Foxe's Book of Martyrs-- Part  Three

that the people of Christ know no gospel but the pope's; and so the blind 
lead the blind, and both fall into the pit. In the true gospel of Christ, confidence 
is none; but only in your popish traditions and fantastical inventions." Then 
said a black friar to him, (God knoweth, a blockhead,) "do we not preach the gospel 
daily?" "Yes," said he; "but what preaching of the gospel is that when you extol 
superstitious things, and make us believe that we have redemption through pardons 
and bulls from Rome, a poena et culpa, as ye term it; and by the merits of your 
orders ye make many brethren and sisters, ye take yearly money of them, ye bury 
them in your coats, and in shrift ye beguile them: yea, and do a thousand superstitious 
things more; a man may be weary to speak of them." "I see," said the friar, "thou 
art a damned wretch; I will have no more talk with thee." Then stepped to him 
a grey friar, a doctor, (God knoweth, of small intelligence,) and laid before 
him great and many dangers. "I take God to record," said Benet, "my life is not 
dear to me; I am content to depart from it, for I am weary of it, seeing your 
detestable doings, to the utter destruction of God"s flock; and, for my part, 
I can no longer forbear. I had rather by death, which I know is not far off, depart 
this life, that I may no longer be witness of your idolatries, or be subject to 
antichrist, your pope." "Our pope," said the friar, "is the vicar of God, and 
our ways are the ways of God." "I pray you," said Benet, "depart from me, and 
tell not me of your ways. He is my only way who saith, 'I am the way, the truth, 
and the life.' In this way will I walk, his doings shall be my example, not yours, 
nor your false pope's. His PAGE 476 truth will I embrace; not the lies and falsehood 
of you and your pope. His everlasting life will I seek, the true reward of all 
faithful peo- ple. Away from me, I pray you. Vex my soul no longer; ye shall not 
prevail. There is no good example in you, no truth in you, no life to be hoped 
for at your hands. Ye are all more vain than vanity itself. If I should hear and 
follow you this day, everlasting death would hang over me, a just reward for all 
them that love the life of this world. Away from me: your company liketh me not." 
Never was confessor more to be admired for wisdom and courage, purity and truth, 
than this holy man. Well might such a mind and conscience be wearied with the 
blasphemies of his subtle adversaries. Yet did they continue to cast at him the 
venom of their poisoned tongue, and the arrows of their bitter words - thus through 
a whole week, night and day, was he harassed by these hypo- crites. It were an 
infinite matter to declare all things done and said to him in the time of his 
imprisonment; and the hate of the people that time, by means of ignorance, was 
hot against him: notwithstanding they could never move his patience; he answered 
to every matter soberly, and that more by the aid of God's Spirit than by any 
worldly study. He was at least fifty years old. Being in prison, his wife provided 
sustenance for him; and when she lamented, he comforted her, and gave her many 
godly exhortations, praying her to move him not to apply to his adver- saries 
for the least favour. His enemies at length, finding both their threats and their 
persuasions equally useless, proceeded to judgment, and condemned him to the flames; 
which being done, and the writ which they had procured being brought from London, 
they delivered him the fifteenth of January, 1531, unto Sir Thomas Denis, knight, 
then sheriff of Devonshire, to be burned. The mild martyr rejoicing that his end 
approached so near, as the sheep before the shearer, yielded himself, with all 
humbleness, to abide and suffer the cross of persecution. Being brought to his 
execution, in a place called Livery-dole, without Exeter, he made his humble confession 
and prayer unto Almighty God, and request- ed all the people to do the like for 
him, exhorting them, at the same time, with such gravity and sobriety, and with 
such an impressive ora- tion, to seek the true honouring of God, and the true 
knowledge of him; as also to leave the imaginations of man's inventions, that 
all the hearers were astonished and in great admiration: insomuch, that most of 
them, as also the scribe who wrote the sentence of condemnation against him, confessed 
that he was God's servant, and a good man. Two esquires, namely, Thomas Carew 
and John Barnehouse, standing at the stake by him, first with fair promises and 
goodly words, but at length through threa- tenings, required him to revoke his 
errors, to call to our lady and the saints, and to say, Precor sanctam Mariam, 
et omnes sanctos Dei. To them he with all meekness, answered, saying, "No, no; 
it is God only upon whose name we must call, and we have no advocate with him 
but Jesus Christ, who died for us, and now sitteth at the right hand of the Father 
to intercede for us. By him must we offer and make our prayers to God, if we will 
have them to take place and be heard." With this answer Barnehouse was so enraged, 
that he took a furze-bush upon a pike, and PAGE 477 setting it on fire, thrust 
it into his face, saying, "Heretic, pray to our Lady, and say, Sancta Maria, ora 
pro nobis, or by God's wounds I will make thee do it." To whom the said Thomas 
Benet, with an humble and a meek spirit, most patiently answered, "Alas, sir! 
trouble me not." And holding up his hands, he said, Pater! ignosce illis. Whereupon 
the gentlemen caused the wood and furze to be set on fire, and therewith this 
godly man lifted up his eyes and hands to heaven, saying, O Domine! recipe spiritum 
meum. And so, continuing in his prayers, most patiently abode the cruelty of the 
fire, until his life was ended. For this the Lord God be praised, and send us 
his grace and blessing, that at the latter day we may with him enjoy the bliss 
and joy prepared for the elect children of God. At his burning, such was the rage 
of the blind people, that well was he that could cast a stick into the fire. In 
the year 1511, a severe persecution took place in the county of Kent, under Warham, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and five were committed to the flames. These were William 
Carder, of Tenterden; Agnes Grebil, of Tenterden, aged sixty years; Robert Harrison, 
of Halden, of the same age; John Browne, of Ashford; and Edward Walker, of Maidstone, 
cutler. The wit- nesses against Agnes Grebil were her husband and her two sons 
- all of whom had abjured, and, instigated by base fear, sacrificed the life of 
the unhappy woman to preserve their own. This may be a proper place for a few 
remarks on the laws of that day, as they affected different of- fenders, extracted 
from the register of the said William Warham, arch- bishop of Canterbury. It is 
first to be noted, that the catholic fathers, in their processes of heretical 
depravity, had three distinct kinds of judgments and proceeding. One class of 
offences required the offenders to be burned, that, others being brought into 
terror, they might therefore more quietly maintain their power. The persons thus 
condemned consisted of either such as had before abjured, and fallen again into 
relapse; or else such as stood constantly in their doctrine, and refused to abjure; 
or such as they intended to make a terror and example, notwithstanding their willingness 
to submit themselves, and to abjure. Against the last, the process used was this: 
First, after they are suspected by some promoter, they are denounced and cited; 
then by virtue of inquisition they are taken, and confined fast in irons in prison. 
Then they are brought forth for examination, if they be not dead by famine, cold, 
or straitness of the prison. Then be articles drawn, or rather wrested, out of 
their writings or preachings, and they put to their oath, to answer truly to every 
point and circumstance against them; which articles if they seem to deny, or solve 
by true expounding the articles, then are witnesses called in and admitted, what 
witnesses soever they are, be they never so infamous, usurers, ribalds, women, 
yea, and common harlots. Or, if no other witnesses can be found, then is the husband 
brought in and forced to swear against the wife, or the wife against the husband, 
or the children against the mother, as in the example of Agnes Grebil. Or, if 
no such witness at all can be found, then are they strained upon the rack, or 
by other bitter torments forced to confess their knowledge, and to impeach others. 
Neither must any be suffered to come to them, what need soever they have; neither 
must any public or private audience be given them to speak for themselves; till 
at last sentence be read against them, to give them up to the secular PAGE 478 
arm, or to degrade them, if they be priests, and so to burn them. Yet the malignity 
of these persecutors doth not here cease. For after the fire hath consumed their 
bodies, then they fall upon their books, and condemn them to be burned; and no 
man must be so hardy as to read them, or keep them, under pain of heresy. But 
before they have abolished these books, they gather articles out of them, such 
as they list themselves, and so perversely wrest them after their own purpose, 
contrary to the meaning of the author. This done, and the books abolished, that 
no man may compare them, and espy their falsehood, they publish those extracts 
which they have so carefully perverted. To the second order belonged that sort 
of heretics whom the papists condemned not to death, but assigned them to monasteries, 
there to continue, and to fast all their life, in pane doloris, et aqua angustice, 
with bread of sorrow, and water of affliction; and that they should not remove 
one mile out of the precinct of the monastery so long as they lived, unless they 
were by the archbishop himself or his successors dispensed withal. Frequently, 
however, the said persons were so dispensed withal that their penance of bread 
and water was confined only to Wednesdays and Fridays, or some similar punishment. 
The third class of heretics were those whom they did not judge to perpetual prison, 
but only enjoined them penance, either to stand before the preacher, or else to 
bear a fagot about the market, or in procession; or else to wear the picture of 
a fagot bor- dered on their left sleeves, without any cloak or gown upon it; or 
else to kneel at the saying of certain masses, or to say so many pater nosters, 
to such or such a saint; or to go in pilgrimage to such or such a place; or to 
bear a fagot to the burning of some heretic; or to fast certain Fridays on bread 
and water. In the year of our Lord 1539, John, a painter, and Giles German, were 
accused of heresy; and whilst they were in examination in London before the bishop 
and other judges, by chance there came in one of the king's servants, named Launcelot, 
a very tall man, and of no less godly mind and disposition, than strong and tall 
of body. This man standing by, seemed by his countenance and ges- ture, to favour 
the cause of the poor men as though they were his friends. Whereupon, being apprehended, 
he was examined and condemned together with them; and the next day, at five o'clock 
in the morning, they were all carried into St. Giles' Fields, and there burned. 
There was but a small company of people at their death; yet they behaved with 
remarkable firmness, and spoke to the few around them with a pious fidelity, exhorting 
them to embrace suffering rather than idolatry and sin. In the company and fellowship 
of those blessed saints and martyrs of Christ, who innocently suffered, and were 
burned in Smithfield about the latter end of Cuthbert Tontstal's time, bishop 
of London, was one called Stile, as is credibly reported to us by Sir Robert Outred, 
who was present at his martyrdom, and an eye witness of the same. With him there 
was burned also a book of the Apocalypse, which he was wont to read. This book 
when he saw fastened unto the stake to be burned with him, lifting up his voice 
he exclaimed, "O blessed Apocalypse! how happy am I that I shall be burned with 
thee!" And so this good man and the PAGE 479 blessed Apocalypse were both together 
consumed in the same fire, whereas nothing could consume the spirit of either. 
As Gardiner and other bishops set on King Henry against Anne Askew and her fellow 
martyrs, so Dr. Repse, bishop of Norwich, incited no less the old duke of Norfolk 
against one Rogers, in the county of Norfolk; who, much about the same year and 
time, was there condemned, and suffered martyrdom for the six articles. This martyr 
must be distinguished from the clergy of his name, one of the earliest victims 
of Mary's cruelty; though in christian courage he almost equalled his well known 
namesake and successor in suffering. A certain priest, passing down to Gravesend 
in the common barge about this time, where one Brown was amongst other passengers, 
and disdaining that he should sit so near him in the barge, began to swell against 
him. At length bursting forth in his priestly voice and disdain- ful countenance, 
he asked him, "Dost thou know who I am? Thou sittest too near me, and sittest 
on my clothes." "No sir," said the other, "I know not who or what you are." "I 
tell thee," quoth he, "I am a priest." "What, sir, are you a parson or vicar, 
or some lady's chaplain?" asked Brown. "No, I am a soul priest, I sing for a soul," 
replied he. "Do you so, Sir," said Brown; "that is well done. I pray you, Sir, 
where find you the soul when you go to mass?" "I cannot tell thee," said the pri- 
est. "You cannot tell me where you find it when you go to mass, nor where you 
leave it when the mass is done; how can you then save the soul?" inquired Brown. 
"Go thy ways," said the priest, "I perceive thou art a heretic, and I will even 
be with thee." And he kept his word, for at the landing, the priest taking with 
him Walter and William More, two gentlemen and brethren, rode straight to archbishop 
Warham. John Brown, within three days after, was sent for by the archbishop. The 
messengers came suddenly into his house on the same day on which his wife was 
churched, and just as he was bringing in a mess of pottage to the serv- ing his 
guest: and laying hands upon him, they set him upon his own horse, and binding 
his feet under the belly of the beast, carried him away to Canterbury - neither 
he, nor his wife, nor any of his friends knowing whither they went - and there 
was kept the space of forty days. During this long captivity, when he was thought 
to be lost, the arch- bishop caused his bare feet to be set on hot burning coals, 
to make him deny his faith; which, notwithstanding, he would not do, but patiently 
abiding the pain, continued in the Lord's cause unshaken. At length, after this 
cruelty, he was, on Friday before Whitsunday, sent to Ash- ford, where he dwelt, 
the next day to be burned, his wife being all the time ignorant of what happened. 
However, just after he was brought to the town over night to be set in the stocks, 
it happened, as God would have it, that a young maid of his house came by, and 
seeing her master, ran home and told her mistress. Her consternation may be imagined, 
when coming to him, and finding him in the stocks, appointed to be burned the 
next morning: she sat by him all night long. To whom he of course declared the 
whole story, or rather tragedy, how he had been handled, PAGE 480 and how his 
feet were burned to the bones by the archbishop of Canter- bury and bishop of 
Rochester, that he could not set them upon the ground, and all to make him deny 
his Lord, which he would never do - "for should I deny him in this world," he 
said, "he would deny me here- after: therefore, I pray thee, good Elizabeth, continue 
as thou hast begun, and bring up thy children virtuously in the fear of God. The 
next day, being Whitsun-eve, this godly martyr was burned. Standing at the stake, 
he uttered this prayer, lifting up his hands and eyes to heaven:- I yield, O Lord, 
unto thy grace, O, let thy mercy crown my race, Let not the fiend my soul pursue, 
When death is near, and just in view; But while by envious foes I'm driv'n, Save 
me from hell, and give me Heaven." William Tindall, or Tyndale, although he did 
not suffer in England, ought to be ranked with the martyrs of our country, of 
which, from his great zeal, perseverance, and dispersing of truth, he may properly 
be esteemed the apostle. Though he went to heaven from a foreign land, he came 
on earth in the land of the ancient Britons. He was born on the borders of Wales, 
and brought up from a child in the university of Oxford, where, by long continuance, 
he grew and increased as well in knowledge of tongues and other liberal arts, 
as in the knowledge of the scriptures, whereunto his mind was singularly addicted; 
insomuch, that lying then in Magdalen-hall, he read privily to certain of the 
students and fellows of that college, some parcel of divinity; instructing them 
in the knowledge and truth of the scriptures; and all that knew him reputed and 
esteemed him to be a man of most virtuous disposition, and of unspotted life. 
Having remained some time at Oxford, he removed to the other university of Cambridge, 
where, after making great progress in his studies, he quitted, went to Gloucestershire, 
and engaged himself to a knight, named Welch, as tutor of his children. To this 
gentleman's hospitable table used to resort several abbots, deans, and other bene- 
ficed men, with whom Tindall used to converse and talk of learned men, particularly 
of Luther and Erasmus; examining also many questions rela- tive to the scriptures. 
Being learned and practised in religion, he spared not to avow unto them simply 
his opinions; and if they objected to his reasonings, he would shew them the book, 
and lay plainly before them the open and manifest places of the scriptures, to 
confute their errors, and confirm his sayings. And thus continued they for a certain 
season, reasoning and contending together, till at length they became envious, 
and bore a secret grudge in their hearts against him. Not long after this it happened 
that certain of these great doctors invited Mr. Welch and his wife to a banquet, 
where they spoke to him without the fear of contradiction, uttering their blindness 
and ignorance. Then Welch and his wife coming home, and calling for Mr. Tindall, 
began to reason with him about those matters; when Tindall as usual, answered 
by scripture, maintained the truth, and reproved their false opinions. Then said 
the lady Welch, a stout and wise woman, "Well there was such a PAGE 481 doctor 
who spent a hundred, another two hundred, and another three hundred pounds: and 
were it reason, think you, that we should believe you before them?" Tindall gave 
her no answer at the time; and after that, because he saw it would not avail, 
he talked but little in those matters. However, he was about the translation of 
a book called Enchiri- dion militis Christiani, written by Erasmus, which, being 
finished, he delivered to his master and lady. After they had read and well perused 
the same, the doctorly prelates were not so often called to the house, neither 
had they the cheer and countenance when they came as before. This they well perceiving, 
and supposing that it came by the means of Tindall, refrained themselves, and 
at last utterly withdrew from the house. As this grew on, the priests of the country 
clustered together, and began to storm upon Tindall, railing against him in ale-houses, 
and other places. Tindall himself, in his prologue to the first book of Moses, 
testifieth, that he "suffered much in that country by a sort of unlearned priests, 
being rude and ignorant, as God knoweth; who have seen no more Latin than that 
only which they read in their portueses and missals; which yet many of them can 
scarcely read, except it be Alber- tus, de secretis mulierum; in which yet, though 
they be never so sorrily learned, they pore day and night, and make notes therein, 
to assist the midwives, as they say; and also another called Lindwood, a book 
of constitutions to gather tithes, mortuaries, offerings, customs, and other pillage, 
which they call not theirs, but God's part - the duty of holy church, to discharge 
their consciences withal. For they are bound that they shall not diminish but 
increase all things unto the uttermost of their powers, which pertain to holy 
church." Thus these blind and rude priests flocking together to the ale-house, 
their preaching-place, railed against him, affirming that his sayings were heresy; 
adding, moreover, unto his saying of their own heads, and so accused him secret- 
ly to the chancellor, and other of the bishop's officers. It followed not long 
after this, that there was a sitting of the bishop's chancellor appointed, and 
warning was given to the priests to appear against Tin- dall. Whether he had any 
misdoubt by their threatenings, or knowledge given him that they would lay some 
things to his charge, it is uncer- tain; but certain it is that he doubted their 
privy accusations; so that he, by the way, in going thitherwards, cried in his 
mind heartily to God, to give him strength to stand in the truth of his word. 
When the time came for his appearance before the chancellor, he threatened him 
grievously, reviling and rating at him as though he had been a dog, and laid to 
his charge many things whereof no accuser could be brought forth, notwithstanding 
the priests of the country were there present. And thus did Tindall escape out 
of their hands, and returned home. There dwelt not far off a certain doctor, named 
Mummuth, who had been formerly chancellor to a bishop, and who had been an old 
familiar ac- quaintance with Tindall, and favoured him well. Unto him Tindall 
went, and opened his mind upon divers questions of the Scripture: for to him he 
durst be bold to disclose his heart. After some discourse, the doctor said, "Do 
you not know that the pope is the very antichrist whom the PAGE 482 Scripture 
speaketh of? but beware what you say; for if you be perceived of that opinion, 
it will cost you your life; I have been an officer of his; but I have given it 
up, and defy him and all his works." Soon after, Tindall happened to be in company 
of a certain divine, accounted a learned man, and in communing and disputing with 
him, he drove him to that issue, that the great doctor burst out into these blasphemous 
words, "We were better to be without God's laws than the pope's." Tin- dall hearing 
this, full of godly zeal, and not bearing that blasphemous saying, replied, "I 
defy the pope, and all his laws:" and added, that if God spared him life, ere 
many years, he would cause a boy that driveth the plough to know more of the Scripture 
than he did. The grudge of the priests now increased more against Tindall, they 
never ceased barking at him, and laid many things to his charge, saying that he 
was a heretic in sophistry, in logic, and in divinity; moreover, that he bare 
himself boldly to the gentleman in that country; but notwithstanding, shortly 
he should be otherwise talked withal. To whom Tindall said, that he was contented 
they should bring him into any county in England, giving him ten pounds a year 
to live with, and binding him to no more but to teach children, and to preach 
the gospel of Christ. At length being so mo- lested and vexed by the priests, 
he was constrained to leave that coun- try, and to seek another place; and coming 
to Mr. Welch, he requested his permission to depart, saying, "Sir, I perceive 
that I shall not be suffered to tarry long in this country, neither shall you 
be able, though you would, to keep me out of the hands of the spirituality; and 
also what displeasure might grow thereby to you by keeping me, God knoweth, for 
the which I should be sorry." He accordingly departed, came up to London, and 
there preached awhile as he had done in the country before, and especially about 
the city of Bristol. At length bethinking himself of Tonstal, then bishop of London, 
and especially for his great commendation of Erasmus, who in his annotations so 
extolleth him for his learning, thus cast with himself, that if he might attain 
unto his service, he were a happy man. Coming to Sir Henry Gilford, the king's 
comptroller, and bringing with him an oration of Isocrates, which he had then 
translated from the Greek, he desired him to speak to the bishop for him; which 
he did, and willed him moreover to write to the bishop, and accompany him. Thus 
he did and delivered his epistle to a servant. But God, who secretly disposeth 
the order of things, saw that was not the best for Tindall's purpose, nor for 
the profit of his church, and therefore gave him to find little favour in the 
bishop's sight, who said, that his house was full, he had more than he could well 
find, and advised him to seek about in London, where he said he could lack no 
service. He therefore remained in London almost a year, marking with himself the 
course of the world, and especially the demeanour of the preachers, how they boasted 
themselves, and set up their authority and kingdom; also the pomp of the prelates, 
with other things more which greatly vexed him. Soon he understood, not only there 
to be no room in the bishop's house for him to translate the New Testament, but 
also no place to do it in all England. And therefore, having some aid by God's 
PAGE 483 providence from his friend Humphrey Mummuth, and other good men, he took 
his leave of the realm, and departed to Germany. There, being inflamed with a 
tender care and zeal of his country, he studied how by all means possible to bring 
his countrymen to the same taste and understanding of God's holy word and verity, 
which the Lord had endued him withal. He perceived that the principal cause of 
the people's blindness, and of the gross errors of the church, with all their 
evils, was the scriptures being concealed in an unknown tongue, by which the truth 
was kept out of sight, and the corruptions of the priests remained undetected. 
No wonder therefore all their labour was with might and main to keep it down, 
so that either it should not be read at all, or if it were, they would darken 
the right sense with the mist of the sophistry, and so entangle those who rebuked 
or despised their abominations, with arguments of philosophy, worldly similitudes, 
apparent reasons of natural wisdom; and with wresting the Scripture unto their 
own purpose, that they would so delude, and amaze them, expounding it in many 
senses, laid before the unlearned lay people, that though they were sure that 
all were false, yet could none solve their subtle riddles. These and other considera- 
tions moved this good man, who was no doubt stirred up of God, to trans- late 
the scripture into his mother tongue, for the utility and profit of the simple 
people of the country. He first began with the New Testament, which he translated 
about the year 1527. After that he took in hand the old Testament, finishing the 
five books of Moses, with sundry learned and godly prefaces prefixed before every 
one, which he also did before the New Testament. Nor was he content with translating 
scripture: he also wrote divers other works under sundry titles, amongst which 
was, "The obedience of a Christian man," wherein with singular dexterity he instructed 
all men in the office and duty of Christian obedience, with several other treatises, 
as, "The wicked Mammon - The practice of pre- lates;" with expositions upon certain 
parts of the Scripture, and other books also, answering Sir Thomas More and other 
adversaries of the truth. His books being compiled, published, and sent over to 
England, it is past description what a door of light they opened to the eyes of 
the whole nation, which before were many years shut up in darkness. At his first 
departure, he had taken his journey into the further parts of Germany, to Saxony, 
where he had conference with Luther, and other learned men in those quarters, 
whence, after he had continued a season, he came down into the Netherlands, and 
resided mostly in the town of Antwerp. His several publications, especially the 
New Testament, after they came into men's hands, wrought singular profit to the 
godly, while ungodly priests, envying and disdaining that the people should be 
wiser than they, fearing lest by the shining beams of truth, their hypocrisy and 
works of darkness should be discerned, took great offence; as at the birth of 
Christ, Herod and all Jerusalem were troubled with him. An accident befel our 
zealous and persevering martyr, which occasioned a considerable delay. Having 
finished the five books of Moses, he set sail to Hamburgh intending to print them 
there. But, on his voyage, he was shipwrecked and lost all his manuscripts, with 
almost all he possessed. PAGE 484 He, however, in another vessel, pursued his 
voyage, and arriving at Hamburgh, where at his appointment, Mr. Coverdal tarried 
for him, and helped him in translating the whole five books of Moses, from Easter 
till December, in the house of Miss Margaret Van Emmerson, anno 1529. Having dispatched 
his business, he returned to Antwerp again. When God's will was that the New Testament 
in the common tongue should come abroad, Tindall added at the end a letter, wherein 
he desired the learned to amend ought they found amiss. But the fathers of the 
clergy, not willing to have that book to prosper, cried out against it, that there 
were a thousand heresies in it, and that it was not to be correct- ed, but utterly 
suppressed. Some said it was impossible to translate the Scripture into English; 
others, that it was not lawful for the laity to have it in their mother-tongue; 
some that it would make them all heret- ics. To induce the temporal rulers also 
unto their purpose, they said that it would make the people rebel and rise against 
the king. All this Tindall himself declared, shewing moreover its truth; while 
they scanned and examined every tittle and point in the translation so narrowly, 
that there was not one letter therein, but if it lacked a perfect form, they did 
note it, and numbered it unto the ignorant people for a heresy. So great were 
then the forward devices of the English clergy, to drive the people from the text 
and knowledge of the Scripture, which they would neither translate themselves, 
nor yet suffer it to be translated by others. The bishops and prelates of the 
realm, thus incensed and inflamed in their minds, and conspiring together with 
their councils, how to repeal the cause of their alarm, never rested till they 
had brought the king at last to their consent. By reason whereof, a procla- mation 
in all haste was devised and set forth under public authority, but no just reason 
shewed, that the Testament of Tindall's translation, with other works both of 
his and of other writers, were prohibited and denounced. This was about the year 
1527. Not contented herewith, they proceeded further, how to entangle him in their 
nets, and to bereave him of his life. The means they employed to ensnare him were 
these. In the registers of London it appeareth that the bishops and Sir Thomas 
More brought several poor men to be examined before them, namely, such as had 
been at Antwerp: most studiously would they search and examine all things belonging 
to Tindall, where and with whom he hosted, where stood the house, what was his 
stature, in what apparel he went, what resort he had. All these things when they 
had diligently learned, as appeared by the examination of Simon Smith and others, 
then began they to work their works of darkness. Tindall being in the city of 
Antwerp, had lodged about a year in the house of Thomas Pointz, an Englishman, 
who kept there an hostel of English merchants, when there arrived thither out 
of Engalnd, Henry Philips, his father being customer of Pool, a comely fellow, 
and in appearance a gentleman, having a servant with him; but wherefore he came, 
or for what purpose he was sent thither, no man could tell, unless it was for 
the work of darkness already mentioned. Tindall was frequently invited to dinner 
and supper amongst merchants; by the means whereof this Henry Philips became acquainted 
with him, so that in PAGE 485 a short space Tindall conceived a great friendship 
and confidence for him, brought him to his lodging to the house of Thomas Pointz, 
had him once or twice to dinner and supper, and further entered into such friendship 
with him, that through his interest he lodged in the house of Pointz. He also 
shewed him his books and other secrets of his study, so little did Tindall then 
mistrust this traitor. Pointz having no great confidence in the fellow, asked 
Tindall how he came acquainted with him, who answered, that he was an honest man, 
tolerably learned, and very agreeable. Pointz, perceiving that he bare such favour 
to him, said no more, thinking that he was brought acquainted with him by some 
friend of his. Philips being in the city three or four days upon a time, desired 
Pointz to walk with him forth of the town to shew him the commodities thereof; 
and in walking together without the town, had communication of divers things, 
and some of the king's affairs; by which talk Pointz as yet suspected nothing, 
but by the sequel he perceived more what he intended. In the mean time he learned, 
that he bare no great favour either to the setting forth of any good thing, or 
to the proceedings of the king of England, and perceived about him a deal of mystery, 
and a sort of courting him to make him subservient to his design, by the hopes 
of reward, he always appearing very full of money: but Pointz kept at a distance 
from all bribery. So Philips went from Antwerp to the court of Brussels, which 
is from thence twenty-four English miles, the king having there no amabassador; 
for at that time the king of England and the emperor were at a controversy, for 
the question betwixt Henry and the lady Katharine. Philips, as traitor both against 
God and the king, was there the better retained, as also other traitors more besides 
him; and after he had betrayed Mr. Tindall into their hands, shewed himself likewise 
against the king's own person. To make short, the said Philips did so much there, 
that he procured to bring from thence with him to Antwerp, that procurator-general, 
who is the emperor's attorney, with certain other officers; which was not done 
with small charges and ex- penses, from whomsoever it came. Sometime after, Pointz 
sitting at his door, Philips' servant came unto him, and asked whether Mr. Tindall 
were there, and said, his master would come to him, and so departed. Whether his 
master Philips were in the town or not, it was not known; but at that time Pointz 
heard no more, neither of the master nor of the man. Within three or four days 
after, Pointz went on businessto the town of Barrow, eighteen English miles from 
Antwerp, and in his absence Philips came again to Antwerp to the house of Pointz, 
and coming in, spake with his wife, asking her for Mr. Tindall, and whether he 
would dine there with him, saying, "What good meat shall we have?" She answered, 
"Such as the market will give." Then went he forth as though he would purchase 
food, and set the officers which he brought with him from Brussels in the street 
and about the door. About noon he returned, went to Mr. Tindall, and desired him 
to lend him forty shillings; for, said he, I lost my purse this morning, coming 
over at the passage between this and Mechlin. Tindall took him forty shillings, 
the which was easy to be had of him, if he had it, for in the wily subtilties 
of this world he was PAGE 486 simple and unexpert. Then said Philips, "Mr. Tindall, 
you shall be my guest here to-day." "No," said Tindall, "I am engaged this day 
to din- ner, and you shall go with me, and be my guest, where you shall be welcome." 
So when it was dinner time they went. At the going out of Pointz' house, was a 
long narrow entry, so that two could not go in front. Tindall would have put Philips 
before him, but Philips would in no wise, but insisted on Tindall's going before. 
So Tindall, being a man of no great stature, went before, and Philips a tall and 
comely person, followed behind him. He had set officers on either side of the 
door upon two seats, who might see who came in the entry; and on coming through, 
Philips pointed with his finger over Tindall's head down to him, that the officers 
which sate at the door might see that it was he whom they should take, as the 
officers themselves afterwards told Pointz, and said, that when they had laid 
him in prison, they pitied his simplicity when they took him. Then they seized 
him and brought him to the emper- or's procurator-general, where he dined. Then 
came the procurator- general to the house of Pointz and sent away all that was 
there of Mr. Tindall's, as well his books as other things, and from thence Tindall 
was had to the castle of Filford, eighteen miles from Antwerp, where he remained 
until he was put to death. By the help of English merchants, letters were sent 
in favour of Tindall to the court of Brussels. Also, not long after, letters were 
directed from England to the council at Brussels, and sent to the merchant adventurers 
to Antwerp, commending them to see that with speed they should be delivered. Then 
such of the chief of the merchants as were there at that time, being called togeth- 
er, required Pointz to take in hand the delivery of those letters, with letters 
also from them in favour of Tindall to the lord of Barrois and others. This lord, 
as it was told Pointz by the way, at that time had parted from Brussels, as the 
chief conductor of the eldest daughter of the king of Denmark, to be married to 
the palesgrave, whose mother was sister to the emperor, she being chief princess 
of Denmark. After he heard of his departure, he rode the same way, and overtook 
him at Achon, where he delivered to him his letters. When he had received and 
read them, he made no direct answer, by somewhat objecting, said - There were 
of their countrymen who had been burned in England not long before; as indeed 
there were Anabaptists burned in Smithfield: and so Pointz said to him, "Howbeit, 
whatsoever the crime was, if his lordship or any other nobleman had written, requiring 
to have had them, he thought they should not have been denied." "Well," said he, 
"I have no leisure to write, for the princess is ready to ride." Then said Pointz, 
"If it please your lordship, I will attend upon you unto the next baiting place," 
which was at Maestricht. "If you will," said the lord, "I will advise myself by 
the way what to write." Upon this, Pointz followed him from Achon to Maestricht, 
which are fifteen English miles asunder; and there he re- ceived letters of him, 
one to the council there, another to the company of the merchant adventurers, 
and another also to the lord Cromwell in England. So Pointz rode from thence to 
Brussels, and then and there delivered to the council the letters from England, 
with the lord of PAGE 487 Barrow's letters also, and received answers from England 
of the same by letters, which he brought to Antwerp to the English merchants, 
who required him to go with them into England. He very desirous to have Mr. Tindall 
out of prison, forbore no pains, nor regarded the loss of time in his own business, 
but diligently followed with the said letters, which he there delivered to the 
council, and was commanded to wait until he had others, of which he was not dispatched 
thence till a month after. At length the letters being delivered him, he returned 
again, and deliv- ered them to the emperor's council at Brussels, and there tarried 
for answer of the same. After he had impatiently and fearfully remained three 
or four days, he was told by one that belonged to the chancery, that Tindall should 
have been delivered to him according to the tenor of the letters; but Philips 
being there, followed the suit against Tindall, and hearing that he should be 
delivered to Pointz, and doubting lest he should be put from his purpose, he knew 
no other remedy but to accuse Pointz, saying, that he was a dweller in the town 
of Antwerp, and had been a succourer of Tindall, and was one of the same opinion; 
and that all this was only his own labour and suit, to have Master Tindall at 
liberty, and no man's else. Thus upon his information and accusation, Pointz was 
attached by the procurator-general, the emperor's attorney, delivered to the keeping 
of two sergeants at arms; and the same evening was sent to him one of the chancery, 
with the procurator-general, who ministered an oath, that he should truly make 
answer to all such things as should be inquired of him, thinking they would have 
no other examina- tions of him but of his own message. The next day they came 
again, and had him in examination, and so five or six days successively, upon 
more than an hundred articles, as well of the king's affairs as of the mes- sages 
concerning Tindall, of his aiders and his religion. Out of these examinations, 
the procurator-general drew twenty-three or four articles, and declared the same 
against Pointz, the copy whereof he delivered to him to make answer thereunto, 
and permitted him to have an advocate and proctor in the law for his defence; 
and order was taken, that eight days after he should deliver unto them his answer, 
and from eight days to eight days to proceed till the process was ended. Also 
that he should send no messenger to Antwerp, where his house was, although only 
twenty- four English miles from Brussels, where he was now a prisoner; nor to 
any other place but by the post of Brussels; nor to send any letters, nor any 
to be delivered to him, but such as were written in Dutch; and the procurator-general, 
who was party against him, was to read them and examine them thoroughly, contrary 
to all right and equity, before they were sent or delivered. Neither might any 
be suffered to speak or talk with him in any other tongue or language, except 
only in the Dutch tongue so that his keepers who were Dutchmen, might understand 
what the contents of letters or talk should be. Saving that at one certain time 
the provincial of the white friars came to dinner where Pointz was prisoner, and 
brought with him a young novice, being an Englishman, whom the provincial after 
dinner, of his own accord bid to talk with Pointz, and so with him he was licensed 
to converse. The purpose and great PAGE 488 policy of this was easy to be perceived. 
Between Pointz and the novice was much talk, as of Sir Thomas More, and of the 
bishop of Rochester. After this Pointz delivered up his answer to the procurator-general, 
and then at the days appointed he went forth with whatever he could gather as 
evidence against him. When the commissioners came to Pointz, Philips the traitor 
accompanied them to the door in following the process against him, as he had also 
done against Tindall, for so they that had Pointz in keeping shewed him. Thus 
Pointz was greatly troubled for his friend, and long kept in prison; but at length, 
when he saw no other remedy, by night he made his escape, and avoided their hands. 
Tindall however could not so escape, but remained in prison, and being brought 
unto his answer, was offered to have an advocate and a proctor; for in any criminal 
cause there, it is permitted to have council, to make answer in the law. Yet he 
refused to have any such, saying, that he would answer for himself; and so he 
did. Still nothing that he could say served him; and at last, after much reasoning, 
when no reason would avail, although he deserved no death, he was condemned by 
virtue of the emperor's decree, made in the assembly at Augsburgh, and upon that 
vile statute brought forth to the place of execution, where he was tied to the 
stake, and strangled first by the hangman, and afterwards burnt. His martyrdom 
was at the town of Filford, anno 1536. As he stood firmly amidst the wood, with 
the executioner at his side ready to strangle him, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, 
and said in a loud and fervent manner - "Lord, open the eyes of the king of England!" 
Such was the power of his doctrine, and sincerity of the life of the most amiable 
man and glorious martyr, that during his imprisonment, which was a year and a 
half, it is said he converted the keeper, his daughter, and other of his household. 
Also the prisoners that were with him conversant in the castle reported of him, 
that if he were not a good Christian, they could not tell whom to trust. Even 
the procurator-general being there, left his testimony of him, that he was a most 
learned, good, and godly man. An instance this remarkably resembling that of the 
Centurion who said of Christ, watching his crucifixion - "Certainly this was a 
righteous man." It was reported of Philips who betrayed him, that he fell a victim 
to a loathsome dis- ease, being consumed by vermin that preyed upon his body. 
To enumerate the virtues and actions of this blessed martyr would require much 
time and many pages. Suffice it to say, that he was one of those who, by his works, 
shone as a light amidst a dark world, and gave evidence that he had been called 
and commissioned to bring others to glory, honour, immortality, and eternal life. 
THE SIXTH. Edward was the only son of Henry the Eighth, by his wife Jane Seymour, 
who died the second day after his birth. He was born on the twelfth of October 
1537, and came to the throne in 1547, being but ten years old. At six years of 
age, he was placed under Dr. Coxe and Mr.Cheek: the one was to form his mind, 
and teach him philosophy and divinity; the other to teach him languages and mathematics. 
Masters were also appointed for the other parts of his education. He discovered 
very early a good dispo- sition to religion and virtue, and a particular reverence 
for the scrip- tures. As a striking proof of the latter, he was once greatly offended 
with a person, who in order to reach something hastily, laid a Bible on the floor 
to stand upon. He made great progress in learning, and at the age of eight years 
wrote Latin letters frequently to the king, to queen Katherine Parr, to the archbishop 
of Canterbury, and his uncle the earl of Hertford. On his father's decease, the 
latter nobleman and Sir Anthony Brown were sent to bring him to the Tower of London: 
and when Henry's death was published, Edward was proclaimed king. On his coming 
to the Tower, his father's will was opened, by which it was found that he had 
named sixteen to be the governors of the kingdom, and of his son's person till 
he should be eighteen years of age. These were the archbishop of Canterbury, the 
lord Wriothesly, lord chancellor, the lord St. John, great master, the lord Russel, 
lord privy seal, the earl of Hertford, lord great chamberlain, viscount Lisle, 
lord admiral, Tonstal bishop of Durham, Sir Anthony Brown, master of the horse, 
Sir William Paget, secretary of state, Sir Edward North, chancellor of the augmenta- 
tions, Sir Edward Montague, lord chief justice of the common pleas, judge Bromley, 
Sir Anthony Denny, and Sir William Herbert, chief gentle- men of the privy chamber, 
Sir Edward Wotton, treasurer of Calais, and Dr. Wotton, dean of Canterbury and 
York. They were also to give the king's sisters in marriage; who, if they married 
without their consent, were to forfeit their right of succession: for the king 
was empowered by act of parliament to leave the crown to them with what limitations 
he should think fit to appoint. There was also a privy council named to be their 
assistants in the government; if any of the sixteen died, the survivors were to 
continue in the administration, without a power to substitute others in their 
room. It was also proposed that one should be chosen out of the sixteen to whom 
ambassadors should address them- selves, and who should have the chief direction 
of affairs; but should be restrained to do every thing by consent of the greater 
part of the other co-executors. The chancellor, who thought the precedence fell 
to him by his office, since the archbishop did not meddle much in secular affairs, 
opposed this, and said, "It is a change of the king's will; who has made us all 
equal in power and dignity; and if any are raised above PAGE 490 the rest in title, 
it will not be possible to keep him within due bounds, since great titles make 
way for high power." Notwithstanding this, the earl of Hertford was declared governor 
of the king's person, and protector of the kingdom; with this restriction, that 
he should do nothing but by advice and consent of the rest. Upon this advancement 
and the opposition made to it, two parties were formed, the one headed by the 
protector, and the other by the chancellor: the favourers of the reformation were 
of the former, and those that opposed it of the latter. The chancellor was ordered 
to renew the commissions of the judges and justices of peace, and king Henry's 
great seal was to be made use of till a new one should be made. The day after 
this, all the executors took oaths to execute their trust faithfully; the privy 
counsellors were also brought into the king's presence, who all expressed their 
satisfac- tion in the choice of the protector: and it was ordered that all dis- 
patches to foreign princes should be signed only by him. All that held offices 
were required to come and renew their commissions, and to swear allegiance to 
the king. Among the rest came the bishops, and took out such commissions as were 
granted in the former reign, by which they became subaltern to the king's vicegerent: 
but there being no one now in that office, they were immediately subaltern to 
the king. By these commissions they were to hold their bishoprics only during 
the king's pleasure, and were empowered in the king's name, as his delegates, 
to perform all parts of the episcopal function. Cranmer set an example to the 
rest in taking out such a commission. This check upon the bishops was judged expedient 
in case they should become refractory in point of religion; but the ill-consequences 
of such an unlimited power being well foreseen, the bishops, who were afterwards 
promoted, were not so fet- tered, but were permitted to hold their bishoprics 
during life. The grant of so many ecclesiastical dignities to the earl of Hertford, 
was no extraordinary thing at that time, for as Cromwell had been dean of Wells, 
so divers other laymen were promoted to them; which was thus excused, because 
there was no cure of souls belonging to them; and during vacancies, even in times 
of popery, the king had by his own authority, by the right of the Regale, given 
institution to them, so that they seemed to be no spiritual employments, and the 
ecclesiastics that enjoyed them, were generally a lazy and sensual sort of men. 
An accident soon fell out, that made way for great changes in the church. The 
curate and churchwardens of St. Martin's in London were brought before the council 
for removing the crucifix and other images, and putting some texts of Scripture 
on the walls of their church. They answered, that they going to repair their church, 
had removed the im- ages, which being rotten, they did not renew, but put words 
of Scripture in their room: they had also removed others, which they found had 
been abused to idolatry. Great pains was taken by the popish party to punish them 
severely, in order to strike a terror into others; but Cranmer was for removing 
all images set up in churches, as expressly contrary both to the second commandment, 
and the practice of Christians in the earli- est and purest ages: and though in 
compliance with the gross abuses of paganism, there was very early much of the 
pomp of their worship brought PAGE 491 into the Christian church, yet it was long 
before any images were intro- duced. At first all were condemned by the fathers: 
then they allowed the use, but condemned the worship of them; and afterwards in 
the eighth and ninth centuries, the worship of them was, after a long contest 
both in the East and West, both approved and condemned. Finally they were howev- 
er approved, and generally adopted. Some, in particular, were believed to be most 
wonderfully enchanted, and this was much improved by the cheats of the monks, 
who enriched themselves by such means. It was grown to such a height, that heathenism 
itself had not been guilty of greater absurdities towards its idols; and the singular 
virtues in some images shewed they were not worshipped only as representations, 
for then all should have equal degrees of veneration paid to them. Since these 
abuses had risen merely out of the use of them, and setting them up being contrary 
to the command of God, and the nature of the Christian reli- gion, which is simple 
and spiritual, it seemed most reasonable to cure the disease in its root, and 
to clear the churches of them all, that the people might be preserved from idolatry. 
These reasons prevailed so far, that the curate and wardens were dismissed with 
a reprimand; they were required to beware of such rashness for the future, and 
to provide a crucifix, and till that could be had, were ordered to cause one to 
be painted on the wall. Upon this, Dr. Ridley, in a sermon preached before the 
king, inveighed against the superstition towards images and holy water, and spread 
over the whole nation a general disposition to pull them down; which soon after 
commenced in Portsmouth. Upon this, Gardiner made great complaints, and said the 
Lutherans themselves went not so far, for he had seen images in their churches. 
He distingueshed between image and idol, as if the one, which he said was only 
condemned, was the representation of a false God, and the other of the true; and 
he thought, that as words conveyed through the ear begat devotion, so images, 
by conveyance through the eye, might have the same effect on the mind. He also 
thought a virtue might be both in them and in holy water, as well as there was 
in Christ's garments, Peter's shadow, or Elijah's staff: and there might be a 
virtue in holy water as in the water of baptism. But to these arguments which 
Gardiner wrote in several letters, the protector answered, that the bishops had 
formerly argued in another strain, namely, that because the scriptures were abused 
by the vulgar readers, therefore they were not to be trusted to them; and so made 
a pretended abuse the ground of taking away, that which by God's special appointment, 
was to be delivered to all Christians. This held much stronger against images 
forbidden by God. The brazen serpent set up by Moses, by God's own directions 
was broken when abused to idolatry; for that was the greatest corruption of religion 
possible. Yet the protector acknowledged he had reason to complain of the forwardness 
of the people, who broke down images without authority: to prevent which, in future, 
orders were sent to the justices to look well to the peace and govern- ment of 
the nation, to meet often, and every six weeks to advertise the protector of the 
state of the country to which they belonged. The funeral of the deceased king 
was performed with the ordinary ceremonies PAGE 492 at Windsor. He had left six 
hundred pounds a year to the church of Windsor, for priests to say mass for his 
soul every day, and for four obiits a year, and sermons, and the distributions 
of alms at every one of them, and for a sermon every Sunday, and a maintenance 
for thirteen poor knights, which was settled upon that church by his executors 
in due form of law. Obiit was the anniversary of a person's death, and to observe 
such a day with prayers, alms, or other commemoration, was termed keeping of the 
obiit. The chantries mentioned in this work were little churches, chapels, or 
particular altars, endowed with lands, or other revenues for the maintenance of 
one or more priests, to sing mass daily, and to perform divine service for the 
souls of the founders and such others as they appointed. The pomps of these endowments 
in a more inquisitive age, led people to examine the usefulness of soul-masses 
and obiits. Christ appointed the sacrament for a commemoration of his death among 
the living, but it was not easy to conceive how that was to be applied to departed 
souls. For all the good that they could receive, seemed only applicable to the 
prayers for them; but bare prayers would not have wrought so much on the people, 
nor would they have paid so dear for them. It was a clear project for drawing 
the wealth of the world into the hands of the priests. In the primitive church 
there was a commemoration of the death, or an honourable remembrance, made in 
the daily offices; and for some very small faults names were not mentioned, which 
would not have been done if they had looked upon that as a thing that was really 
a relief to them in another state. But even this custom grew into abuse, and some 
inferred from it, that departed souls, unless they were signally pure, passed 
through a purgation in the next life, before they were admitted to Heaven; of 
which St. Austin, in whose time the opinion began to be received, says, that it 
was taken up without any sure ground in scripture. But what was wanting in scripture-proof 
was supplied by visions, dreams, and fables, till it was generally received. King 
Henry had acted like one who did not believe it, for he could expect no good usage 
in purgatory from those innumerable souls whom he had deprived of the masses that 
were to be said for them in monasteries, by destroying those foundations. Yet 
it seems even he intended to make sure work for himself, so that if masses could 
avail departed souls, he resolved to be secure; and as he gratified the priests 
by this part of his endowment, so he pleased the people by appointing sermons 
and alms to be given on such days. Thus he died as he had lived, wavering between 
the two persuasions: and it occasioned no small debate, when men sought to find 
out what his opinions were in the controverted points of reli- gion. But now the 
diversions of the coronation took them off from more serious thoughts. The protector 
was made duke of Somerset, the earl of Essex marquis of Northampton, the lords 
Lisle and Wriothesley earls of Warwick and Southampton; while Seymour, Rich, Willoughby, 
and Sheffield, were made barons. In order to the king's coronation, the office 
for that ceremony was reviewed, and much shortened: one remarkable alteration 
was, that whereas formerly the king used to be presented to the people at the 
corners of the scaffold, and they were asked if they would have PAGE 493 him to 
be their king, now their assent and good will were taken for granted. The former 
looked like a rite of an election, rather than a ceremony of investing one that 
was already king. This was therefore changed, and the people were desired only 
to give the duty of allegiance they were bound to do. On the twentieth of February, 
Edward was crowned, and general pardon was proclaimed, out of which the duke of 
Norfolk, cardinal Pole, and some others were shamefully excepted. The lord chan- 
cellor, who was looked on as the head of the popish party, now lost his place 
by granting a commission to the master of the rolls and three masters of chancery, 
of these two were civilians, to execute his office in the court of chancery as 
if he were present, only their decrees were to be brought to him to be signed 
before they could be enrolled. The first business of consequence that required 
great consideration, was the Smalcaldic war, then begun between the emperor and 
the princes of that league; the effects of which, if the emperor prevailed, were 
likely to be, not only the abolition of Lutheranism, but his being the absolute 
master of Germany; which the emperor ambitiously sought after, in order to a universal 
monarchy, but disguised it to other princes. To the pope he pretended that his 
design was only to extirpate heresy; to other princes he pretended it was only 
to repress some rebels, while he denied all design of suppressing their new doctrines; 
which he managed so artfully, that he even divided Germany itself, and got some 
Lutheran princes to declare for him, and others to be neutrals. Having obtained 
a liberal supply for his wars with France and the Turks, for which he granted 
an edict for liberty of religion, he made peace with both these powers, and resolved 
to employ that treasure which the Germans had given him against themselves. That 
he might deprive them of their chief al- lies, he had used means to engage king 
Henry and Francis the First in a war; but that was now in a measure composed; 
for as Henry died in Janu- ary, so Francis followed him into another world in 
March following. Many of their confederates began to capitulate; and the divided 
command of the duke of Saxe, and the landgrave of Hesse, lost them great advantages 
the former year; in which it had been easy to have driven the emperor out of Germany; 
but often it happened that when the one was for engag- ing, the other was against 
it; which made many very doubtful of their success. The pope had a mind to engage 
the emperor in a war in Germany, that so Italy might be at quiet: and in order 
to that, and to embroil him with all the Lutherans, he published his treaty so 
that it might appear that the design of the war was to extirpate heresy; though 
the emperor was making great protestations to the contrary at home. He also opened 
the council at Trent, which the emperor had long desired in vain; but it was now 
brought upon him when he least wished for it; for the protestants all declared, 
that they could not look upon it as a free general council, since it was so entirely 
at the pope's command that not so much as a reformation of some of the grossest 
abuses that could not be justified, was like to be obtained, unless clogged with 
such clauses as made it ineffectual. Nor could the emperor prevail with the council 
not to proceed to condemn heresy: but the more he obstructed that by PAGE 494 
delays, the more did the pope drive it on to open the eyes of the Ger- mans, and 
engage them vigorously against the emperor: yet he gave them such secret assurances 
of tolerating the Augsburgh confession, that the marquis of Brandenburgh declared 
for him. This event, joined with the hopes of the electorate, drew in Maurice 
of Saxe. The count Palatine was old and feeble; the archbishop of Cologne would 
not make resistance, but retired, being condemned both by pope and emperor; while 
many of the cities submitted. And Maurice, by falling into Saxe, forced the elector 
to separate from the landgrave, and return to the defence of his own dominions. 
This was the state of the affairs in Germany: so that it was a hard point to resolve 
on what answer the protector should give the duke of Saxe's chancellor, whom he 
sent over to obtain an aid in money for carrying on the war. It was, on the one 
hand, of great importance to the safety of England to preserve the German princes, 
and yet it was very dangerous to begin a war of such consequence, under an infant 
king. At present they promised, within three months, to send by the merchants 
50,000 crowns to Hamburgh, and resolved to do no more till new emergen- cies should 
lead them to new councils. The nation was in an ill condi- tion for a war with 
such a mighty prince, labouring under great distrac- tions at home: moreover the 
people generally cried out for a reforma- tion, despised the clergy, and loved 
the new preachers. The priests were, for the most part, both very ignorant and 
immoral: many of them had been monks, and those who had to pay them the pensions 
which were reserved to them at the destruction of the monasteries, till they should 
be provided, took care to get them into some small benefice. The great- est part 
of the parsonages were impropriated, for they belonged to the monasteries, and 
the abbots had only granted the incumbents either the vicarage, or some small 
donative, and left them the perquisites raised by masses and other offices. At 
the suppression of those houses there was no care taken to provide the incumbents 
better; so that they chiefly subsisted by trentals and other devices, which brought 
them in some small relief, though the price of them was very low, for masses went 
often at half a groat, and a groat was a great bounty. Now these per- sons saw 
that a reformation of abuses took the bread out of their mouths; therefore their 
interests prevailing more than any thing else, they were zealous against all changes: 
yet that same principle made them comply with every change which was made, rather 
than lose their benefic- es. Their poverty made them run into another abuse, that 
of holding more benefices than one at a time, a corruption of so crying and scandalous 
a nature, that wherever it is practised it is sufficient to posses the people 
with great prejudices against the church which is guilty of it: there being nothing 
more contrary to the plainest impressions of reason than that every man who undertakes 
a cure of souls, whom at his ordina- tion he has vowed to instruct, feed, and 
govern, ought to discharge that trust himself as the greatest and most important 
of all others. The clergy were encouraged in their opposition to all changes, 
by the pro- tection they expected from Gardiner, Bonner, and Tonstal men of great 
reputation and in power: above all, the lady Mary openly declared PAGE 495 against 
all changes till the king should be of age. On the other hand, Cranmer resolved 
to proceed more vigorously: the protector was firmly united to him, as were the 
young king's tutors. Edward himself was as much engaged as could be expected from 
so young a person; for both his knowledge and zeal for true religion were above 
his age. Several of the bishops also declared for a reformation, but Dr. Ridley, 
now bishop of Rochester, was the person on whom he most depended. Latimer remained 
with him at Lambeth, and did great service by his sermons, which were very popular; 
but he would not return to his bishopric, choosing rather to serve the church 
in a more disengaged manner. Many of the bishops were very ignorant and poor spirited 
men, raised merely by court favour, and little concerned for any thing but their 
revenues. Cranmer resolved to proceed by degrees, and to state the reasons of 
every advance so fully, that he hoped, by the blessing of God, to possess the 
nation of the fitness of what they should do, and thereby prevent any dangerous 
opposition that might otherwise be apprehended. The power of the privy council 
had been much exalted in Henry's time, by act of parliament; and one proviso in 
it was, that the king's council should have the same authority when he was under 
age that he himself had at full age: it was, therefore, resolved to begin with 
a general visitation of all England, which was divided into six precincts: and 
two gentlemen, a civilian, a divine, and a register, were appointed for each visit. 
But before they were sent out, a letter was written to all the bishops, giving 
them notice of it, suspending their jurisdiction while it lasted, and requir- 
ing them to preach no where but in their cathedrals; and the other clergy should 
not preach but in their own churches, without licence: by this it was intended 
to restrain such as were not acceptable to their own parishes, and to grant others 
the licences to preach in any church of England. The greatest difficulty the reformers 
found, was in the want of able and prudent men, most of whom were too hot and 
indiscreet; while the few who were eminent, were required in London and the universities. 
These they intended to make as useful as possible, and appointed them to preach 
as itinerants and visitors. The only thing by which the people could be universally 
instructed, was a book of homilies: therefore, the twelve first homilies in the 
book, still known by that name, were com- piled, in framing which the chief design 
was to acquaint the people aright with the nature of the gospel-covenant. The 
people were taught to depend on the sufferings of Christ, and to lead their lives 
according to the rules of the gospel. Orders were also given, that a Bible should 
be in every church, which though it had been commanded by Henry, yet had not been 
generally obeyed; and for understanding the New Testament, Erasmus's paraphrase 
was translanted into English, and appointed to be set up in every church. His 
great reputation and learning, and his dying in the communion of the Roman church, 
made this book to be preferable to any other, since there lay no prejudice to 
Erasmus, which would have been objected to in any other author. They renewed also 
all the injunc- tions made by Cromwell in the former reign, which, after his fall, 
were but little looked after, as those for instructing the people, for remov- 
ing images, and putting down all other customs abused to superstition; PAGE 496 
for reading the scriptures, saying the litany in English, frequent sermons and 
catechising, the exemplary lives of the clergy, their la- bours in visiting the 
sick, and other parts of their function, such as reconciling differences, and 
exhorting the people to charity. All who gave livings by simoniacal bargains, 
were declared to have forfeited their right of patronage to the king. A great 
charge was also given for the strict observation of the Lord's day, which was 
appointed to be spent wholly in the service of God, it not being enough to hear 
mass in the morning, and spend the rest of the day in drunkenness and revelling, 
as was commonly practised; but it ought to be all employed, either in the duties 
of religion, or in acts of charity. Direction was also given for the bidding of 
prayers, in which the king as supreme head, the queen and the king's sisters, 
the protector and council, and all orders of the kingdom were to be mentioned. 
There were also injunctions given for the bishops to preach four times a year 
in all their dioceses, once in their cathedral, and thrice in any other church, 
unless they had a good excuse to the contrary: that their chaplains should preach 
often: and that they should ordain none but such as were duly qualified. These 
excellent rules were variously censured. The clergy were only empowered to remove 
the abused images, and the people were restrained from doing it; but this authority 
being put in their hands, it was thought they would be slow and backward in it. 
The corruptions of lay-patrons and simoniacal priests had been often complained 
of, but no laws nor provisions were ever able to preserve the church from this 
great mischief: which can never be removed till patrons look on their right to 
nominate a man to the charge of souls, as a trust for which they are to render 
a severe account to God; and till priests are cured of aspiring to that charge, 
and look on it with dread and great caution. The prayer for departed souls was 
now moderated, to be a prayer only for the consummation of their happiness at 
the last day; whereas in king Henry's time they prayed that God would grant them 
release from all sin, which implied a purgatory. The visitors at length ended 
the visitation, and had been every where submitted to. In London, and every part 
of England, the images, for refusing to bow down to which many a saint had been 
burnt, were now committed to the flames. Bonner at first protested that he would 
obey the injunctions, if they were not contrary to the laws of God and the ordinances 
of the church: but being called before the council, he retracted that, and asked 
pardon; yet, for giving terror to others, he was for some time put in prison. 
Gardiner wrote to one of the visi- tors, before they came to Winchester, that 
he could not receive the homilies; and if he must either quit his bishopric, or 
sin against his conscience, he resolved to chose the former. Upon this he was 
called before the council, and required to receive the book of homilies: but he 
objected to one of them which taught that charity did not justify, contrary to 
the book set out by the late king and confirmed in parlia- ment. He also complained 
of many things in Erasmus's paraphrase; and being pressed to declare whether he 
would obey the injunctions or not, he refused to promise it, and was in consequence 
sent to the Fleet. Cranmer treated in private with him, and they argued much about 
jus- PAGE 497 tification. Gardiner thought the sacraments justified, and that 
charity justified as well as faith. Cranmer urged, that nothing but the merits 
of Christ justified, as they were applied by faith, which could not exist without 
charity. Nothing could be more correct than this: for what is faith but the love 
of God shed abroad in the heart - filling the believer with benevolence, and the 
desire of imparting the happiness he feels to all around him? Gardiner lay in 
prison till the act of general pardon, passed in parliament, set him at liberty. 
Many blamed the sever- ity of these proceedings, as contrary both to law and equity, 
and said, that all people, even those who complained most of arbitrary power, 
were apt to usurp it when in authority. Lady Mary was so alarmed at these proceedings, 
that she wrote to the protector, that such changes were contrary to the honour 
due to her father's memory, and it was against their duty to the king to enter 
upon such points, and endanger the public peace before he was of age. To which 
he answered, that her father had died before he could finish the good things he 
had intended concern- ing religion; and had expressed his regret both before himself 
and many others, that he left things in so unsettled a state: moreover he assured 
her, that nothing should be done but what would turn to the glory of God, and 
the king's honour and happiness. Parliament was opened the 4th of November, and 
the protector was by patent authorized to sit under the cloth of state, on the 
right hand of the throne; and to have all the honours and privileges that any 
uncle of the crown ever had. Rich was made lord chancellor. The first act that 
passed, five bishops only dissenting, was, "A repeal of all statutes that had 
made any thing treason or felony in the late reign, which was not so before, and 
of the six articles, and the authority given to the king's proclamations, as also 
of the acts against Lollards. All who denied the king's supremacy, or asserted 
the pope's, for the first offence are to forfeit their goods, for the second are 
to be in a premunire, and to be attainted of treason for the third. But if any 
intend to deprive the king of his estate or title, that is made treason: none 
are to be accused of words but within a month after they were spoken." Parliament 
also repealed the power that the king had of annulling all laws made, till he 
was twenty- four years of age, and restrained it only to annulling them for the 
time to come, but that it should not be of force for the declaring them null from 
the beginning. Another act passed, with the same dissent, for the laity receiving 
the sacrament in both kinds and that the people should always communicate with 
the priest; and by it irreverence to the sacra- ment was condemned under severe 
penalties. Christ had clearly instituted the sacrament in both kinds, and St. 
Paul mentions both. In the primi- tive church that custom was universally observed, 
but upon the belief of transubstantiation, the reserving and carrying about the 
sacrament were brought in: this made them first endeavour to persuade the world, 
that the cup was not necessary, for wine could neither keep, nor be carried about 
conveniently. It was done away by degrees, the bread was for some time given dipped 
in the wine, as it is yet in the Greek church: but it being believed that Christ 
was entire under either kind, the council of PAGE 498 Constance entirely took 
the cup from the laity; while the Bohemians could not be brought to submit to 
the loss. The abuse being now clearly seen, the use of the cup was, in every part, 
one of the first things insisted on by those who demanded a reformation. At first 
all who were present communicated, and censures were passed on such as did it 
not: none were denied the sacrament but penitents, who were made to withdraw during 
the action. But as the devotion of the world slackened, the people were still 
exhorted to continue their oblations, and come to the sacrament, though they did 
not receive it; and were made to believe, that the priests received it in their 
stead. The name sacrifice given to it, as being a holy oblataion, was so far improved, 
that the world came to look on the priests officiating, as a sacrifice for the 
dead and living: hence followed an infinite variety of masses for all the accid- 
ents of human life; and that was the chief part of the priests' trade, and occasioned 
many unseemly jests concerning it, which were now re- strained by the act that 
stopped the cause. Another act passed without any dissent, that the conge d' elire, 
and the election pursuant to it, being but a shadow, since the person was named 
by the king, should cease for the future, and that bishops should be named by 
the king's letters patent, and thereupon be consecrated; and should hold their 
courts in the king's name, and not in their own, excepting only the archbishop 
of Canterbury's court: and they were to use the king's seal in all their writings, 
except in presentations, collations, and letters of orders, in which they might 
use their own seals. The apostles chose bishops and pastors, by an extraordinary 
gift of discerning spirits, and proposed them to the approbation of the people; 
yet they left no rules to make that necessary in future. In times of persecution, 
the clergy being maintained by the oblations of the people, they were chosen by 
them. But when the emperors became Christian, the town-councils and eminent men 
took the elections out of the hands of the rabble: and the tumults in popular 
elections were such, that it was necessary to regulate them. In some places the 
clergy, and in others the bishops of the province made the choice. The emperors 
reserved the confirmation of the elections in the great sees to themselves. But 
when Charles the Great annexed vast territories and regalities to bishoprics, 
a change followed. Churchmen were so corrupted by this undue greatness, and came 
to depend on the humours of those princes to whom they owed their increase of 
wealth. Princes named them, and invested them in their sees: but the popes intended 
to separate the ecclesiastical state from all subjection to secular princes, and 
to make themselves the heads of that state. At first they pretended to restore 
the freedom of elections, but these were now engrossed in a few hands, for only 
the chapters chose. Another act was made against idle vagabonds, that they should 
be made slaves for two years, by any who should seize on them; this was chiefly 
designed against some vagrant monks, as appears by the provisions of the act. 
PAGE 499 These men went about the country infusing into the people a dislike of 
the government. The severity of this act excited in the nation, ever averse to 
slavery, a dislike so that it was but little attended to; and this was the reason 
that the other provisions for supplying those who were truly indigent, and willing 
to be employed, had no effect. After this followed the act for giving the king 
all those chantries which his father had not seized on by virtue of the grant 
made to him of them. Cranmer much opposed this; for the poverty of the clergy 
was such that the state of learning and religion was like to suffer greatly if 
it should not be relieved; and yet he saw no probable fund for that, but the preserving 
these till the king should come to age, and allow the selling them, for buying 
in of at least such a share of the impropria- tions as might afford them some 
more comfortable subsistence: yet not- withstanding he and seven other bishops 
dissented, it was passed. Last of all a general pardon, but clogged with some 
exceptions, was passed. The convocation sat at the same time; and moved, that 
a commission begun in the late reign of thirty-two persons for reforming the ecclesiastical 
laws might be revived, and that the inferior clergy might be admitted to sit in 
the house of commons, for which they alleged a clause in the bishop's writ and 
ancient custom. Since some prelates had, under the former reign, begun to alter 
the form of the service of the church, they desired this might be brought to perfection; 
and that some care might be had of supplying the poor clergy, and relieving them 
from the taxes that lay so heavily on them. The question of the inferior clergy 
sitting in the house of commons, was the subject of some debate, and was again 
set on foot, both under queen Elizabeth and king James, but to no effect. It was, 
however, resolved that some bishops and divines should be sent to Windsor, to 
finish some reformations in the public offices; for the whole lower house of convocation, 
without a contradictory vote, agreed to the bill about the sacrament, while it 
is not known what opposition it met with in the upper house. A proposition being 
also set on foot concerning the lawfulness of the marriage of the clergy, thirty-five 
subscribed to the affirmative, and only fourteen dissented. Gardiner being included 
in the act of pardon was set at liberty: he promised to receive and obey the injunctions, 
objecting only to the homily of jus- tification; yet he complied in that likewise; 
but it was visible that in his heart he abhorred all their proceedings, though 
he outwardly con- formed. Candlemas and Lent were now approaching, and the clergy 
and people were much divided with respect to the ceremonies usual at those times. 
By some injunctions in king Henry's reign it had been declared that fasting in 
Lent was only binding by a positive law. Wakes and games were also suppressed, 
and hints were given that other customs, which were much abused, should be shortly 
done away. The gross rabble loved these things, as matters of diversion, and thought 
divine worship with- out them would be but a dull business. But others looked 
on them as relics of heathenism, and thought they did not become the gravity and 
simplicity of the Christian religion. Cranmer, upon this, procured an order of 
council against carrying candles on Candlemas-day, ashes on Ash-Wednesday, and 
palms on Palm-sunday; which was directed to Bonner to be intimated to the bishops 
of the province of Canterbury. A proclama- tion followed against all who should 
make changes without authority. Creeping to the cross and taking holy bread and 
water were put down, and power was given to the archbishop of Canterbury to certify, 
in the king's name, what ceremonies should be afterwards laid aside; and none 
were to preach out of their own parishes without license from the king or the 
visitors, the archbishop, or the bishop of the diocese. Soon after this, when 
the general order followed for a removal of all images out of churches, there 
were every where great contests whether the images had been abused to superstition 
or not. Some thought the conse- cration of them was an abuse common to them all. 
Those also which repre- sented the Trinity as a man with three faces in one head; 
or as an old man with a young man before him, and a dove over his head; gave so 
great scandal, that it was no wonder for the people as they grew more enlight- 
ened, not longer to endure them. The only occasion given to censure in this order 
was, that all shrines, and the plate belonging to them, were appointed to be brought 
into the king's use. Eighteen bishops, and other divines, were now employed to 
examine the offices of the church, to see which of them needed amendment. They 
began with the eucharist, and proceeded in the same manner as in the former reign. 
Every one gave his opinion in writing, in answer to the question put to him. It 
was clearly found that the plain institution of the sacrament was much vitiated, 
with a mixture of many heathenish rites and pomps, to raise the credit of the 
priests, in whose hands that great performance was lodged. This was at first done 
to draw over the heathens by those splendid rites to Christianity; but superstition 
once begun had no bounds nor measures; and ignorance and barbarity increasing 
in the darker ages, there was no regard paid to any thing in religion, but as 
it was set off with pageantry; and the belief of the corporeal presence raised 
this to a still greater height. The office was in an unknown tongue; all the vessels 
and garments belonging to it were consecrated with much devotion; great part of 
the service was secret, to make it look like a wonderful charm; the consecration 
itself was to be said very softly, for words that were not to be heard agreed 
best with a change that was not to be seen: many gesticulations, and magnificent 
proces- sions, all tended to raise this pageantry higher. Masses were also said 
for all the turns and affairs of human life. Trentals, a custom of having thirty 
masses a year on the chief festivities for redeeming souls out of purgatory, was 
that which brought the priests most money, for these were thought God's best days, 
in which access was easier to him. On saints' days it was prayed, that by their 
intercession the sacrifice might become the more acceptable, and procure a larger 
indulgence; which could not be easily explained, if the sacrifice was the death 
of Christ. The first step that was now made was a new office for the communion, 
this is, the distribution of the sacrament, for the office of consecra- tion was 
not at this time touched. In the exhortation, auricular confes- sion to a priest 
is left free to be done or omitted, and all are re- quired not to judge one another 
in that matter. There was also a denun- PAGE 501 ciation made, requiring impenitent 
sinners to withdraw. The bread was to be still the same as that formerly used. 
In the distribution it was said, "The body of our Lord preserve thy body;" and 
"the blood of our Lord preserve thy soul." This was printed with a proclamation, 
requiring all to receive it with such reverence and uniformity as might encourage 
the king to proceed further, and not to run to other things before the king gave 
direction, assuring the people of his earnest zeal to set forth godly orders; 
and therefore it was hoped they would wait for it: the books were sent all over 
England, and the clergy were appointed to give the communion next Easter according 
to them. Many were offended to find confession left indifferent, so this matter 
was examined. Christ gave his apostles a power of binding and loosing; and St. 
James commanded all to confess their faults to one another. In the primitive church, 
all that denied the faith, or otherwise gave scandal, were separated from the 
communion, and not admitted to it till they made public confession: and according 
to the degrees of their sin, the time and degree of public penitence and their 
separation were pro- portioned: which was the chief subject of the consultations 
of the councils in the fourth and fifth centuries. Secret sins the people lay 
under no obligation to confess, but they went often to the priests for direction, 
even for these. Near the end of the fifth century they began to have secret penances 
and confessions, as well as public; and in the seventh century this became the 
general practice. In the eighth century the commutation of penance for money, 
or other services done the church, was brought in. Then the holy wars and pilgrimages 
came to be magnified. Crusades against heretics, or princes deposed by the pope, 
were set up instead of all other penances: priests managed confession and absolu- 
tion, so as to enter into people's secrets, and to govern their con- sciences 
by them; but they becoming very ignorant, and not so associated as to be governed 
by orders that might be sent them from Rome, friars were mostly employed to hear 
confessions, and many reserved cases were made, in which the pope only gave absolution. 
Such cases were trusted to monks, who had the trade of indulgences put in their 
hands, which they managed with as much confidence as mountebanks used in selling 
their medicines, with this advantage, that the inefficiency of their devices was 
not so easily discovered, for the people believed all that was told them. In this 
they grew to such a pitch of confidence, that for saying some collects, indulgences 
for years, and for hundreds and thousands of years were granted; so cheap a thing 
was heaven made. This trade was now thrown out of the church, and private confession 
was declared indiffer- ent. Gardiner was again brought into trouble; many complaints 
were made of him, that he disparaged the preachers sent with the king's licence 
into his diocese, and that he secretly opposed all reformation. On being brought 
before the council, he denied most of the things objected to him, and offered 
to explain himself openly in a sermon before the king. This being granted, he 
justified many of the changes that had been made; but when he came to the sacrament, 
he contended so strongly for the corporeal presence, that a great disturbance 
took place in the church. PAGE 502 This conduct of his being deemed seditious, 
he was sent to the Tower, where, however, he was treated with the greatest lenity, 
which he re- turned by sullen obstinacy and resentment. Now a more general reforma- 
tion of the whole liturgy was under consideration, that all the nation might have 
an uniformity in the worship of God. Anciently the liturgies were short, and had 
few ceremonies in them: every bishop had one for his diocese; but in the African 
churches they began first to put them into a more regular form. Gregory the great 
laboured much in this; yet he left Austin the monk to his liberty, either to use 
the Roman or French forms in England, as he found they were like to tend most 
to edification. Great additions were made in every age; for the private devotions 
of some who were reputed saints, were added to the public offices; and mysterious 
significations were invented for every new rite, which was the chief study of 
some ages: this swelled them up to a vast bulk. It was not then thought of, that 
praying consisted in the inventing new words, and uttering them with warmth; and 
it seemed too great a subjec- tion of the people to their priests, that they should 
be compelled to join with them in all their hearts in prayer. It was then resolved 
to make a liturgy, and to bring the worship to a fit medium between the pomp of 
superstition and naked simplicity. It was resolved to change nothing merely in 
opposition to received practices, but rather in imita- tion of what Christ did 
in the institution of the two sacraments of the gospel, which consisted of rites 
used among the Jews, but blessed by him to higher purposes; to comply with what 
had been formerly in use as much as was possible, and thereby to gain the people. 
The consecrations of water, salt, and other things, in the church of Rome, looked 
like the remainder of heathenism, and were laid aside: these had been like the 
spirits, which being abjured, and a divine virtue supposed to be in them, the 
people came to think that by such observances they might be sure of Heaven. The 
absolutions by which, on account of the merits of the blessed virgin and the saints, 
the sprinklings of water, fastings, and pilgrimages, with many other observances, 
sins were pardoned, as well as on the account of the passion of Christ; these 
and the absolu- tion given to the dead bodies looked like gross impostures, tending 
to make the world think, that besides the painful way to Heaven in a course of 
true holiness, the priests had secrets in their hands of carrying people thither 
by another method, and on easier terms. This drew them to purchase their favour, 
especially when they were dying: so that, as their fears were then heighteded, 
there was no other way left them, in the conclusion of an ill life, to die with 
any good hopes, but as they bargained with their priests: therefore all this was 
now rejected. It was resolved to have the whole worship in the vulgar tongue; 
upon which St. Paul has copiously enlarged; and all nations, as they were converted 
to Christianity, had their offices translated into their own language. But of 
late it had been pretended, that it was part of the communion of saints, that 
the worship should be every where in the original tongue, though the people were 
hardly used, when for the sake of some vagrant priests that might come from foreign 
parts, they were kept from knowing what was said in the worship of God. It was 
pretended that Pilate having ordered the inscription of the cross in Greek, Latin, 
PAGE 503 and Hebrew, these three languages were sanctified; but it is not easy 
to understand what authority the Jewish king had for conferring such a privilege 
on them. But keeping all in an unknown tongue preserved in dark ages the esteem 
of their offices; in which there were such prayers and hymns, and such lessons, 
that if the people had understood them they must have given great scandal. In 
many prayers the pardon of sins and the grace of God were asked in such a style 
of the saints, as if they had been wholly at their disposal, and as if they had 
been more merciful than God or Christ. In former times, all who officiated were 
peculiarly habited, and all their garments were blessed, and these were considered 
as a part of the train of the priests' vestments under the mosaical law, and had 
early been brought into the Christian churches: it was a proper expression of 
innocence, and it being fit that the worship of God should be in a decent habit, 
it was continued. Since the sacrifices offered to idols were not thereby, according 
to St. Paul, of their own nature polluted, and every creature of God was good, 
it was thought, notwith- standing the former abuse, most reasonable to use these 
garments still. The morning and evening prayers were put almost in the same form 
as that in which they now stand, only there was no confession nor absolution. 
In the office for the communion there was a commemoration of thanksgiving for 
the Blessed Virgin and all departed saints, and they were commended to God's mercy 
and peace. In the consecration the use of crossing the elements was retained; 
but there was no elevation of the host, which was at first used as an historical 
rite, to show Christ's being lifted up on the cross, and was afterwards done to 
excite the people to adore it. No stamp was to be on the bread, and it was to 
be thicker than ordinary. It was to be put in the people's mouths by the priests, 
though it had been anciently put in their hands. Some in the Greek church began 
to take it in spoons of gold, others in linen cloth, called their dominical: but 
after the corporeal presence was received, the people were not suffered to touch 
it, and the priests' hands were peculiarly anointed to qualify them for the mystic 
contact. In baptism the child's head and breast were crossed, and abjuration was 
made of the devil to depart from it: child- ren were to be thrice dipped, or in 
case of weakness, water was to be sprinkled on their faces, and then they were 
to be anointed. The sick might also be anointed if they desired it. At funerals, 
the departed soul was recommended to God's mercy. The sacraments were formerly 
believed of such virtue, that they con- ferred grace by the very receiving them; 
what was called the opus opera- tum was deemed sufficient, though both faith and 
repentance were absent. The ancients used to send portions of the eucharist to 
the sick, but without any pomp: which came in when the corporeal presence was 
be- lieved. But it was now appointed that the sacraments should be minis- tered 
to the sick, and therefore, in case of weakness, children were allowed to be baptised 
in houses; though it was more suitable to the design of baptism, which was the 
admission of a new member to the church, to do it before the whole congregation. 
This, which was then aprovision for weakness, is now a mark of vanity, and a piece 
of affect- ed state. It was also appointed, that the Lord's supper should be given 
PAGE 504 to the sick; not to be sent from the church, but consecrated by their 
bedsides: since Christ had said, that where two or three were assembled in his 
name he would be in the midst of them. But it is a gross relique of the worst 
part of popery for any to imagine, that after an ill life, some sudden sorrow 
for sin, with a hasty absolution, and the sacrament, will be a passport to Heaven; 
since the mercies of God in Christ are offered in the gospel only to those who 
truly believe, sincerely repent, and change the course of their lives. The liturgy 
thus compiled was published with a preface concerning cere- monies. Of course 
it was narrowly scanned in every part. When the book came into all men's hands 
several things were censured: as particularly the frequent use of the cross, and 
anointing. The former began to be used as the badge of a crucified Saviour: but 
the superstition of it was so much advanced that latria the highest kind of worship 
was given to the crosier. The using of it was also believed to have virtue for 
driv- ing away evil spirits, and preserving from dangers; so that a sacramen- 
tal efficacy was ascribed to it; which could not be maintained, since there is 
no institution for it in scripture. But the using it was made a ceremony, expressing 
the belief and worship of a crucified Saviour, which could import no superstition, 
nor involve idolatry. These several regulations were of great importance, because 
the protestant religion now appeared almost ruined in Germany, which made the 
divines of that country turn their eyes to England. Calvin wrote to the protector, 
and pressed him to go on to a more complete reformation; and that prayers for 
the dead, chrism, and extreme unction, might be laid aside. He desired him to 
trust in God, and advance, and wished there was more preaching, and in a more 
lively way than he heard was then in the land: but above all things he prayed 
him to suppress that impiety and profani- ty that, he heard, abounded in the nation. 
In February 1549, an act passed granting the clergy to marry. It was declared, 
that it were better for priests to live unmarried, free from all worldly cares; 
yet, since the laws compelling it had occasioned great debauchery, they were repealed. 
The pretence of chastity in the Romish priests had possessed the world with a 
high opinion of them, and had been a great reflection on the reformers, if the 
world had not clearly seen through it, and been made sensible of the ill effects 
of it, by the defilement it brought into their own houses and families. Nor was 
there any point in which the reformers had studied more to remove the prejudice 
that lay against them. In the Old Testament the priests were not only married, 
but the office descended by inheritance. In the New Testament, marriage was declared 
honourable in all: among the qual- ifications of bishops and deacons, each being 
the husband of one wife is reckoned up. Many of the apostles were married, and 
carried their wives about with them, as also Aquilla did Priscilla. Forbidding 
to marry is reckoned a mark of the apostacy of the latter days, and called a doc- 
trine of devils. PAGE 505 All the canons made against the married clergy, were 
only positive laws which might be repealed. The priests in the Greek church still 
lived in a conjugal state. In the west the clergy generally married; and in Edgar's 
time they were for the most part married in England. In the ninth century, the 
doctrine of celibacy, though urged by pope Nicholas, was resisted by a large majority 
of both priests and people. In the eleventh century, Gregory VII. intended to 
set up a new ecclesiastical empire, found that the unmarried clergy would be his 
best servants, since the married clergy gave pledges to the state; therefore he 
pro- ceeded furiously to celibate the church, and called all the married priests 
Nicolaitans: while in England, Lanfrac only imposed celibacy on the prebendaries, 
and the clergy that lived in towns. Anseim imposed it on all without exception; 
but both he, Bernard, and Peter Damiani, complained that lust abounded much, even 
among the bishops. Not only Panormitan, but Pius II., wished that the law of celibacy 
was taken away. It was therefore clear, that it was not founded on the law of 
God; and it was a sin to force churchmen to vow that which sometimes was not in 
their power. It was found by examining the forms of ordination, that the priests 
in England had made no such vows; and even the vow in the Roman pontifical to 
live chastely, did not import a tie not to marry, since a man might live chaste 
in a married state. Many lewd stories were published of the clergy, but none seemed 
more remarkable, than that of the pope's legate in the time of Henry II. who the 
very same night after he had put all the married clergy from their benefices, 
himself was chargeable with flagrant impurity. Another act passed confirming the 
liturgy which was now finished; eight bishops and three temporal lords only protesting 
against it. There was a long preamble, setting forth the inconvenience of the 
former offices, and the pains that had been taken to reform them; and that divers 
bishops and divines had, by the aid of the Holy Ghost, with an uniform agreement 
concluded on the new book: therefore they enacted that by Whitsunday next, all 
divine offices should be performed according to it; and if any used other offices, 
for the first offence they should be imprisoned six months, lose their benefices 
for a second, and be impris- oned during life for the third. Another act also 
passed respecting fasting. It declared that notwith- standing all days and and 
meats were in themselves alike, yet fasting, being a great help to virtue, and 
to subduing the body to the mind, and a distinction of meats conducing to the 
advancement of the fishing trade, it was enacted, that Lent, and all Fridays, 
Saturdays, and Ember- days, should be fish-days, under several penalties, excepting 
the weak, or those that had the king's licence. Christ had told his disciples, 
that when he was taken from them they should fast: so in the primitive church 
christians fasted before Easter; but the same number of days was not observed 
in all places: afterwards other rules and days were estab- lished; but St. Austin 
complained, that many in his time placed all their religion in observing them. 
Fast-days were turned to a mockery in the church of Rome, in which clergy as well 
as laity sumptuously dined, and eat fish exquisitely dressed, and drank wine, 
and other choice beverage. PAGE 506 Both the laity and clergy granted the king 
subsidies, upon which the parliament was prorogued. The first thing taken into 
care was the receiving the act of uniformity. Some complaints were made of the 
pri- ests' manner of officiating; who did it with such a tone of voice that the 
people could not understand what was said any more than when the prayers were 
said in Latin. Prayers were, therefore, ordered to be said in parish churches 
in a plain voice; while in cathedrals the old way was still kept up, as agreeing 
better with the music used in them. Though this seemed not very decent in the 
confession of sins, nor in the lita- ny, where a simple voice, gravely uttered, 
agreed better with those devotions than cadences and quavering notes, it was yet 
retained. Others continued to use all the gesticulations, crossings, and kneelings, 
to which they had been formerly accustomed. The people also continued the use 
of their beads, which had been brought in by Peter the Hermit, in the eleventh 
century, by which repeating the angels salutation to the virgin was made a great 
part of their devotions, and was ten times said for one Pater Noster. Instructions 
were given to the visitors to put all these down in a new visitation, and to enquire 
if any priests continued their trentals, their thirty masses for departed souls. 
Orders were also given, that there should be no private masses at altars in the 
corners of churches; also that there should be but one communion in a day, unless 
in great churches, and at high festivals, in which they were allowed to have two, 
one in the morning, and another at noon. The visitors made their report, that 
they found the book of commonprayer received universally over the kingdom, except 
that lady Mary continued to have mass said according to the abrogated forms. Upon 
this the coun- cil wrote to her to conform to the laws; pleading with her that 
being so near to the king in blood, she was the more obliged to give example to 
the rest of the subjects. She refused to comply, and sent to the em- peror for 
his protection; upon which he pressed the English ambassador, who promised that 
for some time she should be dispensed. The emperor pretended afterwards that they 
had made him an absolute promise that she should never more be troubled about 
it; but the ambassador said it was only a temporary one. She refused to acknowledge 
the laws made when the king was under age, and carried herself very haughtily. 
She well knew that the protector was then fearful of a war with France, which 
made the emperor's alliance more necessary to England: yet the council sent for 
the officers of her household, and required them to let her know that the king's 
authority was the same while he was a child as at full age; and that it was now 
lodged in them; and though as single persons, they were all inferior to her, yet 
as they were the king's council, she was bound to obey them, especially when they 
executed the law; which all subjects, of whatever rank, were bound to obey. She 
obstinately refused to hear any of the bishops speak before her in favour of the 
reforma- tion. Upon this the council returned an answer to her, that her objec- 
tions were more the result of will than of reason, and therefore her grace must 
be admonished neither to trust her own opinion without ground, nor to mislike 
all others having ground. If hers were good, it were no hurt if she heard the 
worst. If it were ill, she might do well to hear the better. PAGE 507 The reformation 
of the greatest errors in divine worship being thus established, Cranmer proceeded 
next to establish a form of doctrine. The chief point hitherto untouched, was 
the presence of Christ in the sacra- ment, which the priests magnified as the 
greatest mystery of the Chris- tian religion, and the chief privilege of Christians; 
with which the simple and credulous vulgar were mightily affected. The Lutherans 
received that which had been for some ages the doctrine of the Greek church, that 
in the sacraments there was both bread and wine, and also the substance of the 
body and blood of Christ. The Helvetians looked on it only as a commemoration 
of the death of Christ. The princes of Germa- ny were at great pains to have these 
reconciled, in which Bucer had laboured with great industry. Some took a middle 
way, and asserted a real presence, while it was not easy to understand what was 
meant by that expression, unless it was a real application of Christ's death; 
so that the meaning of really was effectually. Though Bucer followed this method, 
Peter Martyr in his lectures declared plainly for the Helve- tians. Dr. Smith 
and some others intended publicly to oppose and affront him; and challenged him 
to a dispute about it, which he readily accepted on condition that the king's 
council should first approve of it, and that it should be managed in scripture 
terms: for the strength of those doctors lay in a nimble managing of those barbarous 
and unintelligible terms of the schools, which, though they sounded high, yet 
really had no meaning: so that the protestants resolved to dispute in scripture 
terms, which were certainly more proper in matters of divinity than the meta- 
physical language of schoolmen. The council having appointed Dr. Cox and some 
others to preside in the dispute, Dr. Smith went out of the way, and a little 
after fled out of England: but before he went he wrote a very mean submission 
to Cranmer. Other doctors disputed with Peter Martyr concerning transubstantiation, 
but it had the common fate of all public disputes, for both sides con- tended 
that they were victors. At this time there were also disputes at Cambridge, which 
were moderated by Ridley, who had been sent down by the council. He had fallen 
on Bertram's book of the sacrament, and wondered much to find so celebrated a 
writer in the ninth century engage so plainly against the corporeal presence. 
This disposed him to think that at the time it was not the received belief of 
the church: he communicat- ed the opinion to Cranmer, and they together made great 
collections out of the fathers upon it, and both of them wrote concerning it. 
The substance of their arguments was, that as Christ called the cup "the fruit 
of the vine," so St. Paul called the other element bread, after the consecration; 
which shews that their nature was not changed. When Christ substituted the eucharist 
in the room of the paschal lamb, he used such expressions as had been customary 
among the Jews on that occcasion; who called the lamb the Lord's passover; which 
could not be meant literally, since the passover was the angels' passing over 
their houses, when the first-born of the Egyptians were killed. Being a com- memoration 
of what was called the Lord's passover, in the same sense did Christ call the 
bread his body: figurative expressions being ordinary in scripture, and not improper 
in sacraments, which may be called figura- tive actions. The Lord's supper was 
also appointed for a remembrance of PAGE 508 Christ, and that supposes absence. 
The elements were also called by Christ his body broken, and his blood shed; so 
it is plain they were his body, not as it is glorified in Heaven, but as it suffered 
on the cross: and since the scriptures speak of Christ's continuance in Heaven 
till the last day, from thence they inferred that he was not corporeally present. 
It was moreover shewed, that eating Christ's flesh, mentioned by St. John, was 
not to be understood of the sacrament, since of every partaker it is said that 
he has eternal life. It must therefore be understood only of receiving Christ's 
doctrine as he himself explained, when he said, "The flesh profiteth nothing; 
but my words, they are spirit and they are life." There were some anabaptists 
at this time in England, who came from Germany. Of these there were two sorts; 
the first only objected to baptising children, and to the manner of it by sprinkling 
instead of dipping. The other held many opinions, anciently condemned as heresies: 
they had raised a cruel war in Germany, and had set up a new king as Munster: 
but all these bore the name of anabaptists from their rejection of infant baptism, 
though that was one of the mildest opinions they held. When they came over to 
England, a commission was granted to some bishops, and others, to search them 
out, and to proceed against them. Several of these persons on being taken up and 
brought before the coun- cil, abjured their errors, which were, that there was 
not a Trinity of persons; that Christ was not God, and took not flesh of the Virgin; 
and that a regenerate man could not sin. Among the most zealous and enthusiastic 
holders of the opinion that Christ was not the same flesh as his virgin mother, 
was Joan Bocher, generally called Joan of Kent. She was resolute in her opinions, 
and rejected all the instruction offered her with scorn: she was, therefore, condemned 
as an obstinate hertic, and delivered to the secular arm. It was with the most 
extreme reluctance that the king signed the warrant for her execution; he thought 
it was an instance of the same spirit of cruelty for which the reformers condemned 
the papists; and, notwith- standing all the arguments that were used with him, 
he was rather si- lenced than satisfied. He signed the warrant with tears in his 
eyes, and said to Cranmer, that since he resigned up himself to his judgment, 
if he sinned in it the sin should lie at his door. This struck the arch- bishop; 
and both he and Ridley took Joan into their houses, and tried what reason joined 
with gentleness could do. But she became more and PAGE 509 more resolute in her 
profession, and at last was burnt. She was sus- tained in her last moments by 
the peculiar fervor of her soul in the resistance of what she called, and justly 
called, a most cruel and unrighteous tyranny. Unprejudiced spirits, under full 
christian con- troul, would have mercifully provided this poor victim of lunacy 
with some appropriate asylum, rather than indulge the thought of leading her to 
the stake and kindling the flames around her. Gracious God! that this should have 
been done by Christians and Protestants! and that, while they were reforming the 
church, and attempting to establish on the ruins of a barbarous policy the gospel 
of peace and love! Joan was not the only victim of protestant misrule. George 
Van Parre, a Dutchman, was also condemned and burnt for denying the divinity of 
Christ, and saying, that the Father only was God. He had led a very exemplary 
life, both for fasting, devotion, and a good conversation; and he suffered with 
ex- traordinary composedness of mind. Against the other sort of anabaptists no 
severities were used; but several books were written to justify infant baptism; 
and the practice of the church so clearly begun, and so universally spread, was 
thought a good plea, especially being grounded on such arguments in scripture 
as demonstrated at least its lawfulness and propriety. About this time a rebellion 
broke out in many parts of England partly arising from a jealousy in the commons 
against the nobility and gentry, who finding more advantage by the trade of wool 
than corn, generally inclosed their grounds, and turned them to pasture, by which 
a great number of persons were thrown out of employment, and a general conster- 
nation prevailed. The other cause was the unquenched enmity of the priests to 
the reformation, who endeavoured to revive in the minds of the blinded multitude 
their former errors. In Devonshire, the insurrec- tion was very formidable; the 
superstition of the priests joining with the rage of the commons, they became 
quickly ten thousand strong. The lord Russel was sent against them with a small 
force, and ordered to try if the matter could be composed without blood: but Arundel, 
a man of quality, commanding the rebels, they were not a loose body of people 
so easily dispersed. They sent their demand to court that the old service and 
ceremonies might be set up again; might be again in force: that the bible in English 
should be called in; that preachers should pray for the sould in purgatory; that 
Cardinal Pole should be restored; that the half of the abbey lands should be restored, 
to found two abbeys in every country; and that gentlemen of 100 marks a year might 
have but one servant. They desired besides, a safe conduct for their chief leaders, 
in order to the redress of their particular grievances. Cranmer wrote an answer, 
shewing the impropriety and superstition of those rites and ceremonies, and of 
that whole way of worship of which they were so fond: and that the amendments 
and changes had been made according to the scriptures, and the customs of the 
primitive church: that their being fond of a worship which they understood not, 
and being desirous to be kept still in ignorance, without the scriptures, proved 
that their priests had greater power over them than the common reason of all mankind 
had. "As for the six articles," he added "that act had never PAGE 510 passed if 
the king had not gone in person to the parliament, and argued for it: yet he soon 
saw his error, and was slack in executing it." After this a threatening answer 
was sent them in the king's name, charging them with their rebellion that blind 
obedience to their priests. In it the king's authority, though he was under age, 
was largely set forth; for by the pretence of his minority the people generally 
were taught to believe that their rising in arms was not rebellion. In conclusion, 
they were earnestly invited to submit to the royal mercy, as others had done, 
whom the king had not only pardoned, but whose just grievances he had fully redressed. 
A fast was proclaimed at court, when Cranmer preached with great freedom and vehemence: 
he laid before them their vicious lives, particularly of those who pretended a 
love to the gospel; and declared the judgments of God which they might look for; 
enlarging on the fresh example of the calamities of Germany, and intimating the 
sad apprehensions he had of some terrible stroke, if they did not repent and amend. 
The rebels continuing in arms, troops were sent against them; and after some resistance, 
they were at length every where routed, their leaders punished, and tranquillity 
restored. A visitation of Cambridge followed soon after. Ridley was the chief 
visitor. When he found that a design was laid to suppress some colleges, under 
pretence of uniting them to others, and to convert some fellow- ships that were 
provided for divines to the study of the civil law, he refused his assent. He 
said the church was already too much robbed, and yet some men's craving was not 
to be satisfied. It seems the design was laid to drive both religion and learning 
out of the land; and therefore he desired leave to be gone. The visitors complained 
of him to the protector, who wrote him a chiding letter: but he answered it with 
the freedom that became a bishop, who was resolved to suffer all things rather 
than sin against his conscience; and the protector was so well satisfied with 
him, that for his sake the college of Clare-hall, the suppression of which he 
had strongly objected to, was preserved. Bonner was now brought into trouble. 
It was not easy to know how to deal with him, for he obeyed every order that was 
sent to him; and yet it was known that he secretly hated and condemned the whole 
reforming system, and as often as he could declare that safely, he was not wanting 
by such ways to preserve his interest with the papists: thus though he obeyed 
the orders of council, he did it in so remiss a manner that it was visible it 
went against him. He was therefore called before it, and charged with several 
particulars, that whereas he used to officiate himself on the great festivals, 
he had not done it since the new service was set out; that he took no care to 
repress adultery, and that he never preached. In the end, proving very refractory 
and violent, he was de- prived of his bishopric, and committed to prison during 
the king's pleasure. The English affairs this year upon the continent were extremely 
unsuc- cessful, and the protector being charged with the result, complaints went 
loud against him; and his enemies, who were very numerous and powerful, took off 
the mask and openly declared hostility to his govern- ment. The earls of Southampton 
and Warwick were the chief; the one PAGE 511 hated him for dismissing him from 
office, and the other hoped to be the chief man in the realm if he should fall. 
Nor was this all the protec- tor's peril; the privy counsellors complained, that 
he was become so arbitrary in his proceedings, that he disregarded the opposition 
that was made by the majority of the council to any of his designs. All these 
things concurred to beget him many enemies: and except Cranmer, Paget, and Smith, 
all turned against him. The council violently complained of his conduct in foreign 
affairs, and enlarged upon the evils that had resulted from it. The protector 
carried the king to Hampton-court, and put many of his own people about him, which 
increased the jealousy against him: upon which, nine of the privy council met 
at Ely-house, and assumed to themselves the authority of the council; and secretary 
Petre being sent by the king, to ask the account of their meeting, instead of 
returning joined himself to them. They made a large declaration of the protector's 
ill- government; and they resolved themselves to see to the safety of the king 
and kingdom. Both the city of London, and the lieutenant of the Tower declared 
for them: they also sent letters through England, desir- ing the assistance of 
the nobility and gentry. Seven more privy counsel- lors came and joined them. 
The protector had removed the king from Hampton-court to Windsor, which had some 
defence about it; and had armed some of his own servants, and set them about the 
king's person; yet seeing himself abandoned by all but a few friends, and finding 
the party against him was of such a strength that it would be in vain to struggle 
any longer, he offered to submit himself to the council. A proposition of treaty 
was set on foot, and the lords in London were desired to send two of their number 
with their proposals, and a passport was sent them for their safety. Cranmer and 
two others wrote to the council, to dis- pose them to an agreement, and not to 
follow cruel suggestions. Many false reports were abroad of the protector, that 
he had threatened, if they intended to put him to death, the king should die first, 
which served to increase the prejudices against him. The council wrote to Cranmer 
and Paget, charging them to look well to the king's person, that he should not 
be removed from Windsor; and that the protector's depend- ants might be put from 
him, and his own sworn servants admitted. They also protested that they would 
proceed with all the moderation and favour towards the duke that was possible. 
Understanding that all things were prepared as they had desired, they sent first 
three of their number, to see that the duke and some of his friends, namely, Smith, 
Stanhope, Thynne, Wolf, and Cecil, should be confined to their lodgings; and on 
the 12th of October, the whole council went to Windsor, and made great protestations 
of their duty to the king, which he received favour- ably, and assured them he 
took all that they had done in good part. On this the protector, with the rest 
of his friends except Cecil, who was presently enlarged, were sent to the Tower, 
and many articles were objected to him, that he had treated with ambassadors apart, 
had made bishops and lord-lieutenants of his own will, had held a court of re- 
quests in his house, had embased the coin and neglected the places the king had 
in France, had encouraged the commons in their late insurrec- tions, had given 
out commissions, and proclaimed a pardon without cons- PAGE 512 ent of the council; 
that he had animated the king against them, had proclaimed them traitors, and 
had put his own servants armed about the king's person. Hence it appears, that 
the crimes alleged against him were the effects of his sudden exaltation, which 
had made him too much forget that he was a subject: although in fact he had carried 
his great- ness with much innocence, since in all the studied charges brought 
against him by his numerous enemies, no acts of cruelty, rapine, or bribery, were 
objected to him. His faults were rather errors and weak- nesses, than crimes. 
His embasing the coin was done upon a common mis- take of weak governments, who 
fly to that as their last refuge in the necessity of their affairs. In his imprisonment, 
he set himself to the study of moral philosophy and divinity, and wrote a preface 
to a book of patience, which had made great impressions on him. His fall was a 
great affliction to all who loved the reformation, and this was increased because 
they had no reason to trust much to the two chief men of the party against him. 
Southampton was a known papist, and Warwick was looked on as a man of no religion: 
and both at the emperor's court, and in France, it was expected that upon this 
revolution, religion would again drop into the posture in which king Henry had 
left it. The duke of Norfolk and bishop Gardiner hoped to be discharged, Bonner 
looked to be re-established in his bishopric, and all people began to neglect 
the new service: this would no doubt immediately have been the case had not the 
earl of Warwick, finding the king zealously affected to the reformation, quickly 
forsook the popish party, and become a mighty promoter of that cause. A court 
of civilians was appointed to examine Bonner's appeal, and upon their report the 
council rejected it, and confirmed the sen- tence that had been upon him. In November 
the parliament met, when an act was passed declaring it treason to call any to 
the number of twelve together about matter of state, if on being required they 
did not disperse. The bishops made a heavy complaint of the growth of vice and 
impiety, and that their power was so much abridged, they could not repress them. 
Accordingly a bill was read, enlarging their authority; but it was thought to 
give them too much power, and it was so moderated that the lords passed it; but 
the commons rejected it, and sent up a bill that empowered thirty-two who were 
to be named by the king, one half of the temporality, and the other of the spirituality, 
to compile a body of ecclesiastical laws within three years; and that these, not 
being contrary to the common or statute law, and approved of by the king, should 
have ecclesiastical authority in the land. Of this thirty-two, four were to be 
bishops, and as many to be common lawyers. Twelve divines were also empowered 
to prepare a new form of ordination; which being confirmed under the great seal, 
should take place after April. Articles were then put in against the duke of Somerset, 
with a confession signed by him. He protested that his errors had flowed rather 
from indiscretion than malice, and denied all treason- able designs against the 
king or the realm: he was fined in 2000l. a year in land, and the loss of all 
his goods and offices. He complained of the heaviness of this censure, and desired 
earnestly to be restored Page 513 to the king's favour, trusting that he should 
make amends for his past follies. He was discharged in the beginning of February, 
soon after which he was pardoned, and was again brought both to the court and 
council. The reformation now proceeded with fresh vigour. The council sent orders 
over England to require all to conform themselves to the new service, and to call 
in all the books of the old offices. An act passed in parliament to the same effect. 
All the old books and images were appointed to be defaced, and all prayers to 
saints were to be struck out of the primmers published by the late king. A remarkable 
privilege was this session granted to the eldest sons of peers, who were allowed 
as such to sit in the commons' house. The committee appointed to prepare the book 
of ordinations, finished their work with common consent. It was found that in 
the ancient church, there was nothing used in ordinations, but prayer and imposition 
of hands: the additions of anointing and giving consecrated vestments were afterwards 
brought in. In the council of Florence, it was declared that the rite of ordaining 
a priest, the delivering vessels for the eucharist, with a power to offer sacrifices 
to God for the dead and living, were novelties invented to support the belief 
of transubstatiation. All these additions were now cut off, and ordination was 
restored to a greater simplicity; and the form was almost the same as that still 
in use, only then in ordaining a priest, the bishop was to lay one hand on his 
head, and with the other to give him a Bible, and a chalice with bread in it. 
In the consecration of a bishop, the form was the same that we retain, only then 
the custom was retained of giving the bishop a staff, saying these words, "Be 
to the flock of Christ a shepherd." In the middle of the sixth century, the anointing 
the priests' hands was begun in France, but was not used in the Roman church for 
two ages after. In the eighth century, the vestments were given with a special 
blessing, empowering priests to offer expiatory sacrifices; then their heads were 
anointed: and in the tenth century, the belief of transub- stantiation being received, 
the vessels for the sacrament were deliv- ered. It is evident from the several 
forms of ordination, that the church did not believe itself tied to one manner; 
and that the prayer, which in some ages was the prayer of consecration, was in 
other ages esteemed only a prayer preparatory to it. There were some sponsions 
promised, as a covenant, to which the ordination was a seal: the first of these 
was that the persons who came to receive orders professed that they were inwardly 
moved by the Holy Ghost. If this were well consid- ered, it would no doubt put 
many that thirst after sacred offices to a stand; who, if they examine themselves 
well, dare not pretend to a gift concerning which they know nothing, but that 
they have it not. At this time pope Paul the third died. In the conclave that 
followed, cardinal Farnese set up cardinal Pole, whose wise behaviour in the council 
of Trent had greatly raised his esteem. It also appeared, that though he was of 
the emperor's faction, yet he did not serve him blind- ly. Some loaded him with 
the imputations of Lutheranism, and inconti- nence: the last would not have hindered 
his advancement, though true, yet he fully cleared himself from it: but the former 
lay heavier, for in his retirement at Viterbo, where he was legate, he had given 
himself to PAGE 514 the study of controversies; and Tranellius, Flaminio, and 
others sus- pected of Lutheranism, had lived in his house; and in the council 
of Trent he seemed favourable to some of their opinions. But the great sufferings 
both of himself and family in England, seemed to set him above all suspicions. 
When his friends had almost gained a sufficient number of suffrages, he seemed 
little concerned at it, and rather de- clined than aspired to the dignity. When 
a full number had agreed, and came to adore him, according to the ordinary ceremony, 
he received it with his usual coldness; and it being done in the night, he said, 
"God loves light," advising them to delay it till day. The Italians, among whom 
ambition passes for the character of a great mind, looked on this as an insufferable 
piece of dulness; so that the cardinals shrunk from him before day, and chose 
de Monte pope, who reigned by the name of Julius the Third. His first promotion 
is very extraordinary, for he gave his cardinal's hat to a servant who kept his 
monkey; and being asked the reason of it, he said, he saw as much in his servant 
to recommend him to be a cardinal, as the conclave saw in him to induce them to 
choose him pope. In February, Ridley was made bishop of London and Westminster; 
1000l. a year of the rents of the see where assigned him, with licence to hold 
two prebends. Repse, bishop of Norwich resigned, upon which Therleby, bishop of 
Westminster, was removed to Norwich; and it was resolved to re-unite London and 
Westminster, and to place them under one man's care. Ridley's patent was not during 
pleasure but during life a strong proof of the king's favour. About this time 
there was a discourse on foot of a marriage between the king and a French princess, 
which grieved the reformers, who rather wished him to marry Maximilian's daughter, 
who was believed to favour the reformation, and was esteemed one of the best men 
of the age. Dr. Latimer preached at court, and warned the king of the ill effects 
of bad marriages, which were made up only as political bargains, without affection 
between the parties; and that they occa- sioned so much iniquity, and so many 
divorces: he also complained of the luxury and vanity of the age, and pressed 
the setting up a primitive discipline in the church. He preached this as his last 
sermon, and therefore used great freedom. The see of Gloucester fell vacant, and 
Hooper was named to it. He had some scruples about the episccopal vestments, and 
thought all those garments having been consecrated with much superstition were 
to be reckoned among the elements condemned by St. Paul: but Ridley justified 
the use of them, and said the elements condemned by St. Paul, were only the Jewish 
ceremonies; which the apostles condemned when they were imposed as essential, 
as though the Mosaical law was not abrogated, and the Messiah was not come. Cranmer 
desired Bucer's opinion concerning the lawfulness of those habits, and the obligation 
lying on subjects to obey the laws about them. His opinion was that every creature 
of God was good, and that no former abuse could make a thing indifferent in itself 
become unlawful. Yet since those garments had been abused to supersti- tion, and 
were likely to become a subject of contention, he wished they might be taken away 
by law; and that ecclesiastical discipline, and a PAGE 515 more complete reformation 
might be pursued, and a stop put to the rob- bing of churches; otherwise they 
might see, in the present state of Germany, a dreadful prospect of that which 
England ought to look for. He wished that all good men would unite against the 
greater corruptions, and then lesser abuses would easily be redressed. Peter Martyr 
also delivered his opinion to the same purpose. Hooper was suspended from preaching; 
but the earl of Warwick wrote to Cranmer to dispense with him in the matter: he 
answered, that while the law continued in force, he could not do it without incurring 
a Praemunire. Upon this the king wrote to him, allowing him to do it, and dispensing 
with the law: yet this matter was not settled till a year after. John a Lasco, 
with some Ger- mans of the Helvetian confession, came this year into England, 
being driven out of Germany by persecution: they were erected by letters patent 
into a corporation, and a Lasco was their superintendent. He wrote both against 
the habits, and against kneeling in the sacrament. Polydore Virgil was this year 
suffered to go out of England, and still to hold the preferments he had in it. 
Pomet was made bishop of Rochester, and Coverdale co-adjutor to Veysey in Exeter, 
the bishop of which he soon became. A design was now set on foot for a review 
of the common-prayer book, in order to which Bucer's opinion was asked. He approved 
the main parts of the former book, and wished there might not only be a denunciation 
against scandalous persons who came to the sacrament, but a discipline to exclude 
them: that the habits might be laid aside; that no part of the communion office 
might be used, except when there was a sacrament; that communion might be more 
frequent; that the prayers might be said in a plain voice; the sacrament put in 
the people's hands; and that there might be no prayers for the dead. He advised 
a change of some phrases in the office of the communion which seemed to favour 
transubstantiation; and that baptism might be only in churches. He thought the 
hallowing water, the chrism, and the white garment, were too scenical: nor did 
he approve of adjuring the devil, nor of the god-father's answering in the child's 
name: he thought confirmation should be delayed till the person was of age, and 
came sincerely to renew the baptismal covenant. He advised catechising every holy 
day, both of children and adults; he disliked private marriages, extreme unction, 
and offerings at the churching of women: and thought there ought to be greater 
strictness used in the examination of those who came to receive orders. At the 
same time he understood that the king expected a new-year's gift from him, of 
a book written particularly for his own use: he, therefore, prepared a work for 
him concerning the kingdom of Christ: he pressed much the setting up a strict 
discipline, the sanctification of the Lord's day, appointed days of fasting, and 
that pluralities and nonresi- dence might be effectually condemned; that children 
might be catechised; that the reverence due to churches might be preserved; that 
bishops should throw off secular affairs, take care of their dioceses, and govern 
them by the advice of their presbysters; that there might be rural bishops over 
twenty or thirty parishes; that provincial councils might meet twice a year; that 
church-lands should be restored, and a PAGE 516 fourth part be assigned to the 
poor; that marriage without consent of parents should be annulled; that a second 
marriage might be declared lawful, after divorce for adultery, and some other 
reasons; that care should be taken of the education of youth, and for repressing 
luxury; that the law might be reformed; that no office might be sold, but given 
to the most deserving; that none should be put in prison upon slight offences; 
and that the severity of some laws, as that which made theft capital, might be 
mitigated. Edward was much pleased with these advices; and upon them began himself 
to form a scheme for amending many things that were amiss in the govern- ment. 
This he writ with his own hand, and in a style and manner which had much of a 
child in it, though the thoughts were manly. It appears that he intended to set 
up a church discipline, and settle a method of bringing up youth; but the discourse 
was not finished. He also wrote a journal of every thing that passed at home, 
and of the news from beyond sea. It had clear marks of his own composing, as well 
as it is written with his own hand. He wrote another discourse in French, being 
a collec- tion of all the places of scripture against idolatry, with a preface 
before it, dedicated to the protector. At this time Ridley made his first visitation 
to his diocese; the arti- cles upon which he proceeded chiefly related to the 
service and ceremo- nies that were abolished. He also carried some injunctions 
with him against certain remainders of the former superstition, and for exhorting 
the people to alms, and to come oft to the sacrament; and that altars might be 
removed, and tables put in their room, in the most convenient place of the chancel. 
In the ancient church the tables were of wood; but the sacrament being called 
a sacrifice in the mass, and therefore it was thought fit to take away both the 
name and form of altars. Ridley only advised the curates to do this; but upon 
some contests arising concern- ing it, the council interposed, and required it 
to be done; and sent with their order a list of reasons justifying it. The following 
among others were most excellent reasons assigned in this official paper of the 
council for the substitution of simple tables for carved and adorned altars. "The 
form of a table shall more move the simple from the superstitious opinions of 
the popish mass, unto the right use of the Lord's supper. -For the use of an altar 
is to make sacrifice upon it; the use of the table is to serve for men to eat 
upon. Now when we come unto the Lord's board, what do we come for? To sacrifice 
Christ again, and to crucify him again, or to feed upon him that was once only 
crucified and offered up for us? If we come to feed upon him, spiritually to eat 
his body, and spiritually to drink his blood, which is the use of the Lord's supper, 
then no man can deny but the form of a table is more meet for the Lord's board 
than the form of an altar." Then, moreover, "Jesus Christ did institute the sacrament 
of his body and blood at his last supper at a table, and not at an altar, as it 
appeareth manifestly by the three Evangelists. And St. Paul calleth the coming 
to the holy communion the coming unto the Lord's supper. And also it is not read 
that any of the PAGE 517 apostles or the primitive church did ever use any altar 
in ministration of the holy communion. Wherefore seeing the form of a table is 
more agreeable to Christ's institution, and with the usage of the apostles, and 
of the primitive church, than the form of an altar, therefore the form of a table 
is rather to be used than the form of an altar in the administration of the holy 
communion." The government was now free of all disturbance: the coin was reformed, 
and commerce was encouraged. The faction in the court seemed also to be extinguished 
by a marriage between the earl of Warwick's son and the duke of Somerset's daughter. 
The duke of Lunenburgh made a proposition of marriage with lady Mary, but the 
treaty with the infant of Portugal did still depend, so it was not entertained. 
In addition the church promised well: even the popish clergy conformed to every 
change that was made. Oglethorpe, afterwards bishop of Carlisle, being informed 
against as favouring the old superstition, under his hand declared, that he thought 
the order of religion then settled was nearer the use of the primitive church 
and that which was formerly received, and that he condemned transubstantiation 
as a late invention, and approved the communion in both kinds, also the people's 
receiving it always with the priest. Smith, who had written against the marriage 
of the clergy, and was upon some complaints put in prison, but discharged by Cranmer's 
intercession, wrote a submission to him, acknowledging the mistakes he had committed 
in his book, and the archbishop's gentleness towards him; and wished he might 
perish if he was not sincere, and called God a witness against his soul if he 
lied. Day, bishop of Chichester, also preached at court against transubstantiation. 
The principle by which most of that party governed themselves was this - they 
concluded they ought to oppose all the changes before they were established by 
law; yet that being done, that they might afterwards comply with them. Martin 
Bucer died in the beginning of this year. He had entertained great apprehensions 
of a fatal revolution in England, by reason of the ill lives of the people, the 
want of ecclesiastical discipline, and the neglect of the pastoral charge. Orders 
were sent from the court to Cambridge, to bury him with all the public honour 
to his memory that could be devised. Speeches and sermons were made both by Haddon, 
the university orator, and Parker, then Regius professor, and afterwards Archbishop 
of Canterbury. He was one of the most extraordinary men both for learning and 
a true judgment of things in that time: he had differed in some points from Bucer, 
and yet he acknowledged, that there was none alive of whom he hoped to learn so 
much as he had done by his conversa- tion with him. Bucer was inferior to none 
of all the reformers in learn- ing, and had a great zeal for preserving the unity 
of the church: he had not that fluency in disputing for which Peter Martyr was 
admired, and the popish doctors took advantage from that to carry themselves more 
insolently towards him. PAGE 518 Soon after this, Gardiner's process was put to 
an end: a commission was issued out to Cranmer, three bishops, and some civilians, 
to proceed against him, for his contempt in refusing to sign the articles that 
had been offered to him. The things objected to him were, that he refused to advocate 
in his sermon the king's power when he was under age, and had affronted the preachers 
whom the king had sent to his diocese; that he had been negligent in executing 
the king's injunctions, and refused to confess his fault and ask the king's pardon. 
It was said that the rebel- lions raised in England might have been prevented, 
if he had in time set forth the king's authority: to which he answered, that he 
was not re- quired to do it by any order of council, but only in a private dis- 
course; yet witnesses being examined upon these particulars, the dele- gates proceeded 
to sentence of deprivation against his notwithstanding his appeal to the king 
in person; and he was appointed to lie still in the tower, where he continued 
till queen Mary discharged him. By this time the greater number of the bishops 
were such men as heartily received the reformation: it was, therefore, resolved 
to proceed to a settlement of the doctrine of the church. Many thought that should 
have been done in the first place; but Cranmer judged it was better to proceed 
slowly in such a matter: he thought corruptions in the worship were to be first 
begun with, since while they remained the addresses to God were so defiled that 
all people were involved in unlawful complianc- es. He thought that speculative 
opinions might come last, since errors in them were not of such ill-consequence: 
and he judged it necessary to lay these open, in many treatises and disputes, 
before the council should proceed to make alterations, in order that all people 
might be fully satisfied with what was done. Accordingly they framed a body of 
articles which contained the doctrine of the church of England: they divided them 
into forty-two, and afterwards some few alterations being made in the beginning 
of queen Elizabeth's reign, they were reduced to their present number, thirty 
nine. The greatest care was taken to frame these articles in the most compre- 
hensive words, and the greatest simplicity united with strength. When this was 
settled, commenced the review of the common prayer book. In the daily service 
they added the confession and absolution, that so the worship of God might begin 
in a grave and humble manner: after which a solemn declaration of the mercy of 
God, according to the terms of the gospel, was to be pronounced by the priest. 
This was thought much better than giving absolution in such formal words, as, 
"I absolve thee:" which begat in the superficial worshipper an opinion, that the 
priest had authority to pardon sin, and which made them think of nothing so much 
as how to purchase it at his hands. In the communion service they ordered a recital 
of the commandments, with a short devotion between every one of them. The holy 
oil, the use of the cross in consecrating the eucharist, prayers for the dead, 
and some expressions that favoured transubstantia- tion, were rejected, and the 
book was put in the same order as that in PAGE 519 which it continues to this 
day, excepting only some inconsiderable variations. A rubrick was added to the 
office of the communion, explain- ing the reason of kneeling in it, that it was 
only an expression of reverence and gratitude upon receiving so particular a mark 
of the favour of God: but that no adoration was intended by it, and no intima- 
tion that Christ was corporeally present in it. In queen Elizabeth's time this 
was omitted, that such as conformed in other things, but still retained the belief 
of the corporeal presence, might not be offended at such a declaration; but it 
was again inserted on the restoration of Charles II., for removing the scruples 
of those who excepted to that posture. Christ at first instituted this sacrament 
in the ordinary table gesture. Moses appointed the pascal lamb to be eaten by 
the people standing, with staves in their hands, they being then to begin their 
march; yet that was afterwards changed by the Jews, who ate it in the posture 
common at meals, which our Saviour's practice justifies. At this time six of the 
most eminent preachers were appointed to wait on the court by turns, two at a 
time, and the other four were sent as itinerant preachers into all the counties 
of England, in a circuit, for supplying the defects of the clergy, who were generally 
very weak and faulty. This was no new practice among reformers of the church. 
Wick- liffe and his disciples went from town to town, and from county to county, 
to preach the gospel; which they proclaimed in church yards as well as churches, 
and even in markets and fairs, and whatever public places would allow of the greatest 
numbers to hear them. The protestants of France early adopted the same custom. 
Even the catholics have been examples of this zeal in defence of corruption and 
error, which the reformed have found so remarkably efficient in propagating the 
true faith. The mass, which was still continued in lady Mary's chapel, was now 
again challenged. The court was less afraid of the emperor's displeasure than 
formerly, and therefore would no longer bear with so public a breach of law: and 
the promise they had made being but temporary, and never given in writing, they 
thought they were not bound by it. But the emperor assured her that he had an 
absolute promise for that privilege in her behalf: this encouraged her so much, 
that when the council wrote, she said she would follow the catholic church, and 
adhere to her father's religion. Answer was written in the king's name, requiring 
her to obey the law, and not to pretend that the king was under age, since the 
late rebels had justified themselves by that. The way of worship then estab- lished, 
was also vindicated, as most consonant to the word of God. But she refused to 
engage in any disputes, and said she would continue in her former courses. She 
once was thinking of going out of England, insomuch that the emperor ordered a 
ship to lie near the coast for her transportation, and espoused he quarrel so 
warmly, that he threatened to make war, if she should be severely used. Dr. Wotton 
was sent over to the emperor, to convince him that no absolute promise was ever 
made: but he pretended, that he had promised to her mother at her death to protect 
her, and was therefore bound in honour to take care of her; but now when the council 
were not in such fear of the emperor's displeasure, they PAGE 520 sent to seize 
on two of her chaplains, who had said mass her house, when she was absent: they 
kept out of the way, and she wrote to the council to stop the prosecution, and 
continued to stand upon the promise made to the emperor. A long answer was returned 
to her by the council, in which after the matter of the promise was cleared, they 
urged the absurdity of prayers in an unknown tongue, offering the sacrament for 
the dead, and worshipping images: the ancients appealed upon all occasions to 
the scriptures, by which she might easily discover the errors and cheats of the 
old superstition, that were supported only by false miracles and lying stories. 
They pleaded that being trusted with the execution of the laws, they were obliged 
to proceed equally. Mallet, one of the chaplains, was taken, and upon her earnestly 
desiring that he might be set at liberty, it was denied her. The council sent 
for the chief officers of her house, and required them to let her know the king's 
pleasure, that she must have the new service in her family; and to give the like 
charge to her chaplains and servants. This vexed her much, and almost cast her 
into sickness. She said, she would obey the king in every thing in which her conscience 
was not touched; but charged them not to deliver the council's message to her 
servants. Upon that, the lord chancellor, the lord Petre, and one other, were 
sent with the same orders to her: they carried to her a letter from the king, 
which she received on her knees; but when she read it, she cast the blame of it 
on Cecil, then secretary of state. The chancellor told her, the whole council 
were of one mind, that they could not suffer her to use a form of worship against 
law, and had ordered them to intimate this both to herself and her family. She 
made great protestations of duty to the king; but said, she would die rather than 
use any form of worship but that which was left by her father, only she was afraid 
she was not worthy to suffer on so good an account. If her chaplains refused to 
say mass, she could have none, for the new service she was resolved against, and 
if it was forced on her, she would leave her house. She insisted on the promise 
made to the emperor, and she believed him more than them all: she gave them a 
token to be carried to the king, and so dismissed them. Upon this her resolution, 
the council went no further, only after this her mass was said so secretly as 
to give no public offence. From Copthall, where this was done, she removed and 
lived at Hunsden, where Ridley went to see her. There is something so curious 
in this visit and dialogue between the bishop and Mary, that we shall give it 
in Mr. Fox's own words. About the eighth of September Dr. Ridley, then bishop 
of London, being at his house at Hadham, in Hertfordshire, went to visit the lady 
Mary then living at Hunsden, two miles off; and was gently entertained by Sir 
Thomas Wharton and other of her officers till it was almost eleven o'clock, about 
which time the lady Mary came forth into her chamber of presence, and then the 
bishop saluted her grace, and said, that he was come to do his duty to her grace. 
She thanked him for his pains, and for a quarter of an hour talked with him very 
pleasantly, saying that she knew him in the court when he was chaplain to her 
father, and could well remember a sermon that he made before king Henry her father, 
at the PAGE 521 marriage of my lady Clinton that now is, to Sir Anthony Brown. 
So she dismissed him to dine with her officers. After dinner was done the bishop 
being called for by the lady Mary, restored again to her grace, between whom this 
communication was. First the bishop began in manner as followeth:- "Madam, I came 
not only to do my duty to see your grace, but also to offer myself to preach before 
you on Sunday next, if it will please you to hear me." At this her countenance 
changed, and after silence for a space, she answered thus - "My Lord, as for this 
last matter I pray you make the answer to it yourself." The dialogue then proceeded 
thus:- Bishop. Madam, considering mine office and calling, I am bound in duty 
to make to your grace this offer, to preach before you. Mary. Well, I pray you 
make the answer to this matter yourself: for you know the answer well enough. 
But if there be no remedy but I must make you answer, this shall be your answer; 
the door of the parish church adjoining shall be open for you if you come, and 
ye may preach if you list; but neither I nor any of mine shall hear you. Bishop. 
Madam, I trust you will not refuse God's word. Mary. I cannot tell what ye call 
God's word; that is not God's word now, that was God's word in my father's days. 
Bishop. God's word is all one in all times, but hath been better under- stood 
and practised in some ages than in other. Mary. You durst not for your ears have 
avouched that for God's word in my father's days, that now you do. And as for 
your new books, I thank God I never read any of them; I never did, nor ever will 
do. After many bitter words against the form of religion then established, and 
against the government of the realm, and the laws made in the young years of her 
brother, which she said she was not bound to obey till her brother came to perfect 
age, and then she affirmed she would obey them; she asked the bishop whether he 
were one of the council: he answered, "No." "You might well enough," said she, 
"as the council goeth now a days." Then she concluded with these words: "My lord, 
for your gentle- ness to come and see me, I thank you; but for your offering to 
preach before me, I thank you never a whit," The bishop was dismissed, and brought 
by Sir Thomas Wharton to the place where they dined, and was desired to drink. 
After he had drunk, he paused awhile, looking very sadly, and suddenly brake out 
into these words: "Surely, I have done amiss!" "Why so?" quoth Sir Thomas Wharton. 
"I have drunk," said he, "in that place where God's word offered hath been refused: 
whereas if I had remembered my duty, I ought to have departed immediately, and 
to have shaken off the dust of my shoes for a testimony against this house." These 
words were by the bishop spoken with such a vehemency, that some of the hearers 
afterward confessed their hair to stand upright on their heads. This done, the 
bishop departed, and so returned to his house. At this time a great creation of 
peers took place. Warwick was made duke of Northumberland, the Percies being then 
under an attainder: Paulet was made Marquis of Winchester; Herbert, earl of Pembroke; 
and a little PAGE 522 before this, Russel had been created earl of Bedford; and 
Darcy was made a lord. There was none so likely to take the king out of Northumber- 
land's hands, as the duke of Somerset, who was beginning to form a new party. 
Therefore, upon some informations, the duke of Somerset and his duchess, Sir Ralph 
Vane, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Thomas Arundel, and several others, of whom some 
were gentlemen of quality, and others the duke's servants, were all committed 
to the Tower. Committing Palmer was a mere delusion, for he had betrayed the duke, 
and was seized as an accomplice, after which, he pretended to discover a plot: 
he said, the duke intended to have raised the people, and that Northumberland, 
North- ampton, and Pembroke, having been invited to dine at the lord Paget's, 
he intended to have set on them by the way, or have killed them at dinner; that 
Vane was to have 2000 men ready; Arundel was to have seized on the Tower, and 
all the gendarmarie were to have been killed. These things were told the young 
king with such specious circumstances, that he was deluded by them, and unhappily 
became alienated from his uncle, judging him guilty of so foul a conspiracy. It 
was added by others, that the duke intended to have raised the city of London; 
one Crane confirmed Palmer's testimony, and both the earl of Arundel and Paget 
were commit- ted as accomplices. On the first of December the duke was brought 
to his trial: the marquis of Winchester, lord steward presided; and twenty-seven 
peers sat in judgment, among whom were the dukes of Suffolk and Northumberland, 
and the earl of Pembroke. The particular charges were, a design to seize on the 
king's person, to imprison Norhtumberland, and to raise the city of London. It 
seemed a gross dereliction of justice for Northumberland to sit as judge, when 
one crime alleged was a design against his life: for though by the law of England 
no peer can be challenged, yet by the law of nature no man can judge where he 
is a party. The chancellor, though a peer, was left out, upon suspicion of a reconciliation 
which he was making with the duke. The protector was not deeply skilled in law, 
and neither objected to the indictment, nor desired counsel to plead for him, 
but only answered to matters of fact: he denied all design to raise the people, 
or to kill Northumberland; or if he had talked thus it was in passion, without 
any intention: and it was ridiculous to think, that he with a small troop could 
destroy nine hundred gendarmarie. The armed men he had about him were for his 
own defence; he had done no mischief to his enemies, though it was once in his 
power to have done it; and he had surrendered himself without any resistance: 
he desired the witnesses might be brought face to face, and objected many things 
to them, chiefly to Palmer; but this common act of justice was denied him, and 
their depositions were only read. He carried himself during the trial with great 
temper, and all the sharpness which the king's counsel expressed in pleading against 
him did not provoke him to any indecent passion. When sentence was given his courage 
sank a little, and he asked the three lords, who were his enemies, pardon for 
his ill designs against them, and made suit for his life, and for his wife and 
children. It was generally thought that nothing being found against him but an 
intention PAGE 523 to imprision a privy counsellor, which had never taken effect, 
one so nearly related to the king, would not have been put to death on that account: 
it was therefore necessary to raise in the king a great aver- sion to him. Accordingly, 
a story was brought to him, as if in the Tower the protector had confessed a design 
to employ means to assassinate these lords; and the persons said to have been 
named for that wicked service were all persuaded to affirm it. This being believed 
by the king, he took no care to preserve him, assassination being a crime of so 
barbarous a nature, that it possessed him with a horror, even of his uncle, when 
he thought him guilty of it: and thus was he given up to his enemies. Stanhope, 
Partridge, Arundel, and Vane, were next tried: the two first were not much pitied, 
for they had made an ill use of their interest in the duke during his greatness: 
the last two were much la- mented. Arundel's jury was shut up a whole day and 
night, and those who were for the acquittal yielded to the fury of the rest, only 
that they might save their own lives, and not be starved. Vane had done great 
service in the wars, and carried himself with considerable magnanimity. They were 
all condemned: Partridge and he were hanged, the other two were beheaded. The 
lord chancellor had become a secret friend to the duke of Somerset, which was 
thus discovered: he went aside once at council and wrote a note giving the duke 
notice of what was then in agitation against him, and, endorsing it only for the 
duke, sent it to the Tower: but his servant, not having particular directions, 
fancied it was to the duke of Norfolk, and carried it to him. He, to make Northumberland 
his friend, forwarded it to him: upon Rich understanding the mistake into which 
his servant had fallen, to prevent the discovery, went immediately to the king, 
and pretending some indisposition desired to be discharged; upon which the great 
seal was taken from him, and put in the hands of the bishop of Ely. This was much 
censured, for all the reformers had inveighed severely against the secular employments 
and high places which bishops had held in the church of Rome. Christ said, "Who 
made me a judge?" St. Paul left it as a rule, that "No man that warreth, entan- 
gleth himself with the affairs of this life." This Saint Cyprian and the other 
fathers understood as a perpetual prohibition of churchmen's meddling with secular 
matters, and condemned it severely. Many canons were made against this in provincial 
councils, and a very full one was decreed at Chalcedon. But as the bishops of 
Rome and Alexandria grew rich and powerful, they established a sort of secular 
principality in the church: and other sees, as they increased in wealth affected 
to imitate them. Charles the Great raised this much every where, and gave great 
territories and privileges to the church; upon which bishops and abbots were not 
only admitted to a share in the public counsels, by virtue of their lands, but 
all the chief offices of the state were open to them; and then ecclesiastical 
preferments were given to courtiers as rewards for their services. By these means 
the clergy became very corrupt, merit and learning being no longer the standards 
by which men were esteemed or promoted: and bishops were only considered as a 
sort of great men, who went in a peculiar habit, and on great festivities were 
obliged to say mass, or perform some other solemnities. They wholly PAGE 524 abandoned 
the souls committed to their care, and left the spiritual part of their callings 
to their vicars and archdeacons, who made no other use of it, but to oppress the 
inferior clergy and the people. We now proceed to relate the death of the Protector, 
as furnished by a certain nobleman, who was present at the deed-doing, and wrote 
the same. In the year of our Lord 1552, and the month of January, he was brought 
out of the Tower of London, delivered to the sheriffs of the city, and compassed 
about with a great number of armed men both of the guard and others. He was conducted 
to the scaffold on Tower-hill, where changing neither voice nor countenance, but 
in a manner and with the same gesture which he commonly used at home, kneeling 
upon both his knees and lifting up his hands, commended himself unto God. After 
he had ended a few short prayers, standing up again, and turning himself toward 
the east side of the scaffold, nothing at all abashed either with the sight of 
the axe, nor yet of the executioner, nor of present death; but with the same alacrity 
and cheerfulness of mind and countenance as he was accustomed to shew when he 
heard the causes and supplication of others, and espe- cially the poor, he uttered 
these words to the people:- "Dearly beloved friends, I am brought hither to suffer 
death, albeit that I never offended against the king either by word or deed, and 
have been always as faithful and true unto this realm as any man. But for- somuch 
as I am by law condemned to die, I do acknowledge myself as well as others to 
be subject thereunto. Wherefore to testify my obedience which I owe unto the laws, 
I am come hither to suffer death; whereunto I willingly offer myself, with most 
hearty thanks unto God, who hath given me this time of repentance, who might through 
sudden death have taken away my life, that neither I should have acknowledged 
him nor myself. Moreover, dearly beloved friends, there is yet somewhat that I 
must put you in mind of, as touching the Christian religion; which so long as 
I was in authority, I always diligently set forth and furthered to my utmost power. 
Neither do I repent me of my doings, but rejoice therein, seeing that now the 
state of Christian religion cometh most near unto the form and order of the primitive 
church. Which thing I esteem as a great benefit given of God both unto you and 
me; most heartily exhorting you all, that this which is most purely set forth 
unto you, you will with like thankfulness accept and embrace, and set out the 
same in your living. Which thing if you do not, without doubt greater mischief 
and calamity will follow." When he had spoken these words, there was suddenly 
a terrible noise heard: whereupon there came a great fear upon all men. This noise 
was as it had been the noise of some great storm or tempest, which to some seemed 
to be from above; as if a great deal of gunpowder being inclosed in an armory, 
and having caught fire, had violently broken out. But unto some it seemed as though 
it had been a great multitude of horsemen running together or coming upon them. 
Such a noise then was in the ears of all, although they saw nothing. Whereby it 
happened that all the people being amazed without any evident cause, they ran 
away, some into the ditches and puddles, and some into the houses thereabouts; 
others PAGE 525 fell down grovelling unto the ground, with their poleaxes and 
halberts; and most of them cried out, "Jesus save us, Jesus save us!" Those who 
remained in their places, for fear knew not where they were; and I myself who 
was there among the rest, being also afraid in this hurly- burly, stood still 
amazed. It happened here, as the evangelist wrote of Christ, when as the officers 
of the high priests and pharisees, coming with weapons to take him, being astonished 
ran backwards and fell to the ground. In the meantime, whilst these things were 
thus in doing, the people by chance espied one Sir Anthony Brown riding under 
the scaffold; which was the occasion of a new noise. For when they saw him coming 
they conjec- tured that which was not true, but which they all sincerely wished 
for, that the king by that messenger had sent his uncle pardon; and therefore 
with great rejoicing and casting up their caps, they cried out, "Pardon, pardon 
is come, God save the king." Thus this good duke, although he was destitute of 
all man's help, yet saw before his departure, in how great love and favour he 
was with all men. And truly I do not think that in so great slaughter of dukes 
as hath been in England within these few years there were so many weeping eyes 
at one time; and not without cause. For all men saw in his fall the public ruin 
of England, except such as indeed did perceive nothing. Meantime standing in the 
same place, the duke modestly and with a grave countenance made a sign to the 
people with his hand, that they would keep themselves quiet. Which done, and silence 
obtained, he spake unto them in this manner. "Dearly beloved friends, there is 
no such matter here in hand as you vainly hope or believe. It seemeth thus good 
unto Almighty God, whose ordinance it is meet and necessary that we all be obedient 
unto. Where- fore I pray you all to be quiet, and to be contented with my death, 
which I am most willing to suffer; and let us now join in prayer unto the Lord 
for the preservation of the king's majesty, unto whom hitherto I have always shewed 
myself a most faithful and true subject. I have always been most diligent about 
his majesty in his affairs both at home and abroad, and no less diligent in seeking 
the common good of the whole realm." At which words all the people cried out, 
"It is most true." The duke on their silence proceeding, said, "Unto whose majesty 
I wish continual health, with all felicity and all prosperous success." Wher- 
eunto the people again cried out, "Amen." The duke then added also, "I do wish 
unto all his counsellors the grace and favour of God, whereby they may rule in 
all things uprightly with justice. Unto whom I exhort you all in the Lord to shew 
yourselves obedient, as it is your bounden duty, under the pain of condemnation, 
and also most profitable for the preservation and safeguard of the king's majesty. 
"Moreover, as heretofore I have had oftentimes affairs with divers men, and hard 
it is to please every man, therefore if there be any who hath been offended and 
injured by me, I most humbly require and ask him forgiveness; but especially Almighty 
God, whom throughout all my life I have most grievously offended; and all others 
whosoever they be that have offended me, I do with my whole heart forgive them. 
Now I once again require you, dearly beloved in the Lord, that you will keep your- 
selves quiet and still, lest through your tumult you might trouble me. For albeit 
the spirit be willing and ready, the flesh is frail and wavering, and through 
your quietness I shall be much more composed. Above all I desire you to bear me 
witness that I die here in the faith of Jesus Christ; desiring you to help me 
with your prayers, that I may persevere constant in the same unto my end." After 
this, turning himself again, he kneeled down. Then Dr. Cox, who was present to 
counsel and advise him, delivered a certain scroll into his hand, wherein was 
contained a brief confession unto God. This being read the duke stood up again 
without any trouble of mind, and first bade the sheriffs farewell, then the lieutenant 
of the Tower, and others, taking them all by the hand which were upon the scaffold 
with him. Then he gave money to the executioner; which done, he put off his gown, 
and kneeling down again in the straw, untied his shirt strings. After that, the 
executioner coming to him turned down his collar about his neck and all other 
things which hindered him. Then lifting up his eyes to heaven and covering his 
face with his own handkerchief, he laid himself down along, shewing no trouble 
or fear, neither did his countenance change. But because his doublet covered his 
neck, he was commanded to rise up and put it off; and then laying himself down 
again upon the block, and calling thrice upon the name of Jesus, saying, "Lord 
Jesus, save me," as he was the third time repeating the same, even as the name 
of Jesus was in uttering, in a moment he was bereft both of head and life, and 
slept in the Lord; being taken away from all dangers and evils of this life, and 
resting in the peace of God: in the preferment of whose truth and gospel he always 
shewed himself an excellent instrument and member, and therefore hath received 
the reward of his labour. He was a man of extraordinary virtues, of great candour, 
and eminent piety: he was always a promoter of justice, and a patron of the op- 
pressed. He was a better soldier than statesman, being too easy and open-hearted 
to be so cautious as such times and such employments re- quired. The people saw 
that all this conspiracy, for which he and the other four suffered, was only a 
forgery: the other accommplices were quickly discharged, and Palmer, the chief 
witness, became Northumber- land's particular confident: and even those indiscreet 
words which the duke had spoken in his warmth, and his gathering armed men about 
him, was imputed to Palmer's artifices, who had put him in fear of his life, and 
thus made him do and say those things for which he lost it. His four friends all 
ended their lives, with the most solemn protestations of innocence; and the whole 
matter was looked on as a contrivance of North- umberland's, by which he entirely 
lost the affections of the people. The chief objection to the duke was, his having 
raised much of his estate out of the spoils of bishops' lands, and his palace 
out of the ruins of some churches; and to this was added a remark, that he did 
not claim the benefit of the clergy, which would have saved him. Since he had 
so spoiled the church, they imputed it to a particular judgment on him that PAGE 
527 he forgot it; but in this they were mistaken, for in the act by which he was 
condemned, it was provided that no clergy should purge that felony - another proof, 
if it were wanting, that he was the innocent victim of a cruel conspiracy. The 
day after the duke of Somerset's execution, a session of parliament was assembled. 
The first act which passed established the common prayer- book, as it was now 
amended. The bishops were required to proceed by the censures of the church against 
such as used it not: they also authorized the book of ordinations, and enacted 
the same penalties against of- fenders, that were in the act for the former book 
three years before. The papists took occasion of the changes now made to say, 
that the new doctrines and ways of worship changed as fast as the fashions. It 
was answered, that if was no wonder if corruptions, which had been creeping in 
for a thousand years, were not all discovered and thrown out at once; and since 
they had been every age making additions of new ceremonies, it might be excused 
if the purging them out was done by such easy degrees. The book was not to be 
received till All-hallows, because it was hoped that in the interval the reformation 
of the ecclesiastical laws would have been finished. The following law passed 
for holy-days and fasts - "No days are to be esteemed holy in their own nature, 
but by reason of those holy duties which ought to be done in them, for which they 
were dedicated to the service of God. Days are esteemed to be dedicated only to 
the honour of God, even those in which the saints were commemorated. Sundays, 
and the other holy-days, are to be religiously observed, and the bishops are to 
proceed to censures against offenders. The eves before them are to be fasts, and 
abstinence from flesh are enacted both in Lent and on Fridays and Saturdays." 
The liberty to tradesmen to work on these days, was abused to a public profanation 
of them, and the stricter clauses in the act were little regarded. An act also 
passed empowering church wardens to gather collections for the poor, and the bishops 
to proceed against such as refused to contribute; which, though it was a bill 
that taxed the people, yet had its rise in the house of lords. An act likewise 
passed for the marriage of the clergy. Whereas the former act about it was thought 
only a permission of it, as some other unlawful things were connived at; upon 
which the wives and child- ren of the clergy were reproachfully used, and the 
word of God was not heard with due reverence; therefore their marriages were declared 
good and valid. The bishopric of Westminster was reunited to London, only the 
collegiate church was still continued. The convocation now confirmed the articles 
of religion which had been prepared in the former year, and thus was the reformation 
of worship and doctrine brought to such a degree, that since that time there has 
been very little alteration made. One branch of it was still unfinished, and was 
now under consultation, touching the government of the church, and the rules of 
the ecclesiastical courts. Two acts had passed in the former reign, and one in 
this, empowering a commission to revise all the laws of the church, and digest 
them into a body. King Henry had issued the commission, and the persons were name 
who made some progress in it, as appears by some of Cranmer's letters to him. 
In this reign it had been begun several times; but the changes in the government 
had caused PAGE 528 it to be laid aside. Thirty-two were found to be too many 
for preparing the first draught, so that eight were appointed to make it ready 
for them: these were Cranmer, Ridley, Petre, Martyr, Trahern, Taylor, Lucas, and 
Gosnold, two bishops, two divines, two civilians, and two common lawyers; but 
it was generally believed that Cranmer drew it entirely by himself, while the 
rest only corrected what he designed. Haddon and Cheek were employed to put it 
in Latin; in which they succeeded so well, and arrived at so true a purity in 
the Roman style that it is equal to a work of the best ages. The work was cast 
into fifty-one title; perhaps it was designed to bring it near the number of the 
books into which Justinian digested the Roman law. The eight finished it, and 
offered it to the thirty-two; who divided themselves into four classes, every 
one of which was to offer his corrections, and when it had passed through them 
all, it was to be presented to the king for his confirmation; but he died before 
it was quite finished. The principal objects of this bill are well worthy of being 
known. The first title was concerning the catholic faith: it was made capital 
to deny the christian religion. The books of scripture were reckoned up, and the 
apocrypha left out. The four first general councils were re- ceived; but both 
councils and fathers were to be submitted to only as they agreed with the scriptures. 
The second enumerates and condemns many heresies, extracted out of the opinions 
of the church of Rome, and the tenets of the anabaptists. The judgment of heresy 
was to lie in the bishop's court, except in exempted places. Persons suspected 
might be required to purge themselves, and those who were convicted, were to abjure 
and do penance; but such as were obstinate were declared in- famous, and not to 
have the benefit of the law, or of making testaments, and so all capital proceedings 
for heresies were laid aside. Blasphemy against God was to be punished as obstinate 
heresy. Bishops were ap- pointed once a year to call all their clergy together 
to examine them concerning their flocks: and itinerant preachers were to be often 
em- ployed for visiting such precincts as might be put under their care. All marriages 
were to be after bans, and to be annulled if not done accord- ing to the book 
of common prayer. Corrupters of virgins were to marry them; or if that could not 
be done, to give them the third part of their goods, and suffer punishment. Marriages 
made by force, or without cons- ent of parents, were declared null. Polygamy was 
forbid. A clergyman guilty of adultery was to forfeit the half, and be banished 
or impris- oned during life; wives who were guilty were to be punished in the 
same manner. The innocent party might marry again after a divorce. Desertion, 
or mortal enmity, or the constant perverseness of a husband might induce a divorce. 
Patrons were charged to give presentations without making bargains; to choose 
the fittest persons, and not to make promises till the livings were vacant. The 
bishops were required to use great strict- ness in the trial of those whom they 
ordained; all pluralities and non- residence were condemned, and all who were 
presented were to pledge themselves of simony by oath. All superstitious purgations 
were con- demned. The communion was to be every Sunday in cathedrals, and a sermon 
PAGE 529 to be in the afternoon: such as received the sacrament were to give notice 
to the minister the day before, that he might examine them. The catechism was 
appointed to be explained an hour in the afternoon on holy-days. After the evening 
prayer the poor were to be taken care of. Penances were to be enjoined to scandalous 
persons; and the minister was to confer with some of the ancients of the people 
concerning the state of the parish, that admonitions might be applied as there 
was occasion. A rural dean was to be in every precinct to watch over the clergy 
ac- cording to the bishop's direction: archdeacons were to be over them, and the 
bishop over all; who was to have yearly synods, and visit every third year. His 
family was to consist of clergymen, in imitation of St. Austin, and other ancient 
bishops; these he was to train up for the service of the church. When bishops 
became infirm they were to have co- adjutors; archbishops were to do the episcopal 
duties in their diocese, and to visit their province. Every synod was to begin 
with a communion, and after that, the ministers were to give an account of their 
parishes, and follow such directions as the bishop should give them. A scheme 
was drawn of excommunication, which was entrusted to churchmen for keeping the 
church pure, and was not to be inflicted but for obstinacy in some gross fault. 
Such as had the king's pardon for capital offences were yet liable to church-censures. 
Then followed the office of absolving peni- tents: they were to come to the church 
door and crave admittance, and the minister having brought them in, was to read 
a long discourse con- cerning sin, repentance, and the mercies of God. Then the 
party was to confess his sin, and to ask God and the congregation pardon; upon 
which the minister was to lay his hands on his head, and to pronounce the absolution. 
Then a thanksgiving was to be offered to God at the commun- ion table for the 
reclaiming that sinner. The other heads of this work relate to the other parts 
of the law of those courts. There were at this time remedies under consideration 
for the great misery and poverty of the clergy: but the laity were so much concerned 
to oppose them, that there was no hope of bringing them to any good effect, till 
the king should come to be of age, and endeavour to recover again a competent 
maintenance for them out of the hands of those who had devoured their revenues. 
Heath and Day, the bishops of Worcester and Chichester, were this year deprived 
of their bishoprics, by a court of delegates composed all of laymen: but it does 
not appear for what of- fences they were suspended. The bishoprics of Gloucester 
and Worcester were united, and put under Hooper's care; but soon after, the former 
was made an exempted archdeaconry, and he was declared bishop only of Wor- cester. 
In every see, as it became vacant, the best manors were seized by such hungry 
courtiers as had the interest to procure the grant of them. It was thought, that 
the bishops' sees were so enriched, that they could never be made poor enough: 
and such haste was made in spoiling them, that they were reduced to a condition 
hardly possible for a bishop to subsist in them. If what had been thus taken from 
them had been converted to good uses, such as supplying the inferior clergy, it 
had been some mitigation of the robbery: but their lands were taken up by laymen, 
who thought of making no compensation for the spoils. PAGE 530 This year the reformation 
had gained more ground in Ireland than former- ly. Henry VIII. had assumed to 
himself, by consent of the parliament of that kingdom, the title of king of Ireland: 
the former kings of England having only been called lords of it. The popes and 
emperors pretended that such titles could be given only by them: the former said, 
all power in heaven and earth ws given to Christ, and by consequence to his vicar. 
The latter, as carrying the title of Roman emperor, pretended that as the imperial 
power anciently bestowed those titles, so it devolved on him who retained only 
the name and shadow of that great authority. But princes and states have thought 
they may bring themselves under what titles they please. Though the kings of England 
were well obeyed within the English pale, yet the Irish continued barbarous and 
uncivilized, and were guided entirely by the heads of their names or tribes, and 
were obedient or rebellious as they directed them. In Ulster they had a great 
dependance on Scotland, and there were some risings there, during the war with 
that country, which were quieted by giving the leading men pensions, and getting 
them to come and live within the English pale. Monluc, bishop of Valence, being 
then in Scotland, went over thither to raise new commotions; but his efforts had 
no effect. While he was there his lasciviousness came to be discovered by an odd 
accident: a woman of the town, brought to him by some English friars, and secretly 
kept by him, searching among his clothes, fell on a small bottle of something 
very odoriferous, and drank it off; which being discovered by the bishop, put 
him in a most violent passion, for it had been given him as a present by Solyman 
the magnificent, when he was ambassador at his court. It was called the richest 
balm of Egypt, and valued at 2000 crowns. His rage grew so boisterous that all 
about him discovered both his passion and lewdness at once. The reformation was 
set up in the English pale, but had made small progress among the Irish. This 
year Basle was sent over to labour among them. He was an eager writer, and a learned 
zealous man. Goodaker was sent to be primate of Armagh, and Basle was to be bishop 
of Ossory. Two Irishmen were also promoted with them; who undertook to advance 
the reformation there. The archbishop of Dublin intended to have ordained them 
by the old pontifical, and all except Basle were willing it should be so; but 
he prevailed that it should be done according to the new book of ordinations: 
after that he went into his diocese, but found all there in dark popery, and before 
he could make any progress the king's death put an end to his designs. The world 
had long been anxiously looking for the result of the council of Trent, trusting 
that it might lead to the establishment of order throughout the European countries; 
which appeared no less to have been desired both by princes and bishops in hopes 
that differences of reli- gion would have been composed, and the corruptions of 
the court of Rome reformed by it. This had made the pope very apprehensive of 
it: but such was the cunning of the legates, the number of Italian bishops, and 
the dissensions of the princes, that it had an effect quite contrary to what PAGE 
531 all sides expected. The breach in religion became past reconciling by the 
positive decisions they made: the abuses of the court of Rome were confirmed by 
the provisos made in favour of the privileges of the apos- tolic see: and the 
world was at length so cured of their longings for a general council, that none 
has been since that time desired. The his- tory of that council was written with 
great exactness and judgment by father Paul, of Venice, while it was yet fresh 
in all men's memories; and though it discovered the whole secret of the transactions 
there, yet none set himself to write against it for forty years; then Pallavicini 
at last undertook it, and upon the credit of many memorials. In many things he 
contradicts father Paul; but in the main of the history they both agree, so far 
that it is manifest things were not fairly carried, and that matters were managed 
by intrigue rather than fair and open discussion. Prince Maurice declared for 
the liberty of Germany, and took Augsburgh, and several other towns. The kings 
of France fell upon the empire with a great force, and by surprise made himself 
master of Metz and Verdun, and thought to have got Strasburgh. Maurice sent his 
demands to the emperor for the landgrave's liberty, and for restoring the freedom 
of the empire: but the emperor being slow in making answer, he marched on to Inspruck, 
where he surprised a post, and was within two miles of him before he was aware 
of it, so that the emperor was forced to flee, nor stopped till he was safe in 
Italy. Thus the very army and prince which had been chiefly instrumental in the 
ruin of the empire, now again asserted its freedom; and the emperor's great design 
on Germany was so blasted, that he could never after put any life in it. He was 
forced to discharge his prisoners, and to call in the proscriptions; and after 
some treaty, the edict of Passa was made by which the free exercise of the protestant 
religion was granted to the princes and towns: and thus did that storm which had 
almost overwhelmed the princes of that persua- sion end, without any other considerable 
effect beyond the translation of the electorial dignity from John to Maurice. 
The emperor's misfor- tunes increased on him, for against all reason he besieged 
Metz in December, and after he had ruined his army in it he was forced to raise 
the siege. He retired into Flanders in such discontent that for some time he would 
not admit any to approach him. There it was believed he first formed that design, 
which some years after he put in execution, of forsaking the world, and exchanging 
the pomp of a court for the retire- ment of a monastery. This strange turn in 
his affairs gave a great demonstration of an over-ruling Providence governing 
all human affairs, and of that particular care that God had of the reformation, 
in recover- ing it when it seemed to be lost, and hopeless of recovery in the 
German states. In the year 1553, another visitation took place in England. Visitors 
were sent to examine what plate was in every church, and to leave in each only 
one or two chalices of silver, with linen for the communion table and for surplices; 
to bring all other things of value to the treasurer of the king's household, and 
to sell the rest and give it to the poor. But from these and numerous other changes, 
the public atten- tion soon became diverted by a rumour of the young king's alarming 
PAGE 532 affliction. His wisdom and virtue were appreciated in all parts of the 
land, and for his own sake as well as on account of the reformation, the rumour 
excited deep and general lamentation. He had contracted cold by violent exercises, 
which in January settled into so obstinate a cough that all the skill of physicians 
and the aid of medicine proved ineffectual. There was a suspicion taken up and 
spread over all Europe that he was poisoned: but no certain grounds appear for 
justifying it. During this sickness, Ridley preached before him, and among other 
things spoke much on charity, and the duty of men of high condition to be eminent 
in good works. The king was much touched with this; and, after sermon, he sent 
for the bishop, and treated him with such respect that he made him sit down covered: 
he then told him what impression his exhortation had made on him, and desired 
to be directed by him how to do his duty in that matter. Ridley took a little 
time to consider of it, and after some consultation with the lord mayor and aldermen 
of London, he brought the king a scheme of several founda- tions: one for the 
sick and wounded; another for such as were wilfully idle: and a third for orphans. 
Without delay Edward endowed St. Bartho- lomew's hospital for the first, Bridewell 
for the second, and Christ church, near Newgate, for the third; enlarging the 
grant he made the former year for St. Thomas's hospital in Southwark. The statutes 
and warrants relating to these were not finished before the 26th of June, though 
he gave order to make all the haste that was possible: and when he set his hand 
to them he blessed God for prolonging his life till he finished his designs concerning 
them. These houses have, by the good government and great charities of the city 
of London, continued to be so useful, and grown to be so well endowed, that they 
may be reckoned among the noblest in Europe. The king bore his sickness with great 
submission to the will of God, and seemed concerned in nothing so much as the 
state that religion and the church would be in after his death. The duke of Suffolk 
had three daughters: the eldest was married to the lord Guildford Dudley, son 
to the duke of Northumberland; the second to the earl of Pembroke's eldest son; 
and the third to one Keys. The duke of Northumberland married also his two daughters; 
one to sir Henry Sydney, and the other to the earl of Huntingdon's eldest son. 
He grew to be so much hated by the people, that the jealousy of the king's being 
poisoned was fastened on him. But he regarded these things little, and resolved 
to improve the fears the king was in concerning religion to the advantage of lady 
Jane Grey. Edward was easily persuaded to order the judges to put some articles, 
which he had signed for the succession of the crown, in the common form of law. 
They answered that the succession being settled by act of parliament, could not 
be taken away except by the same authority; yet the king required them to do what 
he commanded them. But the next time they came to the council they declared, that 
it had been made treason to change the succession by an act passed in this reign, 
so that they could not meddle with it. Montague was chief justice, and spoke in 
the name of the rest. On this Northumberland fell into a great passion against 
him, calling him traitor for refusing to obey the king's commands. The judges 
were not shaken by his threatenings; and they were again brought PAGE 533 before 
the king, who sharply rebuked them for their delays: but they said that all they 
could do would be of no force without a parliament, yet they were required to 
perform it in the best manner they could. At last Montague desired they might 
first receive pardon for what they were to do, which being granted, all the judges, 
except Gosnold and Hale, agreed to the patent, and delivered their opinion that 
the lord chancellor might put the seal to it, and that then it would be good in 
law. The former of these was at last wrought on; so that Hale was the only man 
who stood out to the last: he was a zealous protestant, and would not give his 
opinion against his conscience upon any consideration whatsoever. The privy counsellors 
were next required to set their hands to it: Cecil, in a relation he wrote of 
this transaction, says that hearing some of the judges declare so positively that 
it was against law, he refused to set his hand to it as a privy counsellor, but 
signed it only as a witness to the king's subscription. Cranmer stood out long, 
he came not to the council when it was passed, and refused to consent to it when 
he was pressed to it; for he said he would never have a hand in disinheriting 
his late master's daughters. The dying king was at last set on him, and by his 
importunity prevailed with him to do it; upon which the seal was put to the patents. 
The distemper continued to in- crease, so that the physicians despaired of the 
king's recovery. A confident woman undertook his cure, and he was put into her 
hands; but she left him worse than she found him; and this heightened the jealousy 
against the duke of Northumberland, who had introduced her, and put the physicians 
away. At last, to crown his designs, he got the king to write to his sisters Mary 
and Elizabeth, to come and divert him in his sickness: and the matter of the exclusion 
had been carried so secretly, that they apprehending no danger had begun their 
journey. On the 6th of July the king felt death approaching, and prepared himself 
for it in the most devout manner. He was often heard offering up prayers and ejaculations 
to God. A few moments before he died he prayed earnestly that God would take him 
out of this wretched life, and commit- ted his spirit to him; interceding very 
fervently for his subjects, that God would preserve England from popery, and maintain 
his true religion among them. Then turning his face, and seeing who was by him, 
he said unto them, "Are ye so nigh? I thought ye had been further off." Dr. Owen 
said, "We heard you speak to yourself, but what you said we know not." He then 
smiling said, "I was praying to God." The last words of his life were these, "I 
am faint, Lord have mercy upon me, and take my spirit." Soon after that he breathed 
out his pious soul to God, his emaciated body resting in Sir Henry Sydney's arms. 
Endeavours were used to conceal his death for some days, with design to draw his 
sisters into the snare before they should be aware of it, but that could not be 
done. Thus died Edward VI. in the sixteenth year of his age. He was counted the 
wonder of that time; he was not only learned in the tongues, and the PAGE 534 
liberal sciences, but knew well the state of his kingdom. He kept a book in which 
he had written the characters of all the eminent men of the nation; he studied 
fortification, and understood the mint well: he knew the harbours in all his dominions, 
with the depth of water, and way of coming into them. He understood foreign affairs 
so well, that the ambassadors who were sent into England published very extraordinary 
things of him in the several courts of Europe. He had great quickness of apprehension; 
but being distrustful of his memory, he took notes of every thing he heard that 
was considerable, in Greek characters, that those about him might not understand 
what he wrote. The following anecdote related of him may serve to shew, that the 
play- fulness of youth would sometimes break out amidst the dignity of the monarch. 
He resided much at Greenwich, and being there on St. George's day, in the fourth 
year of his reign, when he was come from the sermon into the presence-chamber, 
there being his uncle the duke of Somerset, the duke of Northumberland, with other 
lords and knights of that order, called, "The Order of the Garter," he said to 
them, "My lords, I pray you, what Saint is St. George, that we here so honour 
him?" At which question the lords being all astonished, the lord treasurer gave 
answer and said, "If it please your majesty, I never read in any history of St. 
George, but only Legenda aurea, where it is thus set down: 'St. George out with 
his sword, and run the dragon through with his spear.'" The king could not a great 
while speak for laughing, and at length said, "I pray you, my lord, and what did 
he with his sword the while?" PAGE 535 His virtues were wonderful: when he was 
made to believe, that his uncle was guilty of conspiring the death of the other 
counsellors, he upon that abandonned him. Barnaby Fitzpatrick was his favourite, 
and when he sent him to travel he often wrote to him, to keep good company, to 
avoid excess and luxury, and to improve himself in those things that might render 
him capable of employment on his return. He was afterwards made lord of Upper 
Ossory in Ireland, by queen Elizabeth, and well answered the hopes which this 
excellent king had of him. Edward was very merciful in his nature, which appeared 
in his unwillingness to sign the warrant for burning the Maid of Kent. He took 
great care to have his debts well paid, reckoning that a prince who breaks his 
faith and loses his credit, has thrown up that which he can never recover, and 
made himself liable to perpetual distrust and extreme contempt. He took special 
care of the petitions that were given him by poor and oppressed people. But his 
great zeal for religion crowned all the rest. It was not a temporary heat about 
it that excited him, but it was a true tenderness of con- science, founded on 
the love of God and his neighbours. These extraordinary qualities, set off with 
great sweetness and affabil- ity, made him universally beloved by his people. 
Some called him their Josiah, others Edward the Saint, and others the Phoenix 
that rose out of his mother's ashes. All people concluded, that the sins of England 
must have been very great, since they provoked God to deprive the nation of so 
signal a blessing, as the rest of his reign would, to all appearance, have proved. 
Bishop Ridley, and the other good men of that time, made great lamentations of 
the vices, which were grown then so common, that men had passed all shame in them. 
Luxury, oppression, and a hatred of religion had over-run the higher ranks of 
people, who gave a countenance to the reformation, merely to rob the church; but 
by that, and their other practices, were become a great scandal to so good a work. 
The inferior classes were so much in the power of the priests, who were still, 
notwithstanding their outward compliance, papists in heart, and were so much offended 
at the spoil they saw made of all good endowments, without putting other and more 
useful ones in their room, that they who understood little of religion, laboured 
under great prejudices against every thing that was done in such a manner. And 
these things, as they provoked God highly, so they disposed the people much to 
that sad cata- strophe which was experienced in the following reign. PAGE 536 
BOOK XI The Reign of Queen Mary Section 1 Accession and deposition of the Lady 
Jane Grey - First entering of Queen Mary to the crown - Alterations of religion, 
and other perturbances happening the same time in England. The attention of British 
protestants is now called to a period of church history which cannot fail to awaken 
in their hearts that sympathy for their ancestors, which at present lies dormant 
in too many bosoms. A long career of religious prosperity appears to have obliterated 
from their minds the cruel persecutions of their forefathers, who for them bled 
in every vein - for them were consigned to devouring flames in every part of their 
country - preparing and establishing for their descendants, by the sacrifice of 
themselves, genuine liberty of person and of conscience. And while we review with 
gratitude and admiration effects produced by such causes, let us learn to appreciate 
those bless- ings which, by the continued providence of God, we have so long enjoyed. 
It has been asserted by Roman catholics, that all those who suffered death during 
the reign of queen Mary, had been adjudged guilty of high treason, in consequence 
of their having stood up in defence of lady Jane Grey's title to the crown. To 
disprove this, however, is no difficult matter, since every one conversant in 
history must know, that those who are tried on the statute of treason are to be 
hanged or beheaded. How can even papists affirm that ever men in England were 
burned for this crime? Some few suffered death in the ordinary way of process 
at common law, for their adherence to lady Jane; but none of those were burned. 
Why, if traitors, were they taken before the bishops, who have no power to judge 
in criminal cases? Even allowing the bishops, as peers, to have had power to judge, 
yet their own bloody statute did not empower them to execute. The proceedings 
against the martyrs are still extant, and they were carried on directly according 
to the forms prescribed by their own statute. There was not one of those burned 
in England ever accused of high-treason, much less were they tried at common law. 
And this should teach the reader to value a history of transactions in their own 
coun- try, particularly of their blessed martyrs, in order that they may be able 
to see through the veil which falsehood has cast over the face of truth. It should 
also be observed, that Mary's title to the throne was acknowledge by a very large 
number whom she burned as heretics, and that none of her burnings were considered 
necessary to render her throne and crown secure. PAGE 537 What time king Edward, 
by long sickness, became more feeble and weak, the marriage was provided, concluded, 
and shortly after solemnized in May, 1553, between the lord Guilfor, son of the 
duke of Northumberland, and lady Jane Grey, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, and 
grand-niece of Henry VIII. When king Edward was dead, this lady Jane was established 
in the kingdom by the nobles' consent, and proclaimed queen at London, and in 
other cities where was any great resort. In the meantime, while things were working 
at London, Mary, who had knowledge of her brother's death, wrote to the lords 
of the council, reminding them of her title to the crown, and complaining the 
preparations made to withstand her. "Wherefore, my lords," she concluded, "we 
require you, and charge you and every one of you, that of your allegiance which 
you owe to God and us, and to none other, for our honour and the surety of our 
person, only employ yourselves; and forthwith, upon receipt hereof, cause our 
right and title to the crown and government of this realm to be proclaimed in 
our city of London and other places, as to your wisdom shall seem good, and as 
to this case appertaineth; not failing hereof, as our very trust is in you. And 
this letter, signed with our hand, shall be your suffi- cient warrant in this 
behalf." To this letter the lords of the council replied, that after king Edward's 
death the lady Jane was invested with and possessed the just right and title to 
the imperial crown by the ancient laws of the realm, and also by the late king's 
letters patent, sealed with the great seal of England in presence of the most 
part of the nobles, councillors, and judges, with divers others grave and sage 
personages, assenting and subscribing to the same; and that they must therefore, 
as of most bound- ed duty and allegiance, assent unto her said grace, and to none 
other. At the same time reminding the lady Mary, that the marriage between her 
father and the lady Katharine being declared null, she was justly made illegitimate 
and uninheritable to the crown. "Wherefore," they said, "we can no less do, but, 
for the quiet both of the realm and you also, advertise you to surcease by any 
pretence to vex and molest any of our sovereign lady queen Jane's subjects from 
their true faith and alle- giance due unto her grace: assuring you, that if you 
will for respect show yourself quiet and obedient, (as you ought,) you shall find 
us all and several ready to do you any service that we with duty may, and be glad, 
with your quietness, to preserve the common state of this realm, wherein you may 
be otherwise grievous unto us, to yourself, and to them. And thus we bid you most 
heartily well to fare, your ladyship's friends, showing yourself an obedient subject. 
From the Tower of London, in this ninth of July, 1553." This letter was signed 
by Canterbury, Winchester, Ely, Northumberland, Bedford, Northampton, Suffolk, 
Arundel, Shrewsbury, Pembroke, Riche, and twelve other lords of the council. On 
receiving which the lady Mary withdrew into Norfolk and Suffolk, where the duke 
of Northumberland was hated for the service that had been done there under king 
Edward, in subduing the rebels; and there, gathering to her such aid of the common 
people on every side as she might, kept herself close for a space within Framlingham 
castle. Here she was joined by many who promised her their aid, on condition that 
she would not attempt the alteration of the religion established by king Edward. 
This was readily agreed to by Mary; upon which they asserted her right, and she 
promised to maintain the true religion, and the laws of the land. PAGE 538 Northumberland's 
proceeding against the duke of Somerset, and the suspi- cions that lay on him 
as the author of the late king's untimely death, begat a great aversion in the 
people to him, which disposed them to set up queen Mary. She in the mean time 
was very active. She gathered all in the neighbouring counties about her. The 
men of Suffolk were generally for the reformation, and a great body of them came 
to her, and asked if she would promise not to alter the religion established in 
king Edward's days. She assured them she would make no changes; but should be 
content with the private exercise of her own religion. Upon this they all vowed 
to live and die with her. The earl of Sussex and several others, raised forces 
and proclaimed her queen. When this reached the knowledge of the council, they 
sent the earl of Huntingdon's brother to raise men in Buckinghamshire, and meet 
the forces that should be sent from London, at Newmarket. The duke of Northumberland 
was ordered to command the army. He was now much distracted in his thoughts; for 
it was of equal importance to keep London and the privy counsellors steady, and 
to conduct the army well: a misfortune in either of these was likely to be fatal 
to him. He was at a loss what to do: not a man of spirit who was firm to him could 
be left behind; and yet it was most necessary to disperse the force that was daily 
growing about queen Mary. The lady Jane and the council were removed to the Tower, 
not only for state, but for security; for here the council were upon the matter 
prisoners. He could do no more, but lay a strict charge on the council to be firm 
to lady Jane's interests. He therefore marched out of London with 2000 horse, 
and 6000 foot, on the 14th of July: but no acclamations or wishes of success were 
to be heard as he passed through the streets. The council gave the emperor notice 
of the lady Jane's succession, and complained of the disturbance that was raised 
by Mary, and that his ambassador had officiously meddled in their affairs; but 
the emperor would not receive the letters. Mary's party in the mean time continued 
daily to augment. Hastings went over to her with 4000 men out of Buckinghamshire, 
and she was proclaimed queen in many places. At length the privy council began 
to see their danger, and to think how to avoid it. The earl of Arundel hated Northumberland. 
The marquis of Winchester was dexterous in shifting sides for his advantage. The 
earl of Pembroke's son had married the lady Jane's sister, which made him think 
it necessary to redeem the danger he was in by a speedy turn. To these many others 
were joined. They pretended it was necessary to give an audience to the foreign 
ambassadors' who would not have it in the Tower: and the earl of Pembroke's house 
was chosen, he being least suspected. When they got out, they resolved to declare 
for queen Mary, and rid themselves of Northumberland's uneasy yoke, which they 
knew they must bear if he were victorious. They sent for the lord mayor and aldermen, 
and easily gained their concurrence. They then went immediately to Cheapside, 
and proclaimed the queen; and from thence they went to St. Paul's, where Te deum 
was sung. They sent next to the Tower, requiring the duke of Suffolk to quit the 
government of that place, and the lady Jane to lay down the title of queen. To 
this she submitted with as much greatness of mind as her father shewed of abjectness. 
They sent also orders to Northumberland to dismiss his forces, and to obey Mary 
as queen; and the earl of Arundel and lord Paget were sent to carry these welcome 
tidings to her. When Northumberland heard of the change that was in London, he 
disbanded his forces, went to the market-place at Cambridge, where he then was, 
and proclaimed the queen. The earl of Arundel was sent to apprehend him, and when 
he was brought to him, in the most servile manner he fell at his feet to beg his 
favour. He and three of his sons, and Sir Thomas Palmer - his wicked instrument 
against the duke of Somerset - were all sent to the Tower. All people now flocked 
to implore the queen's favour, and Ridley among the rest; but he too was sent 
to the Tower: for she was both offended with him for his sermon, and resolved 
to put Bonner again in the see of London. Some of the judges, and several noblemen 
were also sent to the Tower; among the rest the duke of Suffolk, who was three 
days after set at liberty. He was a weak man, and could do little harm, he was 
consequently chosen as the first instance towards whom the queen should express 
her clemency. She came to London on the 3rd of August, and on the way was met 
by her sister, lady Elizabeth, with a thousand horse, whom she had raised to come 
to the queen's assistance. On arriving at the Tower, she liberated the duke of 
Norfolk, the duchess of Somerset, and Gardiner; also the lord Courtenay, son to 
the marquis of Exeter, who had been kept there ever since his father's attainder, 
whom she made earl of Devonshire. In this easy manner was Mary I. seated on the 
throne of England. To a disagreeable person and weak mind, she united bigotry, 
superstition, and cruelty. She seems to have inherited more of her mother's than 
her father's qualities. Henry was impatient, rough, and ungovernable; but Catherine, 
while she assumed the character of a saint, harboured bitter rancour and hatred 
against the protestants. It was the same with her daughter Mary, as appears from 
a letter in her own hand-writing, now in the British museum. In this letter, which 
is addressed to bishop Gardiner, she declares her fixed intention of burning every 
protestant; and it contains an insinuation, that as soon as circumstances would 
permit, she would restore back to the church the lands that had been taken from 
the convents. This, however, discovers an ignorance, equalled only by her tyranny, 
for the convents had been demolished, except a few of their churches; and the 
rents were in the hands of the first nobility, who, rather than part with them, 
would have overturned the government both in church and state. On some occasions 
Mary had discovered no small degree of subtilty. During her father's life, "The 
king's displeasure at her was such," says bishop Burnet, "that neither the duke 
of Norfolk no Gardiner durst venture to intercede for her." Cranmer was the only 
man who hazarded it, and did it effectually. But after her mother's death, she 
hearkened to other counsels, so that upon Anne Boleyn's fall, she made a full 
submis- sion to her father, as was mentioned before. She did also in many let- 
ters which she writ both to her father and to Cromwell, "Protest great PAGE 540 
sorrow for her former stubbornness, and declared, that she put her soul in his 
hand, and that her conscience should be always directed by him; and being asked 
what her opinion was concerning pilgrimages, purgatory, and reliques, she answered, 
that she had no opinion, but such as she received from the king, who had her whole 
heart in his keeping, and might imprint upon it in these and in all other matters 
whatever his inestimable virtue, high wisdom, and excellent learning, should think 
convenient for her." So perfectly had she learned the style that she knew was 
most acceptable to her father. Her promise to the Suffolk men also shewed the 
craft of her character, which was eqalled only by its cruelty. The sword of power 
being now in her hand, she began to employ it against those who had supported 
the title of lady Jane Grey. This devoted victim remained with her husband, lord 
Guildford, almost five months in the Tower, waiting her pleasure. The duke of 
Northumberland had offers of pardon on condition of renounc- ing his religion 
and hearing mass; which he not only did, but also exhorted the people to return 
to the catholic faith. Notwithstanding this, within a month after confinement 
he was condemned and beheaded. The papists immediately published and spread abroad 
his recantation; but the duke, in consequence of his crimes arising from a sordid 
ambition, died unpitied; nay, he was insulted on the scaffold by those who remem- 
bered in what manner he had acted to their beloved Somerset. Sir Thomas Palmer 
and Sir John Gates were the next who suffered. The former confessed his faith 
in the reformed religion, and lamented that he had not lived more conformably 
to its precepts. Mary having thus begun her reign with the blood of these men, 
and with hearing mass in the Tower, clearly evinced the career in which she intended 
to proceed, and that she should but little regard the promise she had made to 
the Suffolk men. Besides these ill omens, there were other things which every 
day more and more discomfited the people, and which too plainly betrayed the queen's 
aversion to the reformation. Gardiner was made lord chancellor and bishop of Winchester. 
Bonner was advanced to the bisho- pric of London, by displacing Ridley. Day was 
promoted to the see of Durham, by displacing Scory. Tonstal was made bishop of 
Chichester, and Heath bishop of Worcester: Hooper was committed to the Fleet; 
and Vesie was made bishop of Exeter, by removing Miles Coverdale. All these inno- 
vation greatly alarmed the protestants, and afforded equal rejoicings to their 
enemies. Having thus laid the foundation of her reign in blood and treachery, 
Mary removed from the Tower to Hampton-court, and caused a parliament to be summoned 
on the 10th of October ensuing. We have mentioned Dr. Ridley, bishop of London, 
among those who were removed. He was a learned and pious prelate, who in the time 
of queen Jane, by order of the council, preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, declaring 
his opinion concerning the lady Mary, and enumerating the evils that might arise 
by admitting her to the crown: prophesying, as it were, that she would bring in 
a foreign power to reign over them, and subvert the christian religion then happily 
established. This, with another sermon after things were changed, disconcerted 
the queen beyond PAGE 541 measure. The Sunday following her accession to the throne, 
Mr. Rogers preached, discoursing very learnedly on the gospel for the day. Whereu- 
pon Mary, perceiving things not to go forward according to her mind, consulted 
with her council how to bring about by other means, what by open law she could 
not well accomplish; and accordingly, by proclama- tion, prohibited any man from 
preaching or reading openly the word of God in churches, except by licence, which 
Gardiner took care to give only to such as would conform to his doctrine. The 
clergy differed in opinion how far they were bound to obey this prohibition: some 
thought they might forbear public preaching when they were so required, if they 
made it up by private conferences and instructions: others thought, that if this 
had been only a particular hardship upon a few, regard to peace and order should 
have obliged them to submit to it; but since it was general, and done on purpose 
to extinguish the light of the gospel, they ought to go on, and preach at their 
peril. Of this last sort several were put in prison for their disobedience, among 
others Hooper and Coverdale. On the 22d of August, the queen declared in council, 
That though she was fixed in her own religion, yet she would not compel others 
to its observance; but would leave that to the motions of God's Spirit, and the 
labours of good preachers. The day after Bonner went to St. Paul's, and Bourne 
his chaplain preached, and extolled Bonner much, inveighing against the sufferings 
he had undergone. He took occasion from the gospel of the day to speak largely 
in justification of Bonner, saying that four years ago he had preached from the 
same text, and in the same place, for which he was most cruelly and unjustly cast 
into that most vile dungeon the Marshalsea, where he was confined during the reign 
of king Edward. The sermon provoked his hearers so as to cause them to murmur 
and stir in such a sort, that the mayor and aldermen feared an uproar: some cast 
stones at the preacher, and one hurled a dagger at him. In short, the tumult became 
so violent that Bourne was silenced, broke off his discourse, and durst no more 
appear in that place; his discourse tended much to the dispraise of king Edward, 
which the people could in no wise endure. Mr Bradford then stood forth, at the 
request of Mr. Bourne's brother, and spoke so mildly and effectually to the peo- 
ple, that with a few words quite pacified them. This done, he and Mr. Rogers conducted 
Mr. Bourne home; for which generous conduct they were both, shortly after, rewarded 
with long imprisonment, and at last with fire in Smithfield, under the pretence, 
that the authority they shewed in quelling the tumult was a proof of their being 
the authors of it! It has already been intimated that all the pulpits were now 
put under an intedict, till the preachers should obtain a licence from Gardiner: 
and that he resolved to grant licences to none but such as would preach as he 
should direct them. His conduct encouraged the papists generally, and in their 
love of ancient rites and superstitions they began speedily to replace their images, 
and to revive their ceremonies in many of the churches. Every thing in fact seemed 
to threaten a subversion of the reformation, and the immediate re-establishment 
of all the errors and enormities of the Romish church. PAGE 542 SECTION II. The 
report of the disputation had and begun in the convocation house at London, appointed 
by the Queen, Oct. 18, 1553. On October 18th, Dr. Weston, who had been chosen 
prolocutor, certified to the house, that it was the queen's pleasure the learned 
men there assembled should debate of matters of religion, and constitue laws, 
which her grace and the parliament would ratify. "And for that," said he "there 
is a book of late set forth, called the Catechism, bearing the name of this honourable 
synod, and yet put forth without your consents, as I have learned; being a book 
very pestiferous, and full of heresies; and likewise learned; being a book very 
pestiferous, and full of here- sies; and likewise a book of Common Prayer very 
abominable," as it pleased him to term it. "I thought it therefore best, first 
to begin with the articles of the Catechism, concerning the sacrament of the altar, 
to confirm the natural presence of Christ in the same, and also transubstantiation. 
Wherefore, it shall be lawful, on Friday next, for all men freely to speak their 
conscience in these matters, that doubts may be removed, and they satisfied therein." 
The Friday coming, being the 20th of October, when men had thought they should 
have entered disputations of the questions proposed, the prolocu- tor exhibited 
two bills to the house: the one for the natural presence of Christ in the sacrament 
of the altar, and the other concerning the Catechism, denying its being published 
by the consent of that house, requiring all them to subscribe to the same, as 
he himself had done. The whole house assented, except the deans of Rochester and 
Exeter, the archdeacons of Winchester, Hereford, and Buckingham, and one more. 
And whilst the rest were about to subscribe these two articles, John Philpot spoke 
concerning the articles of the Catechism, and asserted that it had been composed 
by the order and authority of the convocation. Moreover, he said, as concerning 
the article of the natural presence in the sacrament, that it was against reason 
and order of learning, and also very prejudicial to the truth, that men should 
be moved to sub- scribe before the matter were thoroughly examined and discussed. 
But when he saw his allegation was to no purpose, he requested the prolocu- tor 
that there might be an equal number of persons of both sides con- cerned in this 
disputation, and desired that he would intercede with the lords, that some of 
those that were learned, and setters-forth of the same Catechism, might be admitted 
into the house; and that Dr. Ridley and Mr. Rogers, with two or three more, might 
be liberated to be present at this disputation, and to be associated with them. 
This request was thought reasonable, and was proposed to the bishops, who returned 
for answer, that it was out of their power to call such persons to the house, 
since some of them were prisoners; but they would petition the council in this 
behalf, and in case any of them were absent that ought to be of the house, they 
were agreeable to their admission. After this, they minding to have entered into 
disputation, there came a gentleman as messenger from the lord great master, signifying 
unto the prolocutor, that the lord great master and the earl of Devonshire would 
be present at the disputations, and therefore he deferred the same unto Monday, 
at one of the clock at afternoon. Upon that day, the prolocutor made a PAGE 543 
protestation, in the presence of many earls, lords, knights, gentlmen, and divers 
others of the court and of the city also, that they of the house had appointed 
this disputation, not to call in question the truth to which they had subscribed, 
but that those gainsayers might be re- solved respecting their doubts. Then he 
demanded of Mr. Haddon, whether he would reason against the questions proposed, 
or no. To whom he answered, that he had certified him before in writing that he 
would not, since the request of such learned men as were demanded to be assistant 
with them, would not be granted. Mr. Elmar was likewise asked, who made the like 
answer: adding that they had already too much injured the truth by their subscribing 
before the subjects were discussed. Mr. Weston, turning to Mr. Cheney, or Cheyney, 
desired to know whether he would propose his doubts concern- ing transubstantiation; 
when the latter answered, "I would gladly my doubts to be resolved which move 
me not to believe transubstantiation. The first is out of St. Paul to the Corinthians, 
who, speaking of the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, called it ofttimes 
bread, after the consecration. The second is out of Origen, who, speaking of this 
sacrament, saith that the material part thereof goeth down to the excrements. 
The third is out of Theodoret, who making mention of the sacramental bread and 
wine after the consecration, saith, that they go not out of their former substance, 
form, and shape. These be some of my doubts, among many others, wherein I require 
to be answered." Then the prolocutor assigned Dr. Moreman to answer him, who to 
St. Paul answered him thus: "The sacrament is called by him, bread indeed; but 
it is thus to be understood: that it is the sacrament of bread; that is, the form 
of bread." Then Mr. Cheyney alleged, that Hesychius called the sacrament both 
bread and flesh. "Yea," said Moeman, "Hesychius calleth it bread, because it was 
bread, and not because it is so." And, passing over Origen, he came to Theodoret, 
and said, that men mistook his authority by interpreting a general into a special, 
as Peter Martyr has done in the place of Theodoret, interpreting ovoia for substance, 
which is a special signification of the word; whereas ovoia is a general word, 
as well to accidents as to substance. "And therefore I answer thus unto Theodoret: 
that the sacramental bread and wine do not go out of their former substance, form, 
and shape; that is to say, not out of their accidental substance and shape." After 
this Mr. Chenyey sat down; and by and by Mr. Elmar rose, declaring that Moreman's 
answer to Theodoret was not just or sufficient, but an illusion and subtle evasion, 
contrary to Theodoret's meaning," etc. After this stood up John Philpot; and then 
began a further discussion, in which Dr. Moreman, the dean of Rochester, and Dr. 
Watson took part. The night coming on, the proculator broke up the disputation 
for that time; and appointed Philpot to be the first that should begin the dispu- 
tation next day, concerning the presence of Christ in the sacrament. On Wednesday, 
October 25th, John Philpot was prepared to enter upon the disputation, minding 
first to have made a certain oration in Latin, of the matter of Christ's presence 
which was then in question; which the prolocutor perceiving, he forbade him to 
make any declaration or oration in Latin, but to deliver his arguments in English. 
After reminding him PAGE 544 of what he had appointed, and that his arguments 
were prepared in Latin, Philpot added, "You have sore disappointed me, thus suddenly 
to go from your former order: but I will accomplish your commandment, leaving 
mine oration apart; and I will come to my arguments, which, as well as so sudden 
a warning can serve, I will make in English. But, before I bring forth any argument, 
I will, in one word, declare what manner of presence I disallow in the sacrament, 
to the intent the hearers may the better understand to what end and effect mine 
arguments shall tend; not to deny utterly the presence of Christ in his sacrament, 
truly ministered according to his institution; but only that gross and carnal 
presence, which you of this house have already subscribed unto, to be in the sacrament 
of the altar, contrary to the truth and manifest meaning of the Scriptures: That 
by transubstantiation of the sacramental bread and wine, Christ's natural body 
should, by the virtue of the words pronounced by the priest, be contained and 
included under the forms of bread and wine. This kind of presence, imagined by 
men, I do deny, and against this I will reason." But before he could end his speech, 
he was interrupted by the prolocu- tor, and commanded to descend to his argument. 
"I am about it," quoth Philpot, "if you will let me alone. But first I must needs 
ask a ques- tion of my respondent, Dr. Chedsey, aconcerning a word or two of your 
supposition; that is, of the sacrament of the mass to be all one. "Then," quoth 
Philpot, "the sacrament of the altar, which ye reckon to be all one with the mass, 
once justly abolished, and now put in full use again, is no sacrament, neither 
is Christ in any wise present in it." This he offered to prove before the whole 
house, the queen and her council, or before six of the most learned men of that 
house of a contrary opinion, and refused none. "And if I shall not be able to 
maintain, by God's word, that I have said, and confound those six which shall 
take upon them to withstand me in this point, let me be burned with as many fagots 
as be in London, before the court gates!" This he uttered with great vehenmency 
of spirit. The prolocutor, urged by some that were about him, consented that he 
should be allowed an argument, so that he would be brief therein. "I will be as 
brief," qouth Philpot, "as I may conveniently. And, first, I will ground my arguments 
upon the authority of Scripture, whereon all the buildings of our faith ought 
to be grounded; and after I shall confirm the same by ancient doctors of the church. 
And I take the occa- sion of my first argument out of Matthew xxviii., of the 
saying of the angel to the three Marys, seeking Christ at the sepulchre, saying, 
"He is risen, he is not here;" and, Luke xxiii., the angel asketh them, "Why seek 
ye the living among the dead?" Likewise the Scripture testifieth that Christ is 
risen, ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father; all 
which is spoken of his natural body; therfore it is not on earth included in the 
sacrament. I will confirm this yet more effectually by the saying of Christ in 
John xvi.: "I came from my Father into the world, and now I leave the world and 
go away to my Father:" the which coming and going he meant of his natural body. 
Therefore we may affirm thereby, that it is not now in the world. But I look here 
to be PAGE 545 answered with a blind distinction of visibly and invisibly, that 
he is visibly departed in his humanity, but invisibly he remaineth notwith- standing 
in the sacrament. But I will prove that no such distinction ought to take away 
the force of that argument, by the answer which Christ's disciples gave unto him, 
speaking these words: 'Now thou speak- est plainly, and utterest forth no proverb;' 
which words St. Cyril, interpreting, saith, 'That Christ spake without any manner 
of ambiguity and obscure speech.' And therfore I conclude hereby thus, that if 
Christ spake plainly and without parable, saying, 'I leave the world now, and 
go away to my Father,' then that obscure, dark, and imperceptible pres- ence of 
Christ's natural body to remain in the sacrament upon earth invisibly, contrary 
to the plain words of Christ, ought not to be allowed; for nothing can be more 
uncertain, or more parabolical or insensible, than so to say. Here now will I 
attend what you will answer, and so descend to the confirmation of all that I 
have said, by ancient writers." Then Dr. Chedsey took upon him to answer every 
point progressively. First to the saying of the angel, "Christ is not here;" and 
"Why seek ye the living among the dead?" he answered, that these sayings pertained 
nothing to the presence of Christ's natural body in the sacrament, but that they 
were spoken of Christ's body being in the sepulchre, when the three Marys thought 
him to have been in the grave still. And therefore, the angel said, "Why do ye 
seek him that liveth among the dead?" And to the authority of St. John, where 
Christ saith, "Now I leave the world and go to my Father;" he meant that of his 
ascension. And so likewise did Cyril, interpreting the saying of the disciples, 
who knew that Christ would visibly ascend to heaven; but that doth not exclude 
the invisible presence of his natural body in the sacrament. St. Chrysostom, writing 
to the people of Antioch, affirms the same, comparing Elias and Christ together, 
and Elias's cloak, and Christ's flesh. "When Elias," saith he, "was taken up in 
the fiery chariot, he left his cloak behind him unto his disciple Elisaeus. But 
Christ ascending into heaven, took his flesh with him, and left also his flesh 
behind him." From whence we may justly conclude, that Christ's flesh is visibly 
ascended into heav- en, yet abideth invisibly in the sacrament of the altar. Philpot 
replied, "You have not directly answered to the words of the angel, 'Christ is 
risen and is not here;' because you have omitted that which was the chief point. 
For I proceed further, as thus, He is risen, ascended, and sitteth on the right 
hand of God the Father: therefore he is not remaining on earth. Neither is your 
explication of Cyril suffi- cient. But I will presently return to your interpretation 
of Cyril, and plainly declare it, after I have refuted the authority of Chrysostom, 
which is one of the chief principles that you adduce to support your carnal presence 
in the sacrament; which being well understood, pertai- neth nothing thereunto." 
The prolocutor was irritated and started with impatience to think that one of 
the chief pillars on this point should be overthrown. He therefore recited the 
authority in Latin, and after- wards turned it into English, calling the attention 
of all present to remark that saying of Chrysostom which he thought invincible 
on their side. "But I will make it appear," said Philpot, "that it serves little 
PAGE 546 for your purpose, for I have two objections to propose; one drawn from 
Scripture, the other from he very place of Chrysostom himself. "First, where he 
seemeth to say, that Christ ascending took his flesh with him, and left his flesh 
also behind him, truth it is: for we all do confess and believe that Christ took 
on him our human nature in the Virgin Mary's womb, and through his passion in 
the same, hath united us to his flesh; and thereby are we become one flesh with 
him: so that Chrysostom might thereby right well say, that Christ, ascending, 
took his flesh, which he received of the Virgin Mary, away with him; and also 
left his flesh behind him, which are we that be his elect in the world, who are 
the members of Christ, and flesh of his flesh, as very aptly St. Paul to the Ephesians, 
chap. v., doth testify: 'We are flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones.' And 
if percase any man will reply that he entreateth there of the sacrament, so that 
this interpretation cannot so aptly be applied unto him in that place, then will 
I yet interpret Chrysostom another way by himself. For in that place, a few lines 
before those words which were here now lately read, are these words: that Christ, 
after he ascended into heaven, left unto us, endued with his sacraments, his flesh 
in mysteries - that is, sacramentally. And that mystical flesh Christ leaveth 
as well to his church in the sacrament of baptism, as in the sacramental bread 
and wine. St. Paul doth witness, 'As many of us as are baptized in Christ have 
put upon us Christ;' and thus you may understand that St. Chrysostom maketh nothing 
for your carnal, and gross presence in the sacrament." The fifth day's debate 
was opened on Friday, October 27th. The prolocu- tor began with observing, that 
the convocation had spent two days in disputing about one father, which was Theodoret, 
and about one Greek word, (ovoia;) and now they were assembled to answer all things 
that could be objected; therefore, he desired they would shortly propound their 
arguments. Upon this Haddon, dean of exeter, requested leave to oppose Mr. Watson, 
who, with Morgan and Harpsfield, were appointed to answer him. Mr. Haddon then 
demanded, if any substance of bread and wine remained after consecration? To which 
Watson replied by asking another question, namely, whether he thought there was 
a real presence of Christ's body or not? Mr. Haddon said, it was a breach of order 
that one, who was appointed respondent, should be opponent; nor should he, whose 
business was to object, answer. Mr. Haddon then proceeded to shew, from the words 
of Theodoret, that the substance of bread and wine remained; for his words are; 
"The same they were before the sanctifica- tion, which they are after." Mr. Watson 
said, that Theodoret meant not the same substance, but the same essence. On this 
they were driven again to a discussion of the Greek word above mentioned; and 
Mr. Haddon proved it to mean a substance, both by its etymology, and by the words 
of Theodoret. He then asked Watson, when the bread and wine became symbols? Watson 
answered, "After consecration, and not before." Then Mr. Haddon raised out of 
his author the following syllogism: "Theodoret saith, that the same thing the 
bread and wine were before they were symbols, the same they still remain, in nature 
and substance, after they are symbols. Bread and wine they were before. Therefore 
bread and wine they are after." PAGE 547 Mr. Cheyney addressing himself particularly 
to Mr. Watson, began after this manner. "You said that Mr. Haddon was not fit 
to dispute, because he had not granted the natural and real presence, but you 
are much less fit to answer, because you take away the substance of the sacrament." 
Watson said, that he had subscribed to the real presence, and should not go from 
that; but he would explain what he meant by subscribing to the real presence, 
far otherwise than they supposed. He then prosecuted Haddon's argument, proving 
that the Greek word before discussed was a substance, using the same reason that 
Haddon did: and when he had received the same answer that was made to Haddon, 
he told them it was but a poor refuge, when they could not answer, to deny the 
author, and proved the author to be a catholic doctor; that being proved, he further 
confirmed what was said of the nature and substance. The prolocutor perceiving 
that Mr. Watson was closely attacked, called upon Mr. Morgan to help him out, 
who said that Theodoret did no more than what was justifiable; for, first he granted 
the truth, and then, for fear of such as were not fully instructed in the faith, 
he spake mystically: he granted the truth, by calling the bread and wine the body 
and blood of Christ; after which he seems to give somewhat to the senses and to 
reason: but that Theodoret was of the same opinion with them, will appear from 
his words that follow, which are the cause of what went before; therefore he says, 
the immortality, &c. whereby it appears, that he meant the divine, and not 
the human nature. Watson now said: "Suppose Theodoret be on your side, he is but 
one; and what is one against the consent of the whole church?" Cheyney affirmed, 
that not only Theodoret was of his opinion, that the substance of bread and wine 
do remain, but many others also, particularly Irenaeus, who making mention of 
this sacrament says: "When the cup which is mingled with wine, and the bread that 
is broken, do receive the word of God, it is made the Eucharist of the body and 
blood of Christ, by which the substance of our flesh is nourished and doth consist." 
From whence I infer, that if the thanksgiving doth nourish our body, then there 
is some substance besides Christ's body. To this both Watson and Morgan replied, 
observing, that the words, "by which," in that sentence of Irenaeus, were to be 
referred to the next antecedent, that is to the body and blood of Christ; and 
not to the wine which is in the cup, and the bread which is broken. Mr. Cheyney 
said, that it was not the body of Christ which nourished our bodies; and granting 
that the flesh of Christ nourisheth to immortality, yet it doth not make for their 
argument, although it might be true; no more than that answer which was made to 
the allegation out of St. Paul, 'the bread which we break, is it not the communion 
of the body of Christ?' with many others; whereunto you answered, that bread was 
not to be taken there in its proper significa- tion, that is, not for that it 
was bread, but for that it had been so; any more than the rod of Aaron was taken 
for a serpent, because it had been a serpent." After this, Mr. Cheyney brought 
in Hesychius, and used the same reason that he did, of burning of symbols; and 
he asked them, What was burnt? Watson said we must not inquire; when Cheyney asked, 
Whereof came those ashes - not from substance? or can any substance arise from 
accidents? PAGE 548 Here Mr. Harpsfield was called to the assistance of Watson, 
and began with a fair preamble about the omnipotency of God, and the weakness 
of human reason as to the comprehension and attainment of religious mat- ters; 
observing, that whatsoever we saw, or tasted, it was not conveni- ent to trust 
our senses. He also related a curious legend out of St. Cyprian, how a woman saw 
the sacrament burning in her coffer! "Now that which burned there," said Harpsfield, 
"burneth here, and becometh ashes; but what that was which burnt we cannot tell." 
Mr. Cheyney continued still to force them with this question - "What was it that 
was burnt? it was either the substance of bread, or else the substance of the 
body of Christ - which is too great an absurdity to grant." At length they answered, 
it was a miracle. At this Mr. Cheyney smiling, said that he would then proceed 
no further. Dr. Weston now asked the company, whether those men had not been suffi- 
ciently answered? Certain priests said, "Yes;" but the multitude exclaimed - "No, 
no!' Dr. Weston answered sharply, that he asked not the judgment of the rude multitude, 
but such as were members of that house. He then demanded of Mr. Haddon and his 
fellow-disputants, whether they would answer them other three days? Haddon, Cheyney, 
and Elmar all replied, "No." Upon which the archdeacon of Winchester, Mr. Philpot, 
said they should be answered; and though all others refused to answer, yet he 
would not; but would himself answer them all in turns. The prolocutor abused him, 
saying, that he should go to Bedlam; to whom the archdeacon seriously answered, 
that he himself was much more suited to the place. On the sixth debate, October 
30th, the prolocutor, addressing himself to Mr. Philpot, demanded whether, in 
the questions before propounded, he would answer their objections? Mr. Philpot 
said if they would answer but one of his arguments sufficiently, he would reply 
to all the objections they could bring. The prolocutor then bid him state his 
argument, and it should be resolutely controverted by some of them. Mr. Philpot 
then proceeded - "On Wednesday last, I was compelled to silence before I had prosecuted 
half my argument, the sum of which was, that the human body of Christ had ascended 
into heaven, and gone to the right hand of God the Father; wherefore, after the 
imagination of man, it could not be situated upon earth invisibly in the sacrament 
of the altar. My argument is this. One and the selfsame nature reciveth not any 
thing that is contrary to itself. But the body of Christ is a human nature, distinct 
from the Deity, and is a proper nature of itself. I infer therfore that it cannot 
receive any thing that is contrary to that nature, and that varieth from itself. 
To be bodily present and to be bodily absent - to be on earth, and to be in heaven 
- and all at one time, are things incompatible with the nature of a human body. 
Therefore, it cannot be said of the human body of Christ, that the selfsame body 
is both in heaven and on the earth at one instant, either visibly or invisibly." 
Morgan objected to the first part of the argument, which Philpot supported out 
of Vigilius, an ancient writer. PAGE 549 Morgan cavilled still, and said it was 
no scripture, and desired him to to prove the same from thence; upon which Philpot 
quoted St. Paul, who says that "Christ is made like unto us in all points, except 
sin;" adding, "As one of our bodies cannot receive in itself anything contary 
to the nature of a body, as to be in St. Paul's Church and in Westmin- ister Abbey 
at one and the same instant; or to be in London visibly and in Lincoln invisibly 
at one time; whereof he concluded that the body of Christ might not be in more 
places than one, which is in heaven; and so consequently not to be contained in 
the sacrament of the altar." To this the prolocutor answered that it was not true 
that Christ was like unto us in all points, as Philpot took it, except sin. For 
that Christ was not conceived by the seed of man, as we be. Whereunto Philpot 
replied, that Christ's conception was prophesied before, by the angel, to be supernatural; 
but after he had received our nature by the operation of the Holy Ghost in the 
Virgin's womb, he became in all points like unto us, except sin. Morgan again 
cavilled; when Philpot said that he was not destitute of other Scriptures to confirm 
his argument, quoting the words of St. Peter: "Whom heaven must receive until 
the consummation of all things," etc; which words were spoken of his humanity. 
"And if," said he, "heaven must hold Christ, then can he not be here on earth, 
in the sacrament, as is pretended." After this the prolocutor spake to Philpot, 
and said, "Lest thou should- est slander the house, and say that we will not suffer 
you to declare your mind, we are content that you shall come into the house as 
you have done before; so that you be apparelled in a long gown and a tippet, like 
as we be, and that you shall not speak but when I command you." "Then" quoth Philpot, 
"I had rather be absent altogether." Thus did they reason, till at length, about 
the middle of December, queen Mary interfered, and sending to Bonner, bishop of 
London, command- ed him to dissolve the convocation. Near the same time the parliament 
broke up, having first repealed all such statutes as concerned any alteration 
of religion, and administration of the sacraments, in the reign of Edward VI. 
In this session also the parliament were acquainted with the queen's intended 
marriage with Philip, the emperor's son. In the mean time, cardinal Pole, having 
been sent for by Mary, was request- ed by the emperor to stay with him, to the 
intent, according to general opinion and report, that the cardinal's presence 
in England should not be a bar to the marriage between his son and the queen; 
to accomplish which, he sent a most splendid embassy, with full power; which had 
such good success, that, after a few days, the marriage between Mary and Philip 
was settled on the following terms. The government to rest solely with the queen. 
Her hand alone to give authority to every thing. No Spaniard to be capable of 
any office. No change to be made in the law, nor the queen to be required to go 
out of England against her will, nor their issue but by consent of the nobility. 
The queen to have of join- ture 60,000l. out of Spain. Their son to inherit Burgundy 
and the Netherlands, as well as England. Their daughters to succeed to her crown, 
and to have such portions from Spain as were generally given to king's daughters. 
The prince to have no share in the government after her death. PAGE 550 SECTION 
III. Wyatt's rebellion - Lady Jane Grey - Conversation with Fecknam - Letters 
- Behaviour at execution, with other matters. The year 1554 commenced with persecution. 
Dr. Crome was committed to the Fleet, for preaching without license on Christmas 
day; and Thomas Wootton, a protestant esquire, on account of his religious profession. 
The publication of the queen's intended marriage was very ill received by the 
people and several of the nobility; and soon a rebellion arose, whereof sir Thomas 
Wyatt was one of the chief promoters. He said that the queen and council would, 
by this marriage, bring upon the realm slavery and popery. He resided in the county 
of Kent, and as soon as intelligence was received in London of the insurrection 
there, and of the duke of Suffolk having fled into Warwick and Leicestershire, 
with a view of raising forces in those counties, the queen caused them both, with 
the Carews of Devonshire, to be proclaimed traitors. At the same time she sent 
some forces, under the duke of Norfolk, into Kent; but, on reaching Rochester-bridge, 
he found himself so deserted, that he was obliged to return to London. The earl 
of Huntingdon was sent into Warwickshire to apprehend the duke of Suffok, who, 
entering the city of Coventry before Suffok, frustrated his designs. In his distress, 
the duke confided in a servant of his, named Underwood, in Astley-park, who, like 
a false traitor, betrayed him. And so he was brought to the Tower of London. Sir 
Peter Carew, hearing what was done, fled into France; but the others were taken. 
Wyatt came towards London in the beginning of February. The queen, hearing of 
Wyatt's coming, came into the city to the Guildhall, where she made a vehement 
oration against him. When she had concluded, Gardiner, standing by her, with great 
admiration cried to the people, "Oh, how happy are we, to whom God hath given 
such a wise and learned prince!" etc. On the 3rd of February, lord Cobham was 
committed to the Tower. Wyatt was now 4000 strong, and came to Southwark, but 
could not force the bridge of London: he was informed the city would all rise 
if he should come to their aid; but he could not find boats for passing into Middle- 
sex or Essex, so he was forced to go to the bridge of Kingston. On reaching it, 
he found it cut; yet his men repaired it, and he reached Hyde-park the next morning. 
Weary and disheartened, his troops were reduced to 500, and the queen's forces 
could have easily dispersed them; yet they let them go forward, that they might 
be obliged to surrender at discretion. He marched through the Strand, and got 
to Ludgate. Returning from thence, he was opposed at Temple-bar, and there surren- 
dered himself to sir Clement Parson, who brought him to court, with the remains 
of his army, after about one hundred had been killed. A great number of the captives 
were hanged; and Wyatt was beheaded on Tower hill, and then quartered. It was 
now resolved to proceed against lady Jane Grey and her husband. She had lived 
six months in the hourly meditation of death; so she was not much surprised when 
the catastrophe arrived. Feckman, alias Howman, was sent from the queen, two days 
before her death, to commune with her, and to reduce her from the doctrine of 
Christ to queen Mary's religion: the effect of which communication here followeth. 
Fecknam. Madam, I lament your heavy case; and yet I doubt not but that you bear 
out this sorrow of yours with a constant and patient mind. Jane. You are welcome 
unto me, sir, if your coming be to give Christian exhortation. And as for my heavy 
case, I thank God, I do so little lament it, that rather I account the same for 
a more manifest declara- tion of God's favor towards me, than ever he showed me 
at any time before. Therefore, there is no cause why either you or others which 
bear me good will should lament or be grieved with this my case, being a thing 
so profitable to my soul's health. Fecknam. I am here come to you at this present, 
sent from the queen and her council, to instruct you in the true doctrine of the 
right faith: although I have so great confidence in you, that I shall have, I 
trust, little need to travel with you much therein. Jane. Forsooth, I heartily 
thank the queen's highness, who is not un- mindful of her humble subject; and 
I hope that you will no less do your duty therein, truly and faithfully, according 
to that you were sent for. Fecknam. What is then required of a Christian man? 
Jane. That he should believe in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: three 
Persons and one God. Fecknam. What? Is there nothing else to be required or looked 
for in a Christian, but to believe in him? Jane. Yes, we must love him with all 
our heart, with all our soul, and with all our might; and our neighbor as ourself. 
Fecknam. Why? then faith justifieth not, nor saveth not. Jane. Yes verily, faith, 
as St. Paul saith, alone justifieth. Fecknam. Why? St. Paul saith, "If I have 
all faith without love, it is nothing." Jane. True it is; for how can I love him 
whom I trust not? Or how can I trust him whom I love not? Faith and love go both 
together, and yet love is comprehended in faith. Fecknam. How shall we love our 
neighbor? Jane. To love our neighbor is to feed the hungry, to clothe the naked, 
to give drink to the thirsty, and to do to him as we would to ourselves. Fecknam. 
Why? then it is necessary unto salvation to do good works also, and it is not 
sufficint only to believe. Jane. I deny that, and I affirm that faith only saveth; 
but it is meet for a Christian, in token that he followeth his master Christ, 
to do good works, yet may we not say that they profit to our salvation. For when 
we have done all, yet we be unprofitable servants, and faith only in Christ's 
blood saveth us. Fecknam. How many sacraments are there? Jane. Two - the one the 
sacrament of baptism, and the other the sacra- ment of the Lord's supper. Fecknam. 
No, there are seven. Jane. By what scripture find you that? Fecknam. Well, we 
will talk of that hereafter. But what is signified by your two sacraments? PAGE 
552 Jane. By the sacrament of baptism, I am washed with water and regener- ated 
by the Spirit; and that washing is a token to me that I am the child of God. The 
sacrament of the Lord's supper, offered unto me, is a sure seal and testimony 
that I am, by the blood of Christ, which he shed for me on the cross, made partaker 
of the everlasting kingdom. Fecknam. Why, what do you receive in that sacrament? 
Do you not receive the very body and blood of Christ? Jane. No surely, I do not 
so believe. I think that at the supper I neither receive flesh nor blood, but 
bread and wine; which bread when it is broken, and the wine when it is drunken, 
put me in remembrance how that for my sins the body of Christ was broken, and 
his blood shed on the cross; and with that bread and wine I received the benefits 
that come by the breaking of his body, and shedding of his blood, for our sins 
on the cross. Fecknam. Why, doth not Christ speak these words, "Take, eat, this 
is my body?" Require you any plainer words? Doth he not say, it is his body? Jane. 
I grant, he saith so; and so he saith, "I am the vine, I am the door;" but he 
is never the more for that, the door or the vine. Doth not St. Paul say, "He calleth 
things that are not as though they were?" God forbid that I should say, that I 
eat the very natural body and blood of Christ: for then either I should pluck 
away my redemption, or else there were two bodies, or two Christs. One body was 
tormented on the cross, and if they did eat another body, then had he two bodies; 
or if his body were eaten, then was it not broken upon the cross; or if it were 
broken upon the cross, it was not eaten of his disciples. Fecknam. Why, is it 
not as possible that Christ, by his power, could make his body both to be eaten 
and broken, and to be born of a virgin, as to walk upon the sea, having a body, 
and other suck like miracles as he wrought by his power only? Jane. Yes verily, 
if God would have done at his supper any miracle, he might have done so: but I 
say, that then he minded no work nor miracle, but only to brake his body and shed 
his blood on the cross for our sins. But I pray you to answer me to this one question: 
Where was Christ when he said, "Take, eat, this is my body?" Was he not at the 
table when he said so? He was at that time alive, and suffered not till the next 
day. What took he, but bread? what brake he, but bread? and what gave he, but 
bread? Look, what he took he brake: and look, what he brake he gave: and look, 
what he gave they did eat: and yet all this while he himself was alive, and at 
supper before his disciples, or else they were deceived. Fecknam. You ground your 
faith upon such authors as say and unsay both in a breath; and not upon the church, 
whom ye ought to credit. Jane. No, I ground my faith on God's word, and not upon 
the church. For if the church be a good church, the faith of the church must be 
tried by God's word; and not God's word by the church, neither yet my faith. Shall 
I believe the church because of antiquity, or shall I give credit to the church 
that taketh away from me the half part of the Lord's Supper, and will not let 
any man receive it in both kinds? which things if they deny to us, then deny they 
to us part of our salvation. And I say, that it is an evil church, and not the 
spouse of Christ, but the spouse of the devil, that altereth the Lord's supper, 
and both taketh PAGE 553 from it and addeth to it. To that church, say I, God 
will add plagues; and from that church will he take their part out of that book 
of life. Do they learn that of St. Paul, when he ministered to the Corinthians 
in both kinds? Shall I believe this church? God forbid! Fecknam. That was done 
for a good intent of the church, to avoid a heresy that sprang on it. Jane. Why, 
shall the church alter God's will and ordinance, for good intent? How did king 
Saul? The Lord God defend! With these and such like persuasions he would have 
had her lean to the church, but it would not be. There were many more things whereof 
they reasoned, but these were the chiefest. After this, Fecknam took his leave, 
saying that he was sorry for her: "For I am sure," quoth he, "that we two shall 
never meet." "True it is," replied lady Jane, openly, "that we shall never meet, 
except God turn your heart; for I am assured, unless you repent and turn to God, 
you are in an evil case. And I pray God, in the bowels of his mercy, to send you 
his Holy Spirit; for he hath given you his great gift of utterance, if it pleased 
him also to open the eyes of your heart." A letter of the lady Jane to master 
Harding, late chaplain to the duke of Suffolk, her father, and then fallen from 
the truth of God's most holy word:- "So oft as I call to mind the dreadful and 
fearful saying of God, 'That he which layeth hold upon the plough, and looketh 
back, is not meet for the kingdom of heaven;' and, on the other side, the comfortable 
words of our Saviour Christ to all those that, forsaking themselves, do follow 
him; I cannot but marvel at thee, and lament they case, who seemed sometime to 
be the lively member of Christ, but now the deformed imp of the devil; sometime 
the beautiful temple of God, but now the stinking and filthy kennel of Satan; 
sometime the unspotted spouse of Christ, but now the unshamefaced paramour of 
antichrist; sometime my faithful broth- er, but now a stranger and apostate; sometime 
a stout Christian soldier, but now a cowardly runaway. Yea, when I consider these 
things, I cannot but speak to thee, and cry out upon thee, thou seed of Satan, 
and not of Judah, whom the devil hath deceived, the world hath beguiled, and the 
desire of life subverted, and made thee of a Christian an infidel. Wherefore hast 
thou taken the testament of the Lord in thy mouth? Wherefore hast thou preached 
the law and the will of God to others? Wherefore hast thou instructed others to 
be strong in Christ, when thou thyself dost now so shamefully shrink, and so horribly 
abuse the testa- ment and law of the Lord? when thou thyself preachest, not to 
steal, yet most abominably stealest, not from men, but from God, and, committing 
most heinous sacrilege, robbest Christ thy Lord of his right members, thy body 
and soul; and choosest rather to live miserably with shame to the world, than 
to die, and gloriously with honour reign with Christ, in whom even in death is 
life? Why dost thou now show thyself most weak, when indeed thou oughtest to be 
most strong? The strength of a fort is unknown before the assault, but thou yieldest 
thy hold before any battery he made. O wretched and unhappy man, what art thou 
but dust and PAGE 554 ashes? And wilt thou resist thy Maker, that fashioned thee 
and framed thee? Wilt thou now forsake Him that called thee from the custom- gathering 
among the Romish antichristians, to be an ambassador and messenger of his eternal 
word? He that first framed thee, and since thy first creation and birth preserved 
thee, nourished and kept thee, yea, and inspired thee with the spirit of knowledge, 
(I cannot say, of grace) shall he not now possess thee? Darest thou deliver up 
thyself to anoth- er, being not thine own, but his? How canst thou, having knowledge, 
or how darest thou neglect the law of the Lord, and follow the vain tradi- tions 
of men; and, whereas thou has been a public professor of his name, become now 
a defacer of his glory? Wilt thou refuse the true God, and worship the invention 
of man, the golden calf, the whore of Babylon, the Romish religion, the abominable 
idol, the most wicked mass? Wilt thou torment again, rend and tear the most precious 
body of our Saviour Christ, with thy bodily and fleshly teeth? Wilt thou take 
upon thee to offer up any sacrafice unto God for our sins, considering that Christ 
offered up himself, as Paul saith, upon the cross, a lively sacrifice once for 
all? Can neither the punishment of the Israelites - which, for their idolatry, 
they so oft received - nor the terrible threatenings of the prophets, nor the 
curses of God's own mouth, fear thee to honour any other god than him? Dost thou 
so regard Him that spared not his dear and only Son for thee, so diminishing, 
yea, utterly extinguishing his glory, that thou wilt attribute the praise and 
honour due unto him to the idols, 'which have mouths and speak not, eyes and see 
not, ears and hear not;' which shall perish with them that made them? "Last of 
all, let the lively remembrance of the last day be always before your eyes; remembering 
the terror that such shall be in at that time, with the runagates and fugitives 
from Christ, which setting more by the world than by heavan, more by their life 
than by Him who gave them life, did shrink, yea, did clean fall away, from his 
that forsook not them: and contrariwise, the inestimable joys prepared for them, 
that fearing no peril, nor dreading death, have manfully fought, and victoriously 
triumphed over all power of darkness, over hell, death, and damnation, through 
their most redoubted captain, Christ. - To whom, with the Father and the Holy 
Ghost, be all honour, praise, and glory ever- lasting. Amen." A letter written 
by the lady Jane in the end of the New Testament in Greek, the which she sent 
unto her sister the lady Katherine, the night before she suffered:- "I have here 
sent you, good sister Katherine, a book, which although it be not outwardly trimmed 
with gold, yet inwardly it is more worth than precious stones. It is the book, 
dear sister, of the law of the Lord. It is his testament and last will, which 
he bequeathed unto us wretches; which shall lead you to the path of eternal joy: 
and, if you with a good mind read it, and with an earnest mind do purpose to follow 
it, it shall bring you to an immortal and everlasting life. It shall teach you 
to live, and learn you to die. It shall win you more than you should have gained 
by the possession of your woeful father's lands. For as, if God had prospered 
him, you should have inherited his lands; so, if you apply diligently to this 
book, seeking to direct your life after it, you shall PAGE 555 be an inheritor 
of such riches, as neither the covetous shall withdraw from you, neither thief 
shall steal, neither yet the moths corrupt. Desire with David, good sister, to 
understand the law of the Lord God. Live still to die, that you by death may purchase 
eternal life. And trust not that the tenderness of your age shall lengthen your 
life; for as soon, if God call, goeth the young as the old; and labour always 
to learn to die. Defy the world, deny the devil, and despise the flesh, and delight 
yourself only in the Lord. Be penitent for your sins, and yet despair not: be 
strong in faith, and yet presume not; and desire, with St. Paul, to be dissolved 
and to be with Christ, with whom even in death there is life. Be like the good 
servant, and even at midnight be waking, lest when death cometh and stealeth upon 
you as a thief in the night, you be, with the evil servant, found sleeping; and 
lest, for lack of oil, you be found like the five foolish women; and like him 
that had not on the wedding garment, and then ye be cast out from the marriage. 
Rejoice in Christ, as I do. Follow the steps of your master Christ, and take up 
your cross; lay your sins on his back, and always embrace him. And as touching 
my death, rejoice as I do, good sister, that I shall be delivered of this corruption, 
and put on incorruption. For I am assured that I shall, for losing a mortal life, 
win an immortal life, the which I pray God grant you, and send you of his grace 
to live in his fear, and to die in the true Christian faith, from the which, in 
God's name, I exhort you that you never swerve, neither for hope of life, nor 
for fear of death. For if you will deny his truth for to lengthen your life, God 
will deny you, and yet shorten your days. And if you will cleave unto him, he 
will prolong your days, to your comfort and his glory: to the which glory God 
bring me now, and you hereafter, when it pleaseth him to call you. Fare you well, 
good sister, and put your only trust in God, who only must help you." A prayer 
made by the lady Jane in the time of her trouble, and also a letter to her father, 
a part of that to Mr. Harding, are here omitted for want of space. It remaineth 
now, coming to the end of this virtuous lady, to infer the manner of her execution, 
with the words and behaviour of her at the time of her death. First, when she 
mounted the scaffold, she said to the people standing thereabout, "Good people, 
I am come hither to die, and by a law I am condemned to the same. The fact against 
the queen's highness was unlawful, and the consenting thereunto by me; but, touching 
the procurement and desire thereof by me, or on my behalf, I do wash my hands 
therof in innocency before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this 
day. I pray you all, good Christian people, to bear me witness that I die a true 
Christian woman, and that I do look to be saved by no other mean, but only by 
the mercy of God, in the blood of his only Son Jesus Christ: and I confess, that 
when I did know the word of God, I neglected the same, and loved myself and the 
world: therefore this punishment is happily and worthily happened unto me for 
my sins; and yet I thank God, that of his goodness he hath thus given me a time 
and respite to repent. And now, good people, while I am alive, I pray you assist 
me with your prayers." PAGE 556 And then, kneeling down, she turned her to Fecknam, 
saying, "Shall I say this psalm?" and he said, "Yea." Then said she the psalm 
of "Miserere mei Deus," in English, in most devout manner throughout to the end. 
Then she stood up, and gave her maiden, Ellen, her gloves and handkerchief, and 
her book to Mr. Bruges. After this, she untied her gown, in which the executioner 
offered to help her; but she, desiring him to let her alone, turned towards her 
two gentlewomen, who helped her off therewith, and also with her frowes, paaft 
and neckerchief, giving to her a fair handkerchief to knit about her eyes. Then 
the executioner kneeled down and asked her forgiveness, which she willingly granted, 
and said, "I pray you dispatch me quickly." Then she kneeled, saying, "Will you 
strike before I lay me down?" The executioner said, "No, madam." Then tied she 
the handkerchief about her eyes, and feeling for the block, she said, "What shall 
I do? Where is it?" One of the standers-by guiding her thereunto, she laid her 
head down upon the block, and then stretched forth her body, and said, "Lord, 
into thy hands I commend my spirit;" and so finished her life, in the year of 
our Lord 1554, and 12th day of February, about the 17th year of her age. Thus 
was beheaded the lady Jane, and with her also the lord Guilford, her husband, 
one of the duke of Northumberland's sons. Judge Morgan, who gave the sentence 
of condemnation against her, shortly after he had condemned her, fell mad, and 
in his raving cried out continually to have the lady Jane taken away from him; 
and so ended his life. Upon the 21st of the same month, Henry duke of Suffolk, 
the father of lady Jane, was also beheaded at the Tower-hill; and, about the same 
time, many gentle- men and yeomen were condemned for this conspiracy, whereof 
some were executed in London and some in the country. On the 24th of the same 
month of February, 1554, Bonner, bishop of London, sent down a commission to all 
the pastors and curates of his diocese, for the taking of the names of such as 
would not come, the Lent following, to auricular confession, and to the receiving 
at Easter. And on the 4th of the next month there was a letter sent from the queen 
to bishop Bonner requiring that all the canons and ecclesiastical laws of Henry 
the Eighth's time should be put in execution. Injunctions were now given to the 
bishops, to execute such ecclesiasti- cal laws as had been in force in king Henry's 
time: that in their courts they should proceed in their own names; that the oath 
of supremacy should be no more exacted; that none suspected of heresy should be 
put in orders; and that all married clergymen should separate from their wives. 
If they left their wives, the bishops might put them in some other cure, or reserve 
a pension for them out of their livings. Rules for ordination were established 
on popish principles. The queen gave also a special commission to Bonner, Gardiner, 
Tonstall, Day, and Kitchin, to proceed against the archbishop of York, and the 
bishops of St. David's, Chester, and Bristol, and to deprive them of their bisho- 
prics, for having contracted marriage, and thereby broken their vows and defiled 
their function. She also authorized them to call before them the bishops of Lincoln, 
Gloucester, and Hereford, who held their bishoprics only during their good behaviour; 
and since they had done things con- trary to the laws of God, and the practice 
of the universal church, to declare their bishoprics void. PAGE 557 SECTION IV. 
Account of a public disputation which was appointed by the Queen's special command 
in a convocation held at St. Mary's church in Oxford. In April 1554, Cranmer, 
Ridley, and Latimer, were conveyed as prisoners from the Tower to Windsor; and 
from thence to Oxford, to dispute with the divines and learned men of both the 
universities, Oxford and Cam- bridge, concerning the presence, substance, and 
sacrifice of the sacra- ment. The doctors and graduates appointed to dispute against 
them were of Oxford - Dr. Weston, prolocutor, Dr. Tresham, Dr. Cole, Dr. Oglethor- 
pe, Dr. Pie, Mr. Harpsfield, and Mr. Fecknam. Of Cambridge, Dr. Young, vice-chancellor, 
Dr. Glyn, Dr. Seton, Dr. Watson, Dr. Sedgewick, and Dr. Atkinson. The questions 
of dispute were - Whether the natural body of Christ be really in the sacrament, 
after words spoken by the priest or not? Whether in the sacrament, after the words 
of consecration, any other substance do remain, than the substance of the body 
and blood of Christ? and whether in the mass there be a sacrifice propitiatory 
for the sins of the quick and the dead? On the 13th of April the doctors of Cambridge 
arrived at Oxford, and lodged all at the Cross Inn, with one Wakecline, some time 
a servant to bishop Bonner. After the ceremonies of welcome, and after consultation 
concerning the delivery of their letters and instrument of grace, they all repaired 
to Lincoln college to Dr. Weston the prolocutor, and to Dr. Tresham the vice-chancellor, 
to whom they delivered their letters, declaring what they had done touching the 
articles and graces. Having concluded on a procession, sermon, and convocation, 
on the day follow- ing, and that the doctors of Cambridge should be incorporated 
with the university of Oxford, and the doctors of Oxford with those of the university 
of Cambridge, they returned to their inn. The same day, the three prisoners were 
separated, Dr. Ridley to the house of Mr. Irish, Latimer to another house; while 
Cranmer remained to Bocardo, a prison in Oxford. The following day the vice-chancellor 
of Cambridge, with the other doctors of that university, again repairing to Lincoln 
college, found the prolocutor above in the chapel, with a company of the house 
singing mass for the dead, and tarried there until the end. Then having consult- 
ed together in the master's room, they all come to the university church of St. 
Mary's, where, after another consultation in a chapel, the vice- chancellor of 
Oxford caused the vice-chancellor of Cambridge, and the rest of the doctors of 
that university, to send for their scarlet robes brought from Cambridge. By this 
time, the regents in the congregation- house, had granted all the Cambridge doctors 
their graces, to be incor- porate there; and so they went up and were immediately 
admitted, Dr. Oglethorpe presenting them, and the proctor reading the statute, 
and giving them their oaths. They now all came into the choir to hold the convocation 
of the univers- ity: the mass of the Holy Ghost was solemnly sung before them 
by the PAGE 558 choir-men of Christ's church. First, the cause of the convocation 
was opened in English by the vice-chancellor and prolocutor declaring that they 
were commissioned by the queen, and wherefore they were sent; and caused master 
Say, the register, openly to read the commission. That done, the vice-chancellor 
read the Cambridge letters openely, and then concluded that three notaries, one 
for the convocation, one for Cam- bridge, and one for Oxford, should testify of 
their doings. Then they ordered the notaries to provide parchment, that the whole 
assembly might subscribe to the articles, except those who had subscribed before 
in the convocation-house at London and Cambridge. And so the vice-chancellor began 
first; after him the rest of the Oxford men, as many as could in the mass time. 
The mass being done, they went in procession to Christ's church; and there the 
choir sang a psalm, and after that a collect was read. They then departed to Lincoln 
college, where they dined with the mayor, one alderman, four beadles, and the 
Cambridge notary. After dinner they all went again to St. Mary's church; where, 
shortly after, all the commis- sioners arrived, and sat before the altar, to the 
number of thirty-three persons: Dr. Cranmer was then sent for, and shortly after 
arrived in custody. The archbishop paid his respects to them with much humility, 
standing with his staff in his hand, and though he had a stool offered him, refused 
to sit. The articles against him were read, and a copy of them delivered to him; 
after which he was given in charge to the mayor, who remanded him to prison. Dr. 
Ridley was next brought in, who hearing the articles against him, immediately 
replied that they were all false; and said farther, that they sprang from a bitter 
and sour root. Then he was asked whether he would dispute or not? He answered, 
that as long as God gave him life, he should not only have his heart, but also 
his mouth and pen to defend his truth; but he required time and books. They said 
he could not have time, but must dispute on Thursday; and till then he should 
have books. He said it was unreasonable that he might not have his own books and 
time also. Then they gave him the articles, and desired him to write his opinion 
upon them that night; after which they commanded the mayor to take him whence 
he came. Last of all came in Mr. Latimer, with a kerchief and two or three caps 
on his head, his spectacles hanging by a string at his breast, and a staff in 
his hand, and was set in a chair. After his denial of the articles, when he had 
Wednesday appointed for disputation, he alleged age, sickness, disuse, and lack 
of books, saying, that he was almost as meet to dispute as to be a captain of 
Calais: but he would declare his mind either by writing or word, and would stand 
to all they could lay upon him; complaining, moreover, that he was permitted to 
have neither pen nor ink, nor yet any book but the New Testament in his hand, 
which he had read over seven times deliberately, and yet could not find the mass 
in it, neither the marrow-bones nor sinews of the same. At this the commissioners 
were not a little offended; and Dr. Weston said that he would make him grant that 
it had both marrow-bones and sinews in the New Testament. To whom Latimer said 
again, "That you will never do, master Doctor." And so, forthwith, they put him 
to silence; so that whereas he was desirous to tell what he meant by those terms, 
he could not be PAGE 559 suffered. The great press and throng of people were then 
dispersed, and the convocation adjourned. At nine o'clock on Sunday morning, Mr. 
Harps- field preached at St. Mary's, where the doctors in their robes were placed 
in due order of precedency. After sermon, they all dined at Magdalen college, 
and supped at Lincoln college, with Dr. Weston; whith- er Cranmer sent his answer 
upon the articles in writing. On Monday, Dr. Weston, with the residue of the visitors, 
censors, and opponents, repairing to the divinity school, each installed himself 
in his place. Cranmer was brought thither, and set in the answerer's place, with 
the mayor and aldermen by him; when the prolocutor, apparelled in a scarlet gown, 
after the custom of the university, began the disputation with this oration:- 
"You are assembled hither, brethren, this day to confound the detestable heresy 
of the verity of the body of Christ in the sacrament." At these strange words 
several of the learned men burst into great laughter, as though, in the entrance 
of the disputation, he had betrayed himself and his religion, by terming the opinion 
of the verity of Christ's body in the sacrament a detestable heresy! The rest 
of his oration was intended to prove, that it was not lawful to call these questions 
into controver- sy; for such as doubted of the words of Christ might well be thought 
to doubt both of the truth and power of God. On this Dr. Cranmer, desiring leave, 
answered - "We are assembled to discuss and to lay before the world those doubtful 
points which ye think it unlawful to dispute. It is, indeed, no reason that we 
should dispute of that which is determined upon before the truth be tried. But 
if these questions be not called into controversy, surely my answer then is looked 
for in vain." Then Chedsey, the first opponent, began: "Rev. Doctor, these three 
conculsions are put forth unto us at present to dispute upon - In the sacrament 
of the altar, is the natural body of Christ, and also his blood, present really 
under the forms of bread and wine, by virtue of God's word pronounced by the priest? 
Does there remain any of the former substance of bread and wine after the consecration, 
or any other substance but the substance of God and man? Is the lively sacrifice 
of the church in the mass propitiatory, as well for the quick as the dead? These 
are the arguments on which our present controversy rests. Now, to the end we might 
not doubt how you take the same, you have already given unto us your opinion thereof. 
I term it your opinion, in that it disagreeth from the catholic. Wherefore I thus 
argue: Your opinion differeth from Scripture: ergo, you are deceived." Cranmer. 
I deny the antecedent. Chedsey. Christ, when he instituted his last supper, spake 
to his disci- ples, "Take, eat: this is my body which shall be given for you." 
But his true body was given for us: ergo, his true body is in the sacrament. Cranmer. 
His body is truly present to them that truly receive him; but spiritually. And 
so it is taken after a spiritual sort; for when he said, "This is my body," it 
is all one as if he had said, "This is the breaking of my body; this is the shedding 
of my blood. As oft as you shall do this, it shall put you in remembrance of the 
breaking of my body, and the shedding of my blood; that as truly as you receive 
this sacrament, so truly shall you receive the benefit promised by receiving the 
same worthily." PAGE 560 Chedsey. Your opinion differeth from the church, which 
saith, that the true body is in the sacrament: ergo, your opinion therein is false. 
Cranmer. I say and agree with the church, that the body of Christ is in the sacrament 
effectually, because the passion of Christ is effectual. Chedsey. Christ, when 
he spake these words, "This is my body," spake of the substance, but not of the 
effect. Cranmer. I grant he spake of the substance, and not of the effect after 
a sort: and yet it is most true that the body of Christ is effectually in the 
sacrament. But I deny that he is there truly present in bread, or that under the 
bread is his organical body. And because it should be too tedious, Cranmer said, 
to discourse of the whole, he delivered his written opinion to Dr. Weston, with 
answers to the three propositions, requiring that it might be read openly to the 
people; which the prolocutor promised, but did not. The copy of this writing here 
followeth:- "In the assertions of the church and of religion, trifling and newfan- 
gled novelties of words are to be eschewed, whereof ariseth nothing but contention; 
and we must follow as much as we can the manner of speaking of the Scripture. 
In the first conclusion, if ye understand by this word 'really,' 're ipsa,' that 
is, in very deed and effectually; so Christ, by the grace and efficacy of his 
passion, is indeed and truly present to all true and holy members. But if ye understand 
by this word 'really,' 'corporaliter,' that is, corporeally; so that by the body 
of Christ is understood a natural body and organical; so, the first proposition 
doth vary not only from the usual speech and phrase of Scripture, but also is 
clean contrary to the holy word of God and Christian profession: when as both 
the Scripture doth testify by these words, and also the Catholic church hath professed 
from the beginning - Christ to have left the world, and to sit at the right hand 
of the Father till he come to judgment. "And likewise I answer to the second question, 
that is, that it swerveth from the accustomed manner and speech of Scripture. 
The third conclu- sion, as it is intricate and wrapped in all doubtful and ambiguous 
words, and differing also much from the true speech of Scripture, so as the words 
thereof seem to import no open sense, is most contumelious against our only Lord 
and Saviour Christ Jesus, and a violating of his precious blood, which, upon the 
altar of the cross, is the only sacri- fice and oblation for the sins of all mankind." 
Chedsey. By this your interpretation which you have made upon the first conclusion, 
this I understand - the body of Christ to be in the sacra- ment only by the way 
of participation: insomuch as we, communicating thereof, do participate the grace 
of Christ; so that you mean hereby the effect thereof. But our conclusion standeth 
upon the substance, and not the efficacy only, which shall appear by the testimony 
both of Scriptures, and of all the fathers a thousand years after Christ. And 
first let us consider what is written in Matt. xxvi., Mark xiv., Luke xxii., and 
1 Cor. xi. Matthew saith, "As they sat at supper, Jesus took bread," etc. In Mark 
there is the same sense, although not the same words, who also for one part of 
the sacrament speaketh more plainly, saying, "Jesus taking bread" etc. After the 
same sense also writeth Luke, "And when Jesus had taken bread," etc. "In the mouth 
of two or three witnesses," saith the Scripture, "standeth all truth." Here we 
PAGE 561 have three witnesses together, that Christ said that to be his body, 
which was given for many; and that to be his blood, which should be shed for many; 
whereby is declared the substance, and not only the efficacy thereof. Ergo, it 
is not true that you say, there is not the substance of his body, but the efficacy 
alone thereof. Cran. Thus you gather upon mine answer, as though I did mean of 
the efficacy, and not of the substance of the body; but I mean of them both, as 
well as of the efficacy as of the substance. And forsomuch as all things come 
not readily to memory, to a man that shall speak extempore, therefore, for the 
more ample and fuller answer in this matter, this writing here I do exhibit. Hereupon 
Cranmer put forth a lengthened explication, which the prolocu- tor said should 
be read in that place hereafter, and requested them to fall to the arguments. 
Ched. The Scriptures in many places do affirm, that Christ gave his natural body: 
Matt. xxvi., Mark xiv., Luke xxii. Ergo, I do conclude that the natural body is 
in the sacrament. Cran. To your argument I answer - If you understand by the body 
natural, the organic body, that is, having such proportion and members as he had 
living here, then I answer negatively. Furthermore, as concerning the evangelists, 
this I say and grant, that Christ took bread, and called it his body. Ched. The 
text of the Scripture maketh against you, for the circumstance thereto annexed 
doth teach us, not only there to be the body, but also teacheth us what manner 
of body it is, and saith, "The same body which shall be given." That thing is 
here contained, that is given for us But the substance of bread is not given for 
us. And therefore the substance of bread is not here contained. Cran. I understand 
not yet what you mean by this word contained. If you mean really, then I deny 
you major. Ched. The major is the text of Scripture. He that denieth the major, 
denieth the Scripture: for the Scripture saith, "This is my body which is given 
for you." Cran. I grant, Christ said it was his body which should be given, but 
he said it was his body which is here contained; "but the body that shall be given 
for you." As though he should say, "This bread is the breaking of my body, and 
this cup is the shedding of my blood." What will ye say then? Is the bread the 
breaking of his body, and the cup the shedding of his blood really? If you say 
so, I deny it. Ched. If you ask what is the thing therein contained; because his 
apos- tles should not doubt what body it was that should be given, he saith, "This 
is my body which shall be given for you, and my blood which shall be shed for 
many." Here is the same substance of the body, which the day after was given, 
and the same blood which was shed. And I urge the Scripture, which teacheth that 
it was no fantastical, no feigned, no spiritual body, nor body in faith, but the 
substance of the body. Cran. You must prove that it is contained; but Christ said 
not which is contained. He gave bread, and called it his body. I halt not in the 
words of the Scripture, but in your word, which is feigned and imagined by yourself. 
PAGE 562 The disputation went on, but only by repeating on both sides what had 
already been said more than once or twice. Mr. Chedsey having at last finished 
his argument, Dr. Oglethorpe, one of the arbitrators, said - "You still come in 
with one evasion or starting hole to flee to. He urgeth the Scriptures, saying, 
that Christ gave his very body. You say, that he gave his body in bread. What 
sort of body is meant? what is the body spoken of? the bread is the body." Cran. 
I answer to the question - It is the same body which was born of the Virgin, was 
crucified, ascended; but tropically, and by a figure. And so I say, the bread 
is the body, as a figurative speech, speaking sacramentally, for it is a sacrament 
of his body. Oglethorpe. It is not a likely thing that Christ hath less care for 
his spouse the church, than a wise householder hath for this family in making 
his will or testament. But no householder maketh his testament after that sort. 
Cran. Yes; there are many that do so. For what matter is it, so it be understoood 
and perceived? I say, Christ used figurative speech in no place more than in his 
sacraments, and specially in this of his supper. Ogle. No man of purpose doth 
use tropes in his testament; for, if he do, he deceiveth them that he comprehendeth 
in his testament: therefore Christ useth none here. The good man of the house 
hath respect that his heirs, after his departure, may live in quiet and without 
wrangling. But they cannot be in quiet if he uses tropes. Therefore, I say, he 
useth no tropes. Cran. I deny your minor, and insist that he may use them. Weston, 
the prolocutor, then said - "Augustine, in his book entitled De unitate Ecclesia, 
ch. x., hath these words following:- 'What a thing is this, I pray you? When the 
last words of one lying upon his death-bed are heard, who is ready to go to his 
grave, no man saith, that he hath made a lie; and he is not accounted his heir 
who regardeth not those words. How shall we then escape God's wrath, if, either 
not believing or not regarding, we shall reject the last words both of the only 
Son of God, and also of our Lord and Saviour, both ascending into heaven, and 
beholding from thence, who despiseth, who observeth them not, and so shall come 
from thence to judge all men?'" Thereupon followed a lengthened discussion between 
Cranmer, Weston, and Oglethorpe. After which Cranmer resumed: "And why should 
we doubt to call it the sacrament of the body of Christ, offered upon the cross, 
seeing both Christ and the ancient fathers do so call it? Chrysostom himself declareth 
- 'O miracle! O the good will of God towards us, which sitteth above at the right 
hand of the Father, and is holden in men's hands at the time of the sacrifice, 
and is given to feed upon, to them that are desirous of him! And that is brought 
to pass by no subtelty or craft, but with the open and beholding eyes of all the 
standers-by.' Thus you hear Christ is seen here on earth every day, and is touched; 
which no man having any judgment will say or think to be spoken without trope 
or figure." West. What miracle is it if it be not his body, and if he spake only 
of the sacrament, as though it were his body? But hear what Chrysostom farther 
saith - "I shew forth that thing on earth unto thee, which is PAGE 563 worthy 
the greatest honour. For like as in the palace of kings, neither the walls, nor 
the sumptuous bed, but the body of the king sitting under the cloth of state, 
and royal seat of majesty, is of all things else the most excellent: so is in 
like manner the King's body in heaven, which is now set before us on earth. I 
show thee neither angels nor archangels, nor the heaven of heavens, but the very 
Lord and Master of all these things. Thou perceivest after what sort thou dost 
not only behold, but touchest; and not only touchest, but eatest that which on 
the earth is greatest and chiefest thing of all other; and when thou hast received 
the same, thou goest home: wherefore cleanse thy soul from all unclean- ness." 
Upon this, I conclude that the body of Christ is showed us upon the earth. Cran. 
What! upon the earth? No man seeth Christ upon the earth: he is seen here with 
the eyes of our mind only, with faith and spirit. West. I pray you, what is it 
that seemeth worthy highest honour on earth? Is it the sacrament, or else the 
body of Christ? Cran. Chrysostom speaketh of the sacrament; and the body of Christ 
is showed forth in the sacrament. West. Ergo, then the sacrament is worthy greatest 
honour. Cran. I deny the argument. West. That thing is showed forth, and is now 
on the earth: "ostenditur et est," which is worthy highest honour. But only the 
body of Christ is worthy highest honour: ergo, the body of Christ is now on the 
earth. Cran. I answer, the body of Christ to be on the earth, but so as in the 
sacrament, and as the Holy Ghost is in the water of baptism. West. Chrysostom 
saith, "ostendo," "I show forth," which noteth a substance to be present. Cran. 
That is to be understood sacramentally. West. He saith, "ostendo in terra," "I 
show forth on earth," declaring also the place where. Cran. That is to be understood 
figuratively. Your major and conclusion are all one. Here Weston called upon Cranmer 
to answer to one part, bidding him repeat his words; which when he essayed to 
do, such was the uproar in the divinity school, that his mild voice could not 
be heard. And when he went about to explain to the people that the prolocutor 
did not correctly English the words of Chrysostom, using for ostenditur in terra, 
"he is showed forth on the earth," est in terra, "he is on the earth;" whereas 
Chrysostom hath not est, nor any such word implying being on the earth, but only 
of showing, as the grace of the Holy Ghost, in baptismo ostenditur, "is showed 
forth in baptism." And oftentimes as he did inculcate this word ostenditur, the 
prolocutor rudely interrupted him, and, substituting noise and insolence for argument, 
called him unlearned and impudent; at the same time, pointing at him scornfully, 
urged the people to silence him with hissing, clapping of hands, and other species 
of tumult, which this reverend man most patiently and meekly did abide, as one 
well inured to the suffering of such reproaches. And the prolocutor, not yet satisfied 
with this rude and unseemly demeanour, did urge and call upon him to answer the 
argument; and then he bade the notary to repeat his words. From Chrysostom the 
disputants went to Tertullian, from whom Chedsey, who was better acquainted with 
the fathers than the prolocutor himself, PAGE 564 quoted as follows, for the purpose 
of again raising on their testimony his favourite and absurd syllogism: "Tertullian, 
speaking of the resur- rection of the body, saith, 'Let us consider as concerning 
the proper form of the Christian man, what great prerogative this vain and foul 
substance of ours hath with God. Although it were sufficient to it, that no soul 
could ever get salvation, unless it believe while it is in flesh; so much the 
flesh availeth to salvation: by the which flesh cometh, that whereas the soul 
is so linked unto God, it is the said flesh that causeth the soul to be linked: 
yet the flesh moreover is washed, that the soul may be cleansed; the flesh is 
anointed, that the soul may be consecrated; the flesh is signed, that the soul 
may be defeated; the flesh is shadowed by the impositions of hands, that the soul 
may be illuminated with the Spirit; the flesh doth eat the body and blood of Christ, 
that the soul may be fed of God.' Whereupon I gather this argument - The flesh 
eateth the body of Christ; therefore the body of Christ is eaten with the mouth." 
To this quotation Cranmer replied, with some interruption from Weston and Chedsey, 
thus - "Tertullian calleth that the flesh which is the sacrament. For although 
God works all things in us invisibly, beyond man's reach, yet they are so manifest, 
that they may be seen and perceived of every sense. Therefore he setteth forth 
baptism, unction, and last of all the supper of the Lord unto us, which he gave 
to signify his operation in us. The flesh liveth by the bread, but the soul is 
inwardly fed by Christ. - Read that which followeth, and you shall perceive that, 
by things external, an internal operation is understood. Inwardly we eat Christ's 
body, and outwardly we eat the sacrament. So one thing is done outwardly, another 
inwardly. Like, as in baptism, the external element, whereby the body is washed, 
is one; the internal thing, whereby the soul is cleansed, is another." A long 
discussion then took place between Chedsey, Cranmer, Weston, and Tresham. Dr. 
Young, vice-chancellor of Cambridge, at length strove to change the direction 
of the dispute, by putting certain questions to Cranmer relative to the nature 
of Christ's body, the subordination of sense and reason to faith, and the manner 
in which the words of the Lord Jesus were to be understood for the just belief 
of his doctrine, and the just observance of his commands and institutions. Young. 
This disputation is taken in hand that the truth might appear. I perceive that 
I must go another way to work than I had thought. It is a common saying, "Against 
them that deny principles, we must not dispute." Therefore that we may agree of 
the principles, I demand, whether there be any other body of Christ, than his 
instrumental body? Cran. There is no natural body of Christ, but his organical 
body. Young. I demand, whether sense and reason ought to give place to faith? 
Cran. They ought. Young. Whether Christ be true in all his works? And whether, 
at his supper, he minded to do that which he spake or no? Cran. Yea, he is most 
true, and truth itself. In saying he spake, but in saying he made not, but made 
the sacrament to his disciples. Young. A figurative speech is no working thing. 
But the speech of Christ is working: ergo, it is not figurative. Cran. I said 
not, that the words of Christ do work, but Christ himself; and he worketh by a 
figurative speech. PAGE 565 West. If a figure work, it maketh of bread the body 
of Christ. Cran. A figurative speech worketh not. West. A figurative speech, by 
your own confession, worketh nothing. But the speech of Christ in the supper, 
as you grant, wrought somewhat: ergo, the speech of Christ in the supper was not 
figurative. Cran. I answer, these are mere sophisms. The speech doth not work; 
but Christ, by the speech, doth work the sacrament. I look for Scriptures at your 
hands, for they are the foundation of disputations. - Ambrose speaketh of sacraments 
sacramentally. He calleth the sacraments by the names of the things; for he useth 
the signs for the thing signified: and therefore the bread is not called bread, 
but his body, for the excellen- cy and dignity of the thing signified by it. - 
The body is nourished both with the sacrament, and with the body of Christ: with 
the sacrament to a temporal life; with the body of Christ to eternal life. The 
discussion was carried on for some time between Cranmer, Young, Weston, Pie, Chedsey, 
and Harpsfield. Cranmer, in his answers, evinced the meekness of wisdom, and the 
ingenuousness and integrity of truth, whenever their clamour would allow him to 
reply, or he considered their sophistries and quibbles deserving refutation. Their 
disordered dispu- tation, sometimes in Latin, sometimes in English, continued 
almost till two of the clock. Being at length finished, and the arguments written 
and delivered to the hands of master Say, the prisoner, Dr. Cranmer, was had alway 
by the mayor, and the doctors dined together at the University college. Disputation 
at Oxford between Dr. Smith with his other colleagues and doctors, and Bishop 
Ridley. The next day following, April 12th, was brought forth Dr. Ridley to dispute 
in the divinity school; against whom was set Dr. Smith to be principal opponent. 
This Dr. Smith had often changed his religious opinions; but not from conviction 
of conscience, as appears from his recantation, and also from his letter to Cranmer 
in king Edwards's time. The rest of his opponents were Drs. Weston, Tresham, Oglethorpe, 
Glin, Seton, Cole, Watson; masters Harpsfield, Ward, Pie, Harding, Curtop, and 
Fecknam: to all of whom he answered very learnedly. Dr. Weston, the prolocutor, 
commenced the disputation, with the following speech:- "Good Christian people 
and brethren, we have begun this day our school, by God's good speed I trust; 
and are entering into a controversy whereof no question ought to be moved, concerning 
the verity of the body of our Lord Jesus Christ in the eucharist. Christ is true, 
who said the words. The words are true which he spake, yea, truth itself that 
cannot fail. Let us therefore pray into God to send down upon us his Holy Spirit, 
which is the interpreter of his word; which may purge away errors, and give light 
that verity may appear. Let us also ask leave and liberty of the church to permit 
the truth received to be called this day in question without any prejudice to 
the same. Your parts thereof shall be to implore the assistance of Almighty God, 
to pray for the prosperity of the queen's majesty, and to give us quiet and attentive 
ears. Now go to your question." PAGE 566 Dr. Smith then said - "This day, right 
learned master Doctor, some questions are propounded, whereof no controversy among 
Christians ought to be moved. They are these - Whether the natural body of Christ 
our Saviour, conceived of the virgin Mary, and offered for man's redemption upon 
the cross, is verily and really in the sacrament by virtue of God's word spoken 
by the priests. Whether in the sacrament after the words of consecration, there 
be any other substance than the body and blood of Christ? Whether in the mass 
there is the sacrifice of Christ propitia- tory. Touching these questions, although 
you have publicly declared your judgement on Saturday last; yet I will again demand 
your answer on the first question; upon which I stand here now to learn what may 
be answered." Dr. Rdiley then addressed the convocation as follows without any 
materi- al interruption: "I received of you the other day, right worshipful Mr. 
Prolocutor, and you my reverend masters, commissioners from the queen's majesty 
and her honourable council, three propositions; whereunto ye commanded me to prepare 
against this day, what I thought good to answer concerning the same. "Now whilst 
I weighed with myself how great a charge of the Lord's flock was of late committed 
unto me, for which I am certain I must once render an account to my Lord God (and 
how soon he only knoweth) and that moreo- ver by the commandment of the apostle 
Peter, I ought to be ready always to give a reason of the hope that is in me, 
with meekness and reverence, unto every one that shall demand the same: besides 
this, considering my duty to the church of Christ, and to your worships, being 
commissioners by public authority, I determined with myself to obey your commandment, 
and so openly to declare unto you my mind touching the aforesaid propo- sitions. 
And albeit, plainly to confess unto you the truth of these things ye now demand 
of me, I have thought otherwise in times past than now I do, yet (I call God to 
record upon my soul, I lie not) I have not altered my judgement, as now it is, 
wither by constraint of any man or law, wither for the dread of any dangers of 
this world, either for any hope of commodity; but only for the love of the truth 
revealed unto me by the grace of God (as I am undoubtedly persuaded) in his holy 
word, and in the reading of the ancient fathers. "These things I do rather recite 
at this present, because it may happen to some of you hereafter, as in times past 
it hath done to me: I mean, if ye think otherwise of the matters propounded in 
these propositions than I now do, God may open them unto you in time to come. 
But howsoever it shall be, I will in a few words do that which I think ye all 
expect I should; that is, as plainly as I can, I will declare my judgement herein. 
Howbeit, of this I would ye were not ignorant, that I will not indeed willingly 
speak in any point against God's word, or dissent in any one jot from the same, 
or from the rules of faith, or the christian religion; which rules that same most 
sacred word of God prescribeth to the church of Christ, whereunto I now and for 
ever submit myself and all my doings. And because the matter I have now taken 
in hand is weighty, and ye all well know how unprepared I am to handle it accordingly, 
as well for lack of time, as also of books; therefore here I protest, that PAGE 
567 I will publicly this day require of you that it may be lawful for me concerning 
all mine answers, explications, and confirmations, to add or diminish whatsoever 
shall seem hereafter more convenient and meet for the purpose, through more sound 
judgement, better deliberation, and more exact trial of every particular thing. 
Having now, by the way of preface and protestation, spoken these few words, I 
will come to the answer of the propositions propounded unto me, and so to the 
most brief explication and confirmation of mine answers." The first proposition. 
In the sacrament of the altar, by the virtue of God's word spoken of the priest, 
the natural body of Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, and his natural blood, are 
really present under the forms of bread and wine. Ridley. In matters appertaining 
to God we may not speak according to the sense of man, nor of the world: therefore, 
this proposition or conclu- sion is framed after another manner of phrase, or 
kind of speech, than the scripture useth. Again, it is very obscure and dark, 
by means of sundry words of doubtful signification. And being taken in the sense 
which the schoolmen teach, and at this time the church of Rome doth defend, it 
is false and erroneous, and plainly contrary to the doctrine which is according 
to godliness. How far the diversity and newness of the phrase in all this first 
proposition is from the phrase of the holy scripture, and that in every part almost, 
it is so plain and evident to any one who is but meanly exercised in holy writ, 
that I need not now (especially in this company of learned men) spend any time 
therein, except the same shall be required of me hereafter. "First, there is a 
double sense in these words, By virtue of God's word, for it is doubtful what 
word of God this is, whether it be that which is read in the evangelists, or in 
St. Paul, or any other. And if it be that which is in the evangelists, or in St. 
Paul, what that is. If it be in none of them, then how it may be known to be God's 
word, and of such virtue that it should be able to work so great a matter. "Again, 
there is a doubt of these words, of the priest, whether no man may be called a 
priest, but he which hath authority to make a propitia- tory sacrifice for the 
quick and the dead; and how it may be proved that this authority was committed 
of God to any man, but to Christ alone. It is likewise doubted after what order 
the sacrificing priest shall be, whether after the order of Aaron, or else after 
the order of Melchise- dek. For as far as I know, the holy scriptures doth allow 
no more. "Moreover, there is ambiguity in this word really, whether it be taken 
as the logicians term it "transcendenter," that is, most generally, and so it 
may signify any manner of thing which belongeth to the body of Christ, by any 
means: after which sort we also grant Christ's body to be really in the sacrament 
of the Lord's supper; or whether it be taken to signify the very same thing, having 
body, life, and soul, which was assumed and taken by the word of God, into the 
unity of person. In which sense, seeing the body of Christ is really in Heaven, 
because of the true manner of his body, it may not be said to be here on the earth. 
PAGE 568 'There is yet a further doubtfulness in these words, under the forms 
of bread and wine, whether the forms be there taken to signify the only accidental 
and outward shows of bread and wine; or therewithal the substantial natures thereof, 
which are to be seen by their qualities, and perceived by exterior senses. Now 
the error and falseness of the proposition, after the sense of the Roman church 
and schoolmen, may hereby appear, in that they affirm the bread to be transubstantiated 
and changed to the flesh assumed of the word of God, and that, as they say, by 
virtue of the word which they have devised by a certain number of words, and cannot 
be found in any of the evangelists, or in St. Paul; and so they gather that Christ's 
body is really contained in the sacra- ment of the altar. Which position is grounded 
upon the foundation of the transubstantiation; which foundation is monstrous, 
against reason, and destroyeth the analogy or proportion of the sacraments: and 
therefore this proposition also, which is builded upon this rotten foundation, 
is false, erroneous, and to be counted as a detestable heresy of the sacra- mentaries. 
"There ought no doctrine to be established in the church of God, which dissenteth 
from the word of God, from the rule of faith, and draweth with it many absurdities 
that cannot be avoided. But this doctrine of the first proposition is such: therefore 
it ought not to be established and maintained in the church of God. "The major, 
or first part of my argument, is plain; and the minor, or second part, is proved 
thus:- This doctrine maintaineth a real, corpore- al, and carnal presence of Christ's 
flesh, assumed and taken of the word, to be in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, 
and that not by virtue and grace only, but also by the whole essence and substance 
of the body and flesh of Christ. But such a presence disagreeth from God's word, 
from the rule of faith, and cannot but draw with it many absurdi- ties. Therefore, 
the second part is true. The former part of this argument is manifest, and the 
latter may yet further be confirmed thus: First of all, this presence is contrary 
to many places of the Holy Scripture. Secondly, it varieth from the articles of 
the faith. Thirdly, it destroyeth and taketh away the institution of the Lord's 
supper. Fourthly, it maketh precious things common to profane and ungodly persons; 
for it casteth that which is holy unto dogs, and pearls unto swine. Fifthly, it 
forceth men to maintain many monstrous miracles, without necessity and authority 
of God's word. Sixthly, it giveth occasion to the heretics who erred concerning 
the two natures in Christ to defend their heresies thereby. Seventhly, it falsifieth 
the sayings of the godly fathers; it falsifieth also the Catholic faith of the 
church, which the apostles taught, the martyrs confirmed, and the faith- ful, 
as one of the fathers saith, do retain and keep until this day. Wherefore the 
second part of mine argument is true." The Second Proposition. After the consecration 
there remaineth on substance of bread and wine, neither any other substance, than 
the substance of God and man. Ridley. The second conclusion is mainifestly false, 
directly against the word of God, the nature of the sacrament, and the most evident 
testimo- nies of the godly fathers; and it is the rotten foundation of the other 
two conclusions propounded by you, both of the first, and also of the third. I 
will not therefore now tarry upon this answer, being contented with that which 
is already added before to the answer of the first proposition. PAGE 569 "It is 
very plain by the word of God, that Christ did give bread unto his disciples, 
and called it his body. But the substance of bread is another manner of substance, 
than is the substance of Christ's body, God and man. Therefore the conclusion 
is false. That which Christ took, on which he gave thanks, and which be brake, 
he gave to his dissciples, and called his body. But he took bread, gave thanks 
on bread, and brake bread. Therefore the first part is true. And it is confirmed 
with the authorities of the fathers, Irene, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Epipha- 
nius, Jerome, Augustine, Theodoret, Cyril, Rabanus, and Bede. Whose places I will 
take upon me to shew most manifest in this behalf, if I may be suffered to have 
my books, as my request is. "We may no more believe bread to be transubstantiate 
into the body of Christ, than the wine into his blood. The circumstances of the 
scrip- ture, the analogy and proportion of the sacraments, and the testimony of 
the faithful fathers, ought to rule us in taking the meaning of the holy Scripture 
touching the sacrament: and they most effectually and plainly prove a figurative 
speech in the words of the Lord's supper. Therefore, a figurative sense and meaning 
is specially to be received in these words, 'This is my body.'- The circumstances 
of the Scripture are: 'Do this in remembrance of me.' 'As oft as ye shall eat 
of this bread, and drink of this cup, ye shall show forth the Lord's death.' 'Let 
a man prove himself, and so eat of this bread, and drink of this cup.' 'They came 
together to break bread; and they continued in breaking of bread.' 'The bread 
which we bread,' etc. 'For we being many, are all one bread,' etc." The Third 
Proposition In the mass is the lively sacrifice of the church, propitiable and 
available for the sins as well of the quick as of the dead. Ridley. I answer to 
this third proposition as I did to the first; and moreover I say, that being taken 
in such a sense as the words seem to import, it is not only erroneous, but withal 
so much to the derogation and defacing of the death and passion of Christ, that 
I judge it may and ought most worthily to be counted wicked and blasphemous against 
the most precious blood of our Saviour Christ. "Concerning the Romish mass which 
you use at this day, or the lively sacrifice thereof, propitiatory and available 
for the sins of the quick and the dead, the holy scripture has not so much as 
one syllable. There is ambiguity in the name mass, what it signifieth, and whether 
at this day there be any such indeed as the ancient fathers used; seeing that 
now there be neither Catechists nor Penitents to be sent away. And then as touching 
these words, the lively sacrifice of the church, there is doubt whether they are 
to be understood figuratively and sacramentally, or properly and without any figure; 
of which manner there was but one only sacrifice, and that once offered, namely 
upon the altar of the cross. Moreover, in these words, as well as, it may be doubted 
whether they be spoken in mockery, as men are wont to say in sport, of a foolish 
and ignorant person, that he is apt as well in conditions as in knowledge; being 
apt in neither of them. Finally, there is doubt in the PAGE 570 word propitiable, 
whether it signify here that which taketh away sin, or that which may be made 
available for the taking away of sin; that is to say, whether it is to be taken 
in the active, or in the passive signifi- cation." The following is an abridged 
form of Bishop Ridley's argument on the sacrifice of atonement. "No sacrifice 
ought to be done, but where the priest is meet to offer the same. All other priests 
are unmeet to offer propitiatory sacrifices, save only Christ. Therefore, no other 
priests ought to sacrifice for sin, but Christ alone. "After that eternal redemption 
is found and obtained, there needeth no more daily offering for the same. But 
Christ coming an high Priest, found and obtained for us eternal redemption. Therefore, 
there needeth now no more daily oblation for the sins of the quick and the dead. 
All remissions of sins cometh only by shedding of blood. In the mass there is 
no shedding of blood. Therefore, in the mass there is no remission of sins; and 
so it followeth also that there is no propitiatory sacrifice. In the mass, the 
passion of Christ is not in verity, but in a mystery representing the same. Where 
Christ suffereth not, there is he not offered in verity: for the apostle saith, 
'Not that he might offer up himself oftentimes-for then must he have suffered 
oftentimes since the beginning of the worls.' And again - 'Christ appeared once 
in the latter end of the world, to put sin to flight by the offering up of himself. 
And as it is appointed to all men that they shall once die, and then cometh the 
judgment; even so Christ was once offered, to take away the sins of many. And 
unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.' 
Where there is any sacrifice that can make the comers thereunto perfect, there 
ought men to cease from offering any more expiatory and propitiatory sacrifices. 
But in the New Testament there is one only sacrifice now already long since offered, 
which is able to make the comers thereto perfect for ever. Therefore, in the New 
Testament they ought to cease from offering any propitiatory sacrifices." Dr. 
Smith, the principal opponent of Ridley, now drew the holy bishop into a most 
unprofitable controversy on the real presence. Scarcely an idea occurred which 
has not been more than once before the reader already. On which side the truth 
lay, may be seen from a few of Ridley's answers. "You import as though I had made 
a strong argument by Christ's going up into heaven. But however my argument is 
made, you collect it not right- ly. For it doth not only rest upon his ascension, 
but upon his abiding there also. - Of Christ's real presence there may be a double 
under- standing: if you take the real presence of Christ according to the real 
and corporeal substance which he took of the virgin, that presence being in heaven, 
cannot be on the earth also. But if you mean a real presence, according to some 
thing that appertaineth to Christ's body, certainly the ascension and abiding 
in heaven hinder not at all that presence. Wherefore Christ's body after that 
manner is here present to us in the Lord's supper; by grace I say, as Epiphanius 
speaketh it. - I do not straightly tie Christ up in heaven, that he may not come 
into the earth at his pleasure. For when he will, he may come down from heaven, 
and be PAGE 571 on the earth, as it liketh himself. Howbeit, I do affirm, that 
it is not possible for him to be both in heaven and earth at one time. "I do not 
bind Christ in heaven so straitly. I see you go about to beguile me with your 
equivocations. Such equivocations are to be distinguished. If you mean by his 
sitting in heaven, to reign with his Father, he may be both in heaven and also 
on earth. But if you under- stand his sitting to be after a corporeal manner of 
sitting, so is he always permanent in heaven. For Christ to be corporeal here 
on earth, when corporeally he is resident in heaven, is clearly contrary to the 
holy scriptures, as Austin saith; 'The body of Christ is in heaven, but his truth 
is despersed in every place.' Yet I do not deny that Christ was seen, even here 
on earth, after he had risen. I account this a sound and firm argument to prove 
the resurrection. Whether they saw him in heaven or on earth, it maketh no great 
matter. Both ways the argument is of like strength. For whether he were seen in 
heaven, or whether he was seen on earth, either maketh sufficiently for the matter. 
Certain it is, he rose again: for he could not have been seen, unless he had risen 
again. "He that found the means for Stephen to behold him in heaven, even he could 
bring to pass well enough, that Paul might hear him out of heaven . - I grant 
he was seen visibly and corporeally: but yet have you not proved that he was seen 
in earth. - Moreover, I say, that Christ was seen of men of earth after his ascension 
it is certain: for he was seen of Stephen; he was seen also of Paul. But whether 
he descended unto the earth, or whether he being in heaven did reveal or manifest 
himself to Paul, when Paul was rapt into the third heaven, I know that some contend 
about it: and the Scripture, as far as I have read or heard, doth not determine 
it. Wherefore we cannot but judge uncertainly of those things which be uncertain." 
Smith. We have Egesippus and Linus against you, which testify that Christ appeared 
corporeally on the earth to Peter after his ascension. Peter overcome with the 
requests and mournings of the people, which desired him to get him out of the 
city, because of Nero's lying in wait for him, began without company to convey 
himself away from thence: and when he was come to the gate, he seeth Christ come 
to meet him, and worshipping him, he said, "Master, whither walk you?" Christ 
answered, "I am come again to be crucified." Linus, writing of the passion of 
Peter, hath the selfsame story. St. Ambrose hath the same likewise, and also Abdias, 
scholar to the apostles, who saw Christ before his ascend- ing in heaven. With 
what face therefore dare you affirm it to be a thing uncertain, which these men 
do manifestly witness to have been done? Ridley suggested the uncertainty of this 
account; at the same time maintaining that even its certainty would not make against 
him. "I account not these men's reports so sure as the canonical scriptures. But 
if at any time Christ had to any man appeared here on the earth after his ascension, 
that doth not disprove my saying. For I go not about to tie Christ up in fetters; 
but that he may be seen upon the earth accord- ing to his divine pleasure, whensoever 
it pleaseth him. But we affirm, that it is contrary to the nature of his manhood, 
and the true manner of his body, that he should be together and at one instant 
both in heaven and earth, according to his corporeal substance." PAGE 572 Harpsfield 
now took up the papal cause against Ridley, and endeavoured to confound him by 
means of Chedsey's famous argument with Mr. Philpot, respecting the bequest of 
Elijah's mantle and spirit to his venerable successor in office. Of course the 
authority of Chrysostom on this subject was introduced, and the popish disputant 
thought his armour perfect proof, and his victory absolutely certain and secure. 
It is needless to repeat the dialogue, as it contains nothing beyond what has 
already appeared. It may be remarked that the wearisome repetition of the same 
authorities and the same sophistries to ensnare the reformers, is a standing proof 
of the desperate condition to which, both intellec- tually and religiously, the 
cause of popery was even then reduced. What effect such arguments at that time 
might have had on minds prepared for them by superstitions discipline, we are 
unable to say: certain it is, however, that in the judgment of all candid readers 
in the present day they must appear altogether puerile and unworthy even of serious 
con- tempt. Weston and Cole successively followed Harpsfield in attacking the 
perse- cuted but patient bishop - who might well have said to either of them what 
the author of "Sacred Classics," in more modern times, said to a pert and prating 
chaplain, who was examining him for ordination - "I have forgotten more learning 
than you ever possessed!" Passing over their ridiculous efforts, we come to that 
of Dr. Glin, who claims more serious notice from his having been an old friend 
of Dr. Ridley. The following intercourse took place between them. Glin. I see 
that you evade all scriptures and fathers; I will go to work with you after another 
manner. Jesus Christ hath here his church known on earth, of which you were once 
a child, although now you speak contu- meliously of the sacraments. Rid. This 
is a grievous reproach, that you call me a shifter - away of the scripture, and 
of the doctors: as touching the sacraments, I never yet spake contumeliously of 
them. I grant that Christ hath here his church on earth: but that church did ever 
receive and acknowledge the eucharist to be a sacrament of the body of Christ, 
yet not the body of Christ really, but the body of Christ by grace. Glin. Then 
I ask this question - Hath the catholic church ever, or at any time, been idolatrous? 
Rid. The church is the pillar and stay of the truth, that never yet hath been 
idolatrous in respect of the whole: but peradventure in respect of some part thereof, 
which sometimes may be seduced by evil pastors, and through ignorance. Glin. That 
church ever hath worshipped the flesh of Christ in the eucharist. Rid. And I also 
worship Christ in the sacrament, but not because he is included in the sacrament; 
even as I worship Christ also in the scrip- tures, not because he is really included 
in them. Notwithstanding, I say, that the body of Christ is present in the sacrament; 
but yet sacra- mentally and spiritually, according to his grace, giving life; 
and in that respect really, that is, according to his benediction, giving life. 
Furthermore, I acknowledge, gladly, the true body of Christ to be in the Lord's 
supper, in such sort as the church of Christ doth acknowledge the same. But the 
true church of Christ doth acknowledge a presence of Christ's body in the Lord's 
supper to be communicated to the godly by PAGE 573 grace, and spiritually, as 
I have often showed, and by a sacramental signification, but not by the corporeal 
presence of the body of his flesh. Glin. Augustine against Faustus saith, "Some 
there were who thought us, instead of bread and of the cup, to worship Ceres and 
Bacchus." From this I gather, that there was an adoration of the sacrament among 
the fathers; and Erasmus, in an epistle to the brethren of Low Germany, saith, 
that the worshipping of the sacrament was before Augustine and Cyprian. Rid. We 
handle the signs reverently: but we worship the sacrament as a sacrament, not 
as a thing signified by the sacrament. Glin. What is the symbol or sacrament? 
Rid. Bread. Glin. Therefore we worship bread. Rid. There is a deceit in the word 
adoramus. We worship the symbols when we reverently handle them. We worship Christ 
wheresoever we perceive his benefits: but we understand his benefit to be greatest 
in the sacrament. Glin. Think you that Christ hath now his church? Rid. I do so. 
Glin. But all the church adoreth Christ verily and really in the sacrament. Rid. 
You know yourself that the eastern church would not acknowledge transubstantiation, 
as appeareth in the council of Florence. Cole. That is false: for in the same 
they did acknowledge transubstan- tiation, although they would not intreat of 
the matter, for that they had not in their commission so to do. - It was not because 
they did not acknowledge the same, but because they had no commission so to do. 
Curtop. Reverend sir, I will prove and declare, that the body of Christ is truly 
and really in the euchariest: and whereas the holy fathers, both of the west and 
east church, have written many things and no less manifest of the same matter, 
yet will I bring forth only Chrysostom. The place is this: "That which is in the 
cup, is the same that flowed from the side of Christ." But true and pure blood 
did flow from the side of Christ. Therefore, his true and pure blood is in the 
cup. Watson. It is a thing commonly received of all, that the sacraments of the 
new law give grace to them that worthily receive. Rid. True it is, that grace 
is given by the sacrament, but as by an instrument. The inward virtue and Christ 
give the grace through the sacrament. Wat. What is a sacrament? Rid. I remember 
there be many definitions of a sacrament in Augustine; but I will take that which 
seemeth most fit to this present purpose. A sacrament is a visible sign of invisible 
grace. - The society or con- junction with Christ through the Holy Ghost is grace; 
and by the sacra- ment we are made the members of the mystical body of Christ, 
for that by the sacrament the part of the body is grafted in the head. Wat. But 
there is difference between the mystical body and natural body. Rid. There is, 
I grant you, a difference; but the head of them both is one. Wat. The eucharist 
is a sacrament of the New Testament: therefore it PAGE 574 hath a promise of grace. 
But no promise of grace is made to bread and wine: therefore bread and wine are 
not the sacraments of the New Testament. Rid. I grant that grace pertaineth to 
the eucharist, according to this saying: "The bread which we break, is it not 
the communication or partaking of the body of Christ?" And like as he that eateth, 
and he that drinketh, unworthily of the sacrament of the body and blood of the 
Lord, eateth and drinketh his own damnation; even so he that eateth and drinketh 
worthily, eateth life and drinketh life. I grant also, that there is no promise 
made to bread and wine. But inasmuch as they are sanctified, and made the sacraments 
of the body and blood of the Lord, they have a promise of grace annexed unto them; 
namely, of spiritual partaking of the body of Christ to be communicated and given, 
not to the bread and wine, but to them who worthily receive the sacrament. Wat. 
If the substance of bread and wine do remain, then the union bet- wixt Christ 
and us is promised to them that take bread and wine. But that union is not promised 
to bread and wine, but to the receivers of the flesh and blood. "He that eateth 
my flesh, and drinketh my blood hath eternal life." Therefore the substance of 
bread and wine remaineth not. Rid. The promise undoubtedly is made to the flesh 
and blood, but the same is to be received in the sacrament through faith. Every 
sacrament hath grace annexed unto it instrumentally. But there are divers under- 
standing of this word "habet," "hath;" for the sacrament hath not grace included 
in it; but to those that receive it well, it is turned to grace. After that manner 
the water in baptism hath grace promised, and by that grace the Holy Spirit is 
given; not that grace is included in water, but that grace cometh by water. - 
There is no promise made to him that taketh common bread and common wine; but 
to him that receiveth the sanctified bread of the communion, there is a large 
promise of grace made: neither is the promise given to the symbols, but to the 
thing of the sacrament. But the thing of the sacrament is the flesh and blood. 
- This sacrament hath a promise of grace made to those that receive it worthily, 
because grace is given by it, as by an instrument; not that Christ hath transfused 
grace into the bread and wine. - There is no promise made to them that receive 
common bread, as it were; but to those that worthily receive the sanctified bread, 
there is a promise of grace made, as Origen doth testify. - The bread which we 
break, is it not a communication of the body of Christ? And we, being many, are 
one bread, one body of Christ. Wat. What doth he mean by bread in that place? 
Rid. The bread of the Lord's table, the communion of the body of Christ. Wat. 
Hearken what Chrysostom saith on this place: "The bread which we break," etc. 
Wherefore did he not say participation? Because he would signify some greater 
matter, and that he would declare a great conven- ience and conjunction betwixt 
the same. For we do not communicate by participation only and receiving, but also 
by co-uniting, for likewise as that body is co-united to Christ, so also we, by 
the same bread, are conjoined and united to him. Rid. Let Chrysostom have his 
manner of speaking, and his sentence. PAGE 575 If it be true, I reject it not. 
But let it not be prejudicial to me to name it true bread. Wat. "All," saith Chrysostom, 
"which sit together at one board, do communicate together of one true body. What 
do I call," saith he, "this communicating? We are all the self-same body. What 
doth bread signify? The body of Christ. What are they that receive it? The body 
of Christ. For many are but one body." Chrysostom doth interpret this place against 
you. "All we be one bread, and one mystical body, which do participate together 
one bread of Christ." Rid. All we are one mystical body, which do communicate 
of one Christ in bread, after the efficacy of regeneration. I speak of the bread 
of the Lord's table. It is one, the church being one, because one bread is set 
forth upon the table: and so of one bread altogether do participate, who communicate 
at the table of the Lord. All, I say, which at one table together have communicated 
in the mysteries might well so do. But the heavenly and celestial bread is likewise 
one, whereof the sacramental bread is a mystery; which being one, all we together 
do participate. I do distribute this word "all;" for all were wont together to 
communicate of the one bread divided into parts: all, I say, which were in one 
congregation, and which all did communicate together at one table. Wat. What? 
Do you exclude then from the body of Christ all them which do not communicate, 
being present? Fecknam. But Cyprian saith, "Bread which no multitude doth consume:" 
which cannot be understood but only of the body of Christ. Rid. Also Cyprian in 
this place did speak of the true body of Christ, and not of material bread. Feck. 
Nay, rather he did there speak of the sacrament in that tracta- tion, "De Coena 
Domini," writing upon the supper of the Lord. Rid. Truth it is, and I grant he 
entreateth there of the sacrament: but, also, he doth admix something therewithal 
of the spiritual manducation. Smith. When the Lord saith, "This is my body," he 
useth no tropical speech: therefore you are deceived. Rid. I deny your antecedent. 
Smith. I bring here Augustine expounding these words, " 'Ferebatur in manibus 
suis - He was carried in his own hands.' How may this be understood to be done 
in man? For no man is carried in his own hands, but in the hands of other. How 
this may be understood of David after the letter, we do not find; of Christ we 
find it. For Christ was borne in his own hands, when he saith, 'This is my body,' 
for he carried that same body in his own hands." Augustine here did not see how 
this place, after the letter, could be understood of David; because no man can 
carry himself in his own hands: "Therefore," saith he, "this place is to be understood 
of Christ after the letter." For Christ carried himself in his own hands in his 
supper, when he gave the sacrament to his disciples, saying, "This is my body." 
Rid. I deny your argument, and I explicate the same. Augustine could not find, 
after his own understanding, how this could be understood of David after the letter. 
Augustine goeth here from others in this exposition, but I go not from him. But 
let this exposition of Augustine be granted to you; although I know this place 
of Scripture be otherwise read of other men, after the verity of the Hebrew text, 
and it is also otherwise to be expounded. Yet to grant to you this exposition 
of Augustine, I say yet, notwithstanding, it maketh nothing against my assertion: 
for Christ did bear himself in his own hands, when he gave the sacrament of his 
body to be eaten by his disciples. - If Augustine could have found in all the 
Scripture that David had carried the sacrament of his body, then he would never 
have used that exposition of Christ. He verily did bear himself, but in a sacrament: 
and Augustine afterwards added quodam modo, that is, sacramentally. Smith. You 
understand not what Augustine meant when he said "qoudam modo;" for he meant that 
he did bear his very true body in that supper, not in figure and form of a body, 
but in form and figure of bread. Then Dr. Tresham began to speak, moved (as it 
seemed to Ridley) with great zeal; desiring he might reduce him again to the mother 
church. He was unknown to Ridley, who thought him some good old man; but afterwards 
smelled a fox under a sheep's clothing. Tresham. I bring a place here out of the 
council of Lateran, the which council, representing the universal church, wherein 
were congregated three hundred bishops and seventy metropolitans, besides a great 
multi- tude of others, decreed that bread and wine, by the power of God's word, 
was transubstantiated into the body and blood of the Lord. Therefore whosoever 
saith contrary, cannot be a child of the church, but a heretic. Rid. Good sir, 
I have heard what you have cited out of the council of Lateran, and remember that 
there was a great multitide of bishops and metropolitans, as you said: but yet 
you have not numbered how many abbots, priors, and friars were in that council, 
who were to the number of eight hundred." Another then came in, who Ridley knew 
not, and said, "The universal church, both of the Greeks and Latins, of the east 
and of the west, have agreed in the council of Florence uniformly in the doctrine 
of the sacrament, that there is the true and real body in the sacrament of the 
altar." Rid. I deny the Greek and the east church to have agreed either in the 
council at Florence, or at any time else, with Romish church, in the doctrine 
of transubstantiation of bread into the body of Christ. For there was nothing 
in the council of Florence, wherein the Greeks would agree with the Romanists; 
albeit, hitherto I confess it was left free for every church to use, as they were 
wont, leavened or unleavened bread. Here cried out Dr. Cole, and said, they agreed 
together concerning transubstantiation of bread into the body of Christ. Ridley 
meekly said that could not be. Weston. I, with one argument, will throw down to 
the ground your opinion, out of Chrysostom; and I will teach, not only a figure 
and a sign or grace only, but the very same body, which was here conversant on 
the earth, to be in the eucharist. We worship the selfsame body in the eucharist 
which the wise men did worship in the manger. But that was his natural and real 
body, not spiritual: therefore the real body of Christ is in the eucharist. Again, 
the same Chrysostom saith, "We have not here the Lord in the manger, but on the 
altar. Here a woman holdeth him not in her hands, but a priest." Rid. We worship 
the same Lord and Saviour of the world which the wise PAGE 577 men worshipped 
in the manger; howbeit we do it in a mystery; and in the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper, and that in spiritual liberty, as saith Augustine, De Doctrina Christiana: 
not in carnal servitude; that is, we do not worship servilely the signs for the 
things; for that should be, as he also saith, the part of a servile infirmity. 
But we behold with the eyes of faith him present after grace, and spiritually 
set upon the table; and we worship him which sitteth above and is worshipped of 
the angels. For Christ is always assistant to his mysteries, as Augustine also 
said. And the Divine Majesty, as saith Cyprian, doth never absent itself from 
the divine mysteries; but this assistance and presence of Christ, as in baptism 
it is wholly spiritual, and by grace, and not by any corporal substance of the 
flesh: even so it is here in the Lord's supper, being rightly and according to 
the word of God duly ministered. Weston. That which the woman did hold in her 
womb, the same thing hold- eth the priest. Rid. I grant the priest holdeth the 
same thing, but after another manner. She did hold the natural body; the priest 
holdeth the mystery of the body. I say that Chrysostom meant it spiritually. The 
prolocutor Weston, now dissolving the disputation, had these words: "Here you 
see the stubborn, the glorious, the crafty, the unconstant mind of this man. Here 
you see this day that the strength of the truth is without foil. Therefore I beseech 
you all most earnestly to blow the note, (and he began, and they followed,) 'Verity 
hath the victory!'" Disputation had at oxford the 18th day of April, 1554, between 
Master Hugh Latimer, and Master Smith and others. After these disputations of 
bishop Ridley ended, next was brought out master Hugh Latimer to dispute; which 
disputation began at eight of the clock in such form as before, and ended about 
eleven: but it was most in English, for Latimer alleged he was out of use with 
the Latin, and unfit for that place. There replied unto him master Smith of Oriel 
College; Dr. Cartwright, Harpsfield, and divers others had snatches at him, and 
gave him bitter taunts. He excaped not hissings and scornful laughings, no more 
than they that went before him. He was very faint, and desired that he might not 
long tarry; and he durst not drink for fear of vomit- ing. Latimer was not suffered 
to read what he had, as he said, pain- fully written; but it was exhibited up, 
and the prolocutor read part thereof, and so proceeded unto the disputation. Weston. 
Men and brethren! we are come together this day, by the help of God, to vanquish 
the strength of the arguments, and dispersed opinions of adversaries, against 
the truth of the real presence of the Lord's body in the sacrament. And therefore, 
you father, if you have anything to answer, I do admonish you that you answer 
in short and few words. Latimer. I pray you, good master prolocutor, do not exact 
that of me which is not in me. I have not these twenty years much used the Latin. 
Weston. Take your ease, father. Lat. I thank you, sir, I am well; let me here 
protest my faith, for I am not able to dispute; and afterwards do your pleasure 
with me. The conclusions whereunto I must answer are these:- PAGE 578 "The first 
is - That in the sacrament of the altar, by the virtue of God's word pronounced 
by the priest, there is really present the natural body of Christ, conceived by 
the virgin Mary, under the kinds of the appearance of bread and wine; in like 
manner his blood. The second is - That after consecration there remaineth no substance 
of bread and wine, nor any other substance, but the substance of God and man. 
The third is - That in the mass there is the lively sacrifice of the church, which 
is propitiable, as well for the sins of the quick, as of the dead. "Concerning 
the first conclusion, I think it set set forth with certain new-found terms that 
are obscure, and do not sound according to the speech of the scripture. But however 
I understand it, this I do answer plainly, though not without peril, that to the 
right celebration of the Lord's supper, there is no other presence of Christ required 
than a spiritual presence: and this presence is sufficient for a Christian, as 
a presence by which we abide in Christ, and Christ abideth in us, to the obtaining 
of eternal life, if we persever. And this same presence may be called most fitly 
a real presence; that is, a presence not feigned, but a true and a faithful presence: 
which thing I here rehearse lest some sycophant or scorner should suppose me, 
with the Anabaptists, to make nothing of the sacrament but a naked and bare sign. 
As for that which is feigned of many, concerning their corporal presence, I for 
my part take it but for a papistical invention; therefore think it utterly to 
be rejected. "Concerning the second conclusion, I dare be bold to say, that it 
hath no ground in God's word, but is a thing invented and found out by man, and 
therefore to be taken as false; and I had almost said, as the mother and nurse 
of the other errors. It were good for my lords and masters of the transubstantiation, 
to take heed lest they conspire with Nestorians, for I do not see how they can 
avoid it. "The third conclusion, seemeth subtilly to sow sedition against the 
offering which Christ himself offered for us in his own proper person, according 
to those words of St. Paul, "That Christ his own self hath made purgation of our 
sins." And afterwards, "That he might be a merci- ful and faithful high priest 
concerning those things which are to be done with God, for the taking away of 
our sins." So that the expiation of our sins may be thought rather to depend on 
this, that Christ was an offering priest, than that he was offered, were it not 
that he was offered of himself; and therefore it is needless that he should be 
offered of any other. I will speak nothing of the wonderful presumption of man, 
to dare to attempt this thing without a manifest vocation, especially in that 
it tendeth to the overthrowing and making fruitless the cross of Christ; for truly 
it is no base or mean thing to offer Christ. And, therefore, well may a man say 
to my lords and masters, the offerers - "By what authority do ye this? and who 
gave you this authority? A man cannot take any thing, except it be given him from 
above; much less then ought any man presume to usurp any honour, before he be 
thereto called. Again, "If any man sin," saith St. John, "we have (not a master 
and offerer at home, which can sacrifice for us at mass) an advocate, Jesus Christ," 
which once offered himself long ago; of which offering the efficacy and effect 
is perdurable for ever, so that it is needless to have such offerers. PAGE 579 
"What meaneth Paul when he saith - "They that serve at the altar, are partakers 
of the altar?" and - "So the Lord hath ordained, that they that preach the gospel, 
shall live of the gospel." Whereas he should have said, the Lord hath ordained, 
that they that sacrifice at mass, should live of their sacrificing, that there 
might be living assigned to our sacrificers now, as was before Christ's coming, 
to the Jewish priests. For now they have nothing to allege for their living, as 
they that be preachers have. So that it appeareth that the sacrificing priesthood 
is changed by God's ordiance into a preaching priesthood; and the sacrificing 
priesthood should cease utterly, saving inasmuch as all Christian men are sacrificing 
priests. The supper of the Lord was instituted to provoke us to thanksgiving, 
for the offering which the Lord himself did offer for us, rather than that our 
offerers should do there as they do. "Feed," saith Peter, "as much as ye may the 
flock of Christ;" but ye say, Nay, rather let us sacrifice as much as we may for 
the flock of Christ. If the matter be as men now make it, I can never wonder enough, 
that Peter would or could forget this office of sacrific- ing, which at this day 
is in such a price and estimation, that to feed is almost nothing with many. If 
ye cease from feeding the flock, how shall ye be taken? Truly catholic enough. 
But if you cease from sacrificing and massing, how will that be taken? At the 
least, I warrant ye shall be called heretics. And whence I pray you come these 
papistical judgments? Except, perchance, they think a man feedeth the flock in 
sacrificing for them: and then what needeth there any learned pastors? For no 
man is so foolish but soon he may learn to sacrifice and mass it. "Thus I have 
taken the more pains to write, because I refused to dispute, in consideration 
of my debility thereunto: that all men may know I have so done not without great 
pains, having been allowed no man to help me. God is my witness that I would as 
fain obey my sovereign as any in this realm: but in these things I can never do 
it with an upright conscience. However, the Lord God be merciful unto us. Amen." 
The prolocutor, on receiving this paper, addressed the venerable writer, artfully 
leading him by a train of familiar questions into an argument, the chief parts 
of which are as follow: West. Then refuse you to dispute? Will you here then subscribe? 
Lat. No, I pray be good to an old man. You may, if it please God, be once old 
as I am: you may come to this age, and to this debility. West. You said on Saturday 
last that you could not find the mass, nor the marrow bones thereof, in your book. 
What find you then there, in your book? Lat. A communion; or two communions. I 
find no great diversity in them; they are one supper of the Lord. I like the last 
very well; but I do not well remember wherein they differ. West. You call the 
sacrament the supper of the Lord; but you are deceived in that: for they had done 
the supper before, and therefore the scripture saith, "After they had supped." 
St. Paul findeth fault with the Corinthians, that some of them were drunk at this 
supper; and you know no man can be drunk at our communion. PAGE 580 Lat. The first 
was called Caena Judaica, "The Jewish Supper," when they eat the paschal lamb 
together; the other Caena Cominica, "The Lord's Supper." Dr. Smith now interposed 
and said - "Because I perceive that this charge is laid upon my neck to dispute 
with you; to the end that the same may go forward after a right manner and order, 
I will propose three ques- tions, so as they are put forth unto me. And first 
I ask this question of you, although the same indeed ought not to be called in 
question; but such is the condition of the church, that it is always vexed of 
the the wicked. I ask, I say, whether Christ's body be really in the sacrament?" 
To this Latimer replied - "I trust I have obtained of master prolocutor, that 
no man shall exact that thing of me which is not in me. And I am sorry that this 
worshipful audience should be deceived of their expectation for my sake. I have 
given up my mind in writing to master prolocutor." Smith. Whatsoever ye have given 
up, shall be registered among the acts. Lat. Disputation requireth a good memory; 
my memory is gone clean, and marvellously weakened, and never the better, I think, 
for the prison. I have long sought for the truth in this matter of the sacrament, 
and have not been of this mind more than seven years: and my lord of Canterbury's 
book hath especially confirmed my judgment herein. If I could remember all therein 
contained, I would not fear to answer any man in this matter. In answer to a charge 
that he was once a Lutheran, he said boldly, "No, I was a papist: for I never 
could perceive how Luther could defend Luther's sayings or doings. If he were 
here, he would defend himself well enough. I told you before that I am not meet 
for disputations. I pray you read mine answer, wherein I have declared my faith." 
Tresham. It is written, "Except ye shall eat the flesh of the Son of man, and 
drink his blood, ye shall have no life in you." Which when the Capernaites and 
many of Christ's disciples heard, they said, "This is a hard saying," etc. Now 
that the truth may the better appear, here I ask of you, whether Christ, speaking 
these words, did mean of his flesh to be eaten with the mouth, or of the spiritual 
eating of the same? Lat. Christ meant of the spiritual eating of his flesh, as 
Augustine saith. Tresham. Of what flesh meant Christ? his true flesh, or no? Lat. 
Of his true flesh, spiritually to be eaten by faith, and not corporally. Tresham. 
Of what flesh mean the Capernaites? Lat. Of his true flesh also; but to be taken 
with the mouth. Tresham. They, as ye confess, did mean Christ's true flesh to 
be eaten with the mouth. And Christ also, as I shall prove, did speak of the receiving 
of his flesh with the mouth. Therefore they both did under- stand it of the eating 
of one thing, which is done by the mouth of the body. Lat. I say, Christ understood 
it not of the bodily mouth, but of the mouth of the spirit, mind, and heart. Tresham. 
I prove the contrary, that Christ understandeth it of the eating with the bodily 
mouth. For, whereas custom is a good interpreter of things, and whereas the acts 
put in practice by Christ do certainly declare those things which he first spake; 
Christ's deeds in his supper, where he gave his body to be taken with the mouth, 
together with the custom which hath been ever since that time of that eating which 
is done with the mouth, doth evidently intimate that Christ did understand his 
words here cited by me, out of John vi., of the eating with the mouth. PAGE 581 
Lat. He gave not his body to be received with the mouth, but he gave the sacrament 
of his body to be received with the mouth; he gave the sacrament to the mouth, 
his body to the mind. After further discussion with Tresham, Seton, Cartwright, 
and Smith, the prolocutor Weston attacked Latimer out of St. Augstine, saying: 
"Augustine, in his Enchiridion, saith, 'We must not deny that the souls of the 
dead are relieved by the devotion of their friends which are living, when the 
sacrifice of the Mediator is offered for them.' Where he proveth the verity of 
Christ's body, and praying for the dead. And it is affirmed that the same Augustine 
said mass for his mother." To which the venerable man answered - "But that mass 
was not like yours, which thing doth manifestly appear in his writings, which 
are against it in every place. And Augustine is a reasonable man, who requireth 
to be believed no further than he bringeth scripture for his proof, and agreeth 
with God's word." The prolocutor said, "Well, Mr. Latimer, this is our intent, 
to wish you well, and to exhort you to come to yourself, and remember that without 
Noah's Ark there is no health. What have they been that were the begin- ners of 
your doctrine? none but a few flying apostates, running out of Germany for fear 
of the fagot. What have they been which have set forth the same in this realm? 
a sort of light heads, which were never constant in any one thing, as it was to 
be seen in the turning of the table, when like a sort of apes, they could not 
tell which wy to turn their tails, looking one day west, and another day east; 
one that way, and another this way. They will be like, they say, to the apostles, 
they will have no churches! a hovel is good enough for them. They come to the 
communion with no reverence. They get them a tankard, and one saith I drink, and 
I am thankful; the more joy of thee, saith another. In them was it true that Hilary 
saith, 'We make every year and every month a faith.' A runagate Scot took away 
the adoration or worshipping of Christ in the sacrament, by whose procurement 
that heresy was put into the last communion book; so prevailed that one man's 
authority at that time. You never agreed with the Zurichers, or with the Germans, 
or with the church, or with yourself. Your stubbornness cometh of a vain glory, 
which is to no purpose: for it will do you no good when a fagot is in your beard. 
And we see all, by your own confessions, how little cause ye have to be stubborn. 
The queen's grace is merciful, if ye will turn." Latimer. You shall have no hope 
in me to turn. I pray for the queen daily, even from the bottom of my heart, that 
she may turn from this religion. Weston. Here you all see the weakness of heresy 
against the truth: he denieth all truth, and all the old fathers. The thus, good 
reader, thou hast the chief parts of this doctorly dispu- tation showed forth 
unto thee, against these three worthy confessors and martyrs of the Lord, wherein 
thou mayest behold the disordered usage of the university-men, the unmannerly 
manner of the school, the rude tumult of the multitude, and the fierceness and 
interruption of the doctors. And what marvel, if the prolocutor, having the law 
in his own hand, to do what he listed, would say for himself, "Vicit veritas," 
although he said never a true word, nor made ever a true conclusion almost, in 
all that disputation. PAGE 582 On the following Friday, April 20th, the commissioners 
sat at St. Mary's church, as they had done on the Saturday before, when Dr. Weston 
in an imperious manner demanded of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, whether or not 
they would subscribe? He rudely told Cranmer that he had been overcome in the 
late disputation. The latter, in answer, charged him and his party with unfairness 
and blind partiality, urging that he had been overcome by noise only; and that 
he had no chance of success unless he had brawled as loud as they, and that four 
or five of them had frequently attacked him at once. Ridley and Latimer were asked 
what they would do? they replied that they would stand to what they had said: 
on which they were all called together, and sentence was read over them, that 
they were no members of the church: and therefore they, with their favourers and 
patrons, were condemned as heretics. And in reading of it - they were asked whether 
they would turn or not; but they bade them read on in the name of God, for they 
were not inclined to turn. So they were all three condemned. To this sentence 
Cranmer first answered - "From this your judgment and sentence I appeal to the 
just judgment of God Almighty, trusting to be present with him in heaven, for 
whose presence in the altar I am thus condemned." Ridley followed the archbishop 
- "Although I be not of your company, yet doubt I not but my name is written in 
another place, whither this sentence will send us sooner than we should by the 
course of nature have gone." Latimer then said - "I thank God most heartily, that 
he hath prolonged my life to this end, that I may in this case glorify God by 
that kind of death." On the ensuing Saturday the papists had a mass, with a general 
proces- sion and great solemnity. Cranmer was caused to behold the procession 
out of the grating of the Bocardo prison; Ridley from the sheriff's house; and 
Latimer being brought to see it from the bailiff's house thought that he should 
have gone thence to burning, and spake to one Augustine, a peace-officer, to make 
a quick fire: but when he came to Carfox, the Oxford market-place, where four 
ways meet, he ran as fast as his aged bones would carry him, to one Spencer's 
shop, and would not look towards the vain procession. On the following Monday, 
Weston took his journey up to London, with the letters certificatory from the 
university to the queen, by whom Cranmer directed his letters supplica- tory unto 
the council: which the prolocutor opened by the way, and seeing the contents, 
sent them back again, refusing to carry them. Ridley also hearing of the prolocutor's 
going to London, sent to him his letters, which he desired him to carry up to 
certain bishops in London. Section V. Proceedings of the papists against the protestants. 
- Beheading of the duke of suffolk. - Declaration of Mr. Bradford and others. 
- Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip, Prince of Spain. - Events that followed 
the marriage. Having finished our accout of the disputations between the Roman 
catholics and the protestant divines of the reformed religion, of Oxford, we shall 
now prosecute the historical narration of this tumult- PAGE 583 uous reign. So 
many things happened in different parts of the realm, that it is difficult to 
preserve due order of time in reciting them, we shall therefore return to the 
month of July, 1553, when the duke of Northumberland was brought to London, and 
the following persons of distinction were committed to the Tower with him. The 
earls of Warwick and of Huntingdon; lords Ambrose, Dudley, and Hastings; Sir John 
and Sir Henry Gates, Andrew Dudley, Sir Thomas Palmer, and Dr. Sands, chancellor 
of Cambridge. Of these lord Hastings was the only one who, on his complaint, obtained 
liberation. The latter end of the same month several other noblemen and gentlemen, 
together with the bishop of London, and the chief justices of the king's bench 
and the common pleas, were committed either to the confinement of the Tower, or 
the custody of the sheriff of London. Three days after, the queen entered the 
city, and her first concern was to liberate her friends. For this purpose she 
first proceeded to the Tower, where she remained seven days, and then removed 
to Richmond. She gave orders for Dr. Day to be delivered out of the Fleet, and 
Dr. Bonner out of the Marshalsea. The same day Tonstal and Gardiner were liberated 
from the Tower, and Gardiner was received into the queen's privy council, and 
made lord chancellor. The Latin Dirige was sung within the Tower by all the king's 
choristers, the bishop of Winchester being chief minister, and the queen and most 
of the council were present. A few days after, the king's remains were brought 
to Westminster and there buried; on which occasion Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, 
preached. The same day a mass of Requiem was sung within the Tower by the bishop 
of Winchester, who had on his mitre, and performed all things as in times past; 
the queen being present. Dr. Bourne preached at Paul's Cross soon after, and commands 
were issued throughout the city, that no apprentices should come to the sermon, 
nor bear any knife or dagger. Other committals to the Tower took place, among 
them Mr. Bradford, Mr. Beacon, and Mr. Vernon. The duke of Northumberland, the 
marquis of Northampton, and the earl of Warwick, were arraigned at Westminster, 
and condemned the same day, the duke of Norfolk presiding as high judge. Soon 
after these cases were determined Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John and Sir Henry Gates, 
and Sir Thomas Palmer, were arrainged and condemned, the lord marquis of Winchester 
being high judge. At the same time a letter was sent to Sir Henry Tyrel, and to 
Anthony and Edmund Brown, esquires, praying them to commit to ward all such as 
should contemn the queen's order of religion, or keep themselves from church, 
and there to remain until they should be conformable, and to signify their names 
to the council. In the course of the month, Dr. Watson, chaplain to the bishop 
of Winchester, preached at St. Paul's Cross, at whose sermon were present the 
marquis of Winchester, the earls of Bedford and Pembroke, the lord Rich, and 200 
of the guard with their halberds, lest the people should have offered to disturb 
the preacher. Apostacies now began. The duke of Northumberland, the marquis of 
Northampton, Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Gates, and Sir Thomas Palmer, heard mass 
within the Tower, after which PAGE 584 they all received the sacrament in one 
kind only as in popish times. On the same day also the queen set forth a proclamation, 
signifying to the people that she could not hide any longer the religion which 
she from her infancy had professed, and prohibiting in the proclamation all printing 
and preaching - so adverse are the press and the pulpit to error. The unhappy 
noblemen, however, found their apostacy unavailing to save their lives. Two days 
after they had bowed before the idolatrous mass, three of them had to bow their 
wretched heads beneath the axe of the executioner. They suffered on Tower-hill; 
and on the same day several others of the nobility heard mass within the Tower, 
and afterwards received the sacrament in one kind; some of them in sad preparation 
for the same fate. It was rumoured that Cranmer had promised to say mass after 
the old manner, and that he even had said it at Canterbury. Upon this, in order 
to check the evil effects of this artifice of his enemies, and to confirm his 
friends in their opinion of his steadiness, he published the following declaration, 
on Sept. 7, 1553. "As the devil, Christ's ancient adversary, is a liar, and the 
father of lies, even so hath he stirred up his servants and members to persecute 
Christ and his true word and religion with lying; which he ceaseth not to do most 
earnestly at this present time. For whereas the prince of famous memory, king 
Henry VIII., seeing the great abuses of the Latin mass, reformed some things therein 
in his life-time; and afterwards our late sovereign lord king Edward VI. took 
the same wholly away, for the manifold and great errors and abuses of the same, 
and restored in the place thereof Christ's holy supper, according to his own institution, 
and such as the apostles used in the primitive church. To overthrow this the devil 
now goeth about by lying to restore his Latin satisfactory mass, a thing of his 
own invention and device. And to bring the same more easily to pass, some have 
abused the name of me Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, reporting abroad, that 
I have set up the mass at Canterbury, and that I offered to say mass at the burial 
of our late sovereign, king Edward VI., and before the queen's highness, at St. 
Paul's church, and I know not where. And although I have been well exercised these 
twenty years to suffer and bear evil reports and lies, and have not been much 
grieved thereat, but have borne all things quiet- ly; yet when untrue reports 
turn to the hindrance of God's truth, they are in no wise to be suffered. Wherefore 
these be to signify unto the world, that it was not I that set up the mass at 
Canterbury, but it was a false, flattering, lying and dissembling monk, one Dr. 
Thornton, who caused it to be set there without mine advice or counsel. The Lord 
recompense him in that day! And as for offering myself to say mass before the 
queen's highness, or in any other place, I never did it, as her grace well knoweth. 
But if her grace will give me leave, I shall be ready to prove, against all that 
will say the contrary, that all which is contained in the holy communion, set 
out by the most innocent and godly prince king Edward VI. in his high court of 
parliament, is conformable to that order which our Saviour Christ did both observe, 
and command to be observed, and which his apostles and the primitive church used 
many years; whereas the mass in many things, not only hath no PAGE 585 foundation 
of Christ, his apostles, nor the primitive church, but is manifestly contrary 
to the same, and containeth many horrible abuses in it. And although many do report 
that Peter Martyr is unlearned; yet if the queen's highness will grant thereunto, 
I, with the said Peter Martyr, and other four or five which I shall choose, will, 
by God's grace, take upon us to defend, not only the common prayers of the church, 
the ministration of the sacraments, and other rites and ceremo- nies, but also 
all the doctrine and religion set out by our sovereign lord king Edward VI. to 
be more pure, and according to God's word, than any other that hath been used 
in England these 1000 years: so that God's word may be judge, and that the reasons 
and proofs of both parties may be set out in writing, to the intent, as well that 
all the world may examine and judge thereon, as that no man shall start back from 
his writing. And where they boast of the faith, that hath been in the church these 
1500 years we will join with them in this point; and that the same doctrine and 
usage is to be followed, which was in the church 1500 years pasts; and we shall 
prove, that the order of the church, set out at this present in this realm by 
act of parliament, is the same that was used in the church 1500 years past; and 
so shall they never be able to prove theirs." This protest of Cranmer obtained 
for him an almost immediate committal to the Tower. Latimer had been conducted 
to the same confinement the previous day. The queen was then at Richmond busied 
in preparing for her coronation. Anxious to know that the foes she most dreaded 
were safe, she came in little more than a week herself to the Tower, where she 
staid a short time to give every necessary direction concerning their secure custody 
and their purposed trial and punishment. After two or three days she proceeded 
from the Tower through the city, where many pageants were made to receive her, 
and thus she was triumphantly brought to Whitehall. On the following Sunday she 
went from Whitehall to West- minster Abbey, accompanied with most of the nobility 
of the realm, and all the foreign ambassadors, and the mayor of London, with all 
the aldermen. Out of the Abbey, to receive her, were brought three silver crosses, 
accompanied by about fourscore singing men, in very rich and gorgeous copes. Amongst 
them was the dean of Westminster, and divers of the queen's chaplains, all of 
whom bore some ensign in their hands; after them followed ten bishops, all mitred, 
with their crosier staves in their hands. In this order they returned from Westminster 
Hall, before the queen, to the Abbey, where she was crowned by Stephen Gardin- 
er, bishop of Winchester, and lord chancellor of England. At the time of the coronation, 
Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, delivered a sermon to the queen and the nobiity. 
It was hoped that a general pardon would have been proclaimed within the Abbey 
at the time of her cornonation; but all the prisoners of the Tower and of the 
Fleet were excepted, and upwards of sixty others. The vice-chancellor of Cambridge 
challenged one Mr. Pierson, who still ministered the communion in his own parish, 
and received strangers of other parishes to the same, but would not say mass. 
Whereupon, within two days after, he was discharged from further ministering in 
his cure. The archbishop of York also was sent to the Tower, Oct. 4, 1553. PAGE 
586 On Sunday, the 15th of October, Laurence Saunders preached at Allhailows in 
Bread Street, where he declared the abomination of the mass, with divers others 
matters, very notably and godly; whereof more will be heard hereafter. But about 
noon of the same day, he was sent for by the bishop of London, and from thence 
committed to the Marshalsea. On Thursday, October 5th, the new parliament met, 
there had been great violence used in many elections, and many false returns were 
made; some who were known to be zealous for the reformation were forcibly turned 
out of the house of commons, which was afterwards offered as a ground upon which 
that parliament, and all acts made in it, might have been annulled. There came 
only two of the reformed bishops to the house of lords, the two archbishops and 
three bishops being in prison; two others were turned out, the rest stayed at 
home, so only only Taylor and Har- ley, the bishops of Lincoln and Hereford, attended. 
When mass began to be said, they are reported to have gone out, and were never 
suffered to come to their places again, others say, they refused to join in that 
worship, and were in consequence violently thurst out. In the house of commons 
some of the more forward moved that king Edward's laws might be reviewed, but 
things were not yet ripe enough for that. On Sunday, Oct. 20, Dr. Weston preached 
at Paul's Cross. In the beginning of his sermon he desired the people to pray 
for the souls of the departed. "You shall pray," said he, "for all them that be 
departed, who be neither in heaven nor hell, but in a place not yet sufficiently 
purged to come to heaven, that they may be relieved by your devout prayers." He 
named the Lord's table an oyster-board; said that the catechism in Latin lately 
published was abominable heresy, and likened its defenders to Juliam the apostate, 
and the book to a dialogue written by Julian, wherein Christ and Pilate were the 
speakers; with many other things. This sermon Mr. Cloverdale learnedly confuted 
in writing, and would have publicly read his refutation had he been allowed. Soon 
after these events the vice-chancellor of Cambridge went to Clare Hall, and removed 
Dr. Madew, on account of his being married, and placed Mr. Swynbourne in the mastership 
there, by virtue of the lors chancel- lor's letters. On Oct. 28, the papists in 
King's College, Cambridge, revived their whole service again in the Latin tongue, 
contary to the law, than not repealed; but anticipating its repeal very soon after. 
The vice-chancellor sent for the curate of the Round church in Cambridge, commanding 
him not to minister any more in the English tongue, saying, he would have one 
uniform order of service throughout the town, and that in Latin, with mass, which 
was established about the the middle of November. The archdeacon's offical visited 
Huntington, where he charged to imprison all such as disturbed the queen's proceedings, 
in hindering the Latin service, setting up their altars, and saying mass or part 
thereof; whereby it was easy to see how these men meant to proceed, having the 
law once on their side, who thus so readily, against a manifest law, would attempt 
the punishment of any man. PAGE 587 In December there were two proclamations at 
London; one for repealing certain acts made by king Edward, and for setting up 
the mass before the feast of the nativity. The other was, that no man should interupt 
any of those who would say mass after it became established. The parliamnet continued 
till the 5th of December. In it were dissolved, as well all the statues made of 
praemunire in the time of king Henry VIII, as also other laws and statues concerning 
religion and administration of sacra- ments, decreed under Edward VI.; while it 
was appointed, that on the eve of St. Thomas ensuing, the old form and manner 
of church-service, used in the last year of king Henry, should again be restored. 
About this time a priest of Canterbury said mass on one day, and on the following 
he came into the pulpit, and desired the people to forgive him: for he said he 
had betrayed Christ, not as Judas did, but as Peter did, and made a long sermon 
against the mass. At the beginning of the new year, 1554, four ambassadors came 
into London from the emperor, and were honourably received. Their names were, 
le compte de Egmont, le compte de Lalen, monsieur Corire, le chancelier Nigry. 
Very soon after, there were appointed a great number of new bishops, deans, and 
other church dignitaries; more than were ever made at one time since the conquest. 
They were, Dr. Holyman, bishop of Bristol; Dr. Cotes, bishop of West-Chester; 
Dr. Hopton, bishop of Norwich; Dr. Bourne, bishop of Bath; Dr. White, bishop of 
Lincoln; Dr. Mores, bishop of Rochester; Dr. Morgan, bishop of St. David's; Dr. 
Poole, bishop of St. Asaph; Dr. Brookes, bishop of Gloucester; Dr. Moreman, coadjutor 
to the bishop of Exeter, and after his decease bishop of Exeter; Dr. Glyn, bishop 
of Bangor; Mr. Fecknam, dean of St. Paul's; Dr. Reynolds, dean of Bristol; with 
several others. The vice-chancellor of Cambridge now called a congregation general, 
wherein amongst other things he shewed, that the queen would have there a mass 
of the Holy Ghost upon the 18th of the following February, which was her birthday. 
This was accordingly fulfilled on the day appointed, and that very solemnly. For 
opposing this measure Dr. Crome was commit- ted to the Fleet, and one Addington 
was committed to the Tower. The same day, the bishop of Winchester declared openly 
in the court that the treaty of marriage between the queen's majesty and the prince 
of Spain was concluded: and the day following, the mayor, the aldermen, and several 
of the commons, were at the court, and there they were commanded by the lord chancellor 
to prepare the city to receive prince Philip of Spain; declaring unto them what 
a catholic, mighty, prudent, and wise prince he was. PAGE 588 Several additional 
arrests were now made: the lord Marguis of Northamp- ton was again committed to 
the Tower, and Sir Edward Warner with him. Mr. Justice Hales was committed to 
the Marshalsea; and Mr. Rogers to Newgate. During several days about this time, 
the Londoners prepared a number of soldiers, by the queen's command, to go into 
Kent against the commons. These were commanded by the duke of Norfolk, the earl 
of Worm- wood, Sir Henry Jerningham, Sir George Hayward, and ten other captains. 
The soldiers, when they came to Rochester bridge, where they should have set upon 
their enemies, most of them left their own captains, and came wholly to the Kentish 
men; and so the captains returned to the court both void of men and victory, leaving 
behind them six pieces of ordnance and treasure. In January, the duke of Suffolk, 
with his brethren, departed from his house at Shene, and went into Leicestershire; 
after whom the earl of Huntingdon was sent to take him and bring him to London; 
and on his return proclaimed the duke traitor as he rode. A few days after his 
arrival in the city, he was arraigned at Westminster, and the same day condemned 
to die by his peers; the earl of Arundel being chief judge. The three sons of 
Lord Cobham, a noble family, every generation of which were faithful to the reformed 
cause, were also arraigned at Westminster: the youngest was condemned, whose name 
was Thomas; the other two came not to the bar. About the same time Lord John Gray 
was arraigned at Westminster, and condemned. Lord Thomas Gray, and Sir James Croft, 
were brought through London to the Tower, with a number of horsemen; and Sir Nicholas 
Throgmorton was committed to the same common receptacle. The latter end of this 
month February, Henry Gray duke of Suffolk, was brought forth to the scaffold 
on Tower Hill, and in his coming thither there accompanied him Dr. Weston as his 
spiritual father, notwithstand- ing, as it seemed, against the will of the duke. 
For when the duke went up to the scaffold, Weston, being on the left hand, pressed 
to go up with him; when he, with his hand, put him down again off the stairs; 
but Weston taking hold of the duke, forced him down likewise. And as they ascended 
the second time, the duke again put him down. Then Weston said, that it was the 
queen's pleasure he should attend. Wherewith the duke casting his hands abroad, 
ascended up the scaffold, and paused a long time after. He then said, "Master, 
I have offended the queen, and her laws, and thereby am justly condemned to die, 
and am willing to die, desiring all men to be obedient, and I pray God that this 
my death may be an example to all men, beseeching you all to bear me witness, 
that I die in the faith of Christ, trusting to be saved by his blood only, and 
by no other sacrifice; for Christ died for me, and for all them that truly repent, 
and stedfastly trust in him. And I do repent, desiring you all to pray to God 
for me; and that when you see my breath depart from me, you will pray that he 
may receive my soul." And then he desired all men to forgive him. Dr. Weston then 
declared with a loud voice, that the queen's majestly had forgiven him. With that 
several of the standers by said, with audi- ble voice, "Such forgivenes God send 
thee!" The duke then kneeled, and said the psalm Miserere mei Deus unto the end, 
holding up his hands, and PAGE 589 looking up to heaven. And when he had ended 
he said, "Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit." Then he arose, and delivered 
his cap and his scarf unto the executioner, who, on his knees asked the duke forgive- 
ness. "God forgive thee, and I do," said the duke: "and when thou dost thine office, 
I pray thee do it well, and send me out of this world quickly, and God have mercy 
on thee." Then stood there a man who said, "My Lord, how shall I do do for the 
money that you owe?" The duke said, "Alas, good fellow, I pray thee trouble me 
not now, but go thy way to my officers." He then tied a handkerchief about his 
face, kneeled down, and said the Lord's prayer, and, "Christ have mercy upon me." 
After which he laid his neck on the block, and the executioner took the axe, and 
at the first blow struck off his head, and then held it up to the people. The 
same day about 240 prisoners received pardon, and came through the city with halters 
about their necks. The next day Sir William Sentlow, one of the lady Elizabeth's 
gentlemen, was committed as a prisoner to the master of the horse. On the day 
following Sir John Rogers was com- mitted to the Tower. Within a few days after, 
all such priests in the diocese of London as were married were divorced from their 
livings, and commanded to bring their wives within a fortnight, that they might 
be like wise divorced from them; this was an act of the bishop's own power. The 
next month certain gentlemen of Kent were sent into that county to be executed, 
among whom we find the two Mantels, two Knevets, and Bret. When the elder Mantel 
was under the gallows, upon his being turned off the rope broke. Upon this the 
priests present urged him to recant, and receive the sacrament of ther altar, 
promising him the queen's pardon: but this worthy gentleman rejected their insidious 
council, and chose rather to die, than live by dishonouring God. We now come to 
the second year of the Mary's short and affecting reign. As Easter approached, 
every householder in London was commanded to appear before the alderman of his 
ward, and all were commanded, that they, their wives, and servants, should prepare 
themselves for confes- sion, and receive the sacrament at Easter; and that neither 
they, nor any of them should depart out of the city until Easter was past. Addi- 
tional excitement was produced by the lady Elizabeth, the queen's sister, being 
brought to the Tower. At the same time the marquis of Northampton, the lord Cobham, 
and Sir William Cobham, were released from their confinement. On Easter-day, in 
the morning, at St. Pancras in Cheap, the crucifix, with the vessel in which the 
host was kept, were stolen out of the sepulchre, before the priest declared the 
resurrec- tion: so that when, after his accustomed manner, he put his hand into 
the sepulchre, and said very devoutly, "He is risen, he is not here," he found 
his words true, for that which he called the body of Christ was not there indeed. 
Whereupon, being half dismayed, the priests consulted among themselves, whom they 
thought the likeliest to do this; in which consultation they remembered one Marsh, 
who a little before had been dismissed from his parsonage because he was married, 
to whose charge they laid it. But when they could not prove it, being brought 
before the mayor, they then charged him to have kept company with his wife, since 
that they were by commandment divorced. Whereunto he answered, that he PAGE 590 
he thought the queen had done him wrong, to take from him both his living and 
his wife: which words were then noted, and taken very grievously, and he and his 
wife were both committed to separate prisons, though he was ill and needed her 
care. A ludicrous event distinguished the beginning of April. A cat was hanged 
upon a gallows at the cross in Cheapside, apparelled like a priest ready to say 
mass, with a shaven crown: her two forefeet were tied over her head, with a round 
paper like a wafer-cake, put between them, as though in the act of elevating the 
host. At this the queen and the bishops were very angry; and the same afternoon 
there was a proclamation issued, that whosoever could bring forth the guilty party, 
should have twenty nobles, which were afterwards increased to twenty marks, but 
none could or would earn them. The first occasion of setting up this gallows was 
well understood. After the bishop of Winchester's sermon before the queen, for 
the speedy execution of Wyat's soldiers, there were several gibbets set up in 
divers parts of the city; two in Cheapside, one at Leadenhall, one at Billingsgate, 
one at St. Magnus' church, one in Smithfield, one in Fleet-street, four in Southwark, 
one at Aldgate, one at Bishopsgate, one at Aldersgate, one at Newgate, one at 
Ludgate, one at St. James's Park corner, one at Cripplegate: all which remained 
for the terror of others, from February to June. But at the coming in of the queen's 
husband they were taken down. It should have been remarked that when Wyat was 
brought to the scaffold on Tower-hill, he spoke these words concerning the lady 
Elizabeth, and the earl of Devonshire: "Concerning what I have said of others 
in my examination, to charge any as partakers of my doings, I accuse neither my 
lady Elizabeth's grace, nor my lord of Devonshire. I cannot accuse them, neither 
am I able to say, that to my knowledge they knew any thing of the rising." And 
when Dr. Weston told him, that his confession was otherwise before the coucil, 
he answered, "That which I said then, I said; but that which I say now is true." 
Even at this dark and corrupt period the benefit of trial by jury was in some 
instances remarkably seen. Sir Nicholas Throgmorton was suspected to be of the 
conspiracy with the duke of Suffolk and the rest against the queen. But he so 
learnedly and wisely behaved himself, as well in clearing his own case, as also 
in opening such laws of the realm as were then alleged against him, that the jury 
could not in conscience find him guilty; for which the jury being substantial 
men of the city, were each bound in the sum of 500 nobles, to appear before the 
queen's council at a day appointed there to answer such things as should be said 
against them. This conscientious jury appeared accordingly before the council 
in the Star Chamber, upon Wednesday, April the 25th, from whence, after certain 
questioning, they were committed to prison, Emanuel Lucas and Mr. Whetstone to 
the Tower, and the other ten to the Fleet. Sir James Croft and Mr. Winter, two 
friends of Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, were imprisoned at the same time, and were 
soon after arraigned. Croft was sentenced, but the other re-committed. Soon after 
William Thomas was arraigned at Guildhall, and condemned; on the following day 
he was hanged, drawn, and quartered. His accusation was, for conspiring the PAGE 
591 queen's death, of which he was generally supposed innocent. This is certain, 
that he made a godly end, and wrote many fruitful exhortations and letters in 
the prison before his death. A solemn disputation was now appointed at Cambridge, 
between Mr. Brad- ford, Mr. Saunders, Mr. Rogers, and their protestant friends, 
and the doctors of both universities on the papal side. Whereupon those defenders 
of the truth who were in prison, having notice thereof, not- withstanding they 
were destitute of books, and not ignorant of the purpose of their adversaries, 
and how the cause had been prejudged before at Oxford; nevertheless they thought 
that they ought not refuse the offer, if they might be quietly heard; and therefore 
wisely ponder- ing the matter with themselves, by a public consent, directed out 
of prison a declaration of their mind by writing. Wherein first, as touch- ing 
the disputation, although they knew that they should do no good, because all things 
were predetermined; yet they would not refuse to dispute, if the disputation mighty 
be either before the queen, or before the council, or before the parliament, or 
if they might argue by writ- ing; for else, if the matter were left with the popish 
doctors in their own schools, they had sufficient proof by the experience of Oxford, 
what little good would be done at Cambridge. Consequently, declaring the faith 
the doctrine of their religion, and exhorting the people to submit with all patience 
and humility, either to the will or punishment of the higher powers, they appealed 
from them to be their judges in this behalf, and so ended their protestation. 
This was drawn up by Miles Coverdale, late of Exon and signed on the 18th day 
of May, 1554, by thirteen reformers, among whom were Farrar, Taylor, Bradford, 
Philpot, Rogers, Saunders, Wigorn, Crome, and Glouces. Episcopus, alias John Hooper. 
The lady Elizabeth, sister to the queen, now excited considerable atten- tion 
and anxiety on both sides. On the 19th of May, in this year, she was brought to 
the Tower, and committed to the custody of Sir John Williams, afterwards lord 
Williams of Thame, by whom her highness was gently and courteously treated. She 
afterwards was sent to Woodstock, and there committed to the keeping of Sir Henry 
Benifield, knight of Oxborough, in Norfolk; who, on the contrary, both forgetting 
her estate, and his own duty, as it is reported, shewed himself more hard and 
straight towards her, than either cause was given on her part, or reason of his 
own should have led him. Some such restraint, however, was thought necessary on 
the part of her jealous and vindictive sister, especially in the immediate prospect 
of the Spanish prince, her husband, arriving in England. He landed at Southampton 
July 20th. As he placed his foot for the first time on British ground he drew 
his sword, and carried it a little way naked in his hand. This was interpreted 
as a sign that he intended to rule by the sword; but his friends ingeniously said, 
it imported that he would draw his sword for the defence of the nation. The mayor 
of Southampton brought him the keys of the town, which he took from him, and gave 
them back, without the least shew of his being pleased with this expression of 
respect. Five days after, the marriage took place in the cathedral church at Winchester 
by the bishop of Winchester, in the presence of a great number of noblemen of 
both PAGE 592 realms. At the altar, the emperor's ambassador being present, he 
openly pronounced that, in consideration of that marriage, the emperor had granted 
and given to his son the kingdom of Naples, and other domains and titles. Whereupon 
the 1st of August following, there was a procla- mation, that from that time forth 
the style of all manner of writing should be altered, and the following be used 
through the realm:- "Philip and Mary by the grace of God, king and queen of England, 
France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland, defenders of the faith, princes of Spain 
and Sicily, archduke and duchess of Austria, duke and duchess of Milan, Burgundy, 
and Brabant, count and countess of Hapsburg, Flanders, and Tyrol." Of this marriage, 
as the papists chiefly seemed to be very glad, so several of them, after divers 
studies to shew forth their inward affections, made interludes and pageants. Some 
drew forth genealogies, deriving the pedigree of the prince from Edward III., 
and John of Gaunt. Among others, Mr. White, then bishop of Lincoln, who was intoxicated 
with a poet's as well as a partiot's joy at the marriage, made several verses, 
which were answered by the bishop of Norwich and other sober- minded writers. 
In a short time, the king and queen removed from Winchester to several other places, 
and by easy journies came to Windsor Castle, where he was installed with the Order 
of the Garter. A remark- able circumstance occurred at this ceremony: a herald 
took down the arms of England at Windsor, and in the place of them would have 
set up the arms of Spain, but he was commanded by certain lords to restore the 
former to their place. The peculiar fondness of papists for pageantry to every 
kind, as well as the general spirit of the age, was now manifested in the several 
pro- gresses and processions of the new king and queen, as they were called, through 
some parts of the country and streets of the city. In addition to the display 
of flags and the discharge of cannon, giants were placed in conspicuous parts 
with addresses in their hands; conduits were built and adorned in the gayest manner; 
images of worthies, as they were called, were placed here and there, holding presents 
and inscriptions. Such was the fulsome desire to gratify the prince, that in one 
place were some verses describing the five worthies of the world in five Philips, 
namely, Philip of Macedon, Philip of Emperor, Philip the Bold, Philip the Good, 
and Philip prince of Spain and king of England! In other places he was saluted 
by an image representing Orpheus, and the English people likened to savage beasts, 
following after Orpheus's harp, and dancing after king Philip's pipe! Bonner, 
bishop of London, with the pomp of all his prebendaries about him, in St. Paul's 
choir, the cross being laid along upon the pavement, and also the doors of the 
church being shut, proceeded to say and sing divers prayer: which done, they anointed 
the cross with oil in divers places, and afterwards crept unto it, and kissed 
it. Then they took the cross and set it in its accustomed place, and all the while 
the whole choir sang Te Deum, which ended, they rang the bells, not only for joy, 
but also for the notable and great fact they had done therein. The new prince 
was present, and after Dr. Harpsfield had finished his oration in Latin, he set 
forward through Fleet Street, and so came to Whitehall, where he with the queen 
remained four days, and from thence removed unto PAGE 593 Richmond. The pageants 
being over, all the lords had leave to depart into their counties, with strait 
command to bring all their accountre- ments and artillery into the Tower of London. 
Now there remained no English lord at court, but the bishop of Winchester. The 
king's gravity proved very unacceptable to the English, who love a mean between 
the stiffness of the Spaniards and the gaiety of the French. But if they did not 
like his temper, they were out of measure in love with his bounty and wealth: 
for he brought over a vast treasure with him, the greatest part of which was distributed 
among those, who, for his Spanish gold, had sold their country and religion. At 
his coming to London, he procured the pardon of many prisoners, and among others, 
of Holgate, archbishop of York, He also interposed for preserving lady Elilzabeth, 
and the earl of Devonshire. Gardiner was much set against them, and thought they 
made but half work so long as she lived. The earl of Devonshire, to be freed from 
all jealousy, went beyond the sea, and died a year after in Italy, some said of 
poison. Philip at first took care to preserve the lady Elizabeth on a generous 
account, pitying her innocence, and hoping by so acceptable an act of favour to 
recommend himself to the nation: but interest soon after fortified those good 
and wise inclination; for when he lost all hope of issue by the queen, he considered 
that the queen of Scotland, who was soon after married to the dauphin, was next 
in succession after lady Elizabeth,; so that if she should be put out of the way, 
the crown of England would become an accession to the French crown; and therefore 
he took care to preserve her, and perhaps hoped to have wrought so much on her 
by his good offices, that if her sister should die without children, she might 
be induced to marry him. But this was the only grateful thing he did in England. 
He affected so extravagant a state, and was so sullen and silent, that it was 
not easy for any to come within the court; and access to him was not to be had, 
without demanding it with almost as much formality as ambassadors used when they 
desired an audience: so that a general discontent was quickly spread into most 
places of the kingdom. But Gardiner was well pleased, for the conduct of affairs 
was put entirely in his hands. In the month of September, bishop Bonner began 
his visitation. The chief purpose of it was to see whether the old service, with 
all its rites, was again set up; and to inquire concerning the lives and labours 
of the clergy, of their marriage, and their living chastely; whether they were 
suspected of heresy, or of favouring heretics. Bonner conducted himself on this 
occasion like a madman; for if either the bells were not rung when he came near 
any church, or if he had not found the sacrament exposed, he was ready to break 
out into the foulest language; and not content with that, he was accustomed to 
beat his clergy when he was displeased with anything; for he was naturally cruel 
and brutal. He took care to have those parts of scripture, that had been painted 
on the walls of the churches, to be washed off; and upon this it was said, that 
it was necessary to dash out the scripture, to make way for images, for they agreed 
so ill, that they could not decently stand together. Upon the Sunday following 
the bishop of Winchester, lord chancellor of PAGE 594 England, preached at St. 
Paul's Cross before all the council. The gospel whence he made his sermon was 
from Matthew, chap. xxii., where the Parisees came unto Christ, and among them 
one asked Christ which was the greatest commandment. Christ answered, "Thou shalt 
love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and thy neighbour as thyself: in these 
two are comprehended the law and the prophets." After a long declaration of these 
words, speaking much of love and charity, at last he had occasion to speak of 
the true and false teachers: saying, that all the preachers almost in king Edward's 
time, preached nothing but voluptuousness, and blasphemous lies, affirming their 
doctrine to be that false doctrine whereof St. James speaketh in his third chapter, 
that it was full of perverse zeal, earthly, full of discord and dissention, that 
the preach- ers reported nothing truly, and that if a man vowed to-day, he might 
break it to-morrow at his pleasure, with many other things. When he spake of the 
sacrament, he said, that all the church from the beginning have confessed Christ's 
natural body to be in heaven, and here to be in the sacrament, and so concluded 
that matter. He concluded the discourse by an extravagant piece of flattery on 
the king and queen. SECTION VI. Cardinal Pole arrives from Rome.- His absolution. 
- Gardiner's sermon. - Nation returns to Popery. - Faithfulness of the protestant 
leaders. - Difference of sentiment between Pole and Gardiner respecting heretics. 
A treaty had commenced between Mary and the pope on her first coming to the throne, 
when the pope's legate at Brussels sent over Commendone, to see if he could speak 
with her, and to persuade her to reconcile her kingdom to the apostolic see. The 
management of the matter was left to his descretion, and the legate would not 
trust this secret to Gardiner, nor any of the other bishops. Commendone came over 
in the disguise of a merchant, and by accident met with one the queen's servants, 
who had lived years beyond sea, and was known to him, and by his means procured 
access to the queen. She assured him of her firm resolution to return to the obedience 
of that see, but charged him to manage the matter with great prudence; for if 
it were too early discovered, it might disturb her affairs, and obstruct the design. 
By him she wrote both to the pope and to cardinal Pole; and instructed Commendone, 
in order to the sending over Pole with a legatine power, which accordingly took 
place. On his arrival, he first addressed the king and queen, inviting them to 
return to the sheepfold of the church. The queen felt a strange emotion of joy 
within her, as he made his speech, which her flattering attendants encouraged 
her to interpret as a sign that she should have a son! On this prediction Te Deum 
was sung and bonfires soon blazed around the city. The priests proclaimed that 
another John the Baptist was at hand, who had leaped on the salutation of the 
vicar of Christ!! Both houses agreed on an address to the king and queen, that 
they would intercede PAGE 595 with the legate to reconcile them to the see of 
Rome, and they offered to repeal all the laws they had made against the pope's 
authority, in sign of their repentance. Upon this the cardinal came to the parliament, 
which was held at Whitehall on account of her majesty's confinement there by indisposition. 
She sat with the prince under the cloth of state, and the cardinal sitting on 
the right hand, with all the other estates of the parliament being present: the 
bishop of Winchester being lord chancellor, began in this manner. "My lords of 
the upper-house, and you my masters of the nether house, here is present the right 
reverend father in God my lord cardinal Pole, come from the apostolic see of Rome, 
as ambassador to the king and queen's majesties, upon one of the weightiest causes 
that ever happened in this realm, and which pertaineth to the glory of God, and 
your uni- versal benefit. The which embassage their majesties' pleasure is to 
be signified unto you by all by his own mouth, trusting that you willre- ceive 
and accept it in benevolent and thankful wise as their highnesses have done, and 
that you will give an attentive and inclinable ear unto him." The lord chancellor 
having ended, the cardinal began his oration, declaring the causes of his coming, 
and his desires and requests. In the mean time, the court-gate was kept shut until 
he had made an end of his oration. The next day after, the three estates assembled 
again in the great chamber of the court at Westminster; where the king and queen's 
majes- ties and the cardinal being present, they did exhibit (all kneeling on 
their knees) a supplication to their highnesses; which being read, the king and 
queen delivered the same unto the cardinal, who, perceiving the effects thereof 
to answer his expectation, did receive the same most gladly from their majesties: 
and after he had in a few words given thanks to God, and declared what great cause 
he had to rejoice above all others, that his coming from Rome into England had 
taken such happy success, he, by the pope's authority, gave them this absolution:- 
"Our Lord Jesus Christ, who with his most precious blood hath redeemed and washed 
us from all our sins and iniquities, that he might purchase unto himself a glorious 
spouse without spot or wrinkle, and whom the Father hath appointed head over all 
his church, he by his mercy absolve you. And we by apostolic authority given unto 
us by the most holy lord pope Julius the third, his vicegerent on earth, do absolve 
and deliver you, and every of you, with the whole realm and dominions thereof, 
from all heresy and schism, and from all and every judgment, censures, and pains, 
for that cause incurred: and also we do restore you again unto the unity of our 
mother the holy church, as in our letters more plainly it shall appear: in the 
name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." This business finished, 
they all went into the chapel, and there singing Te Deum, with great solemnity 
declared the joy for this reconciliation. The report of the cardinal's quick success 
was with agreat speed sent unto Rome; as well by the king and cardinal's letters, 
which hereafter follow, as also otherwise. Whereupon the pope caused three processions 
to be made at Rome, and thanks to be given to God, with great joy, for the conversion 
of England to his church; and therefore praising the cardinal's diligence, and 
the devotion of the king and queen, on Christmas eve, by his bulls he set forth 
a general pardon to all such as did truly rejoice in the same. PAGE 596 On Sunday, 
December 2nd, Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, and lord chan- cellor England, preached 
at Paul's Cross, at which sermon the king and cardinal Pole were present. He took 
for his text these words of the epistle of St. Paul to the Romans, "This also 
we know the season, breth- ren, that we should now awake out of sleep, for now 
is our salvation nearer than we believed." From them he shewed how the saying 
of St. Paul was verified upon the Gentiles, who had a long time slept in dark 
igno- rance, not knowing God: therefore St. Paul, to stir up their heavy dulness, 
willed them to awake out of their long sleep, because their salvation was nearer 
than when they believed. In amplifying this matter, and comparing present times 
with theirs, he took occasion to declare what difference the Jewish sacraments 
had from those of the christians, wherein he used these words:- "Even as the sacrament 
of the Jews declared Christ to come, so do our sacraments declare him to be already 
come: but Christ to come, and Christ to be come, is not all one. For now that 
he is come, the Jews' sacraments are done away, and ours only remain, which declare 
that he is already come, and is nearer us than he was to the fathers of the old 
law; for they had him but in signs, but we have him in the sacrament of the altar, 
even his very body. Wherefore now also it is time that we awake out of our sleep, 
who have slept, or rather dreamed, these twenty years past, as shall more easily 
appear, by declaring at large some of the properties and effects of a sleep or 
a dream. "And first, as men intending to sleep, do separate themselves from company, 
and desire to be alone; even so have we separated ourselves from the see apostolic 
of Rome, and have been alone, unlike any other realm in Christendom. Secondly, 
as in sleep men dream sometimes of killing, sometimes of maiming, sometimes of 
burning or drowning, sometimes of such beastliness as I dare not name, but will 
spare your ears; so we have in this our sleep, not only dreamed of beastliness, 
but we have done it indeed. For in this our sleep hath not one brother destroyed 
another? Hath not half our money been wiped away at one time? and again, those 
that would defend their conscience were slain, and others also otherwise troubled; 
besides infinite other things which you all know as well as I, whereof I appeal 
to your own consciences. Further, in a man's sleep all his senses are stopped, 
so that he can neither see, smell, nor hear; even so, whereas the ceremonies of 
the church were instituted to move and stir up our senses, they being taken away, 
were not our senses stopped, and we fast asleep? Moreover, when a man would gladly 
sleep, he will put out the candle, lest peradventure it may hinder his sleep, 
and awake him: so of late all such writers as did hold any thing with apostolic 
see, were condemned and forbidden to be read: and images, which were laymen's 
books, were cast down and broken. "The sleep hath continued with us these twenty 
years, and we were all that while without a head. For when king Henry did first 
take upon him to be head of the church, it was then no church at all. After whose 
death, king Edward, having over him governors and protectors, who ruled PAGE 597 
as they listed, could not be head of the church, but was only a shadow or sign 
of a head, and at length it came to pass, that we had no head at all, no, not 
so much as our two archbishops. For on the one side, the queen being a woman could 
not be head of the church; and on the other side, our two archbishops were both 
convicted of one crime, and so deposed. Thus while we desired to have a supreme 
head among us, it came to pass that we had no head at all. When the tumult was 
in the north, in the time of king Henry VIII., I am sure the king was determined 
to have given over the supremacy again to the pope: but the hour was not then 
come, and therefore it went not forward, lest some would have said that he did 
it for fear. "After this, Mr. Knevet and I were sent ambassadors unto the emperor, 
to desire him that he would be a means between the pope's holiness and the king, 
to bring the king to the obedience of the see of Rome, but the time was not yet 
come: for it might then have been said, that it had been done for a civil policy. 
Again, in the beginning of king Edwards's reign the matter was moved, but the 
time was not yet: for it would have been said, that the king being but a child, 
had been bought and sold. Neither in the beginning of the queen's reign was the 
hour come: for it would have been said, that it was done in a time of weakness. 
Likewise when the king first came, if it had been done, they might have said it 
had been done by force and violence. But now, even now, the hour is come, when 
nothing can be objected, but that it is the mere mercy and providence of God. 
Now hath the pope's holiness sent unto us this most reverend father, cardinal 
Pole, an ambassador from his side. What to do? not to revenge the injuries done 
by us against his holiness, but to give his benediction to those that defamed 
and persecuted him. "And that we may be the more meet to receive the said benediction, 
I shall desire you that we may always acknowledge ourselves offenders against 
his holiness; I do not exclude myself from the number. I will 'weep with them 
that weep, and rejoice with them that rejoice.' And I shall desire you, that we 
may defer the matter no longer, for now the hour is come. The king and queen's 
majesties have already restored our holy father the pope to his supremacy: and 
the three estates assembled in the parliament, representing the whole body of 
the realm, have also submitted themselves to his holiness and his successors, 
for ever; wherefore let us not any longer stay. And even as St. Paul said to the 
Corinthians, that he was their father, so may the pope say, that he is our father: 
for we received our doctrine first from Rome, therefore he may challenge us as 
his own. We have all cause to rejoice, for his holiness hath sent hither and prevented 
us, before we sought him: such care hath he for us. Therefore let us say, 'This 
is the day which the Lord hath made, we will rejoice and be glad in it.' Rejoice 
in this day, which is of the Lord's working, that such a noble birth is come; 
yea, such a holy father as my lord cardinal Pole, who can speak unto us as unto 
brethren, and not as strangers. And let us now awake, who have so long slept, 
and in our sleep have done so much mischief to the sacra- ments of Christ, denying 
the blessed sacrament of the altar, and pulling down the altar, which thing Luther 
himself would not do, but rather reproved them that did it, examining them of 
their belief in Christ." PAGE 598 The above was the sum of his sermon. He afterwards 
prayed, first for pope Julius III., with all his college of cardinals, the bishop 
of London, with the rest of that order; then for the king and queen, and the nobility 
of this realm; and lastly for the commons of the same, with the souls departed 
lying in the pains of purgatory. A striking proof this of the ascendancy of the 
priesthood in the realm, since interces- sion for that entire order preceded prayer 
for the senators, nobles, and even the sovereign and the royal family. Nay, departed 
saints must wait their turn after the existing priesthood, foreign and domestic, 
supreme, superior, and subordinate, have been blessed with the intercessions of 
the congregation. This ended, the time being late, they began in St. Paul's to 
ring their evening song, whereby the preacher could not be well heard, which caused 
him to make an end of his sermon. About this time a messenger was sent from the 
parliament to the pope, to desire him to confirm and establish the sale of abbey 
and chauntry lands, for the lords and the parliament would grant nothing in the 
pope's behalf, before their purchases were fully confirmed. Meanwhile the whole 
convocation, both bishops and others, were sent for to Lambeth to the cardinal, 
who forgave them all their perjurations, schismas, and heresies, and they all 
there kneeled down, and received his absolution; and after an exhortation and 
gratulation for their conversion to the catholic church made by the cardinal, 
they departed. The new year, 1555, commenced with several arrests of protestants 
assembled for devotion. About thirty men and women of the city, with Mr. Rose, 
their minister, were taken as they were in a house in Bow church yard, celebrating 
the communion, and were the same night all committed to prison. Two days after 
Mr. Rose was brought before the bishop of Winchester, the lord chancellord, and 
the same day committed to the Tower, after some communication between the bishop 
and him. It appears that a reference to the queen in his prayers was reported 
against him. He was charged with saying, and some of his congregation with prepeating, 
these words - "God turn the heart of queen Mary from idolatry, or else shorten 
her days." There is reason to believe that the alternative of shortening her days 
was added by the accusers. The former petition however was enough to endanger 
their liberty and their lives. It was construed treason against her majesty. At 
the apprehending of Mr. Rose and his companions, word was brought thereof to bishop 
Hooper, being then in the Fleet; whereupon the bishop sent a letter of consola- 
tion to the said prisoners; enjoining them not to fear their adver- saries, though 
he acknowledged the papist's church was more bloody and tyrannical, than ever 
was the sword of the heathens. On Tuesday, the 8th of January, nineteen of the 
lower house of the parliament, with the speaker, came to Whitehall to the king, 
and offered him the government of the realm and of the issue, if the queen should 
fail, which was confirmed by act of parliament within ten days after. On the 16th 
of the same month, the parliament was clean dissolved; and on the 18th all the 
council went unto the Tower, and there the same day discharged and set at liberty 
all the prisoners, or most part of them, among whom were the late duke of Northumberland's 
sons, Ambrose, Robert, PAGE 599 and Henry, Sir Andrew Dudley, Sir John Rogers, 
Sir James Crofts, Sir Nicholas Throgmorton, Sir Nicholas Arnold, Sir George Harper, 
Sir Edward Warner, Sir William Sentlow, Sir Gawen Carew, Mr. Gibbes, Cuthbert 
Vaughan, with many others. On January 22nd, all the preachers who were in prison, 
were called before the bishop Winchester, and certain others, at his house in 
St. Mary Overy's. Being asked whether they would convert, and enjoy the queen's 
pardon, or else stand to that they had taught; they all answered, that they would 
stand to that they had taught: they were then committed to straiter prison than 
before, with charge that none should speak with them: of whom, one James George, 
died in prison, being there in bonds for religion and righteousness' sake, and 
as he was exempted burial in the popish church yard, was buried in the fields. 
Cardinal Pole by no means sanctioned severe measures, for when the bishops, with 
the rest of the convocation house, were before the cardin- al at Lambeth, he desired 
them to repair every man where his cure and charge lay, exhorting them to treat 
their flock with all mildness, and to endeavour to win the people rather by gentleness, 
than by extremity and rigour, and so let them depart. Some complied; but a large 
portion remained in London further to excite the people of the metropolis in favour 
of popery. On the anniversary of St. Paul, then a high day in the city, there 
was a general and solemn procession through London, to give God thanks for their 
conversion to the catholic church. To set out their glorious pomp there were fourscore 
and ten crosses, one hundred and sixty priests and clerks, who had every one of 
them copes upon their backs, singing loudly. There followed also, for the better 
estimation of the sight, eight bishops; and last of all came Bonner, bishop of 
London, carrying a splendid box containing the host under a gorgeous canopy. There 
were also present the mayor, and aldermen, and all the livery of every occupation. 
Moreover the king also himself, and the cardinal, came to St. Paul's church the 
same day. As the king was entering the church, at the steps going up to the choir, 
all the gentle- men that of late were set at liberty out of the Tower, kneeled 
before him and offered unto him themselves and their services. The procession 
continued till sun set, and after the procession there was commandment given to 
make bonfires at night. Whereupon did rise among the people a doubtful talk why 
all this was done: some saying it was that the queen being likely to have a son; 
while others thought that it was for joy that the realm was joined again to the 
see of Rome. It would appear that Gardiner and his abettors obtained considerable 
influence over the milder views of Pole, so as to induce him to sanction their 
bitter proceedings against some of the more distinguished and devoted protestants 
of the day: for, on Jan. 28, the bishops had commis- sion from the cardinal to 
sit upon, and order, according to the laws, all such preachers and heretics as 
were in prison; and according to this commission, the same day the bishop of Winchester, 
and the other bishops, with certain of the council, sat at St. Mary Overy's church, 
and called before them bishop Hooper, Mr. Rogers, and Mr. Cardmaker, who were 
brought thither by the sheriffs; from whence, after communication, PAGE 600 they 
were committed to prison till the next day, but Cardmaker submitted himself. The 
next day Hooper, Rogers, Taylor, and Bradford, were brought before them, and sentence 
of excommunication and judgment ecclesiastical was pronounced upon bishop Hooper 
and Mr. Rogers, by the bishop of Winchester, who sat as judge in Caiaphas's seat, 
and drove them out of the church, according to their law and order. Dr. Taylor 
and Bradford were recommitted to prison. On the day following Dr. Taylor, Dr. 
Crome, Mr. Bradford, Mr. Saunders, and Dr. Farrar, some time bishop of St. David's, 
were before the bishops. Dr. Taylor, Saunders, and Bradford, were excommunicated; 
and sentence being pronounced upon them, they were committed to the sheriffs. 
Crome desired two months respite, which was granted him: and Farrar was again 
committed to prison till another time. All these men shewed themselves to be learned, 
as indeed they were: but what availeth either learning, reason, or truth itself, 
where arbitrary will alone beareth rule? After the examination and condemnation 
of these good men and preachers, commissions and inquisitors were sent abroad 
into all parts of the realm: by reason whereof a great number of most godly and 
true chris- tians, expecially of Kent, Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk, were apprehend- 
ed, brought up to London, cast into prison, and most of them afterwards either 
consumed cruelly by fire, or else through evil handling died in prisons, and were 
buried on the dunghills or in the fields. The parliament being dissolved, the 
first thing taken into consideration was the way to proceed against the heretics. 
Cardinal Pole had been suspected to bear some favour to them, but he took great 
care to avoid all occasions of being any more blamed for that; and indeed he lived 
in that distrust of all the English, that he opened his thoughts to very few: 
his chief confidents were two Italians who came over with him, Priuli and Ormaneto. 
Secretary Cecil, who in matters of religion complied with the times, was observed 
to have more of his favour than any other Englishman. Pole was an enemy to all 
severe proceedings; he had observed that cruelty rather inflamed than cured the 
distemper of heresy; he thought the better and surer way was to begin and effectual 
reformation of the manners of the clergy, since it was the scandal given by their 
ill conduct ignorance, that was the chief cause of the growth of heresy: so he 
concluded, that if a primitive discipline should be revived, the nation might 
in time be gained by gentle methods. Gardiner, on the other hand, being of an 
abject and cruel temper himself, thought the strict execution of the laws against 
the Lollards was that to which they ought chiefly to trust: if the preachers were 
made public examples, he concluded the people would be easily reclaimed: for he 
pretended that it was visible, if King Henry had executed the act of the six articles 
vigorously, all would have submitted. He confessed a reformation of the clergy 
was a good thing, but all times could not bear it. If they should proceed severely 
against scandalous churchmen, the heretics would take advantage that to deframe 
the church the more, and raise a clamour against all clergymen. The queen was 
for joining both these counsels together, and intended to proceed at the same 
time both against scandalous churchmen and incorrigible protestants. BOOK XII. 
Containing a further account of the murdering of God's saints, with the processes 
and names of such good martyrs as in this time of Queen Mary where put to death. 
SECTION I. Life and martyrdom of John Rogers and Laurence Saunders. On the 4th 
of February, 1555, suffered the constant martyr of God, master John Rogers, concerning 
whose life, examinations, and sufferings, the following particulars are set forth. 
John Rogers, vicar of St. Sepulchre, and reader at St. Paul's received his education 
in the university of Cambridge, and at length was chosen chaplain to the English 
factory at Antwerp. There he became acquainted with Mr. Tindall, whom he assisted 
in his translation of the New Testa- ment, and with Miles Coverdale, who, with 
several other protestants, had been driven from England on account of the five 
articles, in the latter end of the reign of Henry VIII. By conversing with these 
undaunted and pious servants of God, Mr. Rogers became learned in the scriptures, 
and finding, according to these sacred oracles, that matrimony was honour- able 
to all, he entered into that state, and went with his wife to Wittenburg, in Saxony, 
where, through indefatigable study and applica- tion, he in a short time attained 
such a knowledge of the Dutch language as to be capable of taking charge of a 
christian congregation in that part of Europe. After abandoning his popish superstitions, 
this aged minister served his cure faithfully and diligently for many years, until 
it pleased God to dispel the mists of papal darkness from his native country and 
restore the glorious light of the pure gospel of Christ, by the introduction of 
his chosen servant Edward VI. to the English throne. Mr. Rogers then complied 
with a request to leave his living in Saxony, and come into England to preach 
the gospel, without any previous condi- tion, appointment, or establishment whatever: 
and having laboured in the vineyard of his Master for a time with great success, 
Dr. Ridley, then bishop of London, gave him a prebend in his cathedral church 
of St. Paul's: he was afterwards chosen by the dean and chapter one of the divinity 
lecturers in that church. There he continued till queen Mary, PAGE 602 soon after 
her accession, banished the true religion, and restored the superstition and idolatry 
of the church of Rome, with all the horried cruelties of blood-thirsty Antichrist. 
When Mary was in the Tower of London, imbibing Gardiner's pernicious counsels, 
Mr. Rogers preached at Paul's Cross, confirming those doc- trines which he and 
others had taught in king Edward's days, and exhort- ing the people, with peculiar 
energy, to continue stedfast in the same, and to beware of the false tenets that 
were about to be introduced. For this sermon the preacher was summoned before 
the council, then filled with popish and bloody bishops; before whom he pleaded 
his own cause, in so pious and bold, yet prudent a manner, as to obviate their 
displeasure for that time, and was accordingly dismissed. But after Mary's proclama- 
tion to prohibit the doctrines of the reformed religion, Mr. Rogers, for a contempt 
of the same, was again summoned before a council of bishops, who, after having 
debated upon the nature of his offence, ordered him to keep close prisoner in 
his own house. There he remained a considerable time, till at the instigation 
of the sanguinary Bonner, bishop of London, he was removed to Newgate, and placed 
among common felons. What passed between him and the adversaries of Christ, during 
the time of his imprisonment, is not certainly known; but his examinations he 
left in his own hand writing; the principal parts of which are here given. The 
examination and answer of John Rogers, made to the lord chancellor Gardiner, and 
to the rest of the council, Jan. 22nd, 1555:- First, the lord chancellor said 
unto me thus: "Sir, you have heard the state of the realm in which it standeth 
now." Rogers. No, my lord, I have been kept in close prison; and except there 
have been some general thing said at the table, when I was at dinner or supper, 
I heard nothing; and there have I heard nothing whereupon any special thing might 
be grounded. Then said the lord chancellor mockingly, "General things, general 
things! Ye have heard of my lord cardinal's coming, and that the parlia- ment 
hath received his blessing, not one resisting it, but one man which did speak 
against it. Such an unity, and such a miracle, hath not been seen. And all they, 
of which there are eight score in one house, have with one assent received pardon 
of their offences, for the schism that we have had in England, in refusing the 
holy father of Rome to be head of the catholic church. How say you? are you content 
to unite yourself to the faith of the catholic church with us, in the state in 
which it is now in England? will you do that?" Rog. The catholic church I never 
did nor will dissent from. Gar. Nay, but I speak of the state of the catholic 
church, in that wise in which we stand now in England, having received the pope 
to be supreme head. Rog. I know no other head but Christ of his catholic church, 
neither will I acknowledge the bishop of Rome to have any more authority than 
any other bishop hath by the word of God, and by the doctrines of the old and 
pure catholic church, four hundred years after Christ. Gar. Why didst thou then 
acknowledge king Henry VIII. to be supreme head of the church, if Christ be the 
only head? PAGE 603 Rog. I never granted him to have any supremacy in spiritual 
things, as are the forgiveness of sins, giving to the Holy Ghost, authority to 
be a judge above the word of God. Gar. Yea, if thou hadst said so in his days, 
thou hadst not been alive now. What sayest thou? make us a direct answer whether 
thou wilt be one of this catholic church or not, with us in that state in which 
we are now? Rog. My lord, without fail I cannot believe, that ye yourselves think 
in your hearts that he is supreme head in forgiving of sins, seeing you and all 
the bishops of the realm have now twenty years long preached, and some of you 
also written to the contrary, and the parliamanet hath so long ago condescended 
unto it. Gar. Tush! that parliament was with great cruelty constrained to abolish 
and put way the supremacy from the bishop of Rome. Rog. With cruelty? why then 
I perceive that you take a wrong way with cruelty to persuade men's consciences, 
For it should appear by your doings now, that the cruelty then used hath not persuaded 
your con- sciences. How would you then have our consciences persuaded with cruelty? 
Gar. I talk to thee of no cruelty, but that they were so often and so cruelly 
called upon in that parliament, to let the act go forward; yea, and even with 
force driven thereunto, whereas in this parliament it was so uniformly received. 
Rog. I will first see it proved by the Scripture. Let me have pen, ink, and books, 
etc., and I shall take upon me more plainly to set out the matter, so that the 
contrary shall be proved to be true; and let any man that will, confer with me 
by writing. Gar. Nay, that shall not be permitted thee. Here are two things, mercy 
and justice: if thou refuse the queen's mercy now, then shalt thou have justice 
ministered unto thee. Rog. I never offended, nor was disobedient unto her grace, 
and yet I will not refuse her mercy. But if this shall be denied me to confer 
by writing and to try out the truth, then it is not well, but too far out of the 
way. Gar. If thou wilt not receive the bishop of Rome to be supreme head of the 
catholic church, then thou shalt never have her mercy, thou mayest be sure. If 
thou wilt enter into one church with us, tell us that; or else thou shalt never 
have so much proffered thee again as thou hast now. Rog. I will find it first 
in the scripture, and see it tried hereby, before I receive him to be supreme 
head. I find not the bishop of Rome in the creed. For the word catholic there 
signifieth not the Romish church: it signifieth the consent of all true teaching 
churches of all times and all ages. But how should the bishop of Rome's church 
be one of them, which teacheth so many doctrines that are plainly and directly 
against the word of God? Can that bishop be the true head of the catholic church, 
that doth so? That is not possible. Gar. Shew me one of them - one! let me hear 
one. Rog. The bishop of Rome, and his church, say, read, and sing, all that they 
do in their congregations, in Latin, which is directly and plainly against 1 Cor. 
xiv. To speak with tongues is to speak with a strange tongue, as Latin or Greek, 
etc.; and so to speak, is not to speak unto men, but to God. But ye speak in Latin, 
which is a strange tongue; wherefore ye speak not unto men, but unto yourselves 
and God only. PAGE 604 I was willing to have declared how and after what sort 
these two texts do agree; as, to wit, "to speak not to man, but unto God," and 
"to speak into the wind;" and so to have gone forward with the proof of my matter 
begun, but here arose a noise and a confusion. And here also I would have declared 
how they ought to proceed in these days, and so have come again to my purpose, 
but it was impossible; for one asked one thing, another said another; so that 
I was fain to hold my peace. And even when I would take hold on my proof, the 
lord chancellor bade to prison with me again. Then sir Richard Southwell said 
to me, "Thou wilt not burn in this gear when it cometh to the purpose, I know 
well that." To whom I replied, "Sir, I cannot tell, but I trust in my Lord God, 
yes;" lifting up mine eyes unto heaven. Then my lord of Ely told me much of the 
queen's pleasure and meaning, saying that she took them that would not receive 
the bishop of Rome's supremacy to be unworthy to have her mercy, etc. I said I 
would not refuse her mercy, and yet I never offended her in all my life: and that 
I besought her grace, and all their honours, to be good to me, reserving my conscience. 
"A married priest, and have not offended the law!" cried they. I said I had not 
broken the queen's law, nor yet any point of the law of the realm therein; for 
I married where it was lawful. I married in Dutchland. And if you had not here 
in England made an open law that priests might have had wives, I would never have 
come home again; for I brought a wife and eight children with me: which ye might 
be sure I would not have done if the laws of the realm had not permitted it before. 
You say to me that there was never a catholic man or country who ever yet granted 
that a priest might have a wife. But I say that the catholic church never denied 
marriage to priests, nor yet to any other man." On giving this answer, Rogers 
was about to leave the chamber, the sergeant holding him by the arm ready to conduct 
him back to confine- ment. At his departure, the bishop of Worcester, who had 
before inter- posed with some trifling questions, taunted him with ignorance of 
what and where the true catholic church was a taunt which might with much more 
justice have been addressed to him and his coadjutors in this persecuting course. 
A second examination of Mr. Rogers soon after took place, most of which is here 
given in his own words."Being asked again by the lord chancellor what I thought 
concerning the blessed sacrament: whether I believed it to be the very body and 
blood of our Saviour Christ, that was born of the Virgin Mary, and hanged on the 
cross, really and substantially? I answered, 'I have often told you that it was 
a matter in which I was no meddler, and therefore suspected of my brethren to 
be of a contrary opinion. Notwithstanding, even as the most part of your doctrine 
in other points is false, and the defence thereof only by force and cruel- ty; 
so in this matter I think it to be as false as the rest. For I cannot understand 
the words really and substantially, to signify other- wise than corporeally: but 
corporeally Christ is only in heaven, and so cannot Christ be so also in your 
sacrament. My lord you have dealt with me most cruelly, for you have put me in 
prison without law, and kept me there now almost a year and a half: for I was 
almost half a year in my house, where I was obedient to you, God knoweth, and 
spoke with no man. PAGE 605 And now have I been a full year in Newgate, at great 
costs and charges, having a wife and ten children to provide for, and have not 
received a penny from my livings which was against the law.' To this Gardiner 
answered that Dr. Rdiley, who had given them me, was a usurper, and therefore 
I was the unjust possessor of them. I then asked, 'Was the king then an usurper, 
who gave Dr. Rdiley the bishopic?' To which the chancellor replied - Yes! Then 
he began to set out the wrongs that king Edward had done to the bishop of London, 
and to himself also. 'But yet do I misuse my terms' - he confessed -' to call 
the king usurper.' "I asked him wherefore he put me in prison. He said, because 
I preached against the queen. I answered that it was not true; and I would be 
bound to prove it, and to stand to the trial of the law, that no man should be 
able to disprove me, and thereupon would set my life. I preached, I confessed, 
a sermon at the Cross, after the queen came to the Tower; but there was nothing 
said against the queen. He then charged me with having read lectures after, against 
the commandment of the council. To this I answered that I never did so, and said, 
let that be proved, and let me die for it. "I might and would have added, if I 
had been suffered to speak, that it had been time enough to take away men's livings, 
and then to have imprisoned them after that they had offended the laws, for they 
are good citizens that break not laws, and worthy of praise, and not of punish- 
ment. But their purpose was to keep men in prison, until they may catch them in 
their laws, and so kill them. I might have declared that I most humbly desired 
to be set at liberty, sending my wife with a supplica- tion, while I was yet in 
my house. "I wrote two petitions to him out of Newgate, and sent my wife many 
times to him. Master Gosnold also, who is now departed in the Lord, laboured for 
me, and so did divers others take pains in the matter. These things declare my 
lord chancellor's antichristian charity, which is, that he hath and doth seek 
my blood, and the destruction of my wife and ten children. "This is a short sum 
of the words which were spoken on the 28th of January, in the afternoon, after 
that master Hooper had been the first, and master Cardmaker the second, in examination 
before me. The Lord grant us grace to stand together, fighting lawfully in his 
cause, till we be smitten down together, if the Lord's will be so to permit it. 
Then the clock being, as I guessed, about four, the lord chancellor said that 
he and the church must yet use charity with me, and gave me respite till tomorrow, 
to see whether I would return to the catholic church again, and repent, and they 
would receive me to mercy. I said that I was never out of the true catholic church, 
nor would be: but into his church would I, by the God's grace, never come. 'Well,' 
quoth he, 'is our church false and antichristian?' I answered, 'Yea.' 'And what 
is the doctrine of the sacrament?' 'False,' quoth I; and cast my hands abroad. 
'Come again to-morrow,' said the chancellor, 'between nine and ten.' 'I am ready 
to come again whensoever you call,' quoth I. And thus was I brought up by the 
sheriffs to the Compter in Southwark, master Hooper going before me, and a great 
multitude of people being present, so that we had much to do to go in the streets." 
PAGE 606 On the morrow the third examinaton went on. Mr. Rogers writes - "The 
next day, January 29th, we were sent for in the morning about nine o'clock, and 
by the sheriff's brought from the compter in Southwark to St. Mary Overy's. When 
Mr. Hooper was condemend, as I understood after- wards, then sent they for me. 
My lord chancellor Gardiner said - 'Rogers, here thou wast yesterday, and we gave 
thee libery to rememeber thyself last night, whether thou wouldst come into the 
holy catholic church of Christ again, or not. Tell us what thou hast determined, 
whether thou wilt be repentant and sorry, and wilt thou return again and take 
mercy?" 'My lord,' quoth I, 'I have remembered myself right well, what you yesterday 
said to me, and desire you to give me leave to declare my mind, what I have to 
say thereunto; and that done I shall answer to your demanded question. When I 
yesterday desired that I might be suffered by the scripture and authority of the 
first, best, and purest church, to defend my doctrine by writing, all the doctrine 
that ever I had preached, you answered, that it might not, and ought not to be 
granted me, for I was a private person; and that the parliament was above the 
authority of all private persons, and therefore the sentence thereof might not 
be found faulty and useless by me, being but a private person. Yes, my lord, I 
am able to show examples, that one man hath come into a general council, and after 
the whole had determined and agreed upon an act or article, some one man coming 
in afterwards, hath by the word of God proved so clearly that the council erred 
in decreeding the said article, that he caused the whole council to change and 
alter their act or article before determined. And of these examples I am able 
to shew two. I can also shew the authority of St. Augustine; that when he disputed 
with a heretic, he would neither himself, nor yet have the heretic to lean on 
the determination of two former councils, of which the one was made for him, and 
the other for the heretic that disputed against him; but he said that he would 
have the scriptures to be their judge, which were common for them both, and not 
peculiar to either of them.' "I could also shew the authority of a learned lawyer. 
Panormitanus, who saith, That unto a simple layman that bringeth the word of God 
with him, there ought more credit to be given, than to a whole council gathered 
together. By these things will I prove that I ought not to be denied to speak 
my mind, and to be heard against a whole parliament, bringing the word of God 
for me, and the authority of the whole church 400 years after Christ, albeit that 
every man in the parliament had willingly and without respect of fear and favour 
agreed thereunto, which thing I doubt not a little of; especially seeing the like 
had been permitted in the old church, even in general councils; yea, and that 
in one of the chief- est councils, that ever was, unto which neither any acts 
of this parlia- ment, not yet any of the late general councils of the bishops 
of Rome ought to be compared. For if Henry VIII. were alive, and should call a 
parliament, and begin to determine a thing, then would ye all say Amen: yea, and 
it please your grace, it is meet that it be so enacted. 'Here my lord chancellor 
would suffer me to speak no more; but bade me sit down, mockingly, saying, That 
I was sent for to be instructed of PAGE 607 them, and yet I would take upon me 
to be their instructor. To this I said - 'My lord, I stand and sit not: shall 
I not be suffered to speak for my life?' 'Shall we suffer thee to tell a tale, 
and prate?' said he. And with that he stood up, and began to face me, after his 
old arrogant proud fashion, for he perceived that I was in a way to have touched 
him somewhat, which he thought to hinder by dashing me out of my tale, and so 
he did: but he had much the like communication with me as he had the day before, 
taunt upon taunt, and check upon check. For in that case, being God's cause, I 
told him he should not make me afraid to speak. "The lord chancellor on this exclaimed, 
'See what a spirit this fellow hath, finding fault at mine accustomed earnestness, 
and hearty manner of speaking!' On which I said - I have a true spirit, agreeing 
to, and obeying the word of God; and would further have said, that I was never 
the worse, but the better, to be earnest in a just and true cause, and in my master 
Christ's matters: but I could not be heard. At length he proceeded towards his 
excommunication and condemnation, after that I had told him, that his church of 
Rome was the church of Antichrist, meaning the false doctrine and tyrannical laws, 
with the maintenance thereof by cruel persecutions used by the bishops of the 
said church. To be brief, he read my condemnation before me, particularly mentioning 
therein but two articles: first, that I affirmed the Roman catholic church to 
be the church of Antichrist: and then that I denied the reality of their sacra- 
ment. He caused me to be degraded and condemned, and put into the hands of the 
laity, and then he gave me over into the sheriff's hands, which were much better 
than his." "After this sentence was read, bishop Gardiner sent Mr. Hooper and 
me to the Clink, there to remain till night; when it was dark, they carried us, 
Mr. Hooper going before with one sheriff, and I coming after with the other, with 
bills and weapons out of the Clink, and led us through the bishop's house, and 
St. Mary Overy's church yard, and so into South- wark, hence over the bridge in 
procession to Newgate, through the city. When the bishop had read the condemnation, 
I petitioned to see and speak to my wife, who was a stranger, and had ten children; 
but he said she was not my wife. I declared she was, for we had been married eighteen 
years. He still denied it, said I maintained open whoredom, and that I should 
not see her!" While this excellent writer as well as patient sufferer remained 
in prison, he wrote his sentiments in a bold and manly strain, upon the evils 
and abuses brought into the country, and held out to its rulers, the vengeance 
that had fallen, in different ages, upon the enemies of truth. The following is 
a sample - "I am an Englishman born, and, God knoweth, do naturally wish well 
to my country. And I have often proved that the things, which I have much feared 
should come to pass have indeed followed. I pray God I may fail of my guessing 
in this behalf. And as touching your rejoicing, as though God had set you aloft 
to punish us by miracle, and to minister justice, if we will not receive your 
holy father's mercy, and thereby do declare your church to be true, and ours false; 
to that I answer thus: God's works are wonderful, and are not to be comprehended 
and perceived by man's wisdom nor by the wit PAGE 608 of the most wise and prudent. 
- Our enemies sometimes cry out that we liken ourselves to prophets and apostles; 
but I answer the charge, that we make not ourselves like unto them, in the singular 
virtues and gifts of God given unto them; as of doing miracles, and of many other 
things. The similitude and likeness of them and us consisteth not in all things, 
but only in this, that is, that we be like them in doctrine, and in the suffering 
of persecution and infamy for the same. "The apostles were beaten for their boldness, 
and they rejoiced that they suffered for Christ's cause. Ye have also provided 
rods for us, and bloody whips: yet when ye have done that which God's hand and 
counsel hath determined that ye shall do, be it life or death, I trust that God 
will so assist us by his Holy Spirit and grace, that we shall patiently suffer 
it, and praise God for it: and whatsoever become of me and oth- ers, which now 
suffer for speaking and professing the truth, yet be ye sure, that God's word 
will prevail and have the upper hand, when your bloody laws and wicked decrees, 
for want of sure foundation, shall fall in the dust. - Of what force, I pray you, 
may a man think these parlia- ments to be, which scantily can stand a year in 
strength? or what credit is to be given to these law-makers, who are not ashamed 
to establish contrary laws, and to condemn that for evil which before they affirmed 
and decreed to be good? Truly ye are so ready, contrary to all right, to change 
and turn for the pleasure of man, that at length I fear God will use you like 
changelings, and both turn you forth of his kingdom, and out of your own country." 
After that John Rogers had been long and straitly imprisoned, lodged in Newgate 
amongst thieves, often examined, very uncharitably treated, and at length unjustly 
and most cruelly condemned by Gardiner, he was, on Feb. 4th, warned suddenly by 
the keeper's wife of Newgate to prepare himself for the fire; who being found 
asleep was with great difficulty awoke. At length being roused, he was led down 
first to Bonner to be degraded; which done, he craved of him one petition - that 
he might speak a few words with his wife before his burning. But that was denied 
him. "Then," said he, "you declare your charity, what it is." Now when the time 
came that he should be brought out of Newgate to Smithfield, the sheriff came 
to him, and asked if he would revoke his abominable doctrines. To whom Mr. Rogers 
said, "That which I have preached I will seal with my blood!" "Then," said the 
sheriff, "thou art a heretic." "That shall be known," said Rogers, "at the day 
of judgment." "Well," quoth the sheriff, "I will never pray for thee." "But I 
will pray for you," replied Rogers; and so was brought the same day, which was 
Monday the 4th of February, towards Smithfield, saying the psalm "Miserere" by 
the way, all the people rejoicing at his constancy, with great praises and thanks 
to God for the same. And there, in the presence of Rochester, comptroller of the 
queen's household, sir Richard Southwell, both the sheriffs, and many people, 
the fire was put unto him; and when it had taken hold both upon his legs and shoulders, 
he, as one feeling no smart, washed his hands in the flame, as though it had been 
in cold water. After lifting up his hands unto heaven, not removing the same until 
such time as the devouring fire had consumed PAGE 609 them, most mildly this happy 
martyr yielded up his spirit into the hands of his heavenly Father. A little before 
his burning, his pardon was brought if he would have recanted; but he utterly 
refused it. He was the first of all the blessed martyrs that suffered in the reign 
of queen Mary; those which had previously suffered having suffered as traitors. 
His wife and children met him by the way as he went towards Smithfield. This sorrowful 
sight of his own flesh and blood could nothing move him; but he constantly and 
cheerfully took his death with wonderful patience, in defence of the gospel of 
Christ. Next to this faithful and holy man followed the Rev. Laurence Saunders, 
martyred at Coventry the next month. He was a man of good parentage. He was placed 
early at Eton school, whence, at a proper age, he was chosen to go to the King's 
college, in Cambridge, where he continued a scholar three years, and profited 
in knowledge and learning very much for that time; shortly after he quitted the 
university, and went to his parents, upon whose advice he consented to become 
a merchant, for that his mother, who was a gentlewoman of good estimation, being 
left a widow, and having a good portion for him among his other brethren, thought 
to set him in the way of wealth; and so he, coming up to London, was bound apprentice 
to Sir William Chester, who afterwards chanced to be sheriff of London the same 
year that Saunders was burnt at Coventry. It happened that the master, being a 
good man, and hearing Saunders in his secret prayers inwardly to mourn by himself, 
called him unto him, to know the cause of his solitariness and lamentations: when, 
learning him not to fancy that kind of life, and perceiving also his whole purpose 
to be bent to the study of books, and spiritual contemplation, like a good and 
sensible man, wrote to his friends, and giving him his indentures, set him free. 
Thus Mr. Saunders being ravished with the love of learn- ing, and especially with 
the reading of God's word, tarried not long in the traffic of merchandize, but 
shortly returned to Cambridge again to his study, where he began to add to the 
knowledge of the Latin, the study of the Greek tongue, in which he profited very 
much in a little time; presently after, he joined the study of the Hebrew. Then 
he gave himself wholly to the study of the holy scriptures, to furnish himself 
for the office of a preacher. In the beginning of king Edward's reign, when true 
religion was intro- duced, he began to preach, and was so liked by them who then 
had author- ity, that they had appointed him to read a divinity lecture in the 
college of Fotheringhay, where, by doctrine and life, he edified the pious, drew 
many ignorant to the true knowledge of God, and stopped the mouths of adversaries. 
He married about that time, and in the connubial state led a life unblameable 
before all men. The college of Fotheringhay being dissolved, he was appointed 
a reader in the minster at Litchfield: where he so behaved himself in teaching 
and living, that his very adver- saries bore testimony as well of his learning 
as of his piety. After a certain space, he departed from Litchfield to a benefice 
in Leices- tershire, called Churchlangton, where he resided and taught diligently, 
and kept a liberal house. From thence he was orderly called to take a benefice 
in the city of London, called Allhallows, in Breadstreet. Then he was inclined 
to resign his cure in the country; and after he had taken possession of his benefice 
in London, he departed into the coun- try, clearly to discharge himself thereof. 
PAGE 610 On Sunday, October 15th, in the forenoon, he delivered a sermon in his 
parish, treating on that place which St. Paul writeth to the Cor- inthians: "I 
have coupled you to one man, that ye should make yourselves chaste virgins unto 
Christ. But I fear lest it come to pass, that as the serpent beguiled Eve, even 
so your wits should be corrupt from the singleness which ye had towards Christ." 
He recited the sum of that true christian doctrine, through which they were coupled 
to Christ, to receive of him free justification through faith in his blood. The 
papis- tical doctrine he compared to the serpent's deceiving: and lest they should 
be deceived by it, he made a contrast between the voice of God and the voice of 
the popish serpent; descending to more particular declaration therefore, as it 
were to let them plainly see the difference that is between the order of the church 
service, set forth by king Edward in the English tongue, and comparing it with 
the popish service then used in the Latin tongue. The first, he said, was good, 
because it was according to the word of God, and the order of the primitive church. 
The other, he said, was evil, and though in that evil be intermingled some good 
Latin words, yet was it but as a little honey or milk mingled with a great deal 
of poison to make them drink up all. In the afternoon he was ready in his church 
to have given another exhortation to his people. But the bishop of London interrupted 
him, by sending an officer for him. This officer charged him upon pain of contumacy 
forthwith to come to the bishop. And thus was Saunders brought before Bonner, 
who laid to his charge treason for breaking the queen's proclamation, and heresy 
and sedition for his sermon. After much talk, the bishop willed him to write what 
he believed of transubstantiation. Saunders did so; and this writing the bishop 
kept for his purpose, as shall appear hereafter. Bonner sent him to the lord chancellor, 
who, being unable to resist his arguments, cried, "Carry away this frenzy-fool 
to prison." Here Saunders continued a whole year and three months; in which space 
he sent divers letters to divers men: as one to Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer; 
another to his wife, and also to others. But of his cause and estate thou shalt 
now see what Laurence Saunders himself did write to the bishop of Winchester, 
as an answer to certain things wherewith he had before charged him:- "Touching 
the cause of my imprisonment, I doubt whether I have broken any law or proclamation. 
In my doctrine I did not, forasmuch as at that time it was permitted by the proclamation 
to use, according to our consciences, such service as was then established. My 
doctrine was then agreeable unto my conscience and the same service then used. 
The act which I did (meaning his public teaching of God's word in his own parish, 
called Allhallows in Bread-street, in the city of London) was such as being indifferently 
weighed, sounded to no breaking of the proclamation, or at least no wilful breaking 
of it, forasmuch as I caused no bell to be rung, neither occupied I any place 
in the pulpit, after the order of sermons or lectures. But be it that I did break 
the proclamation, this long time of continuance in prison may be thought to be 
more than a sufficient punishment for such a fault. PAGE 611 "Touching the charging 
of me with my religion, I say with St. Paul: 'I confess, that after the way which 
they call heresy, so worship I the God of my forefathers, believing all things 
which are written in the law and the prophets, and have hope towards God touching 
the resurrection of the dead. And herein study I to have always a clear conscience 
towards God and towards men.' So that God I call to witness, I have a conscience. 
And this my conscience is not grounded upon vain fantasy, but upon the infallible 
verity of God's word, with the witnessing of his chosen church agreeable unto 
the same. "It is an easy thing for them which take Christ for their true pastor, 
and be the very sheep of his pasