to yield submission. A friar, named Peter, 
having been mur- dered in the dominions of the earl of Toulouse, the pope made 
the murder a pretence to persecute that nobleman and his subjects. He sent agents 
throughout Europe, to raise forces to act coercively against the Albi- genses, 
and promised paradise to all that would enter this war, which he termed a holy 
war, and bear arms for forty days. The same indulgence was held out to all who 
entered for this purpose, as to such as engaged in crusades to the Holy Land. 
He also sent orders to all archbishops and bishops to excommunicate the earl of 
Toulouse every sabbath and festi- val; at the same time absolving all his subjects 
from their oath of allegiance, and commanding them to pursue this person, possess 
his land, destroy his property, and murder such of his subjects as continued faithful. 
The earl hearing of these mighty preparations against him, wrote to the pope in 
a very candid manner, desiring not to be condemned unheard, and assuring him that 
he had not the least hand in Peter's death: for that friar was killed by a gentleman, 
who, immediately after the murder, fled out of his territories. But the pope, 
being determined on his destruction, was resolved not to hear his defence; and 
a formid- able army, with several noblemen and prelates at the head of it, began 
their march against the Albigenses. The earl had only the alternative to oppose 
force by force, or submit: and as he despaired of success in attempting the former, 
he determined on the latter. The pope's legate being at Valence, the earl repaired 
thither, and said, "He was surprised that such a number of armed men should be 
sent against him, before the least proof of his guilt had been produced. He therefore 
came voluntari- ly to surrender himself, armed with the testimony of a good conscience, 
and hoped that the troops would be prevented from plundering his inno- cent subjects, 
as he thought himself a sufficient pledge for any venge- ance they chose to take 
on account of the friar's death." The legate replied, that he was very glad the 
earl had voluntarily surrendered; but, with respect to the proposal, he could 
not pretend to countermand the orders of the troops, unless he would consent to 
deliver up seven of his best fortified castles as securities for his future behaviour. 
At this demand the earl perceived his error in submitting, but it was too late; 
he knew himself to be a prisoner, and therefore sent authority for the surrender 
of the castles. The pope's legate had no sooner garrisoned these places, than 
he ordered the respective governors to appear before him. When they came, he said, 
"That the earl of Toulouse having deliv- ered up his castles to the pope, they 
must consider that they were now the pope's subjects, and not the earl's; and 
that they must therefore act conformably to their new allegiance." The governors 
were astonished to see their lord thus in captivity, and themselves compelled 
into a new allegiance, so much against their inclinations and consciences. But 
what afflicted them still more were the affronts afterwards put upon the Page 
138 earl; for he was stripped, led nine times round the grave of friar Peter, 
and severely scourged before all orders of people. Not contented with this, they 
obliged him to swear that he would be obedient to the pope during the remainder 
of his life, conform to the church of Rome, and make irreconcilable war against 
the Albigenses. The legate even ordered him, by the oaths he had newly taken, 
to join the troops, and inspect the siege of Bezieres. But thinking this too hard 
an injunction he took an opportunity privately to quit the army, and determined 
to go to the pope and relate the ill usage he had received. The army, however, 
proceeded to besiege Bezieres; and the earl of Bezieres, who was like- wise governor 
of that city, thinking it impossible to defend the place, came out, and presenting 
himself before the pope's legate, implored mercy for the inhabitants; intimating 
that there were as many Roman Catholics as Albigenses in the city.The legate replied, 
that all excuses were useless; that the place must be delivered up at discretion, 
or the most dreadful consequences would ensue. The earl of Bezieres returning 
to the city, told the inhabitants he could obtain no mercy, unless the Albigenses 
would adjure their religion and conform to the worship of the church of Rome. 
The Roman Catholics pressed the Albigenses to comply with his request; but the 
Albigenses nobly answered, that they would not forsake their religion for the 
base price of a frail life: that God was able if he pleased to defend them; but 
if he would be glorified by the confession of their faith unto death, it would 
be a great honour to them to die for his sake. They added, that they had rather 
displease the pope, who could but kill their bodies, than God, who could cast 
both body and soul into hell. On this their enemies, finding importunity ineffectual, 
sent their bishop to the pope's legate, beseeching him not to include them in 
the chastisement of the Albigenses; and representing that the best means to win 
the latter over to the Roman Catholic persua- sion was by gentleness, and not 
by rigour. Upon hearing this the legate flew into a violent passion with the bishop, 
and declared that, "If all the city did not acknowledge their fault, they should 
taste of one curse without distinction of religion, sex, or age." The inhabitants 
refusing to yield upon such terms, a general assault was made, and the place taken 
by storm, when every cruelty that barbarous superstition could devise was practised; 
nothing was to be heard but the groans of men who lay weltering in their blood; 
the lamentations of mothers, who, after being violated by the soldiery, had their 
children taken from them, and dashed to pieces before their faces. The city being 
fired in various parts, new scenes of confusion arose: in several places the streets 
were streaming with blood. Those who hid themselves in their dwellings, had only 
the dreadful alternative to remain and perish in the flames, or rush out and fall 
by the swords of the soldiers. The bloody legate, during these infernal proceedings, 
enjoyed the carnage, and even cried out to the troops, "Kill them, kill them all; 
kill man, woman, and child; kill Roman Catholics as well as Albigenses, for when 
they are dead the Lord knows how to select his own." Thus the beautiful city of 
Bezieres was reduced to a heap of ruins; and 60,000 persons of different ages 
and both sexes were murdered. Page 139 The earl of Bezieres and a few others made 
their escape, and went to Carcasson, which they endeavoured to put into the best 
posture of defence. The legate, not willing to lose an opportunity of shedding 
blood during the forty days which the troops were to serve, led them immediately 
against Carcasson. As soon as the place was invested a furious assault was made, 
but the besiegers were repulsed with great slaughter; and upon this occasion the 
earl of Bezieres gave the most distinguished proofs of his courage, animating 
the besieged by crying out - "We had better die fighting than fall into the hands 
of such bigoted and bloody enemies." Two miles from Carcasson was a small town 
of the same name, which the Albigenses had likewise fortified. The legate being 
enraged at the repulse he had received from the city, determined to wreak his 
vengeance upon the town: the next morning he made a general assault; and, though 
the place was bravely defended, the legate took it by storm and put all within 
it to the sword. During these events the king of Arragon arrived at the camp, 
and after paying obedience to the legate, told him, he understood the earl of 
Bezieres, his kinsman, was in the city of Carcasson, and that if he would grant 
him permission, he would go thither, and endeavour to make him sensible of the 
duty he owed both to the pope and church: the legate acquiescing, the king repaired 
to the earl, and asked him from what motives he shut himself up in the city against 
so great an army? The earl answered it was to defend his life, goods, and subjects. 
That he knew the pope, under pretence of religion, resolved to destroy his uncle, 
the earl of Toulouse, and himself; that he saw the cruelty which they had used 
at Bezieres, even against the priests; adding also what they had done to the town 
of Carcasson, and that they must look for no mercy from the legate or his army; 
he, therefore, rather chose to die, defending him- self with his subjects, than 
fall into the hands of so inexorable an enemy as the legate; that though he had 
in the city some that were of another religion, yet they were such as had not 
wronged any, were come to his succour in his greatest extremity, and for their 
good service he was resolved not to abandon them; that his trust was in God, the 
defender of the oppressed; and that he would assist them against those ill-advised 
men who forsook their own houses to burn those of other men, without reason, judgment, 
or mercy. The king reported to the legate what the earl had said: the legate, 
after considering for a time, re- plied, "For your sake, Sir, I will receive the 
earl of Bezieres to mercy, and with him twelve others shall be safe, and be permitted 
to retire with their property; but as for the rest, I am determined to have them 
at my discretion." This answer displeased the king; and when the earl heard it, 
he absolutely refused to comply with such terms. The legate then commanded another 
assault, but his troops were again re- pulsed with great slaughter, and the dead 
bodies occasioned a stench that was exceedingly offensive both to the besieged 
and besiegers. The legate, provoked and alarmed at his second disappointment, 
determined to act by stratagem. He sent a gentlemen who was well skilled in dissimu- 
lation and artifice to the earl of Bezieres, with a seeming friendly message. 
The design was, by any means, to induce the earl to leave the Page 140 city, in 
order to have an interview with the legate; and to this end the gentleman was 
to promise, nay swear, whatever he thought proper; for, as said the legate, "Swear 
to whatever falsehoods you will in such a cause, I will give you absolution." 
The infamous plot succeeded: the earl believing the promises made him of personal 
security, and crediting the solemn oaths that the perjured agent swore upon the 
occasion, left the city and went with him. The legate no sooner saw him, than 
he told him he was a prisoner, and must remain so till Carcasson had surrendered, 
and the inhabitants taught their duty to the pope. The earl on hearing this, cried 
out that he was betrayed, and exclaimed against the treachery of the legate, and 
the perjury of the agent he had employed. But he was ordered into close confinement, 
and the place summoned to surrender without delay. The people, on hearing of the 
captivity of the earl, were thrown into the utmost consternation, when one of 
the citi- zens informed the rest, that he had been formerly told by some old men, 
that there was a very capacious subterraneous passage, leading from thence to 
the castle of Camaret, three leagues distant. "If," he con- tinued he, "we can 
find this passage, we may all escape before the legate can be apprised of our 
flight." The information was joyfully received; all were employed to search for 
the passage, and at length it was discovered. Early in the evening the inhabitants 
began their flight, taking with them their wives, children, a few days' provisions, 
and such property as was most valuable and portable. They reached the castle by 
the morning, and escaped to Arragon, Catalonia, and such other places as they 
thought would secure them from the power of the sanguinary legate. Next morning 
the troops were astonished, not hearing any noise, nor seeing any stir in the 
city; yet they approached the walls with much fear, lest it should be but a stratagem 
to endanger them; but finding on opposition, they mounted the walls, crying out, 
that the Albigenses were fled; and thus was the city with all the spoils taken, 
and the earl of Bezieres committed to prison in one of the strongest towers of 
Carcas- son, where he soon after died. The legate called all the prelates and 
lords of his army together, telling them, that though it was requisite there should 
be always a legate in the army, yet it was likewise neces- sary that there should 
be a secular general, wise and valiant, to com- mand in all their affairs. This 
charge was first offered to the duke of Burgogne, then to the earl of Ennevers, 
and thirdly, to the earl of St. Paul; but they all refused it. At length it was 
offered to Simon, earl of Montfort, who after some excuses accepted it. Four thousand 
men were left to garrison Carcasson, and the deceased earl of Bezieres was suc- 
ceeded in title and dignity by earl Simon, a bigoted Roman Catholic, who threatened 
vengeance on the Albigenses, unless they conformed to the worship of the church 
of Rome. But the king of Arragon, who was in his heart of the reformed persuasion, 
secretly encouraged the Albigenses, and gave them hopes, that if they acted with 
prudence, they might cast off the yoke of the tyrannical earl Simon. They took 
his advice, and while Simon was gone to Montpellier, they surprised some of his 
fort- Page 141 resses, and were successful in several expeditions against his 
officers. These proceedings so enraged earl Simon, that returning from Montpelli- 
er, he collected together some forces, marched against the Albigenses, and ordered 
every prisoner he took to be immediately burnt. But not succeeding in some of 
his enterprises, he grew disheartened, and wrote to every Roman Catholic power 
in Europe to send him assistance, other- wise he should not be able to hold out 
against the Albigenses. He soon received assistance with which he attacked the 
castle of Beron, and making himself master of it, ordered the garrison to be cruelly 
mutilat- ed and deprived of sight: one person alone excepted, and he was but partially 
blinded that he might conduct the rest to Cabaret. Simon then undertook the siege 
of Menerbe, which, on account of the want of water, was obliged to yield to his 
forces. The lord of Termes, the governor, was put in prison, where he died; his 
wife, sister, and daughter were burnt, and 180 persons were committed to the flames. 
Many other castles surrendered to the forces of earl Simon, and the inhabitants 
were butchered in the most barbarous manner. In the mean time the earl of Toulouse, 
through letters of recommendation from the king of France, was reconciled to the 
pope: at least the pope pretended to give him remis- sion for the death of friar 
Peter, and to absolve him from all other crimes he had committed. But the legate 
by the connivance of the pope, did all he could to ruin the earl. Altercations 
having passed between them, the legate excommunicated the earl; and the Roman 
Catholic bishop of Toulouse, upon such encouragement, thought proper to send this 
impud- ent message to the earl - "That as he was an excommunicated person, he 
commanded him to depart the city; for an ecclesiastic could not say mass with 
propriety while a person of such a description was near him." Greatly exasperated 
at the bishop's insolence, the earl sent him an order immediately to depart from 
the place on pain of death. This order was all the prelate wanted, as it would 
give him some reason to complain of his lord. The bishops, with the canons of 
the cathedral, marched out of the town in solemn procession, barefooted and bareheaded, 
taking with them the cross, banner, and host, and proceeded in that array to the 
legate's army, where they were received with great respect as persecuted martyrs, 
and the legate thought this a sufficient excuse to proceed against the earl of 
Toulouse for having, as he termed it, relapsed from the truth. The legate attempted 
to get him into his power by stratagem, but the earl being apprised of the design, 
escaped. Enraged at his disappointment, the legate laid siege to the castle of 
Montferrand, which belonged to the earl and was governed by Baldwin his brother. 
On the first summons, Baldwin not only surrendered, but abjured his reli- gion 
and turned papist. This event, which severely afflicted the earl of Toulouse, 
was followed by another that gave him still greater mortifica- tion; for his old 
friend the king of Arragon forsook his interest; and it was stipulated that the 
king's daughter should be married to earl Simon's eldest son. The legate's troops 
were then joined by the forces of Arragon and those belonging to earl Simon, on 
which they jointly laid Page 142 siege to Toulouse. Still the earl determined 
to interrupt the besiegers by frequent sallies. In the first attempt he met with 
a severe repulse; but in the second he took the earl Simon's son prisoner, and 
in the third he unhorsed the earl himself. After several furious assaults by the 
popish army, and some other successful sallies of the Albigenses, the earl of 
Toulouse compelled his enemies to raise the siege. In their retreat they did much 
mischief in the countries through which they passed, and put many defenceless 
Albigenses to death. The earl of Toulouse now did all he could to recover the 
friendship of the king of Arragon; and as the marriage ceremony between that monarch's 
daughter and earl Simon's son had not been performed, he entreated him to break 
off the preposterous match, and proposed another more proper, that his eldest 
son and heir to the earldom of Toulouse should wed the princess of Arragon, and 
by this match their friendship should be reunited and more firmly cemented. His 
majesty was easily persuaded, not only to agree to this proposal, but to form 
a league with the principal Albi- genses, and to put himself as captain-general 
at the head of their united forces, consisting of his own people, and the troops 
of the earls of Toulouse, Foix, and Cominges. The papists were greatly alarmed 
at these proceedings; earl Simon sent to engage the assistance of the Roman catholic 
powers, and the pope's legate began hostilities by entering the dominions of the 
earl of Foix, and committing the most cruel depreda- tions. As soon as they army 
of the Albigenses was ready, the king of Arragon began his operations by laying 
siege to Marat, a town near Toulouse belonging to the Roman catholics, strongly 
fortified, and pleasantly situated upon the river Garonne. Earl Simon by forced 
marches came to the assistance of the place, at a time when the king of Arragon, 
who kept very little discipline in his army, was feasting and revelling. Simon 
suddenly attacked the Albigenses while they were in confusion, when the untied 
forces of the reformed were defeated, and the king of Arragon was killed. The 
loss of this battle was imputed to the negli- gence of the king, who would have 
as much entertainment in a camp as if he had been securely at peace in his capital. 
The victory made the popish commanders declare they would entirely extirpate the 
whole race of the Albigenses; and earl Simon sent an insolent message to the earls 
of Toulouse, Foix, and Cominges, to deliver to him all the castles and fortresses 
of which they were possessed. These noblemen, instead of answering the demand, 
retired to their respective territories, to put them into the best condition for 
resistance. Soon after, earl Simon marched towards the city of Toulouse, when 
the earl who had retired to Montalban, sent word to the citizens of the former 
place, to make the best terms they could with the Roman catholics, as he was confident 
they could not hold out a siege; but he recommended them to preserve their hearts 
for him, though they surrendered their persons to another. The citizens of Toulouse, 
on receiving this information, sent deputies to earl Simon with offers of immediate 
surrender, provided the city itself, and the persons and properties of its inhabitants, 
should be protected from devastation. These conditions were agreed to immediately, 
and earl Simon, to ingratiate himself at court, wrote a letter to prince Louis, 
Page 143 the son of Philip king of France, informing him that the city of Tou- 
louse had offered to surrender to him; but being willing that the prince should 
have the honour of receiving the keys and homage of the people, he begged that 
he would repair to the camp for that purpose. The prince, pleased with the invitation, 
went directly to the army, and had the city of Toulouse surrendered to him in 
due form. The pope's legate was great- ly displeased at the mild conditions granted 
to the people of Toulouse, and insisted, that though the prince might take upon 
him the sovereignty of the place, and receive the homage of the people, yet the 
plunder belonged to the holy pilgrims (so the popish soldiers employed in these 
expeditions were called;) and that the place, as a receptacle of heret- ics, ought 
to be dismantled. The prince and earl Simon in vain remon- strated against proceedings 
so contrary to the conditions granted at the surrender: the legate was peremptory, 
when earl Simon and the prince, unwilling to come to an open rupture with him, 
gave up the point. The legate immediately set his holy pilgrims, as he termed 
them, to work, when they soon dismantled the city, and plundered the inhabitants 
of all their property, when they thought themselves perfectly secured by the articles 
of the surrender. The legate finding that among the Albigenses many lucrative 
places would fall to the disposal of the prince, deter- mined by an artifice, 
to deprive him of any advantage which might accrue from this source; he therefore 
gave absolution to the Albigenses, which, though they had not in the least changed 
their religious opinions, he called reconciling them to the church. The prince, 
not apprised of this stratagem, was going to put such of his officers as he thought 
merited encouragement into the possession of some places of profit; when, to his 
great astonishment, the legate informed him, that he had no power to dispose of 
those places. The prince demanded an explanation of his meaning, "My meaning," 
replied the legate, "is, that the people have received absolution, and being reconciled 
to the church are consequently under its protection; therefore, all places among 
or connected with them are in the disposal of the church only." The prince, offended 
at this mode of reasoning, and highly displeased at the meanness of the subter- 
fuge, still thought proper to dissemble his resentment. But being deter- mined 
to quit the legate, he put the troops under his command in motion, and marched 
to attack some other fortresses: he found, however, that the legate had played 
the same trick, and plainly perceived, if he continued his military operations, 
that when unsuccessful he should bear all the blame, and when successful the legate 
would pilfer all the profit; he therefore left the army in disgust and returned 
to court. On this earl Simon, with his own forces, those the prince had just quitted, 
and some other auxiliaries, undertook the siege of Foix, being chiefly incited 
to it by the death of his bother, who was slain by the earl of Foix, who was of 
the reformed persuasion. He lay before the castle of Foix for the space of ten 
days, during which time he frequently assaulted it, but was always repulsed. Hearing 
that an army of Arragonians were in full march towards him, to revenge the death 
of their king, he raised the siege and went to meet them. The earl immediately 
sallied out and harassed his Page 144 rear, while the Arragonians in front gave 
him a total defeat, which compelled him to shut himself up in Carcasson. Soon 
after, the pope's legate called a council at Montpellier for renewing military 
operations against the Albigenses, and for doing proper honour to earl Simon who 
was present; for the Arragonians not taking advantage of their victory, had neglected 
to block up Carcasson, by which omission earl Simon had an opportunity to repair 
to Montpellier. On meeting the council, the leg- ate, in the pope's name, paid 
many compliments to earl Simon, and de- clared that he should be prince of all 
the countries that might in future be taken from the Albigenses: at the same time, 
by order of the pontiff, he styled him the active and dexterous soldier of Jesus 
Christ, and the invincible defender of the catholic faith. Just as the earl was 
going to return thanks for these great honours and find encomiums, a messenger 
brought word, that the people had heard earl Simon was in the council, and that 
they had taken up arms, and were coming thither to destroy him as a common disturber. 
This intelligence threw the whole council into great confusion; and earl Simon, 
though a minute before styled an invincible defender of the faith, was glad to 
jump out of the window and steal away from the city. The affair becoming serious 
in the opinion of the papist, the pope soon after called a council to be held 
at Lateran, in which great powers were granted to Roman Catholic in- quisitors, 
and many Albigenses were immediately put to death. This council likewise confirmed 
to earl Simon all the honours intended him by the council of Montpellier, and 
empowered him to raise another army against the Albigenses. Earl Simon immediately 
repaired to court, re- ceived his investiture from the French king and began to 
levy forces. Having now a considerable number of troops, he determined, if possible, 
to exterminate the Albigenses, when he received advice that his countess was besieged 
in Narbonne by the earl of Toulouse. He proceeded to her relief, when the Albigenses 
met him, gave him battle and defeated him; but he found means to escape from the 
field into the castle of Narbonne. After this Toulouse was recovered by the Albigenses; 
but the pope es- pousing earl Simon's cause raised forces to his account, and 
enabled him once more to undertake the siege of that city. The earl assaulted 
the place furiously, but being repulsed with great loss, he sunk into af- fliction; 
when the pope's legate said, to comfort him, "Fear nothing, my lord, make another 
vigorous attack: let us by any means recover the city, and destroy the inhabitants; 
and those of our men who are slain in the fight, I will assure you shall immediately 
pass into Paradise." One of the earl's principal officers, on hearing this, said 
with a sneer, "Monsieur cardinal, you talk with great assurance; and if the earl 
believes you, he will as before pay dearly for his confidence." Earl Simon, however, 
took the legate's advice, made another assault and was again repulsed. To complete 
his misfortune, before the troops could recover from their confusion, the earl 
of Foix made his appearance at the head of a formidable army, attacked the already 
dispirited forces of earl Simon, and easily put them to the rout. The earl himself 
narrowly escaped drowning in the Garonne, into which he had hastily plunged, in 
order to avoid being captured. This discomfiture almost broke earl Page 145 Simon's 
heart; but the pope's legate continued to encourage him, and offered to raise 
him another army, which promise, with some difficulty and three years' delay, 
he at length performed, and that bigoted noble- man was once more enabled to take 
the field. On this occasion he turned his whole force against Toulouse, which 
he besieged for the space of nine months, when in one of the sallies made by the 
besieged his horse was wounded. The animal being in great anguish, ran away with 
him, and bore him directly under the ramparts of the city, when an archer shot 
him in the thigh with an arrow; and a woman immediately after throwing a large 
stone from the wall, it struck him upon the head and killed him. The siege was 
raised; but the legate, incensed at his disappointment of vengeance on the inhabitants, 
engaged the king of France in the cause, who sent his son to besiege the city. 
The French prince, with some chosen troops, furiously assaulted it: but meeting 
with a severe repulse, he abandoned Toulouse to besiege Miromand. This place he 
soon took by storm, and put to the sword all the inhabitants, consisting of 5000 
men, women, and children. The legate, whose name was Bertrand, being very old, 
grew weary of following the army; but his passion for murder still remained, as 
appears by his epistle to the pope, in which he begs to be recalled on account 
of his age and infirmities; but en- treats the pontiff to appoint a successor 
who might continue the war, as he had done, with spirit and perseverance. In consequence, 
the pope recalled Bertrand, and appointed Conrade, bishop of Portua, to be legate 
in his room. The latter determined to follow the steps of his predeces- sor, and 
to persecute the Albigenses with the greatest severity. Guido, earl of Montfort, 
the son and heir of earl Simon, undertook the command of the troops, and immediately 
laid siege to Toulouse, before the walls of which he was killed. His brother Almaric 
succeeded to the command; but the bravery of the garrison soon obliged him to 
raise the siege. On this the legate prevailed upon the king of France to undertake 
the siege of Toulouse in person, and reduce to the obedience of the church those 
obstinate heretics, as he called the brave Albigenses. The earl of Toulouse hearing 
of the great preparations made by the king of France, sent the women, children, 
and cattle into secret and secure places among the mountains, ploughed up the 
land that the king's forces should not obtain forage, and did all that a skilful 
general could perform to distress the enemy. By these expedients the French army, 
soon after entering the earldom of Toulouse, suffered all the extremities of famine, 
which obliged the troops to feed on the carcasses of horses and dogs, which unwholesome 
food produced the plague. This unexpected distress broke the king's heart; but 
his son, who succeeded him, deter- mined to carry on the war, when he was soon 
defeated in three engage- ments by the earl of Toulouse to come to conference, 
when he was treacherously seized upon, made a prisoner, forced to appear barefooted 
and bareheaded before his enemies, and compelled to subscribe to the following 
ignominious conditions - l. That he should abjure the faith that he had hitherto 
defended. 2. That he should be subject to the Page 146 church of Rome. 3. That 
he should give his daughter Joan in marriage to one of the brothers of the king 
of France. 4. That he should maintain in Toulouse six popish professors of the 
liberal arts, and two grammar- ians. 5. That he should take upon him the cross, 
and serve five years against the Saracens in the Holy Land. 6. That he should 
level the walls of Toulouse with the ground. 7. That he should destroy the fortifica- 
tions of thirty of his other cities and castles, as the legate should direct. 
8. That he should remain prisoner in the Louvre at Paris till his daughter was 
delivered to the king's commissioners. After these cruel conditions a severe persecution 
took place against the Albigenses, many of whom suffered for the faith; and express 
orders were issued that the laity should not be permitted to read the sacred writings! 
The persecution against the Abigenses was renewed in 1620. At a town called Tell, 
while the minister was preaching to a congregation of the re- formed, the papist 
attacked and murdered a number of the people. A lady of principal eminence being 
exhorted to change her religion, if not for her own sake, at least for that of 
the infant she held in her arms, said, with undaunted courage, "I did not quit 
Italy my native country, nor forsake the estate I had there, for the sake of Jesus 
Christ, to renounce him here. With regard to my infant why should I not deliver 
him up to death, since God delivered up his son to die for me?" As soon as she 
had done speaking, they took the child from her, delivered it to a popish nurse 
to bring up, and then slew the mother. Dominico Burto, a youth of sixteen, refusing 
to turn papist, was set upon an ass with his face to the tail, which he was obliged 
to hold in his hand. In this condition he was led to the market-place, amidst 
the acclamations of the populace; after which he was sadly mutilated and burnt 
in several parts of his body, till at last he died with the pain. An Albigense 
young lady, of a noble family, was seized, and carried through the streets with 
a paper mitre upon her head. After mocking and beating her, the brutal multitude 
told her to call upon the saints; when she replied, "My trust and salvation is 
in Christ only; for even the virgin Mary, without the merits of her son, could 
not be saved." On this the multitude fell upon and destroyed her.  SECTION 
WARS OF THAT NATION. Almericus, a learned man, and six of his disciples, were, 
in the third century, ordered to be burnt at Paris for holding that God was no 
more present in the sacramental bread than in any other bread; that it was idolatry 
to build altars or shrines or to offer incense to saints, and absurd to kill relics. 
The martyrdom of Almericus and his pupils did not prevent many from acknowledging 
the justice of his notions, so that the faith of Christ continued to increase; 
and in time it not only spread over many parts of France, but various other nations. 
Page 147 In the year 1524, at a town in France called Meaux, one John Clerk affixed 
a bill on the church door, in which he called the pope anti- christ: for this 
offence he was repeatedly whipped, and then branded in the forehead. His mother, 
who saw the chastisement, cried with a loud voice, "Blessed be Christ, and welcome 
these marks for his sake." He went afterwards to Metz, in Lorraine, an demolished 
some images, for which he had his right hand and nose cut off, and his arms and 
breasts torn by pincers; while suffering these cruelties, he was sufficiently 
at east to sing the 115th psalm, which expressly forbids superstition. On concluding 
the psalm he was thrown into the fire and burnt to ashes. About the same time 
several persons of the reformed persuasion were beaten, racked, scourged, and 
burnt to death, in several parts of France; but particularly at Paris, Limosin, 
and Malda. A native of Malda was burnt by a slow fire for saying that mass was 
a plain denial of the death and passion of Christ. At Limosin, John de Cadurco, 
a clergyman of the reformed religion, was apprehended, degraded, and ordered to 
be burnt. When under examination, a friar undertook to preach a sermon on the 
occasion; when opening the New Testament he selected his text from the first epistle 
of St. Paul he apostle to Timothy, chap. iv. ver. l. "Now the Spirit speaketh 
expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed 
to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils." The friar began to expound this 
verse in favour of the Roman Catholic persuasion, and in condemnation of the reformed 
religion, when John de Cadurco begged, that before he proceeded in his sermon, 
he would read the two verses which followed the one he had chosen for his text. 
The friar again opened the Testament, but casting his eye on the passage, he was 
confounded. Cadurco then desired that the book might be handed to him: this request 
being complied with, he read thus - "Speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their 
conscience seared with a hot iron, forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain 
from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which 
believe and know the truth." The Roman Catholics, incensed at this exposure, condemned 
him to the flames. At Paris, Alexander Kanuse, a reformed clergyman, was burnt 
in a slow fire; and four men were commit- ted to the flames for distributing papers 
ridiculing the performance of mass. One has his tongue bored through. Peter Gaudet, 
a Genoese, was burnt by the desire of his own uncle, a bigoted Roman Catholic; 
and John Pointer, a surgeon, had his tongue cut out, and was then burnt. At Arras, 
Fontanis, and Rutiers, many were martyred for being of the re- formed religion. 
At the latter place one Stephen Brune was condemned to be burnt for refusing to 
attend mass. When the fire was kindled, the flames were driven from him by a brisk 
wind, which occasioned the execu- tioner to heap more fagots round him, and pour 
oil on them. Still, however, the wind blew the flames in a contrary direction, 
when the executioner, absurdly enraged with Brune, struck him on the head. Brune 
very calmly said, "As I am condemned only to be burnt, why do you strike me like 
a dog?" This expression so enraged the executioner, that he ran him through with 
a pike, and then burnt the lifeless body. Page 148 Aymond de Lavoy, a minister 
of Bourdeaux, had a complaint lodged against him by the Romish clergy of that 
city. His friends advised him to ab- scond, which he refused to do. He remained 
nine months in prison on the information only. Being brought to trial, he was 
ordered to the rack; and when in the extremity of torture, he comforted himself 
with this expression: "This body must once die, but the soul shall live; for the 
kingdom of God endureth for ever." At length he swooned; but on recover- ing, 
prayed for his persecutors. The question was then put to him, whether he would 
embrace the Roman Catholic persuasion; which positively refusing, he was condemned 
to be burnt. At the place of execution he said, "O Lord, make haste to help me; 
tarry not; despise not the work of thy hands." And perceiving some who used to 
attend his sermons, he addressed them thus: "My friends, I exhort you to study 
and learn the gospel; for the word of God abideth for ever:- labour to know the 
will of God, and fear not them that kill the body, but have no power over the 
soul." The executioner then strangled him, and burnt his body. Husson, an apothecary 
of Blois, went to Rouen, and there privately distributed several small pamphlets, 
explaining the tenets of the reformed church, and exposing the Romish superstitions. 
These books gave a general alarm, and a council being called, an order was issued 
for search to be made for the author and distributer of the books. It was discovered 
that Husson had brought them to Rouen, and that he was gone to Dieppe, and orders 
were given for a pursuit. Husson was brought back to Rouen, where he confessed 
he was both author and distributer of the books. This occasioned his condemnation, 
and he was executed in the following man- ner: his tongue being cut out, his hands 
and feet were tied behind, and he was drawn up by a pulley to a gibbet, and then 
let down into a fire kindled beneath: in which situation he called upon the Lord, 
and soon breathed his last. Francis Bribard, secretary to cardinal de Bellay, 
for speaking in favour of the reformed, had his tongue cut out, and was burnt 
A.D. 1554. James Cobard, a schoolmaster in the city of St. Michael, was burnt 
A.D. 1545, for saying, "that mass was useless and absurd." About the same time, 
fourteen men were burnt at Malda, their wives being compelled to behold their 
martyrdom. Peter Chapot brought a number of bibles in the French tongue to France, 
and publicly sold them there in the year 1546, for which he was condemned to be 
burnt. Soon after a cripple of Meaux, a schoolmaster of Fera named Stephen Polliot, 
and a man named John English, were burned for their religion. Michael Michelot 
being told either to recant and be spared, or to persevere and be burned; he chose 
the latter, making use of these words: "God has given me grace not to deny the 
truth, and will give me strength to endure the fire." At Langres five men and 
two women suffered for being Page 149 of the reformed religion; when the youngest 
woman encouraged the other, saying, "This day shall we be married to Jesus Christ, 
and be with him for ever." Monsieur Blondel, a rich jeweller, was in 1549 apprehended 
at Lyons, and sent to Paris, where he was burnt for the faith by order of the 
high court. Hubert, a youth of nineteen years of age, was commit- ted to the flames 
at Dijon; as was Florent Venote, at the same time. A lady, named Anne Audebert, 
who purposed on account of her faith to retire to Geneva, was seized and sent 
to Paris. She was led to execution by a rope placed round her waist. This rope 
she called her wedding girdle; and as it was on a Saturday, she said, "I was once 
married to a man on a Saturday, and now I shall be married to God on the same 
day of the week." Immediately after the coronation of Henry the Second, king of 
France, many singular circumstances happened. An artisan was appre- hended for 
working on a saint's day; being asked why he gave such an offence to religion, 
his reply was, "I am a poor man, and have nothing but my labour to depend upon, 
necessity requires that I should be indus- trious, and my conscience tells me 
there is no day but the sabbath which I ought to keep sacred from labour." Having 
expressed himself thus, he was committed to prison, and the affair being soon 
after rumoured at court, some of the nobles persuaded the king to be present at 
the trial. On the day appointed, the monarch appeared in a superb chair of state, 
and the bishop of Mascon was ordered to interrogate the prisoner. On perceiving 
the king, the man paid obedience to him in the most respect- ful manner. The king 
was much affected with his arguments, and seemed to muse; on which the bishop 
exclaimed, "He is an obstinate and impudent heretic; let him be taken back to 
prison, and burnt to death." The officers proceeded to obey the mandate, when 
the bishop artfully insinu- ated, that the heretics, as he called the reformed, 
had many specious arguments, which at first appeared plausible; but on examination, 
they were found to be false. He then did his utmost endeavours to persuade the 
king to be present at the execution, who at length consented, and repaired to 
a balcony which overlooked the place. On seeing the king, the prisoner fixed his 
eyes stedfastly upon him; and even while the flames were consuming him, kept gazing 
in such a manner as threw the monarch into visible confusion, and obliged him 
to retire before the martyr was dead. The king was so shocked, that he could not 
recover his spirits for some time; and it was reported that the royal dreams were 
for some time greatly disturbed by the visionary appearance of the martyr, with 
the same intense gaze upon the king. A pious man named Claudius was burnt at Orleans. 
A Genoese youth called Thomas, having rebuked a Roman catholic for profane swearing, 
was informed against as a heretic, and burnt at Paris; as were three men at Lyons: 
two of them with ropes about their necks; the third, having been an officer in 
the king's service, being exempted from that disgrace. He, however, begged to 
be treated in the same manner as his companions, in honour of the Lord: his request 
was complied with; and after having sung a psalm with Page 150 great fervency, 
they were all three consumed. A citizen of Geneva, Simon Laloe; Matthew Dimonet, 
a converted libertine; and Nicholas Naile, a bookseller of Paris, were burnt for 
professing the reformed religion. Peter Serre, originally a priest, but reflecting 
on the errors of popery, at length embraced the reformed religion, and learned 
the trade of a shoemaker. Having a brother at Toulouse, a bigoted Roman catholic, 
Serre, out of fraternal love, made a journey to that city, to dissuade him from 
his superstitions: the brother's wife not approving of his design, lodged a complaint 
against him, on which he was apprehended, and made a full declaration of his faith. 
The judge asked him concerning his occupation, to which he replied, "I have of 
late practised the trade of a shoemaker." "Of late!" said the judge: "and what 
did you practise formerly?" "That I am almost ashamed to tell you," exclaimed 
Serre, "because it was the most vile and wicked occupation imaginable." All who 
were present, supposed he had been a murderer or a thief, and that what he spoke 
was through contrition. The judge ordered him to explain preci- sely what he meant, 
when Serre, with tears in his eyes, exclaimed, "Oh, I was formerly a POPISH PRIEST!" 
This reply so much exasperated the judge, that he condemned Sere to be first degraded, 
then to have his tongue cut, and afterwards to be publicly burnt. In 1544, two 
men of the reformed religion, with the son and daughter of one of them, were committed 
to the Castle of Niverne. On examination they confessed their faith, and were 
ordered for execution: they were first covered with grease, brimstone, and gunpowder; 
their tongues were then cut out, and they were then committed to the flames. Philip 
Hamlin, a priest, was apprehended for having renounced the errors of popery. Being 
brought to the stake, he began to exhort the people to quit the errors of the 
church of Rome; on which the officer who presided at the execution ordered the 
fagots to be lighted, and that a trumpet should be blown while the martyr was 
burning, that the people might not hear his voice. Page 151  BOOK 
the reformed religion had occasioned such a noise throughout Europe, that the 
Catholics began to fear their church was in danger, and the pope was determined 
to impede as much as possible the progress of the reformation: he accordingly 
instituted a number of inquisitors - persons who were to make inquiry after, appre- 
hend, and punish the reformed heretics. At the head of these was one Dominic, 
who had been canonized in order to render his authority the more respectable. 
He and the other inquisitors spread themselves into various Roman Catholic countries, 
and treated the Protestants with the utmost severity. At length the pope not finding 
them so useful as he had imagined, resolved upon the establishment of fixed and 
regular courts of inquisition; the first office of which was established in the 
city of Toulouse, and Dominic became the first inquisitor-general. Courts of inquisition 
were soon erected in other countries; but the Spanish inqui- sition became the 
most powerful and most dreadful of any. Even the kings of Spain themselves, though 
arbitrary in all other respects, were taught to dread the power of the lords of 
the inquisition; and the horrid cruelties they exercised compelled multitudes, 
who differed but slightly in opinion from the catholics, carefully to conceal 
their sentiments. The Dominicans and Franciscans were the most zealous of all 
the monks: these, therefore, the pope invested with an exclusive right of presiding 
over and managing the different courts of inquisition. The friars of those two 
orders were always selected from the very dregs of the people, and therefore were 
not much troubled with scruples of conscience: they were obliged, however, by 
the rules of their respective orders, to lead very austere lives, which rendered 
their manners unsocial, and better qualified them for their employment. The pope 
gave the inquisitors the most unlimited powers, as judges delegated by him, and 
immediately representing his person: they were permitted to excommunicate, or 
sen- tence to death, whom they thought proper, upon the slightest information 
of heresy; they were allowed to publish crusades against all whom they deemed 
heretics, and enter into leagues with sovereign princes, to join those crusades 
with their forces. About the year 1244, their power was further increased by the 
emperor Frederic the Second, who declared Page 152 himself the protector and friend 
of all inquisitors, and published two cruel edicts - that heretics who continued 
obstinate should be burnt; and that those who repented should be imprisoned for 
life. This zeal in the emperor for the inquisitors, and the Roman Catholic persuasion, 
arose from a report, which had been propagated throughout Europe, that he intended 
to turn Mahometan: he therefore attempted, by the height of bigotry and cruelty, 
to establish beyond all doubt his attachment to the popish system. The officers 
of the inquisition are, three inquisitors or judges, a procurator fiscal, two 
secretaries, a magistrate, a messenger, a receiver, a gaoler, an agent of confiscated 
possessions, and several assessors, counsellors, executioners, physicians, surgeons, 
door- keepers, familiars, and visitors, who are all sworn to profound secrecy. 
Their chief assusation against those who are subject to this tribunal is heresy, 
which comprises all that is spoken or written against the creed, or the traditions 
of the Romish church. The other articles of accusation are, renouncing Roman Catholic 
persuasion, and believing that persons of any other religion may be saved, or 
even admitting that the tenets of any but papists are either scriptural or rational. 
There are two other things which incur the most severe punishments, to disapprove 
of any action done by the inquisition, or doubt the truth of any thing asserted 
by inquisitors. Heresy comprises many subdivisions, and, upon a suspi- cion of 
any of these, the party is immediately apprehended. Advancing an offensive proposition; 
failing to impeach others who may advance one; contemning church ceremonies; defacing 
idols; reading books condemned by the inquisition; lending such books to others; 
deviating from the ordi- nary practices of the Romish church; letting a year pass 
without going to confession; eating meat on fast-days; neglecting mass; being 
present at a sermon preached by a heretic; to appearing when summoned by the inquisition; 
lodging in the house of, contacting a friendship with, or making presents to a 
heretic; assisting a heretic to escape from con- finement, or visiting one in 
confinement, all matters of suspicion, and prosecuted accordingly. All Roman Catholics 
were even commanded, under pain of excommunication, to give immediate information, 
even of their nearest and dearest friends, if they judged them to be heretics, 
or any ways inclining to heresy. All who give the least assistance to protes- 
tants are called fautors or abettors of heresy, and the accusations against them 
are for comforting such as the inquisition have begun to persecute; assisting, 
or not informing against them, if they should happen to escape; concealing, abetting, 
advising, or furnishing heretics with money; visiting, or writing to, or sending 
them subsistence; se- creting or burning books and papers, which might serve to 
convict them. The inquisition also takes cognizance of such as are accused of 
being magicians, witches, blasphemers, soothsayers, wizards, common swearers; 
and of such as read or even possess the bible in the common language, the Talmud 
of the Jews, or the Alcoran of the Mahometans. Upon all occasions the inquisitors 
carry on their process with the utmost severi- ty. A protestant is seldom shewn 
any mercy; and a Jew, who turns Chris- tian, is far from being secure; for if 
he is known to keep company with Page 153 another converted Jew, suspicion arises 
that they privately practise together some Jewish ceremonies; if he keep company 
with a person who was lately a protestant, but now professes popery, they are 
accused of plotting together; but if he associate with a Roman Catholic, an accusa- 
tion is often laid against the former for only pretending to be a papist, and 
the consequence is, a confiscation of his effects, and the loss of life if he 
complain of ill usage. A defence is of little use to the prisoner; for suspicion 
only is deemed cause of condemnation, and the greater his wealth the greater his 
danger. Most of the inquisitors' cruelties are owing to their rapacity: they destroy 
life to possess the property of their victims, and, under pretence of zeal, plunder 
individ- uals of their rights. A prisoner of the inquisition is never allowed 
to see the face of his accuser, or of the witnesses against him, but every method 
is taken by threats and tortures to oblige him to criminate himself. If the jurisdiction 
of the inquisition be not fully allowed, vengeance is denounced against such as 
call it in question; or if any of its officers are opposed, those who oppose them 
are almost certain of becoming sufferers for their temerity; the maxim of the 
inquisition being to strike terror, and awe those who are the objects of its power 
into obedience. High birth, distinguished rank, great dignity, or emin- ent employments, 
are no protection from its severities; and the lowest officers of the inquisition 
can make the highest characters tremble at their authority. These are the circumstances 
which subject persons to the rage of the inquisition; and the methods of beginning 
the process are, 1. to proceed by a imputation, or prosecute on common report; 
2. to proceed by the information of an indifferent person who wishes to im- peach 
another; 3. to prosecute on the information of spies retained by the inquisition; 
and, 4. to prosecute on the confession of the prisoner himself. The inquisitors 
never forget or forgive; length of time cannot efface their resentments; nor can 
the humblest concessions or most liberal presents obtain a pardon: they carry 
their desire of revenge to the grave, and are gratified with nothing short of 
the property and lives of those who have offended. Hence, when a person once accused 
to the inquisition, after escaping, is retaken, he ought seriously to prepare 
himself for martyrdom, for pardon is next to an impossibility. If a positive accusation 
be given, the inquisitors direct an order to the executioner, who takes a certain 
number of familiars with him to assist in the execution. Father, son, brother, 
sister, husband, or wife, must quietly submit; none dare resist or even speak 
- as either would subject them to the punishment of the devoted victim. No respite 
is allowed, but the prisoner is instantaneously hurried away. This dread- ful 
engine of tyranny may at any time be introduced into a country where the catholics 
have the ascendancy; and hence how careful ought we to be, who are not cursed 
with such an arbitrary court, to prevent its intro- duction. In speaking of this 
subject, an elegant author pathetically says, "How horrid a scene of perfidy and 
inhumanity! What kind of com- munity must that be whence gratitude, love, and 
mutual forbearance with human frailties, are banished! What must that tribunal 
be, which obliges parents not only to ease from their minds the remembrance of 
their own children, to extinguish all those keen sensations of tenderness and 
Page 154 affection wherewith nature inspires them, but even to extend their inhumanity 
so far as to force them to become their accusers, and conse- quently the cause 
of the cruelties inflicted upon them! What ideas ought we to form of a tribunal 
which obliges children not only to stifle every soft impulse of gratitude, love, 
and respect, due to those who gave them birth; but even forces them, under the 
most rigorous penalties, to be spies over their parents, and to discover to a 
set of merciless inquisi- tors the crimes, the errors, and even t he infirmities 
to which they are exposed by human frailty! In a word, a tribunal that will not 
permit relations, when imprisoned in its horrid dungeons, to give each other the 
succours, or perform the duties which religious enjoins, must be of an infernal 
nature. What disorder and confusion must such conduct give rise to in a tenderly 
affectionate family! An expression, innocent in itself, and, perhaps, but too 
true, shall, from an indiscreet zeal or a panic of fear, give infinite uneasiness 
to a family; shall entirely ruin its peace and perhaps cause one or more of its 
members to be the unhappy victims of the most barbarous of all tribunals. What 
distractions must necessarily break forth in a house where the husband and wife 
are at variance, or the children loose and wicked! Will such children scruple 
to sacrifice a father, who endeavours to restrain them by his exhorta- tions, 
by reproofs, or parental corrections? Will they not rather, after plundering his 
house to support their extravagance and riot, readily deliver up their unhappy 
parent to all the horrors of a tribunal founded on the blackest injustice? A riotous 
husband, or a loose wife, has an easy opportunity, assisted by the system in question, 
to rid themselves of one who is check to their vices, by delivering him or her 
up to the rigours of the inquisition." When the inquisitors have taken umbrage 
against an innocent person, all expedients are used to facilitate con- demnation; 
false oaths and testimonies are employed to find the accused guilty; and all laws 
and institutions are sacrificed to satiate the most bigoted vengeance. If a person 
accused be arrested and imprisoned, his treatment is deplorable. The gaolers may 
begin by searching him for books and papers which tend to his conviction, or for 
instruments which might be employed in self-murder or escape, and on this pretext 
they often rob him of valuables and even wearing apparel. When the prisoner has 
been searched and robbed, he is committed to prison. Innocence, on such an occasion, 
is a weak reed; nothing being easier than to ruin an innocent person. The mildest 
sentence is imprisonment for life; yet the inquisitors proceed by degrees at once 
subtle, slow, and cruel. The gaoler first insinuates himself into the prisoner's 
favour, by pretend- ing to wish and advise him well; and among other hints of 
false kindness tells him to petition for an audit. When he is brought before the 
con- sistory, the first demand is, "What is your request?" To this the pris- oner 
very naturally answers, that he would have a hearing. On this one of the inquisitors 
replies, "Your hearing is - confess the truth, con- ceal nothing, and rely on 
our mercy." If now the prisoner make a confes- sion of any trifling affair, they 
immediately found an indictment upon it; if he is mute, they shut him up without 
light, or any food but a scanty allowance of bread and water till he overcomes 
his obstinacy, as they call it; and if he declare his innocence, they torment 
him till he Page 155 either dies with the pain, or confesses himself guilty. On 
the re- examination of such as confess, they continually say, "You have not been 
sincere, you tell not all; you keep many things concealed, and therefore must 
be remanded to your dungeon." When those who have been silent are called for re-examination, 
if they continue mute, such tortures are ordered as either make them speak, or 
kill them: and when those who proclaim their innocence are re-examined, a crucifix 
is held before them, and they are solemnly exhorted to take an oath of their confession 
of faith. This brings them to the test; they must either swear they are Roman 
catholics, or acknowledge they are not. If they acknowledge they are not, they 
are proceeded against as heretics: if they acknowledge they are, a string of accusations 
is brought against them, to which they are obliged to answer extempore; no time 
being given to arrange their thoughts. On having verbally answered, pen, ink, 
and paper, are brought them, in order to produce a written answer, which must 
in every degree coincide with the verbal one. If the verbal and written answers 
differ, the prisoners are charged with prevarication; if one contain more than 
the other, they are accused of wishing for concealment; if they both agree, they 
are charged with premeditated artifice. After a person impeached is condemned, 
he is either severely whipped, violently tor- tured, sent to the galleys, or sentenced 
to death; in either case the effects are confiscated. After judgment, a procession 
is arranged to the place of execution, and the ceremony is called an Auto da Fe, 
or act of Faith. The following is an exact account of one of these solemn farces, 
performed at Madrid in the year 1682. The officers of the inquisition, preceded 
by trumpets, kettle-drums, and their banner, marched on the 30th of May, in cavalcade, 
to the palace of the great square, where they declared by proclamation, that on 
the 30th of June the sentence of the prisoners would be put in execution. There 
had not been a spectacle of this kind at Madrid for several years before, for 
which reason it was expected by the inhabitants with as much impatience as a day 
of the greatest festivity and triumph. When the day appointed arrived, a pro- 
digious number of people appeared dressed as gaily as their respective circumstances 
would admit. In the great square was raised a high scaf- fold; and thither, from 
seven in the morning till the evening, were brought criminals of both sexes; all 
the inquisitions in the kingdom sending their prisoners to Madrid. Twenty men 
and women, with one rene- gado Mahometan, were ordered to be burned; fifty Jews 
and Jewesses, never having before been imprisoned, and repenting of their crimes, 
were sentenced to a long confinement, and to wear a yellow cap; and ten others, 
indicted for bigamy, witchcraft, and other crimes, were sen- tenced to be whipped, 
and then sent to the galleys; these last wore large pasteboard caps, with inscriptions 
on them, having a halter about their necks, and torches in their hands. On this 
occasion the whole court of Spain was present. The grand inquisitor's chair was 
placed in a sort of tribunal higher than that of the king. Nobles acted the part 
of the sheriff's officers in England, leading such criminals as were to be Page 
156 burned, and holding them when fast bound with thick cords: the rest of the 
victims were conducted by familiars of the inquisition. There was among them a 
young Jewess of exquisite beauty, but seventeen years of age. Being on the same 
side of the scaffold where the queen was seated, she addressed her, in hope of 
obtaining pardon, in the following pathet- ic speech: "Great queen! will not your 
royal presence be of some service to me in my miserable condition? Have regard 
to my youth; and, oh! consider that I am about to die for professing a religion 
imbibed from my earliest infancy!" Her majesty seemed to pity her distress, but 
turned away her eyes, as she did not dare speak a word in behalf of a person who 
had been declared heretic by the inquisition. Mass now began, in the midst of 
which the priest came from an altar placed near the scaffold, and seated himself 
in a chair prepared for that purpose. Then the chief inquisitor descended from 
the amphitheatre, dressed in his cope, and having a mitre on his head. After bowing 
to the altar, he advanced towards the king's balcony, attended by some of his 
officers, carrying a cross and the gospels, with a book containing the oath by 
which the kings of Spain oblige themselves to protect the catholic faith, to extirpate 
heretics, and support with all their power the decrees of the inquisitions. On 
the approach of the inquisitor present- ing this book to the king, his majesty 
rose up bare-headed, and swore to maintain the oath, which was read to him by 
one of his counsellors: after which the king continued standing till the inquisitor 
had returned to his place; when the secretary of the holy office mounted a sort 
of pulpit, and administered a like oath to the counsellors and the whole assembly. 
Mass commenced about twelve at noon, and did not end till nine in the evening, 
being protracted by a proclamation of the sentences of the several criminals, 
which were all separately rehearsed aloud one after the other. Next followed the 
burning of the twenty-one men and women, whose intrepidity in suffering that horrid 
death was truly aston- ishing; some thrust their hands and feet into the flames 
with the most dauntless fortitude; and all yielded to their fate with such resolution, 
that many of the amazed spectators lamented that such heroic souls had not been 
more enlightened. The situation of the king was so near to the criminals, that 
their dying groans were audible to him: his coronation oath obliges him to give 
sanction by his presence to all the acts of the tribunal. Another Auto da Fe is 
thus described by the reverend Dr. Geddes:- "At the place of execution there are 
as many stakes set as there are prisoners to be burned, a large quantity of dry 
furze being piled about them. The stakes of the protestants, or as the inquisitors 
call them, the professed, are about four yards high, and have each a small board, 
whereon the prisoner is seated within half a yard of the top. The professed then 
go up a ladder betwixt two priests, who attend the whole day of execution. When 
they come even with the board they turn about to the people, and the priests spend 
a quarter of an hour in exhorting them to be reconciled to the see of Rome. On 
their refusing, the priests come down, and the executioner ascending, turns the 
pro- fessed from off the ladder upon the seat, chains their bodies close to the 
stakes, and leaves them. Then the priests go up a second time to renew their exhortations, 
and if they find them ineffectual, usually Page 157 tell them at parting, that 
they leave them to the devil, who is standing at their elbow ready to receive 
their souls, and carry them with him into the flames of hell-fire, as soon as 
they are out of their bodies. A general shout is then raised, and when the priests 
get off the ladder, the universal cry is, 'Let the dogs' beards be burnt,' which 
is accord- ingly done by means of flaming furzes thrust against their faces. This 
barbarity is repeated till their faces are burnt, and is accompanied with loud 
acclamations. Fire is then set to the furzes, and the crimi- nals are consumed." 
The inquisition belonging to Portugal is on a similar plan to that of Spain, having 
been instituted much about the same time, and put under the same regulations, 
and the proceedings nearly resemble each other. The house or rather palace of 
the inquisi- tion is a noble edifice. It contains four courts, each about forty 
feet square, round which are about 300 dungeons or cells. The dungeons on the 
ground floor are for the lowest class of prisoners, and those on the second story 
for superior rank. The galleries are built of freestone, and hid from view both 
within and without by a double wall of about fifty feet high. So extensive is 
the whole prison, which contains so many turnings that none but those acquainted 
with it can find their way through its various avenues. The apartments of the 
chief inquisitor are spacious and elegant; the entrance is through a large gate, 
which leads into a court-yard, round which are several chambers, and some large 
saloons for the king, royal family, and the rest of the court to stand and observe 
the executions. A testoon, which is sevenpence-halfpenny English money, is allowed 
every prisoner daily; and the principal gaol- er, accompanied by two other officers, 
visits every prisoner monthly to enquire how he would have his allowance laid 
out. This visit, however, is only a matter of form, for the gaoler usually lays 
out the money as he pleases, and commonly allows the prisoner daily a porringer 
of broth, half a pound of beef, a small piece of bread, and a trifling portion 
of cheese. Centinels walk about continually to listen, and if the least noise 
is heard, to address and threaten the prisoner; if the noise is repeated, a severe 
beating ensues. The following is said to be a fact: a prisoner having a violent 
cough, one of the guards came and ordered him not to make a noise; to which he 
replied, that from the violence of his cold, it was not in his power to forbear. 
The cough increasing, the guard went into the cell, stripped the poor creature 
naked, and beat him so unmercifully that he soon died. Sometimes a prisoner passes 
months without knowing of what he is accused, or having the least idea when he 
is to be tried. The gaoler at length informs him that he must petition for a trial. 
This ceremony being gone through he is taken bare-headed for examination. When 
they come to the door of the tribunal, the gaoler knocks three times, to give 
the judges notice of their approach. A bell is rung by one of the judges, when 
an attendant opens the door, admits the prisoner, and accommodates him with a 
stool. The prisoner is then ordered by the president to kneel down, and lay his 
right hand upon a book, which is presented to him close shut. This being complied 
with, the following question is put to him: "Will you promise to conceal the secrets 
of the holy office, and to speak the truth?" Should he answer in Page 158 the 
negative, he is remanded to his cell and cruelly treated. If he answer in the 
affirmative, he is ordered to be again seated, and the examination proceeds; when 
the president asks a variety of questions, and the clerk minutes both them and 
the answers. When the examination is closed, the bell is again rung, the gaoler 
appears, and the prisoner is ordered to withdraw with this exhortation: "Tax your 
memory, recollect all the sins you have ever committed, and when you are again 
brought here, communicate them to the holy office." The gaolers and attendants, 
when apprized that the prisoner has made an ingenuous confession, and readily 
answered every question, make him a low bow, and treat him with affected kindness 
as a reward for his candour. He is brought in a few days to a second examination, 
with the same formalities as before. The inquisitors often deceive prisoners by 
promising the greatest lenity, and even to restore their liberty, if they will 
accuse themselves: the unhappy persons who are in their power frequently fall 
into this snare, and are sacrificed to their own simplicity. Instances have occurred 
of some, who relying on the faith of the judges, have accused themselves of what 
they were totally innocent, in expectation of obtaining their liberty; and thus 
become martyrs to their own folly. There is another artifice made use of by the 
inquisition: if a prisoner has too much resolution to accuse himself, and too 
much foresight to be ensnared by their sophistry, they proceed differently. A 
copy of an indictment against the prisoner is given him, in which, among many 
trivial accusa- tions, he is charged with the most enormous crimes of which human 
nature is capable. This rouses his temper, and he exclaims against such falsi- 
ties. He is then asked which of the crimes he can deny. He naturally mentions 
the most atrocious, and begins to express his abhorrence of them, when the indictment 
being snatched out of his hand, the president says, "By your denying only those 
crimes which you mention, you implic- itly confess the rest, we shall therefore 
proceed accordingly." Sometimes they make a ridiculous affectation of equity, 
by pretending that the prisoner may be indulged with a counsellor, if he chooses 
to demand one. Such a request is sometimes made, and a counsellor appoint- ed: 
but upon these occasions, as the trial itself is a mockery of jus- tice, so the 
counsellor is a mere cypher: for he is not permitted to utter anything that might 
offend the inquisitor, or to advance a sylla- ble that might benefit the prisoner. 
Though the inquisitors allow the torture to be used only three times, yet it is 
so severely inflicted, that the prisoner either dies under it, or ever after continues 
a crip- ple. The following is a description of the severe torments occasioned 
by the torture, from the account of one who suffered it the three usual times, 
but happily survived its cruelties.  THE FIRST TIME OF TORTURING. A prisoner 
on refusing to comply with the inquisitors demand of the inquisitors, by confessing 
all the crimes they thought proper to charge him with, was immediately conveyed 
to the torture-room, where no light appeared but what issued from two candles. 
That the cries of the suf- ferers might not be heard by other prisoners, the room 
was lined with a Page 159 kind of quilting, covering all the crevices and deadening 
the sound. The prisoner's horror was extreme on entering this infernal place, 
when suddenly he was surrounded by six wretches, who, after preparing the tortures, 
stripped him naked to his drawers. He was then laid upon his back on a kind of 
stand, elevated a few feet from the floor. They began by putting an iron collar 
round his neck, and a ring to each foot, which fastened him to the stand. His 
limbs being thus stretched out they wound two ropes round each arm and each thigh; 
these being passed under the scaffold, were all drawn tight at the same instant 
of time, by four of the men on a given signal. The pains which immediately succeeded 
were intolerable, the ropes, which were of a small size, cut through the prisoner's 
flesh to the bone, making the blood gush out at all the different places bound 
at a time. As he persisted in not making any confession of what the inquisitors 
required, the ropes were drawn in this manner four times successively. A physician 
and surgeon attended, and often felt his temples, to judge of the danger he might 
be in; by these means his tortures were for a short time suspended; but only that 
he might have sufficient opportunity of recovering his spirits to sus- tain further 
torture. During this extremity of anguish, while the tender frame is tearing, 
as it were, in pieces, while at every pore it feels the sharpest pangs of death, 
and the agonized soul is just ready to burst forth and quit its wretched mansion, 
the ministers of the inquisi- tion have the obduracy to look on without emotion, 
and calmly to advise the poor distracted creature to confess his imputed guilt, 
that he may obtain pardon and receive absolution. All this, however, was ineffectual 
with the prisoner, whose mind was strengthened by a sweet consciousness of innocence, 
and the divine consolation of religion. Amidst his bodily suffering, the physician 
and surgeon were so barbarous as to declare, that if he died under the torture 
he would be guilty, by his obstinacy, of self-murder. The last time the ropes 
were drawn tight he grew so exceedingly weak, by the stoppage of the circulation 
of his blood, and the pains he endured, that he fainted away; upon which he was 
unloosed and carried back to his dungeon.  THE SECOND TIME OF TORTURING. 
The inhuman wretches of the inquisition, finding that all the torture they inflicted, 
instead of extorting a discovery from the prisoner, only served the more fervently 
to excite his supplications to Heaven for patience and power to persevere in truth 
and integrity, were so inhuman, in six weeks after, as to expose him to another 
kind of torture, more severe, if possible, than the former; the manner of inflicting 
which was as follows: they forced his arms backwards, so that the palms of his 
hands were turned outward behind him; when, by means of a rope that fastened them 
together at the wrists, and which was turned by an engine, they drew them by degrees 
nearer each other, in such a manner that the back of each hand touched, and stood 
parallel to each other. In conse- quence of this violent contortion, both his 
shoulders became dislocated, and a considerable quantity of blood issued from 
his mouth. This torture was repeated thrice; after which he was again taken to 
the dungeon, and delivered to the physician and surgeon, who, in setting the dislocated 
bones, put him to the most exquisite torment. Page 160 THE THIRD TIME OF TORTURING. 
About two months after the second torture, the prisoner, being a little recovered, 
was again ordered to the torture-room; and there, for the last time, made to undergo 
another kind of punishment, which was in- flicted twice without intermission. 
The executioners fastened a thick iron chain twice around his body, which, crossing 
upon his stomach, terminated at the wrists. They then placed him with his back 
against a thick board, at each extremity whereof was a pulley, through which there 
run a rope that caught the ends of the chain at his wrists. Then the executioner 
stretching the end of this rope, by means of a roller placed at a distance behind 
him, pressed or bruised his stomach in proportion as the ends of the chain were 
drawn tighter. They tortured him in this manner to such a degree, that his wrists, 
as well as his shoulders, were quite dislocated. They were, however, soon set 
by the surgeons; but the barbarians, not yet satisfied with this series of cruelty, 
made him immediately undergo the torture a second time; which he sustained with 
equal constancy and resolution. He was then remanded to his dungeon, attended 
by the surgeon to dress his bruises and adjust the parts dislo- cated; and here 
he continued till their gaol delivery restored him to a miserable freedom in this 
world, or their Auto da Fe removed him to a better state. It may be judged from 
these accounts what dreadful agony the sufferer must have laboured under, by being 
so frequently put to the torture. Most of his limbs were disjointed; so much was 
he bruised and exhausted, as to be unable, for weeks, to lift his hands to his 
mouth; and his body became greatly swelled from the inflammation caused by frequent 
dislocations. After his discharge he felt the effects of his cruelty for the remainder 
of his life, being frequently seized with thrilling and excruciating pains, to 
which he had never been subject, till after he had the misfortune to fall under 
the merciless and bloody lords of the inquisition. The unhappy females who fall 
into the hand of the inquisitors, have not more favour shewn them on account of 
the tenderness of their sex; but are tortured with as much severity as the male 
prisoners, with the additional mortification of having the most shocking indecencies 
added to the most savage barbarities. Should these modes of torturing force a 
confession from the prisoner, he is remanded to his horrid dungeon, and left a 
prey to the melancholy of his situa- tion, to the anguish arising from what he 
has suffered, and to the dreadful ideas of future cruelties. Should he refuse 
to confess, he is still remanded to his dungeon; but a stratagem is used to draw 
from him what the torture fails to do. A companion is allowed to attend him, under 
the pretence of comforting his mind till his wounds are healed: this person, who 
is always selected for his cunning, insinuates himself into the good graces of 
the prisoner, laments the anguish he feels, sympathises with him, and, taking 
advantage of the hasty expressions forced from him by pain, does all he can do 
to dive into his secrets. This companion sometimes pretends to be a prisoner like 
himself, and Page 161 imprisoned for similar charges; to draw the unhappy person 
into unsus- pecting confidence, and persuade him in unbosoming his grief, to betray 
his private sentiments. Frequently these snares succeed, as they are the more 
alluring by being glossed over with the appearance of friend- ship, sympathy, 
pity, and every tender passion. In fine, if the prisoner cannot be found guilty, 
he is either tortured or harassed to death, though a few have sometimes had the 
good fortune to be discharged; but not without having first of all suffered the 
most dreadful cruelties. If he is found guilty, all his effects are confiscated, 
and he is condemned to be whipped, imprisoned for life, sent to the gallies, or 
put to death. Having mentioned the barbarities with which the prisoners were treated 
by the inquisitors, we shall proceed to recount the severity of their proceedings 
against publications. When a book is published, it is carefully read by some of 
the familiars belonging to the inquisition. These wretched critics are too ignorant 
and bigoted to search for truth, and too malicious to appreciate sound wisdom 
and virtue. They scrutinize not for the merits, but for the defects of an author, 
and pursue the slips of his pen with unremitting diligence. Hence they read with 
preju- dice, judge with partiality, pursue errors with avidity, and strain that 
which is innocent into an offensive meaning. They misapply, confound, and pervert 
the sense; and when they have gratified the malignity of their disposition, charge 
their false conceptions, and designed misin- terpretations. Any trivial charge 
causes the censure of a book. There is a catalogue of condemned books annually 
published under three different heads of censures, and being printed on a large 
sheet of paper, is hung up in the most public and conspicuous places. After this, 
people are obliged to destroy all such books as come under either of the censures, 
unless the exceptionable passages have been expunged, and the correc- tions made, 
as in either case disobedience would be of the most fatal consequence: for the 
possessing and reading the proscribed books are deemed very atrocious crimes. 
Every publisher of such books is usually ruined in his circumstances, and sometimes 
obliged to pass the remainder of his life in a cell of the inquisition.  SECTION 
 FROM THE MOST AUTHENTICATED RECORDS.  Francis Romanus, a native of Spain, 
was employed by the merchants of Antwerp to transact some business for them at 
Bremen. He had been educated in the Romish persuasion, but going one day into 
a protestant church, he was struck with the truths which he heard, and beginning 
to discern the errors of popery, he determined to search farther into the matter. 
Perusing the sacred scriptures, and the writings of some protes- tant divines, 
he perceived the falsehood of the principles he had form- Page 162 erly embraced; 
and soon renounced the impositions of popery for the doctrines of the reformed 
church, in which religion appeared in its genuine purity. Resolving to think only 
of his eternal salvation, he studied religious truth more than earthly trade, 
and purchased books rather than merchandize, convinced that the riches of the 
body are trifling to those of the soul. He resigned his agency to the merchants 
of Antwerp, giving them an account at the same time of his conversion; and then, 
resolved on the conversion of his parents, he returned without delay to Spain 
for that purpose. But the Antwerp merchants writing to the inquisitors, he was 
seized, imprisoned for some time, and then condemned to the flames as a heretic. 
He was led to the place of execu- tion in a garment painted with demon figures, 
and had a paper mitre put on his head by way of derision. As he passed by a wooden 
cross, one of the priests bade him kneel to it; but he absolutely refused to do 
so, saying, "It is not for Christians to worship wood." Having been placed on 
a pile of fagots, the fire quickly reached him, when he suddenly lifted up his 
head; the priests thinking he meant to recant, ordered him to be taken down. Finding, 
however, that they were mistaken, and that he still retained his constancy, he 
was placed again upon the pile, where, as long as he had life and voice remaining, 
he kept repeating these verses of the seventh psalm - "O Lord my God, in thee 
I put my trust! O let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end, but establish 
thou the just. My defence is of God, who saveth the upright in heart. I will praise 
the Lord according to his righteousness; and will sing praise to the name of the 
Lord most high!" At St. Lucar, in Spain, resided a carver named Rochus, whose 
principal business was to make images of saints and other popish idols. Becoming, 
however, convinced of the errors of the Romish persuasion, he embraced the protestant 
faith, left off carving images, and for subsistence followed the business of a 
seal engraver only. But he had retained one image of the Virgin Mary for a sign; 
when an inquisitor passing by, asked if he would sell it. Rochus mentioned a price; 
the inquisitor objected to it, and offered half the money. Rochus replied, "I 
would rather break it to pieces than take such a trifle." - "Break it to pieces," 
said the inquisitor, "break it to pieces if you dare!" Rochus being provoked at 
this expression, snatched up a chisel, and cut off the nose of the image. This 
was sufficient; the inquisitor went away in a rage, and soon after sent to have 
him appre- hended. In vain did he plead that what he defaced was his own property; 
and that if it was not proper to do as he would with his own, it was not proper 
for the inquisitor to bargain for the image in the way of trade. Nothing, however, 
availed him; his fate was decided; he was condemned to be burnt, and the sentence 
was executed without delay. A doctor Cacalla, his brother Francis and sister Blanche, 
were burnt at Vallado- lid, for having spoken against the inquisitors. A gentlewoman 
with two daughters and niece, were apprehended at Seville, professing the protes- 
tant religion. They were all put to the torture: and when that was over, one of 
the inquisitors sent for the youngest daughter, pretended to sympathize with her, 
and pity her sufferings; then binding himself with a solemn oath not to betray 
her, he said, "If you will disclose all to Page 163 me, I promise you I will procure 
the discharge of your mother, sister, cousin, and yourself." Rendered confident 
by this oath, and ensnared by specious promises, she revealed all the tenets they 
professed; when the perjured wretch, instead of acting as he had sworn, immediately 
ordered her to be put to the rack, saying, "Now you have revealed so much, I will 
make you reveal more." Refusing, however, to say any thing further, the whole 
family were condemned to the flames, and the horrid sentence was executed at the 
next Auto da Fe. The keeper of the castle of Tri- ano, belonging to the inquisitors 
of Seville, happened to be of a more mild and humane temper than is usual with 
persons in his situation. He gave all the indulgence he could to the prisoners, 
and shewed them every favour in his power with as much secrecy as possible. At 
length the inquisitors became acquainted with his kindness, and determined to 
punish him severely for it, that the gaolers might be deterred from shewing the 
least trace of that compassion which ought to glow in the breast of every human 
being. With this view they superseded him, threw him into a dismal dungeon, and 
used him with such dreadful barbarity that he lost his senses. His deplorable 
situation, however, procured him no favour; for, frantic as he was, they brought 
him from prison at an Auto da Fe to the usual place of punishment, with a sanbenito 
(or gar- ment worn by criminals) on him, and a rope about his neck. His sentence 
was then read - that he should be placed upon an ass, led through the city, receive 
200 stripes, and then be condemned six years to the gal- leys. The unhappy frantic 
wretch, just as they were about to begin his punishment, suddenly sprang from 
the back of the ass, broke the cords that bound him, snatched a sword from one 
of the guards, and dangerously wounded an officer of the inquisition. Being overpowered, 
he was pre- vented from doing further mischief, seized, bound more securely to 
the ass, and treated according to his sentence. So inexorable were the inquisitors, 
that for the rash effects of his madness, which they had caused, four years were 
added to his slavery in the galleys. A maid- servant to another gaoler belonging 
to the inquisition was accused of humanity, and detected in bidding the prisoners 
keep up their spirits. For this heinous crime, as it was called, she was publicly 
whipped, banished her native place for ten years, and had her forehead branded 
by red hot irons with these words, "A favourer and aider of heretics." John Pontic, 
a Spanish gentleman and a protestant, was, principally on account of his great 
estate, apprehended by the inquisitors, and charged with heresy. On this charge 
all his effects were confiscated to the use of the inquisitors, and his body was 
burnt to ashes. John Gonsalvo, originally a priest, but who now embraced the reformed 
religion, was, with his mother, brother, and two sisters, seized by the inquisitors. 
Being condemned, they were led to execution singing part of the 106 psalm. At 
the place of execution they were ordered to repeat the creed, which they immediately 
complied with, but coming to these words, "the holy catholic church," they were 
commanded to add the monosyllables "of Rome," which absolutely refusing, one of 
the inquisitors said, "Put an Page 164 end to their lives directly," when the 
executioners obeyed, and stran- gled them. Four protestant women were seized at 
Seville, tortured, and afterwards ordered for execution. On the way they began 
to sing psalms; but the officers thinking that the words of the psalms reflected 
on themselves, used the most cruel means to silence them. They were then burnt, 
and the houses they resided in ordered to be demolished. A prot- estant schoolmaster 
of the name of Ferdinando, was apprehended by order of the inquisition, for instructing 
his pupils in the principles of protestantism; and after being severely tortured, 
committed to the flames. A monk, who had abjured the errors of popery, was imprisoned 
at the same time as Ferdinando; but through the fear of death, he said he was 
willing to embrace his former communion. Ferdinando hearing of this, obtained 
an opportunity to speak to him, reproached him with his weak- ness, and threatened 
him with eternal perdition; when the monk, sensible of his crime, re-embraced 
and promised to continue in the protestant faith, and declared to the inquisitors 
that he solemnly renounced his intended recantation. Sentence of death was therefore 
passed upon him, and he was burned at the same stake with his friend. A Spanish 
Roman catholic, named Juliano, travelling into Germany, became a convert to the 
protestant religion; and undertook to convey to his own country a great number 
of Bibles, concealed in casks, and packed up like Rhenish wine. He succeeded so 
far as to distribute the books. A pretended prot- estant, however, who had purchased 
one of the Bibles, betrayed him, and laid an account of the affair before the 
inquisition. Juliano was seized, and means being used to find out the purchasers 
of the Bibles, 800 persons were apprehended. They were indiscriminately tortured, 
and then most of them were sentenced to various punishments. Juliano was burnt, 
twenty were publicly whipped, many sent to the galleys, and a small number were 
acquitted. A protestant tailor of Spain, named John Leon, travelled to Germany, 
and from thence to Geneva, where hearing that a number of English protestants 
were returning to their native country, he and some other Spaniards determined 
to go with them. The Spanish inquisitors being apprised of their intentions, sent 
a number of familiars in pursuit of them, who overtook them at a sea-port in Zeal- 
and. The prisoners were heavily fettered, handcuffed, had their heads and necks 
covered with a kind of iron net-work, and in this miserable condition they were 
conveyed to Spain, thrown into a dungeon, almost famished, barbarously tortured, 
and then burnt. A young lady having been forced into a convent, absolutely refused 
to take the veil; and on leaving the cloister she embraced the protestant faith, 
on which she was apprehended and condemned to the flames. An eminent physician 
and phi- losopher of the name of Christopher Losada, became obnoxious to the inquisitors, 
on account of exposing the errors of popery, and professing the tenets of protestantism. 
He was apprehended, imprisoned, and racked; but these severities not making him 
confess the Roman catholic church to be the only true one, he was sentenced to 
the fire; which he bore with Page 165 exemplary patience, and resigned his soul 
to his Creator. Arias, a monk of St. Isidore's monastery at Seville, was a man 
of great abilities, but of a vicious disposition. He sometimes pretended to forsake 
the errors of the church of Rome, and become a protestant, and soon after turned 
Roman catholic. Thus he continued a long time wavering between both persuasions, 
till God thought proper to touch his heart. He now became a true protestant; and 
the sincerity of his conversion soon after becoming known, he was seized by the 
officers of the inquisition, severely tor- tured, and afterwards burned at an 
Auto da Fe. A young lady named Maria de Coccicao, who resided with her brother 
at Lisbon, was taken up by the inquisitors, and ordered be put to the rack. The 
torments she felt made her confess the charges against her. The cords were then 
slackened, and she was re-conducted to her cell, where she remained till she had 
recov- ered the use of her limbs; she was then brought again before the tribun- 
al, and ordered to ratify her confession. This she absolutely refused to do, telling 
them, that what she had said was forced from her by the excessive pain she underwent. 
The inquisitors, incensed at this reply, ordered her again to be put to the rack, 
when the weakness of nature once more prevailed, and she repeated her former confession. 
She was immediately remanded to her cell; and being a third time brought before 
the inquisitors they ordered her to sign her first and second confes- sions. She 
answered as before, but added, "I have twice given way to the frailty of the flesh, 
and perhaps may, while on the rack, be weak enough to do so again: but depend 
upon it, if you torture me a hundred times, as soon as I am released from the 
rack I shall deny what was extorted from me by pain." The inquisitors then ordered 
her to be racked a third time; and, during this last trial, she bore the torments 
with the utmost fortitude, and could not be persuaded to answer any of the questions 
put to her. As her courage and constancy increased, the inquisitors, instead of 
putting her to death, condemned her to a severe whipping through the public streets, 
and banishment for ten years. A lady of a noble family of seville, named Jane 
Bohorquia, was apprehended on the information of her sister, who had been tortured 
and burnt for professing the protes- tant religion. While on the rack, she confessed 
she had frequently conversed with her sister concerning protestantism, and upon 
this extorted confession Jane was seized and ordered to be racked, which was done 
with such severity, that she expired a week after of the wounds and bruises. Upon 
this occasion the inquisitors affected some remorse, and in one of the printed 
acts of the inquisition, which they always publish at an Auto da Fe, this young 
lady is thus mentioned: "Jane Bohorquia was found dead in prison; after which, 
upon reviving her prosecution, the inquisitors discovered she was innocent. Be 
it therefore known, that no further prosecution shall be carried on against her; 
and that her effects, which were confiscated, shall be given to the heirs at law." 
One sentence in this passage is as remarkable as it is ridiculous, that no further 
prosecution shall be carried on against her. This alludes to the absurd custom 
of prosecuting and burning the bones of the dead: for Page 166 when a prisoner 
dies in the inquisition, the process continues the same as if he was living; the 
bones are deposited in a chest, and if sentence of guilt is passed they are brought 
out at the next Auto da Fe; the sentence is read against them with as much solemnity 
as against a living prisoner, and they are at length committed to the flames. 
In a similar manner are prosecutions carried on against prisoners who escape; 
and when their persons are far beyond the reach of the inquisitors, they are burnt 
in effigy. Isaac Orobio, a learned physician, having beaten a Moorish servant 
for stealing, was accused of him of professing Judaism, and the inquisitor seized 
the master upon the charge. He was kept three years in prison before he had the 
least intimation of what he was to undergo, and then suffered the following modes 
of torture:- A coarse coat was put upon him, and drawn so tight that the circulation 
of the blood was nearly stopped, and the breath almost pressed out of his body. 
After this the strings were suddenly loosened, when the air forcing its way hastily 
into his stomach, and the blood rushing into its channels, he suffered the most 
incredible pain. He was seated on a bench with his back against a wall to which 
iron pullies were fixed. Ropes being fas- tened to several parts of his body and 
limbs, were passed through the pulleys, and being suddenly drawn with great violence, 
his whole frame was forced into a distorted mass. After having suffered for a 
consider- able time the pains of this position, the seat was suddenly removed 
and he was left suspended against the wall. The executioners fastened ropes round 
his wrists, and then drew them about his body. Placing him on his back with his 
feet against the wall, they pulled with the utmost violence, till the cord had 
penetrated to the bone. He suffered the last torture three times, and then lay 
seventy days before his wounds were healed. He was afterwards banished, and in 
his exile wrote the account of his sufferings. A protestant author of Toledo was 
fond of producing fine specimens of writings, and having them framed to adorn 
the differ- ent apartments of his house. Among other curious examples of penmanship, 
was a large piece containing the Lord's prayer, creed, and ten command- ments, 
in verse. This piece, which hung in a conspicuous part of the house, was one day 
seen by a person belonging to the inquisition, who observed that the numerical 
arrangement of the commandments was not according to the church of Rome, but according 
to the protestant church; for the protestants retain the whole ten commandments 
as they stand in the bible, but the papist omit the second which forbids the worship 
of images. The inquisition soon had information of the circumstance, and this 
gentleman was seized, prosecuted, and burnt, only for adorning his house with 
a specimen of his skill. Page 167  SECTION III. THE TRIAL AND SUFFERINGS 
OF MR. ISAAC MARTIN. In the year 1714, about Lent, Mr. Martin arrived at Malaga, 
with his wife and four children. On the examination of his baggage, a bible and 
some other books were seized. He was accused soon after of being a Jew, for these 
curious reasons, that his own name was Isaac and one of his sons was named Abraham. 
The accusation was laid in the bishop's court, and he informed the English consul 
of it, who said it was nothing but the malice of some of the Irish papists, whom 
he advised him always to shun. The clergy sent to Mr. Martin's neighbours to know 
their opinion concerning him, and the result of the enquiry was this - "We believe 
him not to be a Jew, but a heretic." After this, being continually pestered by 
priests, particularly those of the Irish nation, in order to change his religion, 
he determined to dispose of what he possessed and retire from Malaga. When, however, 
his purpose became known his house was assailed after dark by a loud knocking 
at the door. He demanded who was there. The persons without said they wanted to 
enter. He desired they would come the next morning; but they replied, if he would 
not open the door they would break it open; and they were as good as their word. 
Then about fifteen persons entered, consisting of a commissioner, with several 
priests and familiars belonging to the inquisition. Mr. Martin would fain have 
gone to the English consul; but they told him the consul had nothing to do in 
the matter, and then said, "Where are your beads and fire arms?" To which he answered, 
"I am a English protestant, and as such carry no private arms, not make use of 
beads." They took away his watch, money, and other things, carried him to the 
bishop's prison, and loaded him with heavy fetters. His distressed family was 
turned out of doors till the house was stripped: and when they had taken every 
thing away, they returned the key to his wife. Four days after his commitment, 
Mr. Martin was told he must be sent to Grenada to be tried: he earnestly begged 
to see his wife and children before he went, but his request was cruelly denied. 
Oppressed with fetters, he was mounted on a mule, and set out towards Grenada. 
By the way, the mule threw him upon a rocky part of the road, and almost broke 
his back. He was three days on the journey of 72 miles. On his arrival at Grenada 
he was detained at an inn till it was dark. No one is ever put into the inquisition 
by day light - fit arrangement for so black a deed. At night he was taken along 
a range of galleries till he arrived at a dungeon, with a few things brought from 
Malaga by the carrier, consisting of an old bed, some clothes, and a box of books. 
The gaoler nailed up the latter, and said, they must remain in that state till 
the lords of the inquisition chose to inspect them, for prisoners were not allowed 
to read books. He also took an inventory of whatever Mr. Martin had about him; 
and having asked a great number of frivolous questions, at length gave him this 
order: "You must observe as great silence as if you were dead; you must not speak, 
nor whistle, nor sing, nor make any noise that can be heard; and if you hear any 
body cry or make a noise, you must be still and say nothing, on pain of receiving 
200 lashes." Mr. Martin asked if he might have liberty to walk about the room; 
the gaoler replied he might, but it must be very softly. After giving him some 
wine, bread, and half a dozen walnuts, the gaoler left him till morning. It was 
frosty weather, and the walls of the dungeon were between two and three feet thick, 
the floor was bricked, and a great wind came through an aperture which served 
as a Page 168 window. The next morning the gaoler came to light his lamp, and 
bade him light a fire in order to dress his dinner. He then took him to a wheel 
usually found at the doors of convents, on which a person on the other side, unseen 
turns the provisions round. He had then given him half a pound of mutton, two 
pounds of bread, some kidney beans, a bunch of raisins, and a pint of wine, which 
formed his allowance for three days. He was also furnished with some charcoal, 
and earthen stove, and a few other articles. In about a week Mr. Martin was summoned 
to an audience: he followed the gaoler, and coming to a large room found a man 
sitting between two crucifixes; and another with a pen in his hand, who was evidently 
secretary to the inquisition. The chief lord inquisitor, the person between two 
crucifixes, seemed about sixty years of age, and was a bony slender man, meagre 
and hideous as could well be imagined. He commanded Mr. Martin to sit down upon 
a little stool that fronted him. A frivolous examination then took place, the 
questions related to his family, their religion, and his own tenets and professions. 
The prisoner admitted that he was a protestant, pleaded that Christ admitted of 
no persecution, and concluded with saying, that he hoped to remain in the religion 
he had hitherto adopted. He underwent five examinations without any thing serious 
being alleged against him. In a few days he was called to his sixth audience, 
when, after some immaterial interrogato- ries, the inquisitor told him the charges 
against him should be read, and that he must give an explicit and prompt answer 
to each charge. First accusation. Soon after your coming to Malaga, you went and 
abused the schoolmaster for teaching your children the christian doctrine, telling 
him that you would teach them your own religion, and that you sent them to school 
to learn to read and write, and not to learn reli- gion. Answer. My lord, I did 
go to the schoolmaster, and told him that I sent my children to read and write, 
and not to learn prayers; that I would have them brought up in my own religion, 
and would teach them how to pray; but I did not abuse him. I believe, my lord, 
I have liberty to bring up my children in my own faith without being called to 
an account for it. The inquisitor, displeased at this reply, bid the secretary 
write him down guilty of the first accusation. Second accusation. At diver times 
it was remarked, that you did not pull off your hat, in homage to images, but 
turned your back on them. Answer. My lord, in my religion we pay no respect to 
graven images. I profess myself to be a protestant, it is against my conscience 
to bow to wood or stone, and I am not obliged by the articles of peace to do so. 
The inquisitor told him, that as he lived in a country where it was done, he ought 
to comply with the custom of the place in which he resided. The secretary was 
then ordered to record the answer. Third accusation. You once said, walking in 
your own apartment with an English captain, a heretic like yourself, that purgatory 
was but an invention of the church of Rome to get money. There was one present 
who could understand your language, and heard you say so. Answer. My lord, I cannot 
remember every thing I have said during four years time. It may be that I have 
said such a thing; but if I did, it was not to a Roman catholic. If there was 
one in the room that heard me say so he must have been an Irishman, who was not 
very welcome there, for he came as a spy upon my words and actions. The inquisitor 
asking if he thought he knew him, Mr. Martin named the person on whom his suspicions 
fell. The inquisitor then having blamed him for giving his tongue such liberties 
in Roman catholic countries, demanded if he was sorry for having said so; he replied, 
"My lord, if I have said amiss, I beg your lordship's pardon." When the inquisitor, 
turning to the secre- tary, said, "Write down that the heretic begs pardon for 
the third accusation." Fourth accusation. You were once walking with another person 
who pulled off his hat to the crucifix. You asked him why he did this. He replied, 
I honour the crucifix: when you said, "We have no such things in our country," 
and passed by without pulling off your hat. Answer. My lord, I remember the time 
very well; it is true, I never pulled off my hat to a crucifix, unless it was 
carried in procession; and then I used to pull off my hat, not in respect to the 
image, but to cause no scandal, by appearing to deny my superiors salutation as 
they passed. Guilty of this accusation by his own confession. Fifth accusa- tion. 
You have several times spoken in religious disputes against our faith; and though 
you have been frequently admonished to embrace the Roman catholic persuasion, 
without which no man can be saved, you would never listen to the salutary advice. 
Answer. My lord, at my first arrival in the inquisition you allowed that a man 
might defend his religion; it is what I have done. As for being admonished to 
change it, that has happened very often; but I have no inclination to change. 
Then the inquisitor asked him if he could not defend his own religion without 
speaking against the church of Rome. To which Mr. Martin made answer, that he 
really could not: "For," said he, "in disputing with others, when they spoke against 
my religion, I naturally spoke against theirs; and I brought proof of scripture 
for what I said." He was recorded as guilty of this charge by his own confession. 
Sixth accusation. Being on board an English ship with your wife and others, a 
female admonished your wife to change her religion, when you bade her be quiet 
and mind her own religion. This was on a Friday, and you ate meat without regard- 
ing the day. Answer. My lord, we were merry drinking Florence wine and punch, 
and the woman was always talking of religion to my wife, though she hardly knew 
what she said, and at best knew but little of the mat- ter. Continuing to talk 
on in the same manner, she made us very uneasy, so that I bade her hold her tongue, 
and had a trifling quarrel with her. As for eating meat on Friday, I generally 
do, and so did she, though she was a Roman catholic. Seventh accusation. Being 
in company with some English heretic captains at church, there were several people 
kneeling and praying to the image of the Virgin Mary. The captains asked if they 
prayed to the image. You answered, "Yes; they know no better, for they Page 170 
are brought up in ignorance." Answer. My lord, I have been several times walking 
with captains. I do not remember this particular time: it may be that some person 
heard me say so. Eight accusation. Walking with several merchants, the host passed 
by, when they took off their hats, and some kneeled; but you did not so much as 
take off your hat, which occasioned such scandal, that some of the people were 
going to stab you. Answer. My lord, it is false: I have lived several years in 
Roman catholic countries, you know that by the articles of peace, I am obliged 
to have my hat off on all such occasions. As for people stabbing me, I have run 
those hazards many times on account of my religion. Ninth accusation. You have 
been threatened various times with the pope's authority in those countries, and 
you have said that you did not value him, and that he had no authority over you. 
Answer. My lord, it is true I have said so. This answer occasioned the following 
curious alterca- tion:- Q. How came you to say so? Don't you value the holy father, 
who is God on earth? A. My lord, talking with some people who were very troublesome 
about religion, they threatened me with the authority of the pope; and being an 
English protestant, I thought he had nothing to do with me. Q. What! then you 
value nobody? A. I beg your lordship's pardon; I value all mankind as being fellow-creatures; 
I value the pope as bishop of Rome, but not for the authority he has over me, 
for I believe he has not any. Q. You are mistaken. Who is the head of the church? 
A. My lord, I see to my sorrow I was mistaken. Jesus Christ is the head of the 
church. Q. What! then you allow no head upon earth? A. No, my lord. Q. Holy your 
tongue; you are an unbeliever; he is God upon earth. The secretary was ordered 
to record Mr. Martin's several replies. Tenth accusation. Walking with some captains 
of ships, there was a procession passing, when you bade them retire, and not mind 
it, though it was their design to see it: but you hindered them through disrespect 
to the procession. Answer. My lord, processions are very frequent in Malaga. I 
have been in company with captains who were never in Roman catholic countries 
before: and they, not knowing that people went in procession for devotion, would 
laugh and not take their hats off: so that I desired them to retire to avoid confusion. 
Eleventh accusation. The procession mentioned in accusation the tenth went by, 
and the people kneeled down and worshipped: but you stood with your hat on, and 
took no notice of it. Answer. My lord, I remember nothing of the affair, but believe 
it is false; or if I did not take off my hat, it was because the host was not 
there. But with respect to kneeling or bowing, I told your lordship I never do 
either. Page 171 Twelfth accusation. Being in your own house, an English captain 
asked if you were a Jew; when you burst into a fit of laughter, and answered, 
you did not value what scandalous people said, for you were ready to give an account 
of your religion. Answer. It is true, my lord, I little valued what such scandalous 
people said, and was always ready to give an ac- count for my faith. Nor did I 
think of being sent here, that it might be examined whether I was a Jew or not, 
when the clergy are so numerous at Malaga. Thirteenth accusation. You refused 
to give any thing to such as begged alms for the souls that are in purgatory, 
and violently dismissed them from your door. Answer. My lord, it is true; but 
do they mention the reason why I did so? The inquisitor did to satisfy him, but 
bade him relate the reason, which he did, by stating, that one person in particular, 
who went about begging for souls in purgatory, did all he could to torment him, 
and the more Mr. Martin declared he would not bestow money for such a purpose, 
the more importunate the other became, calling him heretic dog, and telling him 
that he would be damned, which at length overcame his temper, and made him in 
some measure return the fellow's scurrility. Fourteenth accusation. You have been 
heard to say that you feared no ecclesiastical court of justice, not even the 
inqui- sition itself, which you affirmed had nothing to do with an English protestant. 
Answer. My lord, I have oftentimes said so. Fifteenth accusation. You have had 
Jews in your house without giving notice to the commissioners of the inquisition, 
that they might be taken up and prose- cuted according to the laws of the country. 
How durst you do such a thing? Do you remember these circumstances? Answer. Yes, 
my lord, I do very well. Sixteenth accusation. It is confirmed by several people, 
that the said heretic, Isaac Martin, has often shewn himself disaffected to the 
holy faith of the church of Rome, and has hindered people from embracing it; so 
that had it not been for the sake of his family, he would have been murdered long 
ago. Answer. My lord, I suppose those are good christians who give me this character; 
God knows best what to do with them. I hope God will enable me to go through these 
afflictions. I am well assured that your lordship knows that I am no Jew. I have 
an- swered the truth in your examination to the best of my remembrance; and I 
believe your lordship knows it to be so, and know the people who informed against 
me are of a very indifferent character, and have envied me ever since I lived 
at Malaga. Seventeenth accusation. You hindered your family from being brought 
up in the christian faith, and if it was not for you they would be all Romans, 
and it is against the laws of the country to prevent their becoming such. Answer. 
My lord, it is false that my family had any inclination to be Romans; neither 
can the law oblige them to be so, or hinder me from bringing them up in my religion. 
Page 172 Eighteenth accusation. You used to close your window-shutters when the 
procession passed by, to hinder your children from kneeling down, and would beat 
them if they shewed any inclination to be Roman catholics. Answer. My lord, it 
is true I have closed my shutters several times; for sometimes I have had captains 
of ships in my house, who would not pull their hats off when the procession passed. 
As for my children, they went to the window generally to laugh; and I often bade 
them not shew them- selves till the procession was gone, that no scandal might 
be given. Nineteenth accusation. Your daughter being of age, hath often said in 
the neighbourhood, that she would be a Roman catholic, but was afraid you would 
beat her; and that you had sometimes beaten her upon that account. Answer. My 
lord, I have nothing to answer to lies; it is false as the devil is false. Twentieth 
accusation. In Lent, and other fast- days, you caused your family to eat meat, 
and forbade them to keep any of the fasts appointed by the church of Rome, and 
beat them if they did. Answer. My lord, these are poor accusations, and they are 
all false. I thank God my table afforded flesh and fish all the year round; I 
never trouble myself to see what the servants used to eat; and as for myself, 
wife, and children, we ate meat all the year, without any scruple of conscience. 
Your lordship knows the fact. You English mind nothing but eating and drinking 
and living at your ease, without doing any penance. My lord, I beg your pardon, 
we have souls to be saved as well as other nations. We are born in a plentiful 
country, and I believe we live as well as the people of any nation, and serve 
God as well. Your country was a good country formerly; it produced a great many 
saints, but it now produces no such thing. My lord, I believe there are few saints 
now in the sense in which you use the word; but I am persuaded it produces as 
many good men as ever it did. Hold your tongue, you are all lost men; you are 
all fallen from the holy church, and there is no salvation for you if you do not 
return. Twenty-first accusation. Your children had often been at mass and at prayers 
in the neighbourhood, and would have done so every day if you would have let them; 
but you beat them, and prevented their being Christians, and thereby endangered 
their souls. Answer. My lord, I never knew my children go to mass or prayers in 
the neighbourhood, not did I ever beat them on that account; I hope God will save 
their souls in the religion to which they are brought up, though the church of 
Rome condemns them. The accusation is false. Twenty- second accusation. Living 
at Lisbon you had several disputes about religion, and you hid yourself for fear 
of being taken up as a Jew. Answer. My lord, God knows that I am no Jew, and your 
lordship knows it very well. The devil has invented this to frighten me; but God, 
who knows every thing, will plead and avenge my cause. Page 173 Twenty-third accusation. 
You breed schisms among the people, persuading them to turn heretics, and to leave 
the church of Rome, out of which no man can be saved. Answer. I wish your lordship 
or any one else would tell me whom I persuaded to change their religion. You may 
accuse me of any thing; hell can't invent greater lies. I can't think, my lord, 
who could have sent such accusations against me. Twenty-fourth accusation. Your 
name being Isaac, and your son's name Abraham, you must be a Jew, or related to 
Jews. Answer. My lord, I have sufficiently answered this matter; the Roman catholics 
that are in Holland and Flanders don't mind whether their children have names 
out of the Old or New Testament; and I know a man at Malaga, who is a Fleming, 
and a Roman catholic, whose name is Jacob. As for my parents, I never knew any 
of them were Jews. Twenty-fifth accusation. You offered to dispose of your house, 
and retire for fear of being taken up by the inquisition. Answer. My lord, it 
is true I offered to dispose of my house, but not through fear of the inquisition, 
for I never thought it had any thing to do with English protestants. If I had 
been afraid of it, I would not have come to live in the country: I had opportunities 
enough to go on board English ships, and to retire if I had been afraid. What! 
then you thought the inquisi- tion had nothing to do with the English protestants? 
You are mistaken. My lord, I see I am, to my sorrow. Twenty-sixth accusation. 
You took all opportunities of making game of the religion of the church of Rome. 
Answer. My lord, I don't deny that; being in company with some Roman catholics, 
as they have made game of my religion, I have made game of theirs; but it was 
not in a profane way. Mr. Martin being remanded to his dungeon, the next day one 
of the gaolers gave him some frankincense to be put into the fire, as he was to 
receive a visit from the lords of the inquisition. Two of them accordingly came, 
asked many trivial ques- tions, concluding them as usual, with, "We will do you 
all the service we can." Mr. Martin complained of their having promised him a 
lawyer to plead his cause; when, instead of a proper person, there was a man they 
called a lawyer, but he never conversed with him. To this one of the inquisitors 
gravely replied, "Lawyers are not allowed to speak here." The gaoler and secretary 
went out of the dungeon to laugh, and Mr. Martin could scarce refrain from smiling, 
to think that his cause was to be defended by a man who scarce dared to open his 
lips. Some time after Mr. Martin was ordered to dress himself very clean: as soon 
as he was ready, one of the gaolers came and told him that he must go with him: 
but that first he must have a handkerchief tied about his eyes. This alarmed Mr. 
Martin, who now thought of nothing but the torture. The gaoler then led him for 
some time, till he heard a voice say, "Stop, and pull off your clothes." He was 
then examined to know if he had been circumcised. Finding that he had not, he 
was remanded to his dungeon. In a month after, he was brought to a room filled 
with a great number of Page 174 persons, had a rope put round his neck, and was 
led by it to the altar of the great church. Here his sentence was pronounced, 
which was, that for the crimes of when he stood convicted, the lords of the holy 
office had ordered him to be banished out of the dominions of Spain, to receive 
200 lashes, and be sent five years to the galleys; and that he should at present 
receive 200 lashes through the common streets of the city of Grenada. He was sent 
again to his dungeon for the night, and the next morning the executioner came, 
stripped him, tied his hands together, put a rope about his neck, and led him 
out of the inquisition. He was then mounted on an ass, and received 200 lashes, 
admidst the shouts and peltings of the people. He remained a fortnight after this 
in gaol, and at length was sent to Malaga. Here he was put in goal for some days, 
till he could be sent on board an English ship; which had no sooner happened, 
than news was brought of a rupture between England and Spain, and the ship with 
many others was stopped. Mr. Martin not being consid- ered as a prisoner of war, 
was put on board a Hamburgh trader, and his wife and children soon came to him; 
but he was obliged to put up with the loss of his effects, which had been embezzled 
by the inquisition. The case of Mr. Martin was published and authenticated by 
Mr. Secretary Craggs, the archbishop of Canterbury, the archbishop of York, the 
bishops of London, Winchester, Ely, Norwich, Sarum, Chichester, St. Asaph, Lincoln, 
Bristol, Peterborough, and Bangor.  SINGULAR DISCOVERY OF ENORMITIES OF THE 
INQUISITION. In the beginning of the last century, when the crown of Spain 
was con- tested by two princes, who had equal pretensions to the sovereignty, 
France espoused the cause of one competitor, and England of the other. The duke 
of Berwick, a natural son of the apostate James II. commanded the Spanish and 
French forces, and defeated the English at the celebrat- ed battle of Almanza. 
The army was then divided into two parts; the one consisting of Spaniards and 
French, headed by the duke of Berwick, advanced towards Catalonia; the other body, 
consisting of French troops only, commanded by the duke of Orleans, proceeded 
to the conquest of Arragon. On the troops approaching the city of Arragon, the 
magistrates came to offer the keys to the duke; but he told them haughtily, they 
were rebels, and that he would not accept the keys, for he had orders to enter 
the city through a breach. Accordingly, he made a breach in the walls, with his 
cannon, and then entered the city with his whole army. When he had made regulations 
here, he departed to subdue other places, leaving a strong garrison under the 
command of his lieutenant-general, M. de Legal. This gentleman, though brought 
up a Roman catholic, was totally free from superstition: he united great talents 
with great bravery; and was at once the accomplished gentleman and the skillful 
officer. Before his departure, the duke had ordered heavy contributions to be 
levied upon the city. The money demanded of the magistrates and principal inhabitants, 
and of every house, was immediately paid; but Page 175 when the collectors applied 
to the heads of the convents and monaster- ies, they found that these were not 
so willing to part with their ill- gotten wealth. On this the lieutenant-general 
sent to the Jesuits a peremptory order to pay the money without delay. The superior 
of the Jesuits returned for answer, that for the clergy to pay money to the army 
was against all ecclesiastical law; and that he knew of no argument to authorize 
such a procedure. M. de Legal then sent four companies of dragoons to quarter 
in the college, with this sarcastic message: "To convince you of the necessity 
of paying, I have sent four substantial arguments to your college, drawn from 
the system of military logic; and therefore I hope you will not need further admonition 
to direct your conduct." The Jesuits, greatly perplexed at these proceedings, 
dis- patched an express to court to the king's confessor, who was of their order; 
but the dragoons were much more expeditious in plundering and doing mischief, 
than the courier in his journey: so that the Jesuits, seeing every thing going 
to ruin, thought proper to adjust the matter, and paid the money before the return 
of the messenger. The Augustins and Carmelites taking warning by what had happened 
to the Jesuits, prudently went and paid the money, and by that means escaped the 
study of military arguments, and of being taught logic by the dragoons. On the 
other hand the Dominicans, who are all familiars or agents of the inquisition, 
imagined that this very circumstance would be their protection; but they were 
mistaken, for M. de Legal neither feared nor respected the inquisi- tion. The 
chief of the Dominicans sent word to the military commander, that his order was 
poor, and had no money whatever to pay the donative, "for," said he "the whole 
wealth of the Dominicans consists in the silver images of the apostles and saints, 
as large as life, which are placed in our church, and which to remove would be 
accounted sacrilege." This insinuation was meant to terrify the French commander, 
who the inquisitors thought would not dare to be so profane as to wish for the 
possession of the precious idols. He, however, sent word that the silver images 
would make admirable substitutes for money, and would be more in character in 
his possession than in that of the Dominicans themselves; "for," said he, "while 
you possess them in the manner you do at present, they stand up in niches, useless 
and motionless, without being of the least benefit to mankind; but when they come 
into my possession, they shall be useful, I will put them in motion; for I intend 
to have them coined, that they may travel like the apostles." The inquisitors 
were astonished at an answer which they never expected to receive even from crowned 
heads; they therefore determined to deliver their precious images in solemn procession, 
that they might excite the people to an insurrection. The Dominican friars were 
accordingly ordered to march to De Legal's house, with the silver apostles and 
saints, in a mournful manner, having lighted tapers with them, and bitterly crying 
all the way, "Heresy! heresy!" When M. de Legal heard of these proceedings, he 
ordered four companies of grenadiers to line the streets which led to his house: 
each grenadier was ordered to have his loaded fusee in one hand, and a lighted 
taper in the other; so that the troops might either Page 176 repel force with 
force, or do honour to the farcical ceremony. The friars did all they could to 
raise a tumult, but the people were so much afraid of the troops under arms; the 
silver images were, therefore, peaceably delivered up to M. de Legal, who sent 
them to the mint to be melted into money. The inquisitors, on this, determined 
to excommu- nicate M. de Legal, unless he would release their precious saints 
from imprisonment in the mint, before they were melted down. The French commander 
absolutely refused to release the images, upon which the inquisitors drew up the 
form of excommunication, and ordered their secretary to proceed and read it to 
M. de Legal. This commission the secretary punctually performed, reading the excommunication 
deliberately and distinctly. The French commander heard it with great patience, 
and politely told the secretary he would answer it next day. As soon as the secretary 
of the inquisition was gone, M. de Legal ordered his own secretary to prepare 
a form of excommunication exactly like that sent by the inquisition; but instead 
of his own name, to put in the names of the inquisitors. The next morning he ordered 
four regiments under arms, and commanded them to accompany his secretary, and 
act according to his direction. The secretary went to the inquisition, and insisted 
on admit- tance, which, after considerable altercation, was granted. As soon as 
he entered, he read in an audible voice the excommunication sent by M. de Legal 
of the inquisitors. They were all present, and heard it with astonishment. Crying 
out against De Legal as a heretic, they said this was a daring insult against 
the catholic faith. But, to surprise them still more, the French secretary told 
them they must remove from their present apartments; for the French commander 
wanted to quarter the troops in the place, it being the most commodious place 
in the whole city for a military purpose. On this the inquisition exclaimed loudly, 
when the secretary put them under a strong guard and sent them to a place appointed 
by M. De Legal to receive them. The inquisitors, finding how things went, begged 
that they might be permitted to take their private property, which was granted, 
and they immediately set out for Madrid, where they made the most bitter complaints 
to the king; but the monarch told them, he could not grant them any redress, as 
the injuries they had received were from the troops of his grandfather, the king 
of France, by whose assistance alone he could be firmly established in his kingdom. 
In the mean time, M. De Legal set open the doors of the inqui- sition, and released 
its prisoners, amounting to four hundred, among whom were sixty beautiful young 
women, who appeared to form a seraglio for the three principal inquisitors! This 
discovery, which laid open the enormity of the inquisitors, greatly alarmed the 
archbishop, who desired M. De Legal to send the women to his palace, and he would 
take proper care of them; at the same time he published an ecclesiastical censure 
against all such as should ridicule or blame the holy office of the inquisition. 
But the French commander sent word to the archbishop, that the prisoners had either 
escaped, or were securely concealed by their friends, or even by his own officers, 
so that it was impossible for him to send them to him; therefore the inquisition, 
having committed Page 177 such atrocious actions, must now submit as it could 
to the shameful exposure. One of the ladies thus delivered from captivity was 
after- wards married to the French officer who opened the door to her dungeon 
and released her. She related the following circumstance to her husband, and to 
M. Gavin, author of the Master-Key to Popery, who has in that work given it to 
the public. "I went one day with my mother, to visit the countess of Attarass, 
and I met there Don Francisco Tirregon, her confessor, and second inquisitor of 
the holy office. After we had taken chocolate, he asked my age, my confessor's 
name, and many intricate questions about religion. The severity of his countenance 
frightened me; which he perceiving, told the countess to inform me, that he was 
not so severe as he appeared. He then caressed me in the most obliging manner, 
presented his hand, which I kissed with great reverence and modesty; and, as he 
went away, he made use of this remarkable expression - `My dear child, I shall 
remember you till the next time.' I did not, at the time, mark the sense of the 
words: for I was inexperienced in matters of gallantry, being, at that time, but 
fifteen years old. Indeed, he unfor- tunately did remember me; for the same night, 
when our whole family were in bed, we heard a great knocking at the door; the 
maid, who slept in the room with me, went to the window, and inquired who was 
there. The answer was, `The holy inquisition.' On hearing this I screamed out, 
`Father! father! dear father, I am ruined for ever!' My father got up, and came 
to me to know the occasion of my crying out. I told him the inquisition were at 
the door. On hearing this, instead of protecting, he hurried me down stairs as 
fast as possible; and, lest the maid should be too slow, opened the street door 
himself: under such abject and slavish fears are bigoted minds! As soon as he 
knew they came for me, he fetched me with great solemnity, and delivered me to 
the officers with much submission. "I was hurried into a coach, with no other 
clothing than a petticoat and a mantle. My fright was so great, I expected to 
die that very night; but judge my surprise, when I was ushered into an apartment 
decorated with all the elegance that taste, united with opulence, could bestow. 
Soon after the officers left me, a servant appeared with a silver slaver, on which 
were sweet-meats and cinnamon-water. She desired me to take some refreshments 
before I went to bed. I told her I could not, but should be glad if she could 
inform me whether I was to be put to death. `To be put to death!' exclaimed she; 
`you do not come here to be put to death, but to live like a princess, and you 
will want for nothing but the liberty of going out; so pray don't be afraid, but 
go to bed and sleep easy, for tomorrow you shall see wonders; and, as I am chosen 
to be your waiting maid, I hope you'll be very kind to me.' "I was going to ask 
some questions, but she told me she must not answer any thing more till the next 
day, and assured me that nobody would come to disturb me. She then left me for 
about a quarter of an hour, and re- turned, saying, `Madam, pray let me know when 
you will be pleased to have your chocolate ready in the morning?' This greatly 
surprised me; so that, without replying to her question, I asked her name. She 
said, `My Page 178 name is Mary.' `Mary, then,' said I, `for Heaven's sake, tell 
me whether I am brought here to die or not?' `I have told you already,' replied 
she, `that you come here to be one of the happiest ladies in the world.' "We now 
went to bed, but the fear of death prevented me from sleeping. When Mary waked 
she was surprised to find me up, but soon rose; and after leaving me for about 
half an hour, she brought in two cups of chocolate, and some biscuits on a silver 
plate. I drank one cup of chocolate, and desired her to drink the other, which 
she did; when we had done, I said, `Well, Mary, can you give me any account of 
the rea- sons for my being brought here?' To which she answered, `Not yet, Madam; 
you must have patience,' and immediately slipped out of the room. "In about half 
an hour she brought a great quantity of elegant clothes suitable to a lady of 
the highest rank, and told me, I must dress my- self. Among several trinkets which 
accompanied the clothes, I observed with surprise a snuff-box, in the lid of which 
was a picture of Don Francisco Tirregon. This unravelled the mystery of my confinement, 
and at the same time roused my imagination to contrive how to evade receiv- ing 
the present. If I absolutely refused it, I thought immediate death must ensue; 
and to accept it, was giving him too much encouragement against my honour. At 
length I hit upon a medium, and said to Mary, `Pray present my respects to Don 
Francisco Tirregon, and tell him, that, as I could not bring my clothes along 
with me last night, modestly constrains me to accept of these garments, which 
are requisite to keep me decent; but since I do not take snuff, I hope his lordship 
will excuse me not accepting his box.' "Mary took my answer, and soon re- turned 
with Don Francisco's picture elegantly set in gold, and richly embellished with 
diamonds. This message accompanied it, that his lord- ship had made a mistake; 
his intent not being to send me a snuff-box, but his picture. I was at a great 
loss what to do; when Mary said, `Pray, Madam, take my poor advice; accept of 
the picture, and every thing else his lordship sends you; for if you do not, he 
can compel you to what he pleases, and put you to death when he thinks proper, 
without any body being able to defend you. But if you are obliging to him, he 
will be very kind, and you will be as happy as a queen; you will have elegant 
apartments to live in, beautiful gardens to range in, and agree- able ladies to 
visit you: therefore I advise you to send a civil answer, and even not to deny 
a visit from his lordship, or perhaps you may repent of your disrespect.' "O, 
my God!" I exclaimed, "must I sacrifice my honour to my fears, and give up my 
virtue to his despotic power? Alas! what can I do? To resist is vain. If I oppose 
his desires, force will obtain what chastity refuses.' I now fell into the greatest 
agonies, and told Mary to return what answer she thought proper. She said she 
was glad of my humble submission, and ran to acquaint Don Francisco with it. In 
a few minutes she returned, with joy in her coun- tenance, telling me his lordship 
would honour me with his company to supper. `And now give me leave, Madam,' she 
said, `to call you mistress, for I am to wait upon you. I have been in the holy 
office fourteen Page 179 years, and know all the customs perfectly well; but as 
silence is im- posed upon me, under pain of death, I can only answer such questions 
as immediately relate to your own person. But I would advise you never to oppose 
the holy father's will; or if you see any young ladies about, never ask them any 
questions. You may divert yourself sometimes among them, but must never tell them 
any thing; three days hence you will dine with them; and at all times you may 
have music, and other recreations. In fine, you will be so happy, that you will 
not wish to go abroad; and when your time is expired, the holy fathers will send 
you out of the country, and marry you to some nobleman.' After saying these words 
she left me overwhelmed with astonishment, and scarce knowing what to think. As 
soon as I recovered myself I began to look about, and finding a closet, I opened 
it, and perceived that it was filled with books; they were chiefly upon historical 
and profane subjects, but not on any relig- ious matters. I chose out a book of 
history, and so passed out the interval with some degree of composure till dinner 
time. "When dinner was over, Mary left me, and told me, if I wanted any thing 
I might ring a bell, which she pointed out to me. I read to amuse myself during 
the afternoon, and at seven in the evening Don Francisco came to visit me in his 
night-gown and cap, not with the gravity of an inquisitor, but with the gaiety 
of a gallant. He saluted me with great respect, and told me, that he came to see 
me in order to shew the great respect he had for my family, and to inform me, 
that it was my lover who had procured my confinement, having accused me in matters 
of religion; and that the information was taken, and the sentence was pronounced 
against me, to be burned alive over a gradual fire; but that he, out of pity and 
love to my family, had stopped the execution of it. "These words were like daggers. 
I dropped at his feet, and said, `Ah, my lord, have you stopped the execution 
for ever?' He replied, `That belongs to yourself only;' and abruptly wished me 
good night. When he was gone I burst into tears, when Mary came and asked what 
could make me cry so bitterly. To which I answered, `Oh, Mary! what is the meaning 
of the gradual fire by which I am to die?' "`Alas, madam,' said she, `never fear; 
you shall see, ere long; it is made for those who oppose the holy father's will, 
not for you who are so good as to obey it.' But pray, was Don Francisco very obliging?' 
`I don't know,' said I, `for he frightened me out of my wits by his discourse; 
he saluted me with civility, but left me in an abrupt manner.' `Well,' said Mary, 
`you do not yet know his temper: he is extremely obliging to them that are kind 
to him; but if they are disobe- dient, he is an unmerciful as Nero; so, for your 
own sake, take care to oblige him in all respects. And now, dear Madam, pray go 
to supper, and be easy.' I went to supper, indeed, and afterwards to bed; but 
I could neither eat nor sleep, for the thought of the gradual fire deprived me 
of appetite, and banished drowsiness. "The next morning early, Mary said, that 
as nobody was stirring, if I would promise her secrecy, she would shew me what 
so much disturbed me; so taking me down stairs, she brought me to a large room 
with a thick iron door, which she opened. Within it was an oven, with fire in 
it at the time, and a large brass Page 180 pan upon it, with a cover of the same, 
and a lock to it. In the next room there was a great wheel, covered on both sides 
with thick boards. Opening a little window in the centre, Mary desired me to look 
in with a candle: there I saw all the circumference of the wheel set with sharp 
razors, which made me shudder. "Mary then took me to a pit, which was full of 
venomous animals. On my expressing great horror at the sight, she said, `Now, 
my good mistress, I'll tell you the use of these things. The brass pan is for 
heretics, and those who oppose the holy father's will and pleasure. They are put 
alive into it; and the cover being locked down, the executioner puts a small fire 
into the oven, and by degrees augments it, till the body is reduced to ashes. 
The wheel is designed for those who speak against the pope, or the holy fathers 
of the inquisition; for they are put into that machine through the little door, 
which is locked after them, and then the wheel is turned swiftly, till they are 
all cut to pieces. The pit is for those who contemn the images, and refuse to 
give proper respect to ecclesiastical persons; for they are thrown into the pit, 
and so become the food of poisonous ani- mals.' "We went back again to my chamber; 
and Mary said, that another day she would shew me the torments designed for other 
transgressors; but I was in such agonies at what I had seen, that I begged not 
to be terri- fied with any more such sights. She soon after left me, but not without 
enjoining my strict obedience to Don Francisco; `for if you do not comply with 
his will,' says she, `the gradual fire will be your fate.' The horrors which the 
sight of these things and Mary's injunctions impressed on my mind, almost bereaved 
me of sense, and left me in such a state of stupefaction, that I seemed to have 
no will of my own." In this state the ruin of this lovely and timid creature was 
effected; on which sad result she has these biter reflections - "Thus to avoid 
a dreadful death did I entail upon myself perpetual infamy; and to escape the 
so much dreaded gradual fire, give myself up to the flames of lust. Wretched alternative, 
where the only choice is an excruciating death, or everlasting pollution! "Mary 
the next morning served us with chocolate in the most submissive manner; she kneeled 
down by the bed-side to present it. When I was dressed, Mary took me into a very 
delightful apartment, which I had never yet seen. It was furnished with the most 
costly elegance; but what gave me the greatest astonishment was the prospect from 
its windows of a beautiful garden and a fine meandering river. Mary told me that 
the young ladies she had mentioned would come to pay their compliments to me before 
dinner, and begged me to remember her advice, in keeping a prudent guard over 
my tongue. In a few minutes a great number of very beautiful young ladies, richly 
dressed, entered the room, and successively embracing me, wished me joy. I was 
so sur- prised, that I was unable to answer their compliments; which one of the 
ladies perceiving, said, `Madam, the solitude of this place will affect you in 
the beginning, but when you begin to feel the pleasures and amusements you may 
enjoy, you will quit those pensive thoughts. We at present beg the honour of you 
to dine with us today, and henceforward three days in a week.' I returned them 
suitable thanks in general terms, Page 181 and so went to diner, in which the 
most exquisite and savoury dishes of various kinds were served up, and the most 
delicate and pleasant fruits and sweetmeats. The room was long, with two tables 
on each side, and a third in the front. I reckoned fifty-two young ladies, the 
eldest not exceeding twenty-four years of age. There were five maid-servants, 
besides Mary, to wait upon us; but Mary confined her attention to me alone. After 
dinner we retired to a capacious gallery, where some played on musical instruments, 
a few diverted themselves with cards, and the rest amused themselves with walking 
about. Mary at length entered the gallery, and said, `Ladies, this is a day of 
recreation, and so you may go into whatever rooms you please, till eight o'clock 
in the evening.' they unanimously agreed to adjourn to my apartment. Here we found 
an elegant cold collation, of which all the ladies partook, and passed the time 
in conversation and mirth; but none mentioned a word concerning the inquisition 
or the holy fathers, or gave the least distant hint concern- ing the cause of 
their confinement. "On the fourth morning Mary came into Don Francisco's chamber, 
and told me I must immediately rise, for a lady wanted me in her own chamber. 
She spoke with a kind of authority which surprised me; but as Don Francisco did 
not speak a syllable, I got up and obeyed. Mary then conveyed me to a dismal dungeon, 
not eight feet in length, and said sternly to me, `This is your room, and this 
lady your bed-fellow and companion.' She then left me in the utmost conster- nation 
and in the most dreadful agonies. Tears came to my relief, and I exclaimed, `What 
is this place, dear lady! It is a scene of enchantment, or is it a hell upon earth? 
Alas! I have lost my honour and my soul for ever!' The lady took me by the hand, 
and said, in a sympathetic tone of voice, `Dear sister, forbear to cry and grieve, 
for you can do nothing by such an extravagant behaviour, but draw upon yourself 
a cruel death. Your misfortunes, and those of all the ladies you have seen, are 
exactly of a piece: you suffer nothing but what we have suffered before you: but 
we dare not shew our grief through fear of greater evils. Pray take courage, and 
hope in God, for he will surely deliver us from this hell- ish place; but be sure 
you discover no uneasiness before Mary, who is the only instrument either of our 
torments or comfort. Have patience until we go to bed, and then I will venture 
to tell you more of the matter.' "My perplexity and vexation were inexpressible; 
but my new companion, whose name was Leonora, prevailed on me to disguise my uneas- 
iness from Mary. I dissembled tolerably well when she came to bring our dinners; 
but I could not help remarking, in my own mind, the difference between this repast, 
and those I had before partook of. This consisted only of plain, common food, 
and of that a scanty allowance, with only one plate, and one knife and fork for 
us both, which she took away as soon as we had dined. "When we were in bed, Leonora 
was as good as her word; and upon my solemn promise of secrecy, thus began to 
open her mind to me: `My dear sister, you think your case very hard, but I assure 
you, all the ladies in the house have gone through the same. In time you will 
know all their stories, as they hope to know yours. I suppose that Mary has been 
the chief instrument of your fright, as she has been of ours; and I warrant she 
has shewn you some horrible places, though not all: Page 182 and that, at the 
very thought of them, you were so terrified, that you chose the same way we have 
done, to redeem yourself from death. By what hath happened to us, we know that 
Don Francisco hath been your Nero, your tyrant; for the three colours of clothes 
are distinguishing tokens of the three holy fathers. The red silk belongs to Don 
Francisco, the blue to Don Guerro, and the green to Don Aliapa; and they always 
give those colours to those ladies whom they bring here for their respective use. 
We are strictly commanded to express all the demonstrations of joy, and to be 
very merry for three days, when a young lady first comes amongst us, as we did 
with you, and as you must now do with others. But afterwards we live like the 
most wretched prisoners, without seeing any body but Mary, and the other maid-servants, 
over whom Mary has a kind of superiority, for she acts as house-keeper. Our situation 
is miserable indeed, and we have only to pray that the Almighty will pardon the 
crimes which we are compelled to commit. Therefore, my dear sister, arm yourself 
with patience, for that is the only palliative to give you comfort, and put a 
firm confidence in the providence of Almighty God.' "This discourse of Leonora 
greatly affected me; but I found every thing to be as she told me in the course 
of time, and I took care to appear as cheerful as possible before Mary. In this 
manner I continued eighteen months, during which time eleven ladies were taken 
from the house; but in lieu of them we got nineteen new ones, which made our number 
just sixty, at the time we were so happily relieved by the French officers, and 
providentially restored to the joys of society, and to the arms of our parents 
and friends. On that happy day, the door of my dungeon was opened by the gentleman 
who is now my husband, who, with the utmost expedition, sent both Leonora and 
me to his father's; and soon after the campaign was over he returned home and 
thought proper to make me his wife, in which situation I enjoy a recompense for 
all the miseries I before suffered." It is wonderful that superstition has, with 
respect to the inquisition especially, always overcome common sense, and custom 
operated against reason. One prince, indeed, Don Carlos, the amiable son of Philip 
the Second, king of Spain, and grandson of the celebrated emperor Charles V. intended 
to abolish this cruel court; but he lost his life before he became able to accomplish 
the merciful purpose. He pos- sessed all the good qualities of his grandfather, 
without any of the bad ones of his father. He had sense enough to see the errors 
of popery, and abhorred the very name of the inquisition. He inveighed publicly 
against the court, ridiculed the affected piety of the inquisitors, and de- clared, 
that if he ever came to the crown, he would abolish the inquisi- tion, and exterminate 
all its agents. This irritated the inquisitors against him, and they accordingly 
determined on his destruction. They employed all their agents and emissaries to 
spend the most artful insin- uations against the prince, and at length raised 
such a spirit of discontent among the people, that the king was under the necessity 
of removing Don Carlos from court. They even pursued his friends, obliged the 
king to banish Don John, duke of Austria, his own brother, and uncle Page 183 
to the prince; together with the prince of Parma, nephew of the king and cousin 
of the prince, because the duke of Austria and the prince of Parma had a most 
sincere attachment to Don Carlos. Shortly after, the prince having shewn great 
lenity and favour to the protestants in the Netherlands, the inquisition loudly 
exclaimed against him, declaring that as the persons in question were heretics, 
the prince himself must be one, since he gave them countenance. Thus they gained 
such an ascen- dancy over the mind of the king, who was absolutely a slave to 
supersti- tion, that he sacrificed the feelings of nature to the force of bigotry, 
and through fear of incurring the anger of the inquisition, passed sentence of 
death on his only son. The prince had what they termed an indulgence: that is, 
he was permitted to choose the manner of his death. He chose bleeding and the 
hot-bath. On an early day every thing was prepared as he wished; when veins in 
his arms and legs were opened, and he gradually sunk to death without apparent 
pain - falling a martyr to inquisitional malice, strangely sanctioned and strengthened 
by parental bigotry and relative superstition.  SECTION IV. ACCOUNT 
at the university of Alcala, and applied himself to the study of the sacred scriptures. 
The professor of theology dying, he was elected in his place, and acted so much 
to the satisfaction of every one, that his reputation for learning and piety was 
celebrated throughout Europe. The doctor's enemies, however, laid a complaint 
against him to the inquisitors, who sent him a citation, and when he appeared 
to it, cast him into a dungeon. As the greatest part of those who belonged to 
the cathedral church at Seville, and many persons be- longing to the bishopric 
of Dortois approved of the doctrines of Egidio, which they thought perfectly consonant 
with true religion, they peti- tioned the emperor in his behalf. Though the monarch 
had been educated a Roman Catholic, he was not a bigot; and therefore sent an 
immediate order for his liberation. Soon after he visited the church of Vallado- 
lid, did every thing he could to promote the cause of religion, and returning 
home he fell sick, and died in an extreme old age. The in- quisitors having been 
disappointed of gratifying their malice against him while living, determined, 
while the emperor's whole thoughts were engrossed by a military expedition, to 
wreak their vengeance on the doctor's corpse. They, therefore, soon after he was 
buried, ordered his remains to be dug up; and a legal process being carried on, 
they were condemned to be burnt, and the wretched sentence was executed without 
further delay. Dr. Constantine, and intimate acquaintance of Dr. Egidio, was a 
man of uncommon natural abilities and profound learning. His eloquence rendered 
him a pleasing and the soundness of his doctrines a profitable preacher; and he 
was so popular, that he never preached but Page 184 to a crowded audience. When 
fully confirmed in protestantism by Dr. Egidio, he preached boldly such doctrines 
only as were agreeable to gospel purity, and uncontaminated by the errors which 
had crept into the Romish church. For these reasons he had many enemies in that 
church, and some of them were determined on his utter ruin. One Scobarta, a worthy 
gentleman, having erected a school for divinity lectures, appointed Dr. Constantine 
to be reader therein. He immediately undertook the task, and read lectures by 
portions on the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles; but while beginning to 
expound the book of Job, the inquisitors seized him. When brought to examination, 
he answered with such precaution that they could not find any explicit charge 
against him, but remained doubt- ful in what manner to proceed, when the following 
circumstance occurred: - The doctor had deposited with a woman, named Martin, 
several books, which to him were very valuable, but which he knew were exceptionable 
in the eyes of the inquisition. This woman was apprehended, and after a small 
process, her goods were ordered to be confiscated. Previously, however, to the 
officers coming to her house, the woman's son had removed several chests full 
of the most valuable articles, and in these were the books of Dr. Constantine; 
but a treacherous servant having given intelligence of this to the inquisition, 
an officer was dispatched to the son to demand the chests. The son supposing the 
officer only came for Constantines's books, said, `I know what you come for, and 
I will fetch them to you immediately.' He then fetched Dr. Constantine's books 
and papers, when the officer was greatly surprised to find what he did not look 
for. The inquisitors, thus possessed of Constantine's books and writings, soon 
found matter to form charges against him. When he was brought for re-examination, 
they presented one of his papers, and asked him if he knew the hand-writing. Perceiving 
it was his own, he guessed the whole matter, confessed the writing, and justified 
the doctrine it contained, saying, "In that and all my other writings, I have 
never departed from the truth of the gospel, but have always kept in view the 
pure precepts of Christ, as he delivered them to mankind." Having been detained 
upwards of two years in prison, he was at last seized with a bloody flux, which 
put an end to his miseries. The process, however, was carried on against his body, 
which was publicly burnt at the ensuing Auto da Fe. Mr. Burton was a merchant 
of London who traded to Spain. Being at Cadiz, a familiar of the inquisition called 
upon him one day at his lodgings, pretending that he wanted to send a quantity 
of merchand- ize to London. Having asked as many questions as he thought proper, 
he departed, and the next day one of the inquisitorial officers took Mr. Burton 
into custody. The president, on this examination, demanded if he had said or insinuated 
any thing disrespectful to the Roman catholic persuasion. Mr. Burton replied in 
the negative, saying, that he was sensible, in whatever country he was, respect 
ought to be paid to the established religion. This defence, however, availed him 
nothing; they Page 185 proceeded to torture him, in order to gain information. 
Failing in this, they condemned him for invincible obstinacy, and at the next 
Auto de Fe he was burnt. When the flames first touched him, he bore the torments 
with such exemplary patience, and appeared with so smiling a coun- tenance, that 
one of the priests, enraged at his serenity, said with equal malice and absurdity, 
"The reason why he does not seem to feel is to me very evident: the devil has 
already got his soul, and his body is of course deprived of the usual sensations." 
Several other English in Spain were, about the time of Mr. Burton's martyrdom, 
put to death by the inquisitors; particularly John Baker, William Burgate and 
William Burgess, who were burnt, and William Hooker was stoned to death. William 
Gardiner was born at Bristol, received a tolerable education, and was, at a proper 
age, placed under the care of one Paget, an eminent mer- chant. At the age of 
twenty-six he was sent to Lisbon as a British factor. Here he applied himself 
to the study of the Portugese language, conversed privately with a few whom he 
knew to be zealous protestants; at the same time cautiously avoided giving the 
least offence, except by not resorting for divine worship to any of the popish 
churches. There being a marriage concluded between the king of Portugal's son 
and the infanta of Spain, upon the wedding-day the bridegroom, bride, and the 
whole court went to the cathedral attended by a multitude of all ranks of people, 
and among the rest William Gardiner, who stayed during the whole ceremony, and 
was greatly shocked at the superstitions he beheld. From this he conceived, the 
rash design of making a reform in Portugal, or perishing in the attempt, and determined 
to sacrifice his prudence to his zeal, though upon the occasion he became a martyr. 
For this purpose he settled all his worldly affairs, paid his debts, closed his 
books, and consigned over his merchandize. On the ensuing Sunday he went again 
to the cathedral church, and placed himself near the altar, with a New Testament 
in his hand. In a short time the king and court appeared, and a cardinal began 
mass. At that part of the ceremony in which the people adore the wafer, Gardiner, 
springing towards the cardinal, snatched the host from him, and trampled it under 
his feet. The whole congregation were thunder-struck, and one person drawing a 
dagger, wounded Gardiner in the shoulder, and would by repeating the blow, have 
finished him, had not the king called him to forbear. Thinking that he had been 
stimulated by some other person to act as he had done, the king demanded who was 
his abettor, to which he replied, "My conscience alone. I would not hazard what 
I have done for any man living; but I owe that and all other services to my Creator." 
Hereupon he was sent to prison, and a general order issued to apprehend all Englishmen 
in Lisbon. This order was in a great measure put in execution, and many innocent 
persons were tortured to make them confess if they knew any thing of the matter; 
in particular a person who resided in the same house with Gardiner was treated 
with unparalleled barbarity, to induce him to acknowledge something which might 
throw a light upon the business. Gardiner himself was tormented in the most excruciating 
manner; but in the midst of all his torments he gloried in the deed. Being ordered 
for death, a large fire was kindled Page 186 near a gibbet, and he was drawn up 
to the gibbet by pulleys, and then let down near the fire, but not so close as 
to touch it; so that he was burnt or rather roasted by slow degrees. Some embers 
were blown from the fire towards the haven, which burnt one of the king's ships 
of war, and did other considerable damage. The Englishmen who were taken up on 
this occasion were, soon after Gardiner's death, all discharged, excepting the 
person that resided in the same house with him, who was detained two years before 
he could procure his freedom. William Lithgow was descend- ed from a good family, 
and having a propensity to travelling, he rambled when very young over the Northern 
and Western Islands; after which he visited France, Germany, Switzerland, and 
Spain. He set out on his travels in the month of March, 1609, and the first place 
he went to was Paris, where he stayed for some time. He then prosecuted his travels 
through Germany and other parts, and at length arrived at Malaga, in Spain, the 
scene of all his embarrassments. While he resided here, he contracted with the 
master of a French ship for his passage to Alexan- dria, but was prevented from 
going by unexpected circumstances. In the evening of the 17th of October, 1620, 
the English fleet, at that time on a cruise against the Algerine rovers, came 
to anchor before Malaga, which threw the people of the town into the greatest 
consternation, as they imagined them to be Turks. The morning, however, discovered 
the mistake; and the governor of Malaga perceiving the cross of England in their 
colours, went on board Sir R. Mansell's ship, who commanded on that expedition, 
and after staying some returned, and silenced all the people's fears. Many persons 
from on board the fleet came ashore the next day. Among these were several well 
known to Mr. Lithgow, who invit- ed him on board. When Mr. Lithgow got on shore 
he proceeded towards his lodgings by a private way; in passing through a narrow, 
uninhabited street, he found himself suddenly surrounded by nine serjeants who 
threw a black cloak over him, and forcibly conducted him to the governor's house. 
After little time the governor appeared, when Mr. Lithgow ear- nestly begged he 
might be informed of the cause of such violent treat- ment. The governor only 
answered by shaking his head, and gave orders that the prisoner should be strictly 
watched till he returned from his devotions; directing, at the same time, that 
the captain of the town, the alcaid major, and the town notary should be summoned 
to appear at his examination, and that all this should be done with the greatest 
secrecy, to prevent the knowledge of it reaching the English merchants who resided 
in the town at that time. All these orders were strictly obeyed; and on the governor's 
return, he with the officers having seated themselves, Mr. Lithgow was brought 
before them for examination. The governor began by asking several questions: but 
without being able to extort an answer upon which he could found a plausible charge. 
Then the governor proceeded to inquire the quality of the English commander and 
the prisoner's opinion of the motives that prevented his accepting an invitation 
to come on shore. He demanded also the names of the English captains of the squadron, 
and what knowledge he had of the embarkation, or preparation for it before its 
departure from England. The answers given to the several questions were set down 
in writing by the notary; Page 187 but the junta seemed surprised at Mr. Lithgow's 
denying any knowledge of the fitting out of the fleet. The governor said he lied, 
that he was a traitor and spy, and came directly from England to favour and assist 
in designs projected against Spain; and that he had been for that purpose nine 
months in Seville, in order to procure intelligence of the time the Spanish navy 
was expected from the Indies. The inquisitors exclaimed against his familiarity 
with the officers of the fleet, and many other English gentlemen, between whom 
they said unusual civilities has passed; but all these transactions had been noticed 
with peculiar attention. In short, they pretended he came from a council of war 
held that morning on board the admiral's ship, in order to put in execution the 
orders assigned him. They upbraided him with being accessary to the burning of 
the island of St. Thomas in the West Indies; "wherefore," said they, "these Lutherans, 
and sons of the devil, ought to have no credit given to whatever they say or swear." 
Mr. Lithgow in vain endeavoured to obviate the accusations laid against him, and 
to obtain belief from his prejudiced judges. A consultation was held to fix the 
place where the prisoner should be confined. The alcaid, or chief judge, was for 
putting him in the town prison; but this was objected to, particularly by the 
corrigidore who said in Spanish, "In order to prevent the knowledge of his confinement 
from reaching his countrymen, I will take the matter on myself, and be answerable 
for the consequences;" on which it was agreed, that he should be confined in the 
governor's house, and the greatest secrecy observed. At midnight the serjeant 
and two Turkish slaves re- moved Mr. Lithgow from this mild though unjust imprisonment 
to one more horrible. They conducted him through several passages to a chamber 
in a remote part of the palace towards the garden, where they loaded him with 
irons, and extended his legs by means of an iron bar, the weight of which was 
so great that he could neither stand nor sit, but was obliged to lie continually 
on his back. They left him in this condition for some time, when they returned 
with refreshment, consisting of boiled mutton and a loaf, with a small quantity 
of wine, of which he was allowed to partake. He received a visit from the governor 
the next day, who prom- ised him his liberty, with many other advantages, if he 
would confess being a spy; but on his protesting that he was entirely innocent, 
the governor left him in a rage, saying, he should see him no more till further 
tortures constrained him to confess; commanding the keeper, to whose care he was 
committed, that his sustenance should not exceed three ounces of musty bread and 
a pint of water every second day; that he should be allowed neither bed, pillow, 
nor coverlet. "Close up," he added, "this window in his room with lime and stone; 
stop the holes of the door with double mats; let him have nothing that bears any 
resem- blance to comfort." The unfortunate man continued in this melancholy state, 
without seeing any person for several days, in which time the governor received 
an answer to a letter he had written concerning his prisoner, from Madrid. Agreeably 
with this written instruction, he commenced a series of greater cruelties, which 
were hastened because Christmas approached, and it was not deemed expedient to 
interrupt the Page 188 ease and mirth of the usual holidays. Mr. Lithgow had now 
been more than six weeks in confinement. About three o'clock one morning he heard 
the noise of a coach in the street, and some time after the opening of the prison 
doors, not having had any sleep for tow nights. Immediately after the doors were 
opened, the nine serjeants who had first seized him, with the notary, entered 
the place where he lay, and without utter- ing a word, conducted him in his irons 
into the street, where the coach waited, and into which they laid him on his back, 
as he was not able to sit. Two of the serjeants rode with him, and the rest walked 
by the coach-side, but all observed the most profound silence. They drove him 
to a vine-press house, about a league from the town, to which place a rack had 
been privately conveyed before; and here they shut him up for the night. At day-break 
the next morning the governor and the alcaid arrived, into whose presence he was 
immediately brought, to undergo another examination. The prisoner desired he might 
have an interpreter, but was refused; nor would they permit him to appeal to Madrid, 
the superior court of judicature. After an examination, which lasted the whole 
day, there appeared in all his answers so exact a conformity with what he had 
said before, that they declared he had learned them by heart. They pressed him 
again to make a full discovery; that is, to accuse himself of crimes never committed; 
the governor adding, "You are still in my power; I can set you free if you comply; 
if not, I must deliver you to the alcaid." Mr. Lithgow still persisting in his 
in- nocence, the governor ordered him to be immediately tortured. He was then 
conducted to the end of a gallery where the rack was placed. The executioner immediately 
struck off his irons, which put him to very great pain, the bolts being so close 
rivetted, that the sledge hammer tore away above half an inch of his heal in forcing 
off the bolt; the anguish of which, together with his weak condition (not having 
taken the least sustenance for three days) occasioned him to groan bitterly; upon 
which the merciless alcaid said, "Villain, traitor, this is but the beginning 
of what you shall endure." As soon as his irons were off, he fell on his knees, 
uttering a short prayer, that God would be pleased to enable him to be stedfast, 
and firmly to undergo the trial he had before him. The alcaid and notary having 
seated themselves in chairs, he was stripped naked and fixed upon the rack. It 
is impossible to describe all the tortures inflicted upon him. He lay on the rack 
above five hours, during which time he received above sixty different tortures 
of the most infernal nature; and had they been continued a few minutes longer 
he must have expired. On being taken from the rack, and his irons again put on, 
he was conducted to his former dungeon, receiving no other nourishment than a 
little warm wine, which was given rather to reserve him for future punishments 
than from any principle of pity. In this horrid situation he continued till Christmas-day, 
when he received some relief from Marianne, waiting-woman to the governor's lady. 
This woman having obtained leave to visit him, carried with her some refresh- 
ments, consisting of honey, sugar, raisins, and other articles. Mr. Lithgow at 
length received information which gave him little hope of Page 189 ever being 
released. The substance of it was, that an English seminary priest and a Scotch 
cooper had been for some time employed by the gover- nor to translate from the 
English into the Spanish language all his books and observations; and that it 
was commonly said in the governor's house, that he was an arch and dangerous heretic. 
About two days after he had received this information, the governor, an inquisitor, 
and a canonical priest, accompanied by two Jesuits, entered his dungeon, and after 
several idle questions asked Mr. Lithgow if he was a Roman cathol- ic, and acknowledged 
the pope's supremacy. He answered, that he neither was the one, nor did the other. 
In the bitterness of his soul he made use of some warm expressions not suited 
to his circumstances:- "As you have almost murdered me for pretended treason, 
so now you intend to make a martyr of me for my religion." He also expostulated 
with the governor on the ill return he made the king of England, whose subject 
he was, for the princely humanity exercised towards the Spaniards in 1588, when 
their armada was shipwrecked on the Scotch coast, and thousands of the Spaniards 
found relief, who must otherwise have perished in a miserable manner. After some 
silence the inquisitor addressed Mr. Lithgow in the following words: "You have 
been taken as a spy, accused of treachery and tortured, as we acknowledge, innocently, 
(which appears by the account lately received from Madrid of the intentions of 
the English;) yet it was the divine power brought those judgments upon you, for 
presumptuous- ly treating the blessed miracle of Lorettow with ridicule, and express- 
ing yourself in your writings irreverently of his holiness, the great agent and 
Christ's vicar upon earth; therefore you are justly fallen into our hands by special 
appointment: your books and papers are miracu- lously translated by the assistance 
of Providence influencing your own countrymen." When this harangue was ended, 
they gave the prisoner eight days to consider, and resolve whether he would become 
a convert to their religion; during which time the inquisitor told him that he, 
with other religious officers, would attend to give him assistance. One of the 
Jesuits said, first making the sign of the cross upon his breast, "My son, behold 
you deserve to be burnt alive; but by the grace of our lady of Loretto, whom you 
have blasphemed, we will both save your soul and body." The inquisitors with the 
three ecclesiastics, returned in the morning, when the former asked the prisoner 
what difficulties he had on his conscience that retarded his conversion; to which 
he answered, "He had not any doubts on his mind, being confident in the promises 
of Christ, and assuredly believing his revealed will signified in the gospel, 
as professed in the reformed Catholic church, being confirmed by grace, and having 
infallible assurance thereby of the true Christian faith." To these words the 
inquisitor replied, "Thou art not Christian, but an absurd heretic, and without 
conversion a member of perdition." The prisoner then told him, it was not consistent 
with the nature of religion and charity to convince by opprobrious speeches, racks, 
and torments, but by arguments deduced from the scriptures; and that all other 
methods would with him be totally fruitless. So enraged was the inquisitor at 
the replies made by the prisoner, that he struck him on Page 190 the face, used 
many abusive speeches, and attempted to stab him, which he would certainly have 
done had he not been prevented by the Jesuits: and from this time he never visited 
the prisoner again. The two Jesuits returned the next day, and the superior asked 
him what resolution he had taken. To which Mr. Lithgow replied, that he was already 
resolved, unless he could shew substantial reasons to make him alter his opinion. 
The superior, after a pedantic display of their seven sacraments, the intercession 
of saints, transubstantiation, &c. boasted greatly of their church, her antiquity, 
universality, and uniformity; all which Mr. Lithgow denied: "For," said he, "the 
profession of the faith I hold hath been ever since the first days of the apostles, 
and Christ had ever his own church, however obscure, in the greatest time of your 
darkness." The Jesuits finding their arguments had not the desired effect, and 
that torments could not shake his constancy, after severe menaces left him. On 
the eighth day after, being the last of their inquisition, when sentence is pronounced, 
they returned again quite altered both in words and behaviour. After repeating 
much the same kind of arguments as be- fore, with seeming tears in their eyes 
they pretended sorrow from their hearts that he must be obliged to undergo a terrible 
death: but above all, for the loss of his most precious soul; and falling on their 
knees, cried out, "Convert, convert, O dear brother, for our blessed lady's sake, 
convert." To which he answered, "I fear neither death nor hell, being prepared 
against both." He received sentence that night of eleven different tortures; and 
if he did not die in the execution of them, he was after Easter to be carried 
to Grenada, and there burnt to ashes. The first part of the sentence was executed 
with great barbarity that night; and it pleased God to give him strength both 
of body and mind, to adhere to the truth, and to survive the horrid punishments. 
After these cruel- ties, they again fettered and conveyed him to his dungeon. 
The next morning he received some little comfort from a Turkish slave, who se- 
cretly brought him raisins and figs, which he ate in the best manner his strength 
would permit. It was to this slave Mr. Lithgow attributed his surviving so long 
in such a wretched situation; for he found means to convey similar fruits to him 
twice every week. It is very extraordinary and exemplary that this poor slave, 
bred up from his infancy according to the maxims of his prophet, in the greatest 
detestation of Christians, should be so affected at the situation of Mr. Lithgow, 
that he became unwell and continued so for upwards of forty days. During this 
period Mr. Lithgow was attended by a female negro slave, who found means to furnish 
him with refreshments still more amply than the Turk, being more conversant with 
the house and family. She brought him wholesome food and nourishing wine every 
day. Mr. Lithgow now waited, with anxious expec- tation, for the day which by 
putting an end to his life, would also end his torments. But his melancholy expectations 
were, by the interposition of Providence, rendered abortive, and his deliverance 
obtained from the following incidents:- A Spanish gentleman of quality came from 
Grenada to Malaga; who, being invited to an entertainment by the governor, was 
Page 191 informed of what had fallen Mr. Lithgow from the time of his being apprehended 
as a spy, and the various sufferings he had endured. The governor told him, that 
after it was known the prisoner was innocent it gave him great concern. On this 
account he would gladly have released him, restored his money and papers, and 
made some atonement for the injuries he had received; but that upon an inspection 
into his writings, several were found of a very blasphemous nature. On his refusing 
to abjure these heretical opinions, he was turned over to the inquisition, who 
finally condemned him. While the governor was relating this tale, a Flemish youth, 
servant to the Spanish gentleman, who waited at table, was struck with amazement 
and pity at the sufferings of the stranger thus described. On his return to his 
master's lodging he began to revolve in his mind what he had heard, which made 
such an impression on him that he could not rest in his bed; and when the morning 
came, with- out disclosing his intentions to any person whatever, he went into 
the town and inquired for an English factor. He was directed to the house of one 
Mr. Wild, to whom he related the whole of what he had heard the preceding evening 
between his master and the governor; but could not tell Mr. Lithgow's name. Mr. 
Wild, however, conjectured who it was by the servant remembering the circumstance 
of his being a traveller. On the departure of the servant, therefore, he immediately 
sent for other English factors, to whom he related all the particulars relative 
to their unfortunate countryman. After a short consultation it was agreed that 
an information of the whole affair should be sent by express to Sir Walter Aston, 
the English ambassador to the king of Spain then at Ma- drid. This was accordingly 
done, and the ambassador having presented a memorial to the king and council of 
Spain, he obtained an order for Mr. Lithgow's enlargement, and his delivery to 
the English factory. This order was directed to the governor of Malaga, and was 
received by the assembly of the bloody inquisition with the greatest surprise. 
Mr. Lithgow was released from his confinement on the eve of Easter-Sunday, when 
he was carried from his dungeon on the back of the slave that had attended him, 
to the house of one Mr. Busbich, where every possible comfort was given him. It 
happened that there was at this time a squa- dron of English ships in the road, 
commanded by Sir Richard Hawkins, who being informed of the past sufferings and 
present situation of Mr. Lithgow, came the next day ashore with a proper guard, 
and received him from the merchants. He was instantly carried in blankets on board 
the Vanguard, and three days after he was removed to another ship, by direc- tion 
of the general Sir Robert Mansel. The factory presented him with clothes and all 
necessary provisions, besides which they gave him two- hundred reals, and Sir 
Richard Hawkins sent him two double pistoles. Sir Richard demanded of the inquisition 
the delivery of his papers, money, and books, before his departure from the Spanish 
coast, but could not obtain a satisfactory answer on that head. By such unexpected 
means does Providence frequently interfere in behalf of the virtuous and oppressed. 
Having lain twelve days in the road, the ship weighed anchor, and in Page 192 
about two months arrived safe at Deptford. The next morning Mr. Lithgow was carried 
on a feather-bed to Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, where at that time were the king 
and royal family. The sufferer was presented to him, and related the particulars 
of his sufferings, and his happy deliv- ery; at which the king was so affected 
that he expressed the deepest concern, and gave orders that he should be sent 
to Bath. By these means, under God, Mr. Lithgow, became restored from the most 
wretched spectacle to a great share of health and strength; but he lost the use 
of his left arm, and several of the smaller bones were so crushed and broken as 
to be rendered unserviceable ever after. Notwithstanding every effort he could 
never obtain any part of his money or effects, though his majesty and the ministers 
interested themselves in his behalf. Gondamore, the Spanish ambassador, promised 
that all should be restored, with the addition of 1000l. as some compensation 
for the tortures he had under- gone; which last was to be paid by the governor 
of Malaga. These engage- ments, however, were never kept; and though the king 
was a kind of guarantee for the performance of them, the cunning Spaniard found 
means to elude the order.  BOOK V.  FURTHER ACCOUNT 
a long series of troubles in France, the papists seeing nothing effectual could 
be done against the protestants by open force, began to devise how they could 
entrap them by subtlety, and that by two ways: first, by a pretended commission 
sent into the Low Countries, which the prince of Navarre and Conde was to command. 
This was merely to under- stand what power and force the admiral had under him, 
who they were, and what were their names. The second was by a marriage between 
the prince of Navarre and the king's sister; to which were to be invited all the 
chief protestants of France. Accordingly they first began with the queen of Navarre, 
mother to the prince who was to espouse the king's sister, and who was then at 
Rochelle. Allured by many fair words to repair to the king, she consented to come 
to Paris, where she was at length won over to the king's mind. Shortly after she 
fell sick, and died within five days, not without suspicion of poison; but her 
body being opened, no sign thereof appeared. A certain apothecary, however, made 
his boast that he had killed the queen by venomous odours and smells prepared 
by Page 193 himself. Notwithstanding this, the marriage still proceeded. The admi- 
ral, prince of Navarre and Conde, with many other eminent protestant chiefs, were 
induced by the king's letters and fair promises, to proceed to Paris, and were 
received with great solemnity. The marriage took place on the 18th of August, 
1572, and was solemnized by the cardinal of Bourbonne, upon a high stage raised 
for the purpose without the church walls: the prince of Navarre and Conde came 
down, waiting for the king's sister, who was then at mass. This done, they all 
resorted to the bishop's palace to dinner. On the evening they were conducted 
to a palace in the centre of the city to supper. Four days after this the admiral 
coming from the council table, on his was was shot at with a pistol, charged with 
three bullets, and wounded in both his arms. He still remained in Paris, although 
his friends advised him to flee. Soldiers were appointed in different places of 
the city to be ready at the command of the king; and upon the watch-word being 
given, they burst out to the slaughter of the protestants, beginning with the 
admiral himself, who being wounded was cast out of the window into the street, 
where his head being struck off, was embalmed and sent to the pope. The savage 
people then cut off his arms, and drew his mangled body three days through the 
streets of Paris, after which they took him to the place of execution, and there 
hanged him by the heels to the scorn of the populace. The martyrdom of this virtuous 
man had no sooner taken place, then the armed troops with rage and violence ran 
about slaying all the protestants they knew or could find within the city gates. 
This continued many days; but the greatest slaughter was in the first three days, 
in which were said to be murdered above 10,000 men and women, old and young, of 
all sorts and conditions. The bodies of the dead were carried in carts and thrown 
into the river, which, with other whole streams in certain places of the city 
was released with the blood of the slain. In the number of eminent men who fell 
in this dreadful slaughter were Petrus Ramus, Lambinus, Plateanus, Lomenius, Chapesius, 
and others. The brutal deeds of this period were not confined within the walls 
of Paris, but extended to other cities and quarters of the realm, especial- ly 
to Lyons, Orleans, Toulouse, and Rouen, where the cruelties were if possible even 
greater than in the capital. Within the space of one month, thirty thousand religious 
protestants are said to have been slain. When intelligence of the massacre was 
received at Rome, the greatest rejoicings took place. The pope and his cardinals 
went in procession to the church of St. Mark, to give thanks to God; and a medal 
was struck to commemorate the event. A jubilee was also published, and the ordnance 
fired from the castle of St. Angelo. To the person who brought the news the cardinal 
of Lorraine gave 1000 crowns. Similar rejoicings were also made all over France 
for this imagined overthrow of the faithful. The following are among the particulars 
recorded of the above enormities:- The admiral, on being wounded in both his arms, 
immediately said to Maure, preacher to the queen of Navarre, "O my brother, I 
now perceive that I am beloved of my God, seeing that for his most holy name's 
sake I do suffer these wounds." He was slain by Bemjus, who afterwards reported, 
that he never saw man so constantly and confi- dently suffer death. Among the 
honourable men and great personages who Page 194 were at the same time murdered, 
were Count Rochfulcaud, Telinius, the admiral's son-in-law, Antonius Claromontus, 
marquess of Ravely, Lewis Bussius, Bandineus, Pluvialius, Bernius, and others. 
Francis Nompar Caumontius, being in bed with his two sons, was slain with one 
of them; the other was strangely preserved, and afterwards came to great dignity. 
Stephen Cevalerie Prime, chief treasurer to the king of Poictiers, a very good 
man, and careful of the common-wealth, after he had paid for his life a large 
sum of money, was cruelly murdered. Magdalen Brissonet, an excellent and learned 
woman, the widow of Ivermus, master of requests to the king, flying out of the 
city in poor apparel, was taken, mur- dered, and cast into the river. Two thousand 
were murdered in one day; and the same liberty of killing and spoiling continued 
certain days after. At Meldis two hundred were cast into prison, and being brought 
out as sheep to the slaughter, were cruelly murdered. There also were twenty-five 
women slain. At Orleans, a thousand men, women, and child- ren, were massacred. 
The citizens of Augustobona, hearing of the massa- cre at Paris, shut the gates 
of their town that no protestants might escape, and cast all they suspected into 
prison, who were afterwards brought forth and murdered. At Lyons there were eight 
hundred most miserably and cruelly put to death; the children hanging at their 
fa- ther's necks, and the fathers embracing their children. Three hundred were 
slain in the archbishop's house: the monks would not suffer their bodies to be 
buried. At Toulouse two hundred were murdered. At Rouen five hundred were put 
to death. At last, Thuanus records, "this example passed into other cities, and 
from cities to towns and villages, so that it is by many published, that in all 
the kingdom above 30,000 were in these tumults in divers ways destroyed." A little 
before this massacre, man, nurse, and infant carried to be baptised, were all 
three murdered. Bicamotius, a man of seventy years, and Cavagnius, were laid upon 
hur- dles and drawn to execution. The first might have been pardoned if he would 
publicly confess that the admiral had conspired against the king, which he refused 
to do. At Bourdeaux, by the instigation of a monk, named Enimud Angerius, two 
hundred and sixty-four were cruelly murdered, of whom some were senators. This 
monk continually provoked the people in his sermons to slaughter. At Agendicum 
in Maine, a cruel slaughter of protestants was committed by the instigation of 
Emarus, inquisitor of criminal causes. A rumor being spread abroad that the protestants 
had taken secret counsel to invade and spoil the churches, above a hundred of 
every estate and sex were, by the enraged people, killed or drowned in the river 
Igonna. On entering Blois, the duke of Guise, notwith- standing the city had voluntarily 
opened its gates, gave it up to rapine and slaughter; houses were spoiled, many 
protestants who had remained were slain, or drowned in the river; neither were 
women spared, of whom some were ravished, and more murdered. From thence he went 
to Mere, two leagues from Blois, where protestants had frequent assembly at sermons. 
For several days together they were worried from place to place, many of them 
killed, and Cassebonius, the pastor, was drowned in the next river. At Anjou, 
Alciacus, the pastor, who also murdered, and numerous women Page 195 injured in 
a cruel manner, some in the sight of their parents, and others so as to deprive 
them of life. John Burgeolus, president of Turin, an old man, being suspected 
to be a protestant, having bargained for a sum of money for his life and safety, 
was, notwithstanding, taken and beaten cruelly with clubs and staves, and being 
stripped of his clothes, was brought to the bank of the river Liger, and hanged 
with his feet upward, and his head downwards in the water to his breast. When 
the city of Matiscon was taken by corrupting the keeper of the keys, whom, notwithstanding, 
they killed, great cruelty was shewed, so that they counted it sport to maim whatever 
protestants were unable to resist them. A man of influence in the city, named 
Sapontius, inviting gentle- woman to supper, would walk with them, and having 
his soldiers about him, used to cast protestants from the bridge into the river 
and with that spectacle gratified his guests; whom he would often ask, whether 
they ever saw men leap better. At Albia of Cahors, on the Lord's day, the papist, 
at the ringing of a bell, broke open the doors where protes- tants were assembled, 
and killed without distinction all they could find: among whom was one Guacerius, 
a rich merchant, whom they drew into his house, and then murdered him together 
with his family. In a town called Penna, three hundred protestants notwithstanding 
the safety of their lives was promised them, were cruelly murdered by Spaniards, 
who were newly come to serve the French king. The town of Nonne having capitulated 
to the papists, on condition that the foreign soldiers should depart safe with 
horse and armour, leaving their ensigns, and that the enemy's soldiers should 
not enter into the town; and that no harm should be done to the inhabitants, who 
might go into the castle; after its surrender the gates were set open, when, without 
regard to those conditions, the soldiers rushed in, and began murdering and spoil- 
ing all around them. Men and women without distinction were killed; the streets 
resounded with miserable mourning, and blood flowed in every stream. Many were 
thrown down headlong from the heights. Among others, the following monstrous act 
of cruelty is reported: a woman being drawn out of a private place, into which 
to avoid the rage of the soldiers she had fled with her husband, was in his sight 
shamefully defiled: and then was commanded to draw a sword, and forced by others, 
who guided her hand, to give her husband a dreadful and mortal wound. Bordis, 
a cap- tain under the prince of Conde, at Mirabellum, was, contrary to promise, 
cruelly killed, and his naked body cast into the street. The prince of Conde of 
the Bourbon family, being taken prisoner, and his life promised him, was shot 
in the neck by Montisquius, captain of the duke of Anjou's Page 196 guard. Thuanus 
thus speaks of him: "This was the end of Lewis Bourbon, prince of Conde, of the 
king's blood, a man higher in birth, most honourable in courage and virtue; in 
valor, constancy, wit, wisdom, experience, courtesy, eloquence, and liberality, 
all which virtues excelled in him, had few equals, and none, even by the confession 
of his enemies, superior to him." The enemies of the truth, glutted with slaughter, 
began every where to triumph in the fallacious opinion, that they were the sole 
lords of men's conscience; and, truly, it might appear to human reason that by 
the destruction of his people, God had abandoned the earth to he ravages of his 
enemy. But he had otherwise decreed, and thousands who had not bowed the knee 
to Baal, were called forth to glory and virtue. The inhabitants of Rochelle, hearing 
of the cruelties committed on their brethren, resolved to defend themselves against 
the power of the king; and their example was followed by various other towns, 
with which they entered into a confederacy, exhorting and inspiriting one another 
in the common cause. To crush this, the king shortly after summoned the whole 
power of France, and the greatest of his nobility, among whom were his royal brothers: 
he invested Rochelle by land and sea, and commenced a furious siege, which, but 
for the immediate hand of God, must have ended in its destruction. Seven princi- 
pal assaults were made against the town; but none of them succeeded. At one time 
a breach was made by the tremendous cannonade; but through the undaunted valour 
of the citizens, assisted even by their wives and daughters, who could not be 
restrained, the soldiers were driven back with great slaughter. It is worthy to 
record, that amidst every scarcity of provisions, there was found in the river 
a great multitude of fish, which the people used instead of bread; these fish 
on the conclusion of the siege, entirely disappeared. The siege lasted seven months, 
when the duke of Anjou being proclaimed king of Poland, he, in concert with the 
king of France, entered into a treaty with the people of Rochelle, which ended 
in a peace: conditions, containing twenty-five articles, having been drawn up 
by the latter, embracing many immunities both for them- selves and other protestants 
in France, were confirmed by the king, and proclaimed with great rejoicings at 
Rochelle and other cities. The year following died Charles IX. of France, the 
tyrant who had been so instru- mental in the calamities above recorded. He was 
only in the 28th year of his age, and his death was remarkable and dreadful. When 
lying on his bed, the blood gushed from various parts of his body. Amidst his 
slum- bers, his dreams and exclamations were horrid beyond description. He rolled 
about his bed and on the floor of his chamber a most dreadful spectacle, and at 
last was suffocated in the effort to discharge a quantity of blood from the cruel 
mouth, whose edicts had occasioned such torments of his subjects' blood to stain 
the face of the country. Page 197  HISTORY OF ROBERT OGUIER, HIS WIFE, AND 
THEIR SONS, WHO WERE  BURNED AT LISLE. On Saturday March 6, 1556, about 
ten o'clock at night, the provost of the city with his serjeants armed themselves, 
and went to seek any protestants met together in houses: but there was then no 
assembly. They therefore came to the house of Robert Oguier, which was a little 
church, where both rich and poor were familiarly instructed in the scriptures. 
Having entered they found certain books, which they carried away. But he whom 
they principally sought was not there, namely, Baudicon, the son of Oguier, who 
was gone abroad to commune and talk of the word of God with some of the brethren. 
On his return home, he knocked at the door, when Martin, the younger brother, 
watching his coming, bade him be gone: but Baudicon, thinking his brother mistook 
him for some other, said, "It is I, open the door:" with that the serjeants opened 
the same, and let him in, saying, "Ah, sir, you are well met!" to whom he answered, 
"I thank you my friends, you are also welcome hither." Then said the provost, 
"I arrest you all in the emperor's name;" and with that commanded the husband, 
his wife, and their two sons to be bound and imprisoned, leav- ing their two daughters 
to look to the house. A few days after, the prisoners were brought before the 
magistrates who examined them concern- ing their course of life. They directed 
their speech first to Robert Oguier, in these words: "It is told us you never 
come to mass, yea, and also dissuade others from coming to it. We are further 
informed that you maintain conventicles in your house, causing erroneous doctrines 
to be preached there, contrary to the ordinance of our holy mother the church, 
whereby you have transgressed the laws of his imperial majesty." Robert Oguier 
answered, "Whereas, first of all you lay to my charge that I go not to mass. I 
refuse so to do indeed, because the death and precious blood of the Son of God, 
and his sacrifice, are utterly abolished there, and trodden under foot; `For Christ 
by one sacrifice hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.' Do we read 
in all the scriptures, that either the prophets, Christ, or any of his apostles, 
ever said mass? They knew not what it meant. Christ indeed instituted the holy 
supper, in which all Christians communicate together, but they sacrifice not. 
If you please to read the Bible over, you will never find the mass once mentioned 
therein; therefore it is the mere invention of men. You know then what Christ 
saith, `In vain do they worship me, teaching for doc- trines the commandments 
of men.' If either myself, or any of mine, had been at mass, which is ordained 
by men, Christ would have told us we had worshipped him in vain. "As for the second 
accusation, I will not deny but there have met together in my house honest people 
fearing God: I assure you not with intention to wrong any, but rather for the 
advance- ment of God's glory, and the good of many. I knew indeed that the em- 
peror had forbidden it, and what then? I knew also that Christ in his gospel had 
commanded it: `Where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst 
of them.' Thus you see I could not well obey the Page 198 emperor, but I must 
disobey Christ. In this case I chose rather to obey God than man." One of the 
magistrates demanded what they did when they met together. To which Baudicon, 
the eldest son, answered, "If it please you to give me leave, I will open the 
business at large to you." The sheriffs seeing his promptness, looking upon one 
another, said, "Well, let us hear it." Baudicon lifting up his eyes to heaven, 
began thus:- "When we meet together in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to hear 
the word of God, we first of all prostrate upon our knees before God, and in the 
humility of our spirits do make a confession of our sins before his Divine Majesty.Then 
we pray that the word of God may be rightly divided, and purely preached: we also 
pray for our sovereign lord the emperor, and for all his honourable counsellors, 
that the commonwealth may be peaceably governed to the glory of God; yea, we forget 
not you whom we acknowledge our superiors, entreating our good God for you, and 
for this whole city, that you may maintain it in all tranquillity. Thus I have 
exactly related unto you what we do: think you now, whether we have offended so 
highly in this matter of our assembling." While they were thus examined, each 
of them made an open confession of their faith; and being returned again to prison, 
they not long after were put to the torture, to make them confess who they were 
that frequented their house; but they would discover none, unless such as were 
well known to the judges, or else were at that time absent. Four or five days 
after they were convened again before their judges, namely, the father and his 
two sons; and after many words passed, they asked them whether they would submit 
themselves to the will of the magistrates. Robert Oguier, and Baudicon his son, 
with some deliberation said, "Yea, we will." Then demanding the name of Martin, 
the younger brother, he answered, That he would not submit himself thereto, but 
would accompany his mother; so he was sent back again to prison, whilst the father 
and the son were sen- tenced to be burnt alive to ashes. One of the judges, after 
sentence pronounced, said, "To-day you shall go to dwell with all the devils in 
hell-fire," which he spake as one transported with fury in beholding the great 
patience of these two servants of Christ. Having received the sentence of death, 
they were returned to the prison from whence they came, being joyful that the 
Lord did them the honour to enroll them in the number of his martyrs. They no 
sooner entered the prison than a band of friars came thither; one amongst the 
rest told them, the hour was come in which they must finish their days. Robert 
Oguier and his son answered, "We know it well; but blessed be the Lord our God, 
who now delivering our bodies out of this vile prison, will receive our souls 
into his glorious and heavenly kingdom." One of the friars endeavoured to turn 
them from their faith, saying, "Father Robert, thou art an old man, let me entreat 
thee in this thy last hour, to think of saving thine own soul: and if thou wilt 
give ear unto me, I warrant thee thou shalt do well." The old man answered, "Poor 
man, how darest thou attribute that to thyself which belongs to the eternal God, 
and so rob him of his honour? for it seems by thy speech, that if I will hearken 
to thee thou Page 199 wilt become my Saviour. No, no, I have only one Saviour, 
Jesus Christ, who by and by will deliver me from this miserable world. I have 
one Doctor whom the heavenly Father hath commanded me to hear, and I purpose to 
hearken to none other." Another exhorted him to take pity on his soul. "Thou willest 
me," said Robert, "to pity mine own soul; dost not see what pity I have on it, 
when for the name of Christ I willingly abandon this body of mine to the fire, 
hoping today to be with him in paradise? I have put all my confidence in God, 
and my hope wholly is fixed upon the merits of Christ, his death and passion; 
he will direct me the right way to his kingdom. I believe what the holy prophets 
and apostles have written, and in that faith will I live and die." The friar hearing 
this, said, "Out, dog! thou are not worthy the name of Chris- tian; thou and thy 
son with thee are both resolved to damn your bodies and souls with all the devils 
in hell." As they were about to separate Baudicon from his father, he said, "Let 
my father alone, and trouble him not thus: he is an old man, and hath an infirm 
body; hinder him not, I pray you, from receiving the crown of martyrdom." Baudicon 
was then conveyed to a chamber apart, and there being stripped of his clothes, 
was prepared to be sacrificed. While one brought him gunpowder to put to his breast, 
an odd fellow standing by, said, "Wert thou my brother, I would sell all that 
I am worth to buy fagots to burn thee - thou findest but too much favour." The 
young man answered, "Well, sir, the Lord shew you more mercy." Whilst they spake 
thus to Baudicon, some of the friars pressed about the old man, persuading him 
at least to take a crucifix into his hands, lest the people should murmur against 
him; adding fur- ther, that he might for all that lift up his heart to God. Then 
they fastened it between his hands; but as soon as Baudicon was come down and 
espied what they had done to his father, he said, "Alas! father, what do you now? 
will you play the idolater even at our last hour?" And then pulling the idol out 
of his hands, which they had fastened therein, he threw it away, saying, "What 
cause hath the people to be offended at us for not receiving a Christ of wood? 
We bear upon our hearts the cross of Christ, the Son of the ever-living God, feeling 
his holy word written therein in letters of gold." A band of soldiers attended 
them to execu- tion, no less than if a prince had been conducted into his kingdom. 
Being come to the place where they were to suffer, they ascended the scaffold; 
when Baudicon asked leave of the sheriffs to make a confession of his faith before 
the people: answer was made that he was to look unto his spiritual Father, and 
confess to him. He was then dragged to the stake, where he began to sing the 16th 
Psalm. The friar cried out, "Do you not hear, my masters, what wicked errors these 
heretics sing, to beguile the people with?" Baudicon hearing him, replied, "How, 
simple idot, callest thou the psalms of the prophet David errors? But no won- 
der, for thus you are wont to blaspheme against the Spirit of God." Then turning 
his eyes towards his father, who was about to be chained to the stake, he said, 
"Be of good courage, father, the worst will be past very soon." Then he often 
reiterated these short breathings, "O God Father Page 200 everlasting, accept 
the sacrifice of our bodies, for thy well beloved Son Jesus Christ's sake." One 
of the friars cried out, "Heretic, thou liest: he is none of thy Father, the devil 
is thy father." During these conflicts, he lifted his eyes upwards, and speaking 
to his father, said, "Behold, I see the heavens open, and millions of angels ready 
to receive us, rejoicing to see us thus witnessing the truth in the view of the 
world. Father, let us be glad and rejoice, for the joys of heaven are set open 
to us." Fire was forthwith put to the straw and wood, which burnt beneath, whilst 
they not shrinking from the pains spake one to another; Baudicon often repeating 
this in his father's ears, "Faint not, father, not be afraid; yet a very little 
while and we shall enter into the heavenly mansions." In the end, the fire growing 
hot upon them, the last words they were heard to pronounce were, "Jesus Christ, 
thou Son of God, into thy hand do we commend our spirits." And thus these two 
slept sweetly in the Lord. In eight days after, Jane, the mother, and Martin her 
son, were executed in the same city. But before we come to describe their happy 
ends, we will, as briefly as we can, take notice by the way of the very great 
conflicts of spirit which both of them sustained. There were sent unto them many 
of the popish rabble, to turn them from their faith. That their devilish enterprise 
might the better be effect- ed, they separated one from the other, by the politic 
advice of a monk: the poor woman began to waver, and let go her first faith. At 
this their enemies rejoiced not a little, whilst the little flock of Christ hearing 
such sad news were in continual perplexity; but the Lord left them not in their 
mournful condition. One of the monks waited on her in the prison, counselling 
her to win over her son Martin, and to draw him from his errors, which she promised 
to do. But when he was come to his moth- er, and perceived that she was not only 
fallen, but also quite turned out of the right way, he began with tears to bewail 
her miserable state. "O mother," said he, "what have you done? Have you denied 
Him who hath redeemed you? Alas! what evil hath he done you, that you should requite 
him with so great injury and dishonour? Now I am plunged into that woe which I 
have most feared. Ah, good God, that I should live to see this, which pierceth 
me to the very heart!" His mother hearing these his pitiful complaints, and seeing 
the tears which her son shed for her, began again to renew her strength in the 
Lord, and with tears cried out, "O Father of mercies, be merciful unto me a miserable 
sinner, and cover my transgressions under the righteousness of thy blessed Son. 
Lord, enable me with strength from above to stand to my first confession, and 
make me to abide steadfast therein even unto my last breath." It was not long 
after this change that the enemies of Satan who had seduced her came in, supposing 
to find her in the mind wherein they left her: whom she no sooner espied, but 
with detestation said, "Away, Satan, get thee behind me: for henceforth thou hast 
neither part nor portion in me. I will, by the help of God, stand to my first 
confession; and if I may not sign it with ink, I will seal it with my blood." 
And from that time this frail vessel, who for awhile relented, after her recovery 
grew stronger and stronger. A certain temporizer said to Martin, "Thou silly youth, 
Page 201 thou sayest thou knowest not what; thou art too much conceited of thy- 
self and of thy cause. Seest thou not all these people about thee, what thinkest 
thou of them? They believe not as thou dost, and yet I doubt not but they shall 
be saved. But you imagine to do that which will never come to pass, though you 
pretend so much that you are in the faith, and have the scripture for you." The 
good woman hearing this, answered, "Sir, Christ Jesus our Lord saith, that it 
is the wide gate and broad way which leads to destruction, and therefore many 
go in thereat; but the gate is narrow that leads to life, and few there be that 
find it. Do ye then doubt whether we are in the straight way or no, when ye behold 
our sufferings? Would you have a better sign than this, to know whether we are 
in the right way? Compare our doctrine with that of your priests and monks: we, 
for our parts, are determined to have but one Christ, and him crucified; we embrace 
only the scriptures of the Old and New Testa- ment. Are we deceived in believing 
that which the holy prophets and apostles have taught?" Soon after Martin and 
his mother were bound and brought to the place of their martyrdom. His mother 
having ascended the scaffold, cried to Martin, "Come up, come up, my son." And 
as he was speaking to the people, she said, "Speak out, Martin, that it may appear 
to all that we do not die heretics." Martin would have made a confession of his 
faith, but he was not permitted to speak. His mother being bound to the stake, 
said in the hearing of the spectators, "We are Christians; and that which we now 
suffer is not for murder or theft, but because we believe no more than that which 
the word of God teacheth us: we both rejoice that we are counted worthy to suffer 
for the same." The fire being kindled, the vehemency thereof did not abate the 
fervency of their zeal, but they continued constant in the faith, and with uplifting 
hands to heaven, in a holy accord said, "Lord Jesus, into thy hands we commend 
our spirits." And thus they blessedly slept in the Lord. REVELATION OF THE 
of Guise, on his arrival at Joinville, asked whether those of Vassy used to have 
sermons preached constantly by their minister? It was answered they had, and that 
they increased daily. On hearing this he fell into a grievous passion; and upon 
Saturday, the last day of Febru- ary, 1562, that he might the more covertly execute 
his determined wrath against the religious people of Vassy, he departed from Joinville, 
accompanied by the cardinal of Guise, his brother, and those of their train, and 
lodged in the village of Damartin, distant from Joinville about two miles and 
a half. The next day, after he had heard mass very early in the morning, being 
attended by about two hundred armed men, he left Damartin and went on to Vassy. 
As he passed the village of Bronze- val, which is distant from Vassy a quarter 
of a mile, the bell after the usual manner ran for sermon. The duke hearing it, 
asked those he met why Page 202 the bell rang so loud at Vassy. A person named 
La Montague told him it was for the assembling of the Hugonots; adding, that there 
were many in Bronzeval who frequented the sermons preached at Vassy, therefore, 
that the duke would do well to begin there, and first offer them violence. But 
the duke answered, "March on, march on, we shall take them amongst the rest of 
the assembly." There were certain soldiers and archers accompanying the duke who 
surrounded Vassy, most of them being lodged in the houses of papists. The Saturday 
before the slaughter, they were seen to make ready their weapons, arquebuses, 
and pistols; but the protes- tants, not dreaming of a conspiracy, thought the 
duke would offer them no injury, being the king's subjects; remembering that not 
above two months before, the duke and his brethren passed near Vassy, and gave 
no sign of their displeasure. The duke being arrived at Vassy with his troops, 
they, with the duke La Brosse, and La Montague, passed through the city with their 
soldiers, went directly to the common-hall or mar- ket-house, and then entered 
into the monastery; where, having called to one Dessales, the prior of Vassy, 
and another whose name was Claude le Sain, provost of Vassy, the duke talked a 
while with them, then issuing hastily out of the monastery attended by many of 
his followers. Command was given to such as were papists, to retire into the monastery 
and not be seen in the streets, unless they would venture the loss of their lives. 
The duke perceiving others of his retinue to be walking to and fro under the town-hall, 
and about the church-yard, commanded them to march on towards the place where 
the sermon was, being in a barn about a hundred paces from the monastery. This 
command was soon after put in execution by such of the company as went on foot. 
He that marched fore- most of this rabble was La Brosse, and on the side marched 
the horsemen, after whom followed the duke with another company of his own men, 
and then those of the cardinal of Guise his brother. By this time, Mr. Leonard 
Morel, the minister, after the first prayer, had begun his sermon before numerous 
auditors, which might amount to 1200 persons, consisting of men, women, and children. 
The horsemen first approaching to the barn within about twenty-five paces, shot 
off two arquebuses right upon those who were placed in the galleries joining to 
the wind- ows. The people within perceiving their danger, endeavoured to shut 
the door, but were prevented by the ruffians rushing in upon them, who drawing 
their swords, furiously cried out, "Death of God! kill, kill these Hugonots." 
The first they seized on was a crier of wine, who stood next the door, asking 
him if he were not a Hugonot, and on whom he believed. Having answered that he 
believed in Jesus Christ, they smote him twice with a sword, which felled him 
to the ground. He got up again, thinking to recover himself, when they struck 
him a third time; whereby, being overcharged with wounds, he fell down and died 
instantly. Two other men, at the same time, were slain at the entry of the door, 
as they were pressing out to escape. Then the duke of Guise, with his company, 
violently entered in among them, striking the poor people down with their swords, 
daggers, and cutlasses, not sparing any age or sex: the whole assembly were so 
astonished, that they knew not which way to turn, but running hither and thither, 
fell one upon another, flying as sheep before a company of ravening wolves. Some 
of the murderers shot off their carbines against them that were in the galleries; 
others cut in pieces such as were below; some had their heads cleft in twain, 
their arms and hands cut off; so that many of them died instantly on the spot. 
The walls and galleries of the place were dyed with the blood of those who were 
every where murdered: and so great was the fury of the murder- ers, that part 
of the people within were forced to break open the roofs of the house, in hope 
of saving themselves upon the top. Being got thither, and then fearing to fall 
again into the hands of these cruel tigers, some of them leaped over the walls 
of the city, which were very high, flying into the woods and amongst the vines, 
which with most expedition they could soonest attain; some hurt in their arms, 
others in their heads, and other parts of their bodies. The duke presented himself 
in the house with his sword drawn, charging his soldiers to kill espe- cially 
the young men. Pursuing those who went upon the house tops, they cried, "Come 
down, ye dogs, come down!" using many cruel threatening speeches to them. The 
cause why some women escaped was, as the report went, for the duchess's sake, 
his wife, who, passing by the walls of the city, and hearing hideous outcries 
among these poor creatures, with the noise of the carbines and pistols continually 
discharging, sent in haste to the duke her husband with much entreaty to cease 
his persecution because of the women's terror. During this slaughter, the cardinal 
of Guise remained before the church of the city of Vassy, leaning upon the wall 
of the church-yard, looking toward the place where his followers were busied in 
killing and slaying whom they could. Many of his assembly being thus hotly pursued, 
did in the first brunt save themselves upon the roof of the house, not being discerned 
by those who stood without: but at length, some of the bloody crew espying where 
they lay, shot at them with long pieces, wherewith many were hurt and slain. The 
household servants of Dessales, prior to Vassy, shooting at the people on the 
roof, one of that wretched company was not ashamed to boast, after the massacre 
was ended, that he for his part had caused six at least to fall dead in that pitiful 
plight, adding that it others and all had done the same he should have rejoiced. 
The minister, in the beginning of the massacre, ceased to preach, till one discharged 
his piece against the pulpit where he stood, after which, falling upon his knees, 
he entreated the Lord to have mercy upon himself, and also upon his poor persecuted 
flock. Having ended his prayer, he left his gown behind him, thinking thereby 
to keep himself unknown: but as he approached towards the door, in his fear he 
stumbled upon a dead body, where he received a blow with a sword upon his right 
shoulder. Getting up again, and then thinking to go forth, he was immediately 
laid hold of, and grievously hurt on the head with a sword, whereupon being felled 
to the ground, and thinking himself mortally wounded, he cried, "Lord, into thy 
hands I commend my spirit, for thou hast redeemed me, God of truth." While he 
thus prayed, one of the bloody crew ran upon him, with an intent to have ham-stringed 
Page 204 him; but it pleased God his sword broke in the hilt. Two gentlemen taking 
knowledge of him, said, "He is the minister, let him be conveyed to my lord duke." 
These leading him away by both the arms, brought him before the gate of the monastery, 
from whence the duke and the cardinal his brother, coming forth, said, "Come hither;" 
and asked him, saying, "Art thou the minister of this place?" who made thee so 
bold to seduce this people thus?" "Sir," said the minister, "I am no seducer, 
for I have preached to them the gospel of Jesus Christ." The duke perceiving that 
this answer condemned his cruel outrages, began to curse and swear, saying, "Death 
of God, doth the gospel preach sedition? Provost, go and let a gibbet be set up, 
and hang this fellow." At which words the minister was delivered into the hands 
of two pages, who cruelly misused him. The women of the city, being ignorant papists, 
caught up dirt to throw in his face, and with extended outcries, said, "Kill him, 
kill this varlet, who hath been the cause of the death of so many." In the mean 
time the duke went into the barn, to whom they presented a great Bible, which 
they used for the service of God. The duke taking it into his hands, calling his 
brother, the cardinal, said, "Lo, here is the title of the Hugonot books." The 
cardinal viewing it, said, "There is nothing but good in this book, for it is 
the bible, to wit, the holy scriptures." The duke being offended, that his brother 
suited not to his humour, grew into a greater rage than before, saying, "Blood 
of God, how now? What! the holy scriptures. It is one thousand five hundred years 
ago since Jesus Christ suffered his death and passion, and it is but a year since 
these books were printed, how then say you that this is the gospel? You say you 
know not what." This unbridled fury of the duke displeased the cardinal, so that 
he was heard secretly to mutter, "An unworthy brother!" This massacre continued 
a full hour, the duke's trumpeters sounding the while several times. When any 
of the victims desired to have mercy shewed them for the love of Jesus Christ, 
the murderers in scorn would say unto them, "You use the name of Christ, but where 
is your Christ now?" There died in this massacre within a few days, fifty or threescore 
persons; besides those, there were about two hundred and fifty men and women that 
were wounded and injured, whereof some died, one losing a leg, another an arm, 
another his fingers. The poor's box, which was fastened to the door of the church 
with two iron hooks, containing twelve pounds, was wrestled thence, and never 
re- stored. The minister was closely confined, and frequently threatened to be 
enclosed in a sack and drowned. He was, however, on the 8th of May, 1563, liberated 
at the earnest suit of the prince of Portien. Monsieur Pierre De la Place was 
a gentleman whose piety equalled his courage: he was president of the court of 
requests at Paris. On Sunday morning, about six o'clock, captain Michael, arquebuser 
to the king, came armed to his lodging, and presenting himself before De la Place, 
said, that the duke of Guise had slain the admiral of France by the king's orders, 
with many Hugonots; and because the rest of them, of whatever quality, were destined 
to death, he was come to his lodging to exempt him from the common destruction; 
and that he desired to have a sight of what gold Page 205 and silver were in his 
possession. The duke De la Place, amazed at his audacity, who, in the presence 
of several persons in the room, durst presume to utter such language, asked him 
if he knew where he was, or whether or not he thought there was a king? To this 
the captain roughly answered, that he must go with him to know the king's pleasure. 
De la Place hearing this, began to apprehend some danger, and therefore slipped 
out at a back door, proposing to secret himself in a neighbour's house. Meanwhile, 
most of his servants disappeared; and the captain, having plundered his chest 
of a thousand crowns, was entreated by the lady Marets to convey her father, with 
the lord Marets her husband, into the house of some Roman catholic; which he consented 
to do, and also performed it. De la Place, like a deer singled out for death, 
being refused admittance at three several houses, returned to his own, where he 
found his wife overwhelmed with grief; but the lord De la Place, being strengthened 
by the Spirit of God, with incredible constancy and calmness, demonstrated to 
her, that we must receive afflictions from the hand of God; and consoled her with 
the promises of the gospel. He then commanded all his servants that remained to 
be called together, when, according to his custom on the Lord's day, he made an 
exhortation and offered prayer. He then discoursed upon the justice and mercy 
of God, and shewed how needful afflictions were for Christians, and that it was 
beyond the power of Satan or men to hurt or wrong them, without permission of 
the Lord. "What need have we then," he added,"to dread their authority, which 
at the most can but prevail over our bodies?" He then exhorted them rather to 
endure all kind of torment, yea death itself, than to speak or do any thing that 
might tend to the dishonour of God. While thus employed, word was brought him 
that Seneca, the provost-martial, with a band of archers, was at the door, demanding 
admittance in the king's name, saying, that he came to secure the person of the 
lord De la Place, and to preserve his house from being pillaged by the rabble. 
De la Place immediately commanded the door to be opened to him. Seneca, on entering, 
declared the great slaughter that was made upon the Hugonots every where in the 
city by the king's command; adding, in Latin, that he would not suffer one to 
live. "Yet have I express charge from his majesty," he said, "to see that you 
sustain no wrong; only suffer me to conduct you to the Louvre, because the king 
is de- sirous to be informed about the affairs of those of the religion which 
he hath now in hand." De la Place answered, that it had always been his greatest 
wish, and nothing could render him more happy, than to gain any opportunity by 
which he might give an account to his majesty of his behavour and actions; but 
that such horrible massacres were everywhere committed, it was impossible for 
him to pass to the Louvre without danger of his life: he therefore prayed him 
to assure his majesty of his willingness to come, but to excuse his appearance 
until the fury of the people was somewhat abated. The provost agreed to this request, 
and left with him one of his lieutenants and four of his archers. Soon after came 
president Charron, with whom the provost conferred a little in secret, and then 
left him with four more of the city archers. Page 206 The whole night following 
was spent in fortifying all the passages and windows of the house with logs and 
flint stones, for the defence of De la Place and his family. Next day Seneca returning, 
declared that he had express charge from the king to bring him to his majesty 
without delay. He replied as before, that it was dangerous as yet to pass through 
the city. But Seneca insisted, saying, "It is the common speech of these Hugonots, 
to protest that they are the king's most loyal and obedient subjects and servants; 
but when they are to manifest their obedience to his commands, then they come 
slowly, seeming rather to abhor and detest it." When De la Place apprehended danger, 
Seneca answered, that he should have a captain of Paris, well known to the people, 
to accompany him. At that moment, the captain, named Pazon, a principal actor 
in this sedition, entered and offered his service to conduct him to the king. 
De la Place refused, telling Seneca that Pazon was one of the most cruel and bloody-minded 
men in all the city; and therefore, seeing that he must go to the king, he entreated 
him to be his guard. Seneca answered, that having now other affairs to look unto, 
he could not conduct him above fifty paces. The lady of De la Place then prostrated 
herself at the feet of Seneca, beseeching him to accom- pany her husband to the 
king; but her husband, who never shewed any sign of a dejected spirit, came to 
her, and lifting her from the ground, told her, that it was not an arm of flesh 
that we must stoop to, but unto God only. Then turning round, he perceived in 
his son's hat a white cross, which he had placed there to delude the enemy. His 
father sharply chid him, and commanded him to pluck that mark of apostasy thence; 
telling him, that they must now submit to bear the true cross of Christ, namely, 
those afflictions and tribulations which it shall please God to lay upon us, as 
pledges of that eternal happiness which he hath treasured up for his servants. 
Being now pressed by Seneca to go, as he foresaw, to death, he took his cloak, 
and embracing his wife, earnestly exhorted her above all things to have the fear 
of God and his honour in precious esteem; and then boldly went on his way. Coming 
into the street where the glass-house stood, assassins waited his approach with 
their daggers in readiness, and killed him as an innocent lamb in the midst of 
Sene- ca's archers, who led him into that butchery. They then plundered his house 
of all they could find, while his body being dragged into a stable, they covered 
his face over with dung, and the next day threw him into the river. Peter Ramus, 
the king's professor in logic, a man re- nowned for his learning, was not forgotten. 
He had taken refuge in the college of priests; but being discovered, he offered 
a great sum of money for his life. Nevertheless he was massacred, and cast down 
from a high chamber window upon the ground, so that his bowels came out on the 
stones, and were afterwards trailed through the streets, while the body was whipped 
by certain scholars, instigated by the envy and malevolence of their tutors. Philip 
le Doux, a great jeweller, on his return from a journey, had retired to rest, 
when he heard the furies below thundering Page 207 at the door, and commanding 
it to be opened to them in the king's name. Ill as his wife was, she ventured 
down and opened it to these tigers, who presently stabbed her husband in his bed. 
They also took this poor woman, half dead with fear, and thrust into her a dagger 
to the very hilt. She finding herself mortally wounded, ran into a corn-loft, 
whither they pursued her, stabbed her a second time, and then threw her out of 
a window into the street, to the great astonishment and confusion of the papists 
themselves, who were constrained to confess the cruelties of their own agents. 
One of the assassins having snatched up a little child in his arms, the innocent 
babe began to play with his beard and to smile upon him, but instead of being 
moved to compassion, the barbarian struck it with his dagger, and threw it all 
in gore into the river. Quintin Croyer, an elder of the reformed church, seeing 
many of his companions murdered before his eyes at the massacre at Meaux, kneeled 
down and prayed God to pardon the murderers; at which they fell a laughing, and 
not being able with their daggers to pierce a jerkin of double buff which he wore, 
and which they were loth to spoil, because it would be worth preserving as a good 
booty, they cut asunder the points, and then gave him several stabs with a dagger 
in his body. Faron Haren, formerly sheriff of the city, a man zealously affected 
to religion, having chased the mass out of Meaux, was mortally hated by the papists. 
They were, in consequence, not contented simply to kill him, without first cutting 
off his nose, ears, and other members, and giving him thrusts in divers parts 
of his body, driving him to and fro among them. Being weakened, and not able any 
longer to hold out, from loss of blood issuing from all parts of his body, he 
When news arrived at Trois of the massacre at Paris, the greater part of the judges 
and officers of the king went to the bailiff, and commanded a diligent search 
for protestants, and to imprison all they could find. In the city was a merchant, 
named Peter Belin, a man of turbulent temper. This man was at the massacre in 
Paris on St. Bartholomew's day, and was dispatched thence with letters from the 
king, dated the 28th of August, to the mayor and sheriffs of Trois, to cause all 
persecution to cease, and the prisoners to be set at liberty. He did not, however, 
arrive till the 3rd of September; and on entering Trois, proceeded to the house 
of the bailiff, a man of the same stamp as himself. They agreed, before they published 
the letters, to murder all the Hugonots who were in prison; and to make it appear 
that this act was sanctioned by authority, they requested the assistance of the 
city executioner, whose name was Charles. More just and humane than they, he peremptorily 
refused to have any hand in an act of cruelty; answering, that it was contrary 
to his office to execute any man before sentence of death had first been pronounced 
by the magistrates; and that he would not presume without a warrant to deprive 
any man of life: with these words he left Page 208 them. Upon this, the bailiff 
sent for one of the gaolers of the prison, but he being confined by sickness, 
Martin de Bures was sent to know his pleasure. The bailiff told him what Belin 
had signified to him in private; as also, that on a sudden all the prisoners of 
the religion must die, that the place might be purged of them; "and this," he 
added, "you must do." De Bures, however, made no haste to execute the command, 
acquainted no man with aught that passed between the bailiff and him; not even 
Perennet the keeper, then sick in bed. The day following the bailiff came to the 
prison, and calling for Peren- net, who was then recovered, asked him, with a 
smile, "Whether it was done?" "What?" said Perennet, knowing nothing of it. "Why," 
said the bailiff, "are not the prisoners dispatched?" and was ready with his dagger 
to have stabbed him. But coming a little to himself, he told Perennet his purpose, 
and how he was to behave himself concerning the execution. At this, Perennet, 
standing amazed, (though otherwise forward enough to commit any outrages against 
the protestants) certi- fied to the bailiff, that such an inhuman act could not 
be committed to him, apprehending that in time to come justice might rise up against 
him from the parents or friends of the prisoners. "No, no," said the bailiff, 
"fear not, I will stand between you and all harm. Others of the justices have 
consented besides myself, and would you have better security than that?" In a 
short time after, the gaoler, coming into the yard of the prison where the prisoners 
were abroad recreating themselves, ordered each to his cabin, because the bailiff 
was coming to see whether the keepers had done their duty. Then began these poor 
sheep to fear they were destined to the slaughter, and therefore went presently 
to prayers. Perennet now called his companions about him, reported to them what 
the bailiff had given him in charge, on which they all took an oath to execute 
the same; but approaching near to the prisoners they were so surprised with fear, 
and their hearts so failed them, that they stood gazing upon one another, having 
no courage to perform such a deed of blood: they therefore returned to the lodge 
without executing their commission. This repugnance, however, was of short duration; 
for instead of considering it as a warning from above, they sent for wine, to 
drown every spark of conscience. Becoming drunk, they drew a list of the prisoners, 
which they delivered to one who was to call them forth in order. The first that 
came forth was Meurs, who was no sooner before them than one of them thrust at 
him with the point of his halberd, repeating the stroke often with intent to kill 
him; on which the poor man took hold of the weapon and pointing it himself to 
his heart, cried to the murderer, "Here, soldier, here, right at the heart, right 
at the heart!" and was instantly slain. The rest met a similar fate; and when 
the massacre was ended the murderers made a great pit on the back side of the 
chapel of the prison, wherein they cast the bodies, some of them yet breathing. 
One called Maufere, lying in the midst of them, being observed to raise himself 
above his fellow-martyrs, they poured earth upon him until they had stifled him. 
The blood ran in such abundance out of the prison door, and thence through a channel 
into a river, that the whole stream was deeply dyed. The following day, the Page 
209 sanguinary bailiff of Trois caused the king's letters to be published in all 
corners of the city with sound of trumpet. Dechampeaux, lord of Bonilli, a counsellor 
of Orleans, was murdered in the following manner. One called Texier came with 
a small troop to his house, inviting himself and company to supper with him. Dechampeaux 
bid them kindly welcome, being ignorant of what had happened at Paris. But supper 
being ended, Texier bade him deliver his purse, at which Dechampeaux laughed, 
think- ing he was in jest. But the cruel guest, with blasphemous oaths, told him 
in a few words what had happened in the city of Paris, and what preparations there 
were among the Roman Catholics of Orleans to root out the protestants there. Dechampeaux 
finding it in vain to contest with him, gave him money; when, to requite the courtesy 
and good entertain- ment he had received, Texier embrued his hand in the blood 
of his virtuous neighbour, a man of as upright a character as was in all the city. 
It is needless to add that the troop pillaged the house. On the 26th of August 
following, the miscreants began the execution about the ramparts in a violent 
manner. All night was heard nothing but shooting off guns and pistols, forcing 
open doors and windows, fearful outcries of the massacred, of men, women, and 
little children, trampling of horses, and rumbling of carts hurrying off dead 
bodies to and fro; the street resounding with exclamations of protestants blended 
with horrible blasphemies of their murderers, laughing at their barbarous exploits. 
On Wednesday the massacre began more fiercely, and so continued to the end of 
the week. "Where is now your God?" cried the murderers. "What is become of all 
your prayers and psalms now? Let your God, whom you call upon, save you if he 
can." Yea, some of them, who had been professors of the same religion, whilst 
they were massacering the poor innocents, sung to them in scorn the beginning 
of the 43rd psalm: "Judge me, O God, and plead my cause." Others, striking them, 
said, "Says now, `Have mercy on me, O God.'" But these execrable outrages by no 
means damped the courage of the Christians, who died steadfast in the faith. The 
murderers boasted that in this city they caused eighteen thousand men to perish, 
a hundred and fifty women, with great number of children of nine years old and 
upwards. The manner of their death was, first to shoot them with pistols, then 
to strip them, and either sink their bodies in the river, or bury them in pits. 
At night several of this bloody crew knocked at the door of a doctor of the civil 
law, called Tailebous; who, opening a casement and understanding that they had 
somewhat to say to him, came down immediately and opened the door to them. At 
the first greeting they told him he must die;- whereupon he uttered a prayer to 
heaven with such zeal and affection that the assas- sins being astonished and 
restrained by a secret power, contented themselves with taking his purse, in which 
were fifteen crowns, and left him to live some short season. They day following, 
several stud- ents resorted to his lodging requesting to see his library, into 
which having brought them, one asked this book of him, and another that, which 
he gave them. At length they told him they were not as yet satisfied, Page 210 
their purpose being to kill him. Prostrating himself on the ground, and having 
ended his prayer, he desired them to kill him there; but they forced him out of 
his own house from one place to another, and at length gave him a violent and 
fatal blow. A rich burgess of the city, called Nicholas Bougars Sieur de Nove, 
a man of singular worth and highly esteemed, was at that time dangerously ill. 
Some of the murderers came into his chamber with a purpose to kill him; but seeing 
him in that case, spared him: yet, finding there Noel Chaperon, an apothecary, 
they cut off one of his arms, then drew him into the market-place, where they 
made sport and butchery of his mangled form. The next day an acquaint- ance came 
to the lodgings of Bougars, and as he was entering in he met his mother at the 
door. He then proceeded into the chamber, bearing the dead body of her son, and 
stabbing it as he passed along. The wretch then silently wiped his dagger, and, 
having left the mangled carcass of his innocent victim in the room, coolly walked 
out for further atroci- ties. Francis Stample, a rich merchant, was threatened 
to have his throat cut if he refused the murderers money; but having none about 
him, he wrote to his wife to send him his ransom: he had no sooner sealed the 
letter, but the monsters deprived him of both that and his life, laugh- ing at 
what they had done. And though they extorted from his widow a considerable sum 
of money, yet could she not obtain from them the body of her husband. Among those 
that confessed the name of Jesus Christ, Francis le Bossu, a merchant, with his 
two sons, well deserve our notice; for whilst he trampled in the blood of his 
brethren, he encouraged his children to take their death willingly and patiently, 
using this speech: "Children, we are not to learn now, that it hath always been 
the portion of believers to be hated, cruelly used, and devoured by unbelievers, 
as Christ's silly sheep of ravening wolves. If we suffer with Christ, we shall 
also reign with him. Let not those drawn swords terrify us, which only serve to 
cut that thread which ties us to a miserable life, and let loose the soul into 
endless felicity. We have resided long enough among the wicked, let us now go 
and live with our God; let us joyfully march after this great company which is 
gone before us, and let us make the way for them that shall follow after." When 
he saw the murderers come, he clasped his sons in his arms, and they likewise 
embraced their father; as if the father meant to be a buckler to his children, 
and as if the children, by the bond of nature, meant to ward off the blows which 
were coming upon their father, though with the loss of their own lives: thus embracing, 
all were soon numbered with the dead. At the conclusion of this furious assault, 
the monster perpetrators went up and down the city, displaying their white doublets 
sprinkled with blood; some boasting that they had killed a hundred, some more, 
some less. The people of Dauphine, of Languedoc, and Provence, were amazed to 
see so many bodies floating upon the water, some dismembered, others fastened 
together with long poles, others lying on Page 211 the shore, some having their 
eyes out, others their noses ears and hands cut off, stabbed with daggers in every 
part of their body, some among them having no shape remaining. Not many months 
after, when these tragedies were ended, the pope sent cardinal Uursin as legate 
to the king, who was received with great solemnity at Lyons. On his return from 
St. John's church, where he had been to hear mass, a great number of persons presented 
themselves before him at the door, and kneeled down for his absolution. But the 
legate not knowing the reason of it, one of the leaders told him they were those 
who had been the actors in the massacre. On which, the cardinal immediately absolved 
them all by making the sign of the cross. As soon as the massacre commenced at 
Paris, a gentleman, named Monsoreau, obtained a passport with letters to murder 
the protestants of Angiers. Being disappointed of his prey in one place, he came 
to the lodging of a reverend and learned minister, Mr. John Mason, surnamed de 
Launay, sieur of Riviere. Meeting his wife at the entrance of the house, he saluted 
and kissed her, as is the manner in France, especially among the courtiers, and 
asked her, "where her husband was?" She answered that he was walking in his garden, 
and directed him to the spot. Monsoreau having lovingly embraced la Ri- viere, 
said unto him, "Do you know wherefore I am come? The king hath commanded me to 
kill you forthwith, and hath given me express charge to do it, as you shall see 
by his letters." The wretch then shewed him a pistol ready charged. Riviere replied, 
"I know not wherein I have offended the king; but seeing you seek my life, give 
me a little time to recommend my spirit into the hands of God." Having made a 
short prayer, he presented his body to the murderer, who shot him immediately. 
The minister's wife was soon after drowned, with nine others. Six thousand were 
also murdered at Rouen in the same deliberate and treacherous manner. The king 
of France proposed three things to the prince of Conde: "Either to go to mass, 
to death, or else perpetual imprisonment; and therefore weigh well with yourself 
which you like best." The prince answered, "By God's grace I will never choose 
the first; as for the latter, I refer myself to the king's pleasure." About three 
hundred were barbarously murdered at Toulouse. After taking all their goods, their 
enemies stripped them naked, exposed them to public view for two days, and then 
threw them in heaps into great pits. There were certain counsellors, who, after 
they were massacred, were hung up in their long gowns upon a great elm in the 
court of the palace. The massacre at Bourdeaux was and carried on much in the 
same manner. Many of the ministers found means to escape, hiding themselves in 
the rocks and marshes, till they had an opportunity to take shipping for England. 
The house of a counsellor in parliament was forced open, pillaged, and spoiled. 
His clerk seeing his master about to suffer a cruel death, embraced and comforted 
him, and being asked whether he were of the same religion, he answered, "Yes, 
and would die with my master for the same." They were then slain in one another's 
arms. Du Tour, a deacon of the reformed church, an old man, who in the days of 
his ignorance had been a Page 212 priest in the popish church, being sick in bed, 
was dragged into the open street, and was asked whether he would go to mass, and 
thereby save his life? He freely answered, "No, particularly as I am now drawing 
so near my end, both from age and sickness. I hope I shall not so far forget the 
eternal salvation of my soul, as though fear of death to prolong this life for 
a few days; for thus I should buy a short term of life at too dear a rate." On 
this they slew him instantly. The poor protestants wandered up and down, not knowing 
where to save their lives: some were rejected of their own parents and relations, 
who shut their doors against them, pretending that they knew them not; others 
were betrayed and delivered up by those to whose trust they had committed themselves: 
many were saved even by priests and others, from whom they would have expected 
no security. Some were saved by their very enemies, whose hearts relented at such 
detestable outrages. All the city was full of terror and horrible threats against 
them, saying, that the king's commandment was, that he would not have so much 
as one of them left in his kingdom; and if any one refused to go to mass, that 
a hole should be digged for him in the earth, in which he should be buried alive. 
The judgment of God was manifested upon one of these inhuman murderers called 
Vincent: he fell dangerously sick, but in the end recovering again, as he thought, 
told some of his friends that he felt his arms strong enough to handle his cutlass 
as well as ever. Shortly after he was overtaken by the hand of God, with such 
a flow of blood from his nose, as could not be restrained nor diverted by any 
of the remedies that were then used. It was a hideous sight to see him bowing 
his head over a bason full of blood, which, without ceasing, poured forth from 
his nose and mouth till he could bleed and breathe no longer. Another was taken 
with such swelling in all the parts of his body that there was scarcely to be 
discerned in him the form of a man, and thus he continued till at length he burst 
asunder, and like a more ancient and royal persecutor, his entrails gushed out, 
and he perished a spectre of misery. Thus, during the extreme afflictions of the 
reformed churches in many parts of France, there were within a few weeks nearly 
30,000 put to death; leaving whole cities and almost whole provinces depopulated. 
 ACCOUNT OF SANCERRE DURING THE SIEGE. Sancerre, in the year 1573, was 
a place where the faithful fled for refuge. It was soon encompassed with inveterate 
enemies. The want of provisions was soon felt by the inhabitants, on which they 
collected together all the asses and mules they had in the city; but these were 
eaten up in less than a month. They then killed the horses and dogs; and after 
these were exhausted they seized the cats, moles, mice, and what other animals 
and vermin they could find. These being eaten they fed on ox and cow-hides, sheep-skins, 
parchment, old shoes, horse-hoofs, horns, ropes, and leather girdles. Towards 
the end of June a third part Page 213 of the besieged had no bread to eat. Such 
as could get hemp seed ground it or bruised it in mortars, and made bread of it: 
they did the same with all sorts of herbs, mingling them with bran. They also 
eat meal of chaff, nut-shells, excrements of horses and men; and even the offal 
which lay in the streets. The 29th of July a poor man and his wife were executed 
for having eaten parts of a child three years old, which had died of hunger; having 
prepared other parts to eat at another meal. An old woman who lodged in the house 
having eaten part of this mournful diet, died in prison within a few hours after. 
All children under twelve years of age unable to bear the famine, died. It was 
lamentable to hear the pitiful groans uttered by poor parents, on beholding their 
languishing and dying infants. A boy ten years old being ready to yield up the 
ghost, seeing his father and mother weeping over him, said unto them, "Wherefore 
weep ye thus in seeing me famished to death, mother? I ask you not for bread, 
I know you have none; but seeing it is God's will I must die this death, let us 
be thankful for it. Did not the holy man Lazarus die of famine - have I not read 
it in my bible?" In utter- ing these with similar speeches, he expired the 30th 
of July. That all the people died not of famine was by reason of some horses which 
were reserved for service, if needs should be, and six cows, which were left to 
give milk for the sustenance of young infants. These beasts were killed, and their 
flesh sold for the relief of such as were living, with a little corn, which by 
stealth some friends brought into the city. A pound of wheat was sold for half-a-crown. 
Not more than eight-four persons died by the hand of the enemy, but of the famine 
more than five hundred perished. Many soldiers, in order to avoid the lingering 
death of hunger, fled from the city, and chose rather to die by the sword of the 
enemy; whereof some were mortally maimed, others imprisoned, and the rest put 
to death. Every hope, in fact, seemed cut off from the city, and death appeared 
both within and without the walls; and so far was the king of France from relenting 
at the hapless state of this wretched people, that, enraged at their courage, 
he swore that if sustained they should eat up one another. But the King of kings 
ordained it otherwise; for the election of the duke of Anjou to the throne of 
Poland caused a general pacification, and the protestants once more enjoyed liberty 
of conscience and freedom from persecution. Page 214  BOOK VI. 
PAPACY. The severity exercised by the Roman catholics over the churches of 
the Bohemians, induced them to send two ministers and four laymen to Rome, in 
the year 977, to seek relief from the pope. After some delay their request was 
granted and their grievances redressed. Two things in particular were permitted 
them, viz. to have divine service in their own language, and to give the cup in 
the sacrament to the laity. The dis- putes, however, soon broke out again, the 
succeeding popes exerting all their power to fetter their prejudices on the minds 
of the Bohemians; and the latter with great spirit aiming to preserve their religious 
liberties. Some friends, zealous of the gospel, applied to Charles, king of Bohemia, 
A.D. 1375, to call a council for enquiry respecting the abuses which had crept 
into the church, and to make a through refor- mation. Charles, at a loss how to 
proceed, sent to the pope for advice; the latter incensed at the affair, only 
replied, "Punish severely those presumptuous and profane heretics." The king accordingly 
banished every one who had been concerned in the application, and to shew his 
zeal for the pope, imposed additional restraints on the religious liberties of 
the country. The martyrdom of John Huss and Jerom of Prague - two great men brought 
to the light of the truth by reading the doctrines of our countryman, John Wickliffe, 
who, like the morning star of the refor- mation, first burst from the dark night 
of popish error, and illuminated the surrounding world - greatly increased the 
indignation of the believers, and gave animation to their cause. These two distinguished 
reformers were condemned by order of the council of Constance, when fifty-eight 
of the principal Bohemian nobility interposed in their favour. Nevertheless they 
were burnt; and the pope, in conjunction with the council of Constance, ordered 
the Romish clergy, every where, to excommunicate all who adopted their opinions 
or pitied their fate. In consequence of these orders great contentions arose between 
the papists and reformed Bohemians, which produced a violent persecution against 
the latter. At Prague it was extremely severe, till at length the reformed, driven 
to desperation, armed themselves, attacked the senate-house, and cast twelve of 
its members with the speaker out of the windows. The pope hearing of this, came 
to Florence, and publicly excommunicated the reformed Bohemians, exciting the 
emperor of Germany, and all other kings, princes, dukes, &c. to take up arms 
in order to extirpate the whole race; promising, by way of encouragement, full 
remission of all sins to every one who should kill a Bohemian protes- tant. The 
result of this was a bloody war; for several popish princes Page 215 undertook 
the extirpation, or at least expulsion, of the proscribed people: while the Bohemians, 
arming themselves, prepared to repel the assault in the most vigorous manner. 
The popish army prevailing against the protestant forces at the battle of Cuttenburgh, 
they conveyed their prisoners to three deep mines near the town, and threw several 
hundred into each, where they perished in a miserable manner. A bigoted popish 
magistrate, named Pichel, seized twenty-four protestants, among whom was his daughter's 
husband. On their all confessing themselves of the reformed religion, he sentenced 
them to be drowned in the river Abbis. On the day of the execution a great concourse 
of people attended, among whom was Pichel's daughter. Seeing her husband prepared 
for death, she threw herself at her father's feet, bedewed them with tears, and 
im- plored him to commiserate her sorrow, and pardon her husband. The obdu- rate 
magistrate sternly replied, "Intercede not for him, child; he is a heretic, a 
vile heretic." To which she nobly answered, "Whatever his faults may be, or however 
his opinions may differ from yours, he is still my husband, a name which, at a 
time like this, should alone employ my whole consideration." Pichel flew into 
a violet passion, and said, "You are mad! cannot you, after his death, have a 
much worthier hus- band?" "No, Sir," she replied, "my affections are fixed upon 
him, and death itself shall not dissolve my marriage vow." Pichel, however, continued 
inflexible, and ordered the prisoners to be tied with their hands and feet behind 
them, and in that manner thrown into the river. This being put into execution, 
the young lady watched the opportunity, leaped into the waves, and embracing the 
body of her husband, both sank together. The emperor Ferdinand, whose hatred to 
the protestants was unlimited, not thinking he had sufficiently oppressed them, 
instituted a high court of judges, upon the plan of inquisition, with this dif- 
ference, that the new court was to remove from place to place, and always to be 
attended by a body of troops. The greater part of this court consisted of Jesuits, 
from whose decisions there was no appeal. This bloody tribunal, attended by its 
ferocious guard, made the tour of Bohemia, and seldom examined or saw a prisoner; 
but suffered the soldiers to murder the protestants as they pleased, and then 
to make report of the matter in their own manner and time. The first who fell 
a victim to their barbarity was an aged minister, whom they killed as he lay sick 
in bed. Next day, they robbed and murdered another, and soon after shot a third 
while preaching in his pulpit. The soldiers abused the daughter of a protestant 
before his face, and then tortured her father to death. They tied a minister and 
his wife back to back and burnt them. Another minister they hung upon a cross 
beam, and making a fire under him, broiled him to death. One gentleman they hacked 
into small pieces; and filled a young man's mouth with gunpowder, and setting 
fire to it, blew his head to atoms. But their principal rage was directed against 
the clergy. They seized a pious protestant minister, whom they tormented daily 
for a month. They placed him amidst them, derided and mocked him. They hunted 
him like a wild beast, till ready Page 216 to expire with fatigue, they made him 
run the gantlet, each striking him with a twig, their fists, or with ropes. They 
scourged him with wires; they tied him up by the heels till the blood started 
out of his nose and mouth; they hung him up by the arms till they were dislocated, 
and then had them set again. Burning papers, dipped in oil, were placed to his 
feet; his flesh was torn with red-hot pincers; he was put to the rack, and mangled 
by every cruel device. Even boiling lead was poured upon his feet; and, lastly, 
a knotted cord was twisted about his forehead in such a manner as to force out 
his eyes. In the midst of these enormi- ties, particular care was taken lest his 
wounds should mortify, and his sufferings be shortened; till the last day, when 
forcing out his eyes proved fatal. At length, winter being far advanced, the high 
court of judges, with their military ruffians, thought proper to return to Prague; 
but on their way meeting with a protestant pastor, they could not resist the temptation 
of feasting their barbarous eyes with a new kind of cruelty. It was to strip him 
naked, and to cover him alternately with ice and burning coals. This novel mode 
of tormenting a fellow- creature was immediately put in practice, and the unhappy 
victim expired beneath the torments, which seemed to delight his inhuman persecutors. 
Some time after a secret order was issued by the emperor, for apprehend- ing all 
noblemen and gentlemen who had been principally concerned in supporting the protestant 
cause, and in nominating Frederic, elector Palatine of the Rhine, to be king of 
Bohemia. Fifty of these were seized in one night, and brought to the castle of 
Prague; while the estates of those who were absent were confiscated, themselves 
made outlaws, and their names fixed upon a gallows as a mark of public ignominy. 
The court afterwards proceeded to try those who had been apprehended, and two 
apostate protestants were appointed to examine them. Their examiners asked many 
unnecessary and impertinent questions, which so exasperated one of the noblemen, 
that he exclaimed, opening his breast at the same time, "Cut here; search my heart; 
you shall find nothing but the love of religion and liberty: these were the motives 
for which I drew my sword, and for these I am willing to die." As none of the 
prisoners would renounce their faith, or acknowledge themselves in any error, 
they were all pronounced guilty: the sentence was, however, referred to the em- 
peror. When that monarch had read their names, and the accusations against them, 
he passed judgment on all, but in a different manner; his sentences being of four 
kinds, viz. death, banishment, imprisonment for life, and imprisonment during 
pleasure. Twenty being ordered for execution, were informed they might send for 
Jesuits, monks, or friars, to prepare for their awful change, but that no communication 
with protestants would be permitted them. This proposal they rejected, and strove 
all they could to comfort and cheer each other upon the solemn occasion. The morning 
of the execution being arrived, a cannon was fired as a signal to bring the prisoners 
from the castle to the princi- pal market-place, in which scaffolds were erected, 
and a body of troops drawn up to attend. The prisoners left the castle, and passed 
with dignity, composure, and cheerfulness, through soldiers, Jesuits, priests, 
executioners, attendants, and a pro digious concourse of people assembled to see 
the act of these devoted martyrs. They were executed in the following order: Page 
217 I. Lord Schilik, a nobleman about the age of fifty. He possessed great abilities, 
natural and acquired. On being told that he was to be quartered, and his parts 
scattered in different places, he smiled with great serenity, and said, "The loss 
of a sepulchre is but a trifling consideration." A friend stood by, crying, "Courage, 
my lord." He replied, "I possess the favour of God, which is sufficient to inspire 
any one with courage: the fear of death does not trouble me. I have faced him 
in fields of battle to oppose Antichrist." After repeating a short prayer, he 
told the executioner he was ready, who cut off his right hand and head, and then 
quartered him. His hand and head were placed upon the high tower of Prague, and 
his quarters distributed in different parts of the city. II. Lord Viscount Winceslaus, 
a venerable nobleman, exalted by his piety, who had attained the age of seventy, 
and was esteemed equally for his learning and hospitality. He was so little affected 
by the loss of worldly riches, that on his house being broken into, his property 
seized, and his estates confiscated, he only said with great composure, "The Lord 
hath given, and the Lord hath taken away." Being asked why he could engage in 
a cause so dangerous as that of attempting to support the elector palatine Frederic 
against the power of the emperor, he replied, "I acted according to the dictates 
of my conscience, and, to this day, acknowledge him as my king. I am not full 
of years, and which to lay down my life, that I may not be witness of the evils 
which await my country. You have long thirsted for my blood: take it, and God 
will be my avenger." He then approached the block, stroked his grey beard, and 
said, "Venerable hairs, the greater honour now attends you; a crown of martyrdom 
is your portion." Then laying down his head, it was severed from his body, and 
afterwards placed upon a pole in a conspicuous part of the town. III. Lord Harant 
was a gentleman whose natural abilities were much refined and improved by travelling, 
having visited the principal places in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The accusations 
against him were, his being a protestant, and having taken an oath of allegiance 
to Frederic, the elector palatine of the Rhine, as king of Bohemia. When he ascended 
the scaffold, he said, "I have travelled through many countries, and traversed 
many barbarous nations, yet have I never found so much cruelty as at home. I have 
escaped innumerable perils both by sea and land, and have surmounted all to suffer 
innocently in my native place. My blood is likewise sought by those for whom I 
and my ancestors have hazarded our lives and fortunes: but, almighty God! forgive 
them, for they know not what they do." Then approaching the block, he kneeled 
down and exclaimed with great energy, "Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit; 
in thee have I always trusted; receive me, therefore, my blessed Redeemer." The 
fatal stroke was soon given. Page 218 IV. Lord Frederic De Bile suffered as a 
protestant, and an instigator of the war: he met his fate with firmness, and only 
said, he wished well to the friends whom he left behind, forgave his enemies, 
denied the authority of the emperor in that country, acknowledged Frederic to 
be the only true king of Bohemia, and trusted for salvation in the merits of his 
Redeemer. V. Lord Henry Otto on first coming upon the scaffold seemed greatly 
agitated, and said, as if addressing himself to the emperor, "Thou tyrant Ferdinand, 
thy throne is established in blood; but if you kill my body, and disperse my members, 
they shall still rise up in judgment against you." He was then silent; and having 
walked about awhile, recovered his fortitude, and growing calm, said to a gentleman, 
"A few minutes I was greatly discomposed, but now I feel my spirits revive; seem 
to invite me to participate of some unknown joys." Then kneeling before the block, 
he said, "Almighty God! to thee I commend my soul, receive it for the sake of 
Christ, and admit it to the glory of thy presence." The pains of his death must 
have been severe, the executioner making several strokes before his head was separated 
from his body. VI. The earl of Rugenia was distinguished for his great accomplishments 
and unaffected piety. On the scaffold he said, "We who drew our swords fought 
only to preserve the liberties of the people, and to keep our consciences sacred. 
As we were overcome, however, I am better pleased at the sentence of death than 
if the emperor had given me life; for I find that it pleases God to have his truth 
defended, not by our swords, but by our blood." He then went boldly on the block, 
saying, "I shall now soon be with Christ," and was almost instantly launched upon 
the ocean of eternity and glory. VII. Sir Gasper Kaplitz was a nobleman eighty-six 
years of age. On coming to the place of execution, he addressed the principal 
officer thus: "Behold an unworthy and ancient man, who hath often entreated God 
to take him out of this wicked world, but could not till now obtain his desire; 
for God reserved me till these years to be a spectacle to the world, and a sacrifice 
to himself: therefore God's will be done." An officer told him, that in consideration 
of his great age, if he would only ask pardon, he would immediately receive it. 
"Ask pardon!" exclaimed he, "I will ask pardon of God whom I have frequently offended, 
but not of the emperor whom I never injured. Should I sue for pardon, it might 
be justly suspected I had committed some crime for which I deserved this fate. 
No, no; as I die innocent, and with a clear con- science, I would not be separated 
from these noble companions who have proceeded me to heaven: so saying, he cheerfully 
resigned his neck to the block. VIII. Procopius Dorzecki said on the scaffold, 
"We are now under the emperor's judgment; but in time he shall be judged, and 
we shall Page 219 appear as witnesses against him." Then taking a gold medal from 
his neck, which was struck when the elector Frederic was crowned king, he presented 
it to one of the officers with these words - "As a dying man I request, that if 
ever king Frederic be restored to the throne of Bohe- mia, you will give him this 
medal. Tell him, for his sake I wore it till death, and that now I willingly lay 
down my life for God and my king." He then cheerfully submitted to the fatal blow. 
IX. Dionysius Zervius was a gentleman fifty-six years of age, and had been educated 
as a Roman Catholic; but had embraced the reformed religion for some years. Just 
before his death the Jesuits used their utmost endeavours to make him recant and 
return to his former faith, but he gave not the least heed to their exhortations. 
Kneeling down, he said, "They may destroy my body, but cannot injure my soul; 
that I commend to my Redeemer." X. Valentine Cockan was a gentleman of great fortune, 
and eminent for piety and uprightness. His talents and acquirements were of an 
inferior order; yet his imagination seemed to brighten, and his faculties to improve 
on death's approach; and just before he was beheaded, he expressed himself with 
such eloquence, energy and precision, as amazed his hearers. This is one of innumerable 
instances in which unusual wisdom follows the acquisition of eminent piety. XI. 
Tobias Steffick was remarkable for his affability, and upon the approach of death 
displayed the greatest serenity. A few minutes before he died, he said, "I have 
received, during the course of my life, many favours from God; ought I not therefore 
cheerfully to take one bitter cup, when he thinks proper to present it? or rather, 
ought I not to rejoice that it is his will I should give up a corrupted life for 
that of immortality?" XII. Dr. Jessenius, a learned student of physic, who had 
been accused of speaking disrespectful words of the emperor, of treason in swearing 
allegiance to the elector Frederic, and of heresy in being a protestant. For the 
first accusation he had his tongue cut out; for the second he was beheaded; and 
for the third and last he was quartered, and the several parts of his body exposed 
on poles. XIII. Christopher Chober no sooner stepped upon the scaffold, than he 
said, "I come in the name of God to die for his glory. I have fought the good 
fight, and finished my course; so, executioner, do your office." On this he instantly 
received the crown of martyrdom. XIV. John Shultis was by all who knew him beloved 
in life, and regretted at his death. The only words he spoke before his martyrdom 
were, "The righteous seem to die in the eyes of fools, but they only go to rest. 
Lord Jesus! thou hast promised that those who come to thee shall not be cast out. 
Behold, I am come; look on me, pity me, pardon my sin, and receive my soul." Page 
219 XV. Maximilian Hostialick was celebrated for his learning, piety, and humanity. 
When he first came on the scaffold he seem terrified at the approach of death. 
Soon after he said, "Christ will wash me from my crimes." He then told the officer 
he should repeat the song of Simeon; at the conclusion of which the executioner 
might do his duty. He accordingly said, "Lord! now let thy servant depart in peace, 
according to thy word, for mine eyes have seen thy salvation:" at which words 
his head, at one blow, was severed from his body. XVI. John Kutnaur, not having 
been born independent, but having acquired a fortune by a mechanical employment, 
was ordered to be hanged. Just before he was turned off he said, "I die, not for 
having committed any crime, but for following the dictates of my conscience, and 
defending my country and religion." XVII. Simeon Sussickey was father-in-law to 
Kutnaur, and was ordered to be executed in the same manner. He appeared impatient 
to be gone, saying, "Every moment delays me from entering into the kingdom of 
Christ." XVIII. Nathaniel Wodnianskey, a gentleman, was hanged for having supported 
the protestant cause, and the election of Frederic to the Bohemian throne. At 
the gallows the Jesuits used all their persuasions to make him renounce his faith. 
Finding their attempts unavailing, one of them said, "If you will not abjure your 
heresy, at least repent of your rebellion." To which Wodnianskey replied, "You 
take away our lives under a pretended charge of rebellion; and, not content with 
that, seek to destroy our souls: glut yourselves with blood and be satis- fied, 
but tamper not with our consciences." His son then approached the gallows, and 
said, "Sir, if life should be offered to you on condi- tion of apostasy, I entreat 
you to remember Christ." To this the father replied, "It is very acceptable, my 
son, to be exhorted to constancy by you, but suspect me not; rather endeavour 
to confirm in their faith your brothers, sisters, and children, and teach them 
to imitate my con- stancy." He had no sooner concluded these words than he received 
his fate with great fortitude. XIX. Wenceslaus Gisbitzkey, throughout his imprisonment, 
had great hopes given him, from which his friends became very apprehensive for 
the safety of his soul. He, however, continued stedfast in his faith, prayed fervently 
at the gallows, and met his end like a christian hero. XX. Martin Foster was an 
unfortunate cripple; the chief accusations against him were his being charitable 
to heretics, and his advancing money to the elector Frederic. It is supposed, 
however, that his great wealth was the principal cause of his death; as it no 
doubt was the ground on which many of the preceding gentlemen and noblemen were 
a Bohemian, born in the village of Hussenitz about the year 1380. His parents 
gave him the best education they could bestow, and having acquired a tolerable 
knowledge of the classics at a private school, he was sent thence to the university 
of Prague, where the powers of his mind and his diligence in study soon rendered 
him conspicuous. In 1408 he commenced bachelor of divinity, and was after successively 
chosen pastor of the church of Bethlehem, in Prague, and dean, and rector of the 
university. These stations he discharged with great fidelity, and became at length 
so conspicuous for his preaching and the boldness of his truths, that he soon 
attracted the notice and excited the malignity of the pope and his creatures. 
The incident which most provoked the indignation of Huss was a papal bull, which 
offered remission of sin to all who would join the army of the pope in his contest 
with the king of Naples, who had invaded the holy see, and threatened destruction 
to the papal dominion. The English reformer, Wickliffe, had so kindled the light 
of reformation, that it began to illume the darkest corners of popery and ignorance. 
His doctrines were received in Bohemia with avidity and zeal by great numbers 
of people; but by none so zealously as John Huss, and his friend and fellow-martyr, 
Jerome of Prague. The reformists daily increasing, the archbishop of Prague issued 
a decree to suppress the farther spreading of Wickliffe's writings. This, however, 
had an effect quite the reverse of what he expected, for it stimulated the converts 
to greater zeal, and at length almost the whole university united in promoting 
them. In that renowned institution the influence of Huss was very great, not only 
on account of his learning, eloquence, and exemplary life; but also on account 
of some valuable privileges he had obtained from the king in behalf of the Bohemians. 
Strongly attached to the doctrines of Wickliffe, Huss strenuously opposed the 
decree of the archbishop, who, notwithstanding, obtained a bull from the pope, 
giving him commission to prevent the publishing of Wickliffe's writings in his 
province. By virtue of this bull the archbishop condemned those writings: he also 
proceeded against four doctors who had not delivered up some copies, and prohibited 
them to preach. Against these proceedings Dr. Huss, with some other members of 
the university, protested, and entered an appeal from the sentence of the archbishop. 
The pope no sooner heard of this, than he granted a commission to cardinal Colonno, 
to cite Huss to appear at the court of Rome, to answer accusations laid against 
him, of preaching both errors and heresies. From this Dr. Huss desired to be excused, 
and so greatly was he favoured in Bohemia that king Wincelaus, the queen, the 
nobility, and the university, desired the pope to dispense with such an appearance; 
as also that he would not suffer the kingdom of Bohemia to Page 222 lie under 
the accusation of heresy, but permit all to preach the gospel with freedom in 
their places of worship according to their own honest convictions. Three proctors 
appeared for Dr. Huss before cardinal Colonno. They pleaded an excuse for his 
absence, and said they were ready to answer in his behalf. But the cardinal declared 
him contuma- cious, and accordingly excommunicated him. On this the proctors appealed 
to the pope, who appointed four cardinals to examine the pro- cess: these commissioners 
confirmed the sentence of the cardinal, and extended the excommunication, not 
only on Huss, but to all his friends and followers. Huss then appealed from this 
unjust sentence to a future council, but without success; and, notwithstanding 
so severe a decree, and an expulsion from his church in Prague, he retired to 
Hussenitz, his native place, where he continued to promulgate the truth, in his 
writings as well as his public ministry. It was in this retire- ment and comparative 
seclusion that he compiled a treatise, in which he maintained that reading the 
books of protestants could not be forbidden or prevented. He wrote in defence 
of Wickliffe's work on the Trinity; and boldly protested against the vices of 
the pope, the cardinals, and the clergy of those corrupt times. In addition to 
these he was the author of several other productions, all of which were penned 
with such strength of argument as greatly facilitated the diffusion of protestant 
principles. In England persecution against the protestants had been carried on 
for some time with relentless cruelty. They now extended to Germany and Bohemia, 
where Dr. Huss, and Jerome of Prague, were particularly singled out to suffer 
in the cause of religion. In the month of November, in the year 1414, a general 
council was assembled at Constance, in Germany, for the purpose of determining 
a dispute then existing between three persons who contended for the papal throne. 
These were, John, set up by the Italians; Gregory, by the French; and Benedict, 
by the Spaniards. The council continued four years, in which the severest laws 
were enacted to crush the protestants. Pope John was deposed and obliged to fly: 
more than forty crimes being proved against him; among which were, his attempt 
to poison his predecessor, his being a gamester, a liar, a murderer, an adulterer, 
and guilty of unnatural offences. John Huss was first summoned to appear at the 
council; and to dispel any apprehension of danger, the emperor sent him a passport, 
giving him permission freely to come to, and return from, the council. On receiving 
this information, he told the persons who delivered it, that he desired nothing 
more than to purge himself publicly of the imputation of heresy; and that he esteemed 
himself happy in having so fair an opportunity for doing so as the council to 
which he was summoned to attend. In the latter end of November he set out for 
Constance, accompanied by two Bohemian, who were among the most eminent of his 
disciples, and who followed him through respect and affection. He caused placards 
to be fixed upon the gates of the churches of Prague, in which he declared, that 
he went to the council to answer all charges that might be made against him. He 
also declared, in all the cities Page 223 through which he passed, that he was 
going to vindicate himself at Constance, and invited all his adversaries to be 
present. On his way he met with every mark of affection and reverence from people 
of all descriptions. The streets, and even the roads, were thronged with people, 
whom respect rather than curiosity had brought together. He was ushered into several 
towns with great acclamations; and he passed through Germany in a kind of triumph. 
"I thought," he said, "I had been an outcast. I now see my worst friends are in 
Bohemia." On arriving at Constance, he immediately took lodgings in a remote part 
of the city. Soon after there came to him one Stephen Paletz, who was engaged 
by the clergy at Prague to manage the intended prosecution against him. Paletz 
was afterwards joined by Michel de Cassis, on the part of the court of Rome. These 
two declared themselves his accusers, and drew up articles against him, which 
they presented to the pope and the prelates of the council. Notwithstanding the 
promise of the emperor, to give him safe conduct to and from constance, he regarded 
not his word; but, according to the maxim of the council, that "Faith is not to 
be kept with heret- ics," when it was known he was in the city, he was immediately 
arrested, and committed prisoner to a chamber in the palace. This breach was particularly 
noticed by one of Huss's friends, who urged the imperial passport: but the pope 
replied he never granted any such thing, nor was he bound by that of the emperor. 
While Huss was under confinement, the council acted the part of inquisitors. They 
condemned the doctrines of Wickliffe, and in their impotent malice ordered his 
remains to be dug up and burnt to ashes. While these orders were executing the 
nobility of Bohemia and Poland used all their interest for Huss; and so far prevailed 
as to prevent his being condemned unheard, which appeared to have been resolved 
on by the commissioners appointed to try him. Before his trial took place, his 
enemies employed a Franciscan friar, to entangle him in his words, and then appear 
against him. This man of great ingenuity and subtlety, came to him in the character 
of an idiot and with seeming sincerity and zeal, requested to be taught his doctrines. 
But Huss soon detected him, and told him that his manners wore a great semblance 
of simplicity, but that his questions discovered a depth and design beyond the 
reach of an idiot. He afterwards found this pretended fool to be Didace, one of 
the deepest logicians in Lombardy. At length Huss was brought before the council, 
when the articles exhibited against him were read: they were upwards of forty 
in number, and chiefly extracted from his writings. The following ex- tract, forming 
the eighth article of impeachment, will give a sample of the ground on which this 
infamous trial was conducted. "An evil and a wicked pope is not the successor 
of Peter, but of Judas." Answer, "I wrote this in my treatise, if the pope be 
humble and meek, neglecting and despising the honour and lucre of the world; if 
he be a shepherd, taking his name from feeding the flock of God; if he feed the 
sheep with the word, and with virtuous example, and that he become even like his 
flock with his whole heart and mind; if he diligently and carefully labour and 
travel for the church, then is he without doubt the true Page 224 vicar of Christ. 
But if he walk contrary to these virtues, so much as there is no society between 
Christ and Belial, and Christ himself saith, `He that is not with me is against 
me,' how is he then the true vicar of Christ or Peter, and not rather the vicar 
of antichrist? Christ called Peter himself, Satan, when he opposed him only in 
one word, and that with a good affection, even him whom he had chosen his vicar, 
and specially appointed over his church. Why should not any other then, being 
more opposed to Christ, be truly called Satan, and consequently antichrist, or 
at least the principal minister or vicar of antichrist. Infinite testimonies of 
this matter are found in St. Augustine, St. Jerome, Cyprian, Chryostome, Bernard, 
Gregory, Remigius, Ambrose, and all the holy fathers of the Christian church." 
On his examination being finished, he was taken from the court, and a resolution 
was formed by the council, to burn him as a heretic unless he retracted. He was 
then committed to a filthy prison, where, in the day-time, he was so laden with 
fetters that he could hardly move: and every night he was fastened by his hands 
to a ring against the wall. He continued some days in this situation, while many 
noblemen of Bohemia interceded in his behalf. They drew up a petition for his 
release, which was presented to the council by several of the most illustrious 
men of the country; notwithstanding which, so many enemies had Huss in that court, 
that no attention was paid to it, and the persecuted reformer was compelled to 
endure all the ignominy and misery inflicted on him. Shortly after the petition 
was presented, four bishops and two lords were sent by the emperor to the prison, 
in order to prevail on Huss to make a recanta- tion. But he called God to witness, 
with tears in his eyes, that he was not conscious of having preached or written 
any thing against the truth of God, or the faith of his orthodox church. The deputies 
then repre- sented the great wisdom and authority of the council; to which Huss 
replied, "Let them send the meanest person of that council, who can convince me 
by argument from the word of God, and I will submit my judgment to him." This 
firm and faithful answer had no effect, because he would not take the authority 
of the council upon trust, in opposition to the plainest reasonings of scripture. 
The deputies, therefore, finding they could not make any impression on him, departed, 
greatly astonished at the strength of his resolution. On the 4th of July he was, 
for the last time, brought before the council. After a long examination he was 
desired to abjure, which he refused without the least hesitation. The bishop of 
Lodi then preached a bloody persecuting sermon, the text of which was, "Let the 
body of sin be destroyed." The sermon was the usual prologue to a cruel martyrdom; 
and when it was over his fate was fixed, his vindication rejected and judgment 
was pronounced. The council censured him for being obstinate and incorrigible, 
and ordained that he should be degraded from the priesthood, his books publicly 
burnt, and himself delivered to the secular power. He received the sentence with- 
out the least emotion; and at the close of it he kneeled down with his eyes lifted 
towards heaven, and, with all the magnanimity of a primitive martyr, thus exclaimed: 
"May thine infinite mercy, O my God! pardon Page 225 this injustice of mine enemies. 
Thou knowest the iniquity of my accusa- tions: how deformed with crimes I have 
been represented: how I have been oppressed by worthless witnesses, and a false 
condemnation: yet, O my God! let that mercy of thine, which no tongue can express, 
prevail with thee not to avenge my wrongs." These excellent sentences were received 
as so many expressions of treason, and only tended to inflame his adversaries. 
Accordingly, the bishops appointed by the council, stripped him of his priestly 
garments, degraded him, and put a paper mitre on his head, on which were painted 
devils, with this inscription: "A ring-leader of heretics." This mockery was received 
by the heroic martyr with an air of unconcern, and it seemed to give him dignity 
rather than disgrace. A serenity appeared in his looks, which indicated that his 
soul had cut off many stages of a tedious journey in her way to the realms of 
everlasting happiness, and when the bishops urged him to yet recant, he turned 
to the people, and addressed them thus:- "These lords and bishops exhort and counsel 
me, that I should here confess before you all, that I have erred; to which, if 
it were such as might be done with the infamy and reproach of man only, they might, 
peradventure, easily persuade me thereunto; but now truly I am in the sight of 
the Lord my God, without whose great displeasure, and disquietude of mine own 
conscience, I could by no means do that which they require of me. For I well know 
that I never taught any of those things which they have falsely alleged against 
me, but I have always preached, taught, written, and thought contrary thereunto. 
With what countenance then should I behold the heavens? With what face should 
I look upon them whom I have taught, whereof there is a great number, if through 
me it should come to pass that those things, which they have hitherto known to 
be most certain and sure, should now be made uncertain? Should I by this example 
astonish or trouble so many souls, so many consciences, endued with the most firm 
and certain knowledge of the scriptures and gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ and 
his most pure doctrine, armed against all the assaults of Satan? I will never 
do it, neither commit any such kind of offence, that I should seem more to esteem 
this vile carcass appointed unto death, than their health and salvation." At this 
most godly speech he was forced again to hear, by the consent of the bishops, 
that he obstinately and maliciously persevered in his pernicious and wicked errors. 
The ceremony of degradation being over, the bishops delivered him to the emperor, 
who put him into the care of the duke of Bavaria. His books were consumed at the 
gates of the church; and on the 6th of July he was led to the suburbs of Constance 
to be burnt alive. When he had reached the place of execution, he fell on his 
knees, sung several portions of the Psalms, looked stedfastly towards heaven, 
and repeated, "Into thy hands, O Lord! do I commit my spirit: thou hast redeemed 
me, O most good and faithful God." As soon as the chain was put about him at the 
stake, he said, with a smiling countenance, "My Lord Jesus Christ was bound with 
a harder chain than this for my sake, why then should I be ashamed of this old 
rusty one?" When the fagots were piled around Page 226 him, the duke of Bavaria 
was so officious as to desire him to abjure. His noble reply was, "No, I never 
preached any doctrine of an evil tendency; and what I taught with my lips I now 
seal with my blood." He then said to the executioner, "You are now going to burn 
a goose, (the name of Huss signifying goose in the Bohemian language,) but in 
a cen- tury you will have a swan whom you can neither roast nor boil." If this 
were spoken in prophecy, he must have meant Martin Luther, who shone about a hundred 
years after, and who had a swan for his arms - whether suggested by this circumstance 
or on account of family descent and heraldry is not known. As soon as the fagots 
were lighted, the heroic martyr sung a hymn, with so loud and cheerful a voice, 
that he was heard through all the crackling of the combustibles, and the noise 
of the multitude. At length his voice was interrupted by the flames, which soon 
put a period to his mortal life, and wafted his undying spirit, which no fire 
of earth could subdue or touch, to the regions of ever- lasting glory.  SECTION 
by unmasking popery, and holding up to the long deluded world its deformity, and 
by the vigour with which he prosecuted his reforming career, caused the papal 
throne to shake to its foundation. So terrified was the pope at his rapid success, 
and the spreading of his truths, that he determined, in order to stop their career, 
to engage the emperor, Charles V, in his scheme of utterly extirpating all who 
had embraced the reformation. To accomplish if possible this desirable result, 
he gave the emperor two hundred thousand crowns in ready money; who was to maintain 
twelve thousand foot, and five thousand horse, for the space of six months, or 
during a campaign. He allowed the emperor to receive one half of the revenues 
of the clergy of the empire during the war; and permitted him to pledge the abbey- 
lands for five hundred thousand crowns, to assist in carrying on hos- tilities. 
Thus prompted and supported, the emperor, with a heart eager from interest and 
prejudice for the cause, undertook the extirpa- tion of the protestants; and raised 
a formidable army for his purpose, which he distributed in the states of Germany, 
Italy, and Spain. Mean- while the protestant princes were not idle; but formed 
a powerful confederacy, in order to repel the impending blow. A great army was 
raised, and the command given to the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse. 
The imperial forces were commanded by the emperor of Germany in person, and all 
Europe waited in anxious suspense the event of the war. At length the armies met, 
and a desperate engagement ensued, in which the protestants were defeated, and 
the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse both taken prisoners. This calamitous 
stroke was succeeded by a horrid persecution, the severities of which were such, 
that lesser evils might in comparison be accounted happiness. Page 227 A cave 
appeared a palace, wild roots delicacies, and a rock a bed of down. Those who 
were taken experienced the most dreadful tortures that cruelty could invent; and 
by their constancy evinced, that a real Chris- tian can encounter every difficulty, 
and despise every danger in the cause of truth. Among others, Henry Voes and John 
Esch were apprehended as protestants, and brought to examination: when Voes, answering 
for himself and his companion, gave the following replies to some questions asked 
by a priest, who examined them by order of the magistracy. Priest. Were you not 
both, some years ago, Augustin friars? Voes. Yes. Priest. How come you to quit 
the bosom of the church of Rome? Voes. On account of her abominations. Priest. 
What do you be- lieve? Voes. The Old and New Testament. Priest. Do you believe 
in the writings of the fathers, and the decrees of the councils? Voes. Yes, so 
far as they accord with scripture. Priest. Did not Martin Luther seduce you both? 
Voes. He seduced us even in the very same manner as Christ seduced the apostles; 
that is, he made us sensible of the frailty of our bodies and the value of our 
souls. This confession was deemed sufficient; they were both condemned to the 
flames, and soon after suffered, with the usual fortitude of real Christians. 
An elo- quent and pious preacher, named Henry Stutphen, was taken out of his bed 
at night, and compelled to walk barefoot a considerable way, so that his feet 
were terribly cut. On desiring a horse, his conductors said, in derision, "A horse 
for a heretic! no, no, heretics may go barefoot." On arriving at the place of 
his destination, he was con- demned to be burnt; and while suffering in the flames, 
many indigni- ties were offered him by those who attended, who cut and slashed 
him in a manner the most terrible. Many were murdered at Halle. Middleburg being 
taken by assault, all the protestants were put to the sword. Great numbers were 
also burned at Vienna. Peter Spengler, a divine, of the town of Schalet, was thrown 
into the river and drowned. Wolfgang Scuch and John Huglin, two worthy ministers, 
were burned. Leonard Keyser, a student of the university of Wirtemburg, and George 
Car- penter, a Bavarian, were hanged for refusing to renounce protes- tantism. 
Persecution in Germany having been suspended many years, again broke out in 1630, 
on account of a war between the emperor and the king of Sweden; the latter being 
a protestant prince, the protestants of Germany in consequence espoused his cause, 
which greatly exasperated the emperor against them. The imperial army having laid 
siege to the town of Passewalk, then defended by the Swedes, took it by storm, 
and committed the most monstrous outrages on the buildings and people. They pulled 
down the churches, burnt the houses, pillaged the properties, massacred the ministers, 
put the garrison to the sword, hanged the townsmen, ravished the women, and smothered 
boys, girls, and infants. In the year 1631, a most bloody scene transpired at 
the protestant Page 228 city of Magdeburg. The generals Tilly and Pappenheim having 
taken it by storm, upwards of 20,000 persons, without distinction of rank, sex, 
or age, were slain during the carnage, and 6,000 drowned in attemp- ting to escape 
over the river Elbe. After which, the remaining inhabit- ants were stripped naked, 
severely scourged, had their ears cropped, and being yoked together like oxen, 
were turned adrift, or doomed to worse than the toil of beasts. On the popish 
army taking the town of Hoxter, all the inhabitants with the garrison were put 
to the sword. When the imperial forces prevailed at Griphenburg, they shut up 
the senators in the senate-chamber, and, surrounding it by lighted straw, suffocated 
them. Franhendal, notwithstanding it surrendered upon arti- cles of capitulation, 
suffered as cruelly as other places, and at Heidelburg many were shut up in prison 
and starved. In fact, to enumerate the various species of cruelty practised by 
the impe- rial troops, under count Tilly, would excite disgust and horror. That 
sanguinary monster, in his progress through Saxony, not only permitted every excess 
in his soldiers, but actually commanded them to put all their enormities in practice. 
Some of these are so unpar- allelled for indecency as well as atrocity, that they 
cannot with propriety be mentioned. Others, however, not chargeable with the former 
character, may be mentioned as shocking samples of the profi- ciency made by the 
papists of that day in the latter quality. A band of soldiers, belonging to count 
Tilly, met with a company of mer- chants belonging to Basil, who were returning 
from the great market of Strasburg, and attempted to surround them; all escaped, 
however, but ten, leaving their properties behind. The ten who were taken begged 
hard for their lives; but the soldiers murdered them, saying, "You must die because 
you are heretics, and have got no money." The same soldiers met with two countesses, 
who, together with some young la- dies, the daughters of one of them, were taking 
an airing in a landau. The soldiers spared their lives, but treated them with 
most cowardly insults, leaving them desolate in an exposed part of their route, 
and compelling their coachman and protector to proceed onward without the power 
of returning to their relief. In fact, wherever Tilly came, the most horrid barbarities 
and cruel depredations ensued: famine and conflagration marked his progress. He 
destroyed all the provisions he could not take with him, and burnt all the towns 
before he left them; so that murder, poverty, and desolation followed him. In 
1532, above 30,000 protestants were, contrary to the treaty of Westphalia, driven 
from the archbishopic of Saltzburg in the depth of winter, with scarce clothes 
to cover them, and without provisions. These poor people emigr- ated to various 
protestant countries, and settled in places where they could enjoy the exercise 
of their religion, free from popish superstit- ion and papal despotism. Peace 
at length, chiefly through the mediation of England, was restored to Germany, 
and the protestants, for several years, enjoyed the free exercise of their religion. 
This hero in the cause of truth was born at Prague, and educated in its university, 
where he soon became distinguished for his learning and eloquence. Having completed 
his studies, he travelled over great part of Europe, and visited many of the seats 
of learning, particularly the universities of Paris, Heidelburg, Cologne, and 
Oxford. At the latter he became acquainted with the works of Wickliffe, and being 
a person of uncommon application, he translated many of them into his own language, 
having with great pains made himself master of the English. On his return to Prague, 
he openly professed the doctrines of Wickliffe; and finding that they had made 
considerable progress in Bohemia, from the industry and zeal of Huss, he became 
his assistant in the great work. On the 4th of April, A.D. 1415, Jerome went to 
constance. This was about three months before the death of Huss. He entered the 
town pri- vately, and consulting with some of the leaders of his party, was easily 
convinced that he could render his friend no service. Finding that his arrival 
at Constance was publicly known, and that the council intended to seize him, he 
prudently retired, and went to Iberling, an imperial town at a short distance. 
While here he wrote to the emperor, and avowed his readiness to appear before 
the council, if he would give a safe-conduct; this, however, was refused. He then 
applied to the council, but met with an answer equally unfavourable. After this, 
he caused papers to be put up in all the public places of Constance, particularly 
on the door of the cardinal's house. In these he professed his willingness to 
appear at Constance in the defence of his character and doctrine, both which he 
said had been greatly falsified. He farther declared, that if any error should 
be proved against him he would retract it; desiring only that the faith of the 
council might be given for his security. Receiving no answer to these papers, 
he set out on his return to Bohemia, previously adopting the precaution to take 
with him a certificate signed by several of the Bohemian nobility then at Constance, 
testifying that he had used every prudent means in his power to procure an audience. 
Notwithstanding this he was seized on his way, without any authority, by an officer 
belonging to the duke of Sultzbach, who hoped thereby to receive commendations 
from the council for so acceptable a service. The duke of Sultzbach immediately 
wrote to the council, informing them what he had done, and asking directions how 
to proceed with Jerome. The council, after expressing their obliga- tions to the 
duke, desired him to send the prisoner immediately to Constance. He was accordingly 
conveyed in irons, and, on his way, was met by the elector palatine, who caused 
a long chain to be fastened to Jerome, by which he was dragged like a wild beast 
to the cloister, whence, after some insults and examinations, he was conveyed 
to a tower, and fastened to a block with his legs in the stocks. In this manner 
he Page 230 remained eleven days and nights, till becoming dangerously ill, they, 
in order to satiate their malice still farther, relieved him from that painful 
state. He remained confined till the martyrdom of his friend Huss; after which 
he was brought forth and threatened with immediate torments and death if he remained 
obstinate. Terrified at the prepara- tions of pain, in a moment of weakness he 
forgot his manliness and resolution, abjured his doctrines, and confessed that 
Huss merited his fate, and that both he and Wickliffe were heretics. In consequence 
of this his chains were taken off, and his harsh treatment done away. He was, 
however, still confined, with daily hopes of liberation. But his enemies suspecting 
his sincerity, another form of recantation was drawn up and proposed to him. He, 
however, refused to answer this, except in public, and was accordingly brought 
before the council, when, to the astonishment of his auditors, and to the glory 
of truth, he renounced his recantation, and requested permission to plead his 
own cause, which being refused, he thus vented his indignation: "What barbarity 
is this? For thee hundred and forty days have I been confined in a variety of 
prisons. There is not a misery, there is not a want, which I have not experienced. 
To my enemies you have allowed the fullest scope of accu- sation: to me, you deny 
the least opportunity of defence. Not an hour will you now indulge me in preparing 
for my trial. You have swallowed the blackest calumnies against me. You have represented 
me as a heretic, without knowing my doctrine; as an enemy to the faith, before 
you knew what faith I professed. You are a general council: in you centre all 
which this world can communicate of gravity, wisdom, and sanctity: but still you 
are men, and men are seducible by appearances. The higher your character is for 
wisdom, the greater ought your care to be not to deviate into folly. The cause 
I now plead is not my own, it is the cause of men: it is the cause of Christians: 
it is a cause which is to affect the rights of posterity, however the experiment 
is to be made in my person." This speech, the eloquence and force of which are 
worthy of the best ages, produced no effect on the obdurate foes of Jerome. They 
proceeded with his charge, which was reduced to five articles - That he was a 
derider of the papal dignity - an opposer of the pope himself - an enemy to the 
cardinals - a persecutor of the bishops - and a despiser of Christianity! To these 
charges Jerome answered with an amazing force of eloquence and strength of argument. 
"Now, whither shall I turn me? To my accusers? My accusers are as deaf as adders. 
To you, my judges? You are all prepossessed by the arts of my accusers." After 
this speech he was immediately remanded to his prison. The third day from this 
his trial was brought on, and witnesses were examined in support of the charge. 
The prisoner was prepared for his defence, which appears almost incredible, when 
we consider he had been nearly a year shut up in loath- some dungeons, deprived 
of daylight, and almost starved for want of common necessaries. But his spirit 
soared above these disadvantages. The most bigoted of the assembly were unwilling 
he should be heard, dreading the effects of eloquence in the cause of truth, on 
the minds of Page 231 the most prejudiced. This was such as to excite the envy 
of the greatest persons of his time. "Jerome," said Gerson, the chancellor of 
Paris, at his accusation, "when thou wast in Paris, thou wast thyself, by means 
of thine eloquence an angel; and dist trouble the whole university." At length 
it was carried by the majority, that he should have liberty to proceed in his 
defence; which he began in such an exalted strain, and continued with such a torrent 
of elocution, that the obdurate heart was seen to melt, and the mind of superstition 
seemed to admit a ray of conviction. He began to deduce from history the number 
of great and virtuous men who had, in their time, been condemned and punished 
as evil persons, but whom after generations had proved to have deserved honour 
and reward. He laid before the assembly the whole tenor of his life and conduct. 
He observed that the greatest and most holy men had been known to differ in points 
of speculation, with a view to distinguish truth, not to keep it concealed. He 
expressed a noble contempt of all his enemies, who would have induced him to retract 
the cause of virtue and truth, and upbraided his late and momentary weakness, 
which led him to deny himself and forget his glory. He entered on a high encomium 
on Huss; and declared he was ready to follow him to martyrdom. He then proceeded 
to defend the doctrines of the English luminary Wickliffe; and concluded with 
observing, that it was far from his intention to advance any thing against the 
state of the church of God; that it was only against the abuses of the clergy 
he complained; and that it was certainly impious that the patrimony of the church, 
which was originally intended for the purpose of charity and universal benevolence, 
should be prostituted to sensual and sordid gratification to "the lust of the 
flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life," which the apostle expressly 
declares "are not of the Father, but of the world." The trial being ended, Jerome 
received the same sentence as had been passed on his martyred countryman, and 
was, in the usual style of popish duplicity, delivered over to the civil power; 
but being a layman he had not to undergo the ceremony of degradation. His persecutors, 
however, prepared for him a cap of paper, painted with red devils, which being 
put upon his head, he said, "Our Lord Jesus Christ, when he suffered death for 
me a most miserable sinner, did wear a crown of thorns upon his head; and I, for 
his sake, will wear this adorning of derision and blasphemy." Two days they delayed 
the execution in hopes that he would recant; meanwhile the cardinal of Florence 
used his utmost endeavours to bring him over: but they all proved ineffectual: 
Jerome was resolved to seal his doctrine with his blood. On his way to the place 
of execution he sung several hymns; and on arriving at the spot, the same where 
Huss had suffered, he kneeled down and prayed fervently. He embraced the stake 
with great cheerfulness and resolution; and when the executioner went behind him 
to set fire to the fagots, he said, "Come here, and kindle it before my eyes; 
for had I been afraid of it, I had not come here, having had so many opportunities 
to escape." When the flames began to envelope him, he sung another hymn; and the 
last words he was heard to say were, "Hanac animam in flammis affero, Christe, 
tibi!" "This soul in flames I offer, Christ, to thee!" Page 232 He was of a fine 
and manly form, and possessed a strong and healthy constitution, which served 
to render his death extremely painful, for he was observed to live an unusual 
time in the midst of the flames. He, however, sung till his aspiring soul took 
its flight from its mortal habitation, as in a fiery chariot, which seemed rather 
sent by God than prepared by man, to convey his blessed spirit from earth to heaven 
in the sight of a thousand witnesses. SECTION II.  ACCOUNT OF PERSECUTIONS 
IN THE NETHERLANDS. The glorious light of the gospel spreading over every 
part of the continent, and chasing thence the dark night of ignorance, increased 
the alarm of the pope, who urged the emperor, Charles the fifty, to commence a 
persecution against the protestants; when many thousands fell martyrs to superstitious 
malice and barbarous bigotry; among whom where the following:- A pious protestant 
widow, named Wendelinuta, was appre- hended on account of her religion, when several 
monks endeavoured to persuade her to recant. Their attempts proving ineffectual, 
a Roman catholic lady of her acquaintance desired to be admitted to the dungeon 
in which she was confined, and did her utmost to perform the task she had undertaken; 
but finding her endeavours fruitless, she said, "Dear Wendelinuta, if you will 
not embrace our faith, at least keep the things which you profess secret within 
your own bosom, and strive to prolong your life." To which the widow replied, 
"Madam, you know not what you say; for with the heart we believe unto righteousness, 
and with the tongue confession is made unto salvation." Still holding her faith 
against every effort of the powers of darkness, her goods were confis- cated, 
and she was condemned to be burnt. At the place of execution, a monk presented 
a cross to her, and bade her kiss that in order to worship God aright. To which 
she answered, "I worship no wooden god, but the eternal God, who is in heaven." 
She was then fastened to the stake; but, at the intercession of her friend, the 
lady just mentioned, she was strangled before the fagots were kindled. At Cologne 
there were two protestant clergymen burnt; a tradesman of Antwerp, named Nicholas, 
was tied up in a sack, thrown into the river and drowned; and Pistorious, an accomplished 
scholar and student, was carried to the market of a Dutch village in a fool's 
coat, and burnt. A minister of the reformed church was ordered to attend the execution 
of sixteen protestants, who re- ceived sentence to be beheaded. This gentleman 
performed the important office with great propriety, exhorted them to repentance, 
and gave them comfort in the mercies of their Redeemer. As soon as the sixteen 
were beheaded, the magistrate cried out to the executioner, "There is another 
remaining stroke yet; you must behead the minister: he can never die at a better 
time than with such excellent precepts in his mouth, and such laudable examples 
before him." He was accordingly beheaded, while many of the Roman Catholics themselves 
reprobated this piece of Page 233 treacherous and wanton barbarism. George Scherter, 
a minister at Saltzburg, was apprehended and committed to prison for instructing 
his flock in the truth of the gospel. While in confinement he wrote a con- fession 
of his faith; soon after which he was condemned, first to be beheaded, and then 
to be burnt to ashes, which sentence was accordingly put in execution. Perceval, 
a learned man of Louviana, was murdered in prison; and Justus Insparg was beheaded 
merely for having Luther's sermons in his possession. A cutler of Brussels, Giles 
Telleman, a man of singular humanity and piety, was apprehended as a protestant, 
and many vain attempts were made by the monks to persuade him to recant. Once, 
by accident, a fair opportunity of escaping from prison offered itself, but of 
which he did not avail himself. Being asked the reason, he replied, "I would not 
do the keepers so much injury, as they must have answered for my absence had I 
escaped." When he was sentenced to be burnt, he fervently thanked God for granting 
him an opportunity by martyrdom to glorify his name. Observing at the place of 
execution a great quantity of fagots, he desired that the principal part of them 
might be given to the poor, saying, "A small quantity will suffice to consume 
me." The executioner offered to strangle him before the fire was lighted, but 
he would not consent, telling him that he defied the flames; and, indeed, he died 
with such composure that he hardly seemed sensible of pain. In Flanders, in the 
year 1543 and 1544, persecutions raged with great violence. Many protestants were 
doomed to perpetual imprisonment, others to final banishment: while most were 
put to death either by hanging, drowning, immuring, burning, the rack, or burying 
alive. John de Boscane, a zealous protestant, was apprehended in the city of Antwerp 
on account of his faith. On his trial he undauntedly professed himself to be of 
the reformed religion, on which he was immediately condemned. The magistrate, 
however, was afraid to execute the sentence publicly, as Boscane was popular through 
his great gener- osity, and almost universally revered for his inoffensive life 
and exemplary piety. A private execution was therefore determined on, and an order 
was given to drown him in prison. The executioner accordingly forced him into 
a large tub; but Boscane struggling, and getting his head above the water, the 
brutal wretch stabbed him in several places with a dagger till he expired. John 
de Boisons was about the same time secretly apprehended. In this city the murder 
of protestants, being great, and the prisoner much respected, the magistrates, 
fearful of an insurrection, ordered him to be beheaded in prison. In the year 
1568 were apprehended at Antwerp, Scoblant, Hues, and Coomans. While under confinement 
they behaved with great fortitude. In an epistle to some protestant brethren they 
expressed themselves in the following words - "Since it is the will of the Almighty 
that we should suffer for his name, and be persecuted for the sake of his gospel, 
we patiently submit, and are joyful upon the occasion: though the flesh may rebel 
against the spirit, and hearken to the council of the old serpent, yet the truths 
of the gospel shall prevent such advice from being taken, and Christ shall bruise 
the serpent's head. We are not comfortless in Page 234 confinement, for we have 
faith; we fear not affliction, for we have hope; and we forgive our enemies, for 
we have charity. Be not alarmed for us, we are happy through the promises of God, 
glory in our bonds, and exult in being thought worthy to suffer for the sake of 
Christ. We desire not to be released, but to be blest with fortitude; we ask not 
liberty, but the power of perseverance; and wish for no change in our condition, 
but that which places a crown of martyrdom upon our heads." If eloquence of sentiment 
and language could have obtained remission or respite, these wise and holy men 
had not suffered: but their foes were as relentless as they were pious and prepared 
for death. The first brought to trial was Scoblant, who, persisting in his faith, 
received sentence of death. On his return to prison, he requested the gaoler not 
to permit any friar to come near him, saying, "They can do me no good, but may 
greatly disturb me. I hope my salvation is already sealed in Heaven, and that 
the blood of Christ, in which I firmly put my tust, hath cleansed me from mine 
iniquities. I am going to throw off this mantle of clay, to be clad in robes of 
eternal glory. I hope I may be the last martyr of papal tyranny, and that the 
blood already spilt will be found sufficient to quench its thirst of cruelty; 
that the church of Christ may have rest here, as his servants will hereafter." 
On the day of execution he took a pathetic leave of his fellow-prisoners. At the 
stake he uttered with great fervency the Lord's prayer, and sung the 40th Psalm: 
he died commending his soul to God. A short time after, Hues died in prison; upon 
which occasion Coomans thus vents his mind to his friends: "I am now deprived 
of my friends and companions. Scoblant is martyred, and Hues dead, by the visitation 
of the Lord; yet I am not alone: I have with me the God of Abraham, of Isaac, 
and of Jacob; he is my comfort, and shall be my reward." At his trial Hues had 
freely confessed himself of the reformed religion, and answered with a manly firmness 
to every charge brought against him, proving his doctrine from the gospel. "And 
will you die for the same faith?" asked the judge of the surviving brother of 
this holy band. "I am not only willing to die," replied Coomans, "but also to 
suffer the utmost stretch of inventive cruelty for it: after which my soul shall 
receive its confirmation from God himself, in the midst of eternal glory." Being 
condemned, he went cheerfully to the place of execution, and died with singular 
christian fortitude and resignation. Baltazar Gerard, a native of Franche Comte, 
a bigoted and furious Roman catholic, thinking to advance his fortune and his 
cause by one desperate act, resolved upon the assassination of the prince of Orange. 
Having provided himself with fire arms, he watched the prince as he passed through 
the great hall of his palace to dinner, and demanded a passport. The princess 
of Orange, observing in his tone of voice and manner something confused and singu- 
lar, asked who he was, saying, she did not like his countenance. The prince answered, 
it was one that demanded a passport which he should presently have. Nothing farther 
transpired till after dinner, when on the return of the prince and princess through 
the same hall, the assassin, from behind one of the pillars, fired at the prince; 
the ball entering at the left side, and passing through the right, wounded in 
its Page 235 passage the stomach and vital parts. The prince had only power to 
say, "Lord, have mercy upon my soul, and upon this poor people," and imme- diately 
expired. The death of this virtuous prince, who was considered the father of his 
people, spread universal sorrow through the United Provinces. The assassin was 
immediately taken, and received sentence to be put to death in the most exemplary 
manner; yet such was his enthusiasm and blindness for his crime, that while suffering 
for it, he cooly said, "Were I at liberty I would repeat the same." The funeral 
of the prince of Orange was the grandest ever seen in the Low Countries, and the 
sorrow for his death perhaps the most sincere that ever attended a royal corpse 
to the tomb. In different parts of Flanders numbers fell victims to popish jealousy 
and cruelty. In the city of Valence, in particular, fifty-seven principal inhabitants 
were butchered in one day, for refusing to embrace the papal superstition; besides 
great numbers who suffered in confinement, and perished through the hardships 
The persecution of Lithuania began in 1648, and were carried on with great severity 
by the Cossacs and Tartars. The cruelty of the Cossacs was such that the Tartars 
at last revolted from it, and rescued some of the intended victims from their 
hands. The Russian troops, perceiving the devastations which had been made in 
the country, and its incapabil- ity of defence, entered it with a considerable 
force, and carried ruin wherever they went. Every thing they met with was devoted 
to destruc- tion. The ministers of the gospel were peculiarly singled out as the 
objects of their hatred, while every Christian was liable to their barbarity. 
Lithuania no sooner recovered itself from one persecution, than succeeding enemies 
again reduced it. The Swedes, the Prussians, and the Courlanders, carried fire 
and sword through it, and continual calamities for some years attended that unhappy 
district. It was after- wards attacked by the prince of Transylvania, who had 
in his army, exclusive of his own people, Hungarians, Moldavians, Servians, and 
Walachians. These, as far as they penetrated, wasted the country, destroyed the 
churches, rifled the nobility, burnt the houses, villages, and towns, murdering 
all classes of the inhabitants without distinction or mercy. One divine, writing 
an account of the misfortunes in Lithua- nia, in the seventeenth century, uses 
this sympathetic language: "In consideration of these extremities, we cannot but 
adore the judgment of God poured upon us for our sins, and deplore our sad condition. 
Let us hope for a deliverance through his mercy, and wish for restitution in his 
benevolence. Though we are brought low, though we are wasted, troubled, and terrified, 
yet his compassion is greater than our calamities, and his goodness superior to 
our afflictions. Our neighbours Page 236 hate us at present, as much as our more 
distant enemies did before: they persecute the remnant of us who are left, deprive 
us of our few churches, banish our preachers, abuse our schoolmasters, treat us 
with contempt, and oppress us in the most degraded manner. In all our afflictions 
the truth of the gospel shone among us, and gave us comfort; and we only wished 
for the grace of Jesus Christ, not only to ourselves, but to soften the hearts 
of our enemies, and excite the sympathy of our fellow Christians." In no part 
have the followers of Christ been exempt from the rage and bitterness of their 
enemies; and well have they experienced the force of those scripture truths, that, 
"they who will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution," and those 
who are born after the flesh have always been enemies to such as are born after 
the spirit. Accordingly the protestants of Poland suffered in a dread- ful manner. 
The ministers especially were treated with the most unexampled barbarism: some 
having their tongues cut out because they had preached the gospel of salvation; 
others being deprived of their sight on account of having read the Bible; and 
great numbers were cut to pieces for avowing their resolution not to recant. Several 
persons were privately put to death by various methods; the most cruel being usually 
preferred. Women were murdered without the least regard to their sex; and some 
persecutors went so far as to cut off the heads of sucking babes, and fasten them 
to the breasts of their unfortunate mothers! Even the habitations of the dead 
escaped not the malice of these hard- ened men; for they sacrilegiously exhumed 
the bodies of many eminent persons, and either cut them to pieces and exposed 
them to be devoured by birds and beasts, or hung them up in the most conspicuous 
places for public derision. The city of Lesna particularly suffered at this period: 
on its being captured the inhabitants were exiled or exterminated without remorse. 
of the sixteenth century, three Italian missiona- ries, Roger the Neapolitan, 
Pasis of Bologne, and Matthew Ricci of Mazerata, entered China with a view of 
establishing Christianity in that vast empire. In order to succeed in this important 
commission they had previously made the Chinese language their constant study. 
The zeal displayed by these missionaries in the discharge of their undertaking 
was very great; but Roger and Pasis in a few years returning to Europe, the whole 
labour devolved upon Ricci. His perseverance was singly proportioned to the arduous 
task he had in hand. Though disposed to indulge his converts as far as possible, 
he was reluctant to allow those ceremonies which seemed idolatrous. At length, 
after eighteen years labour and reflection, he began to soften his opinion, and 
tolerated all those customs which were ordered by the laws of the empire, but 
strictly enjoined his converts to omit the rest; and thus, by not resisting too 
Page 237 much, he succeeded in bringing over many Chinese to the truth. In 1630, 
however, his tranquility was disturbed by the arrival of some new mis- sionaries; 
who, being unacquainted with the Chinese customs, manners, and language, and with 
the limited extent of Ricci's toleration, were astonished when they saw christian 
converts fall prostrate before Confucius and the tables of their ancestors, and 
accordingly exclaimed against the inconsistency. This occasioned a warm controversy 
between Ricci, seconded by his converts, and the new missionaries; and not coming 
to any agreement, the latter wrote an account of the affair to the pope, and the 
society for the propagation of the christian faith. They soon pronounced that 
the ceremonies were idolatrous and intoler- able, and the sentence was confirmed 
by the papal seal. In this both the society and the pope were excusable, the matter 
having been misrepre- BACK GO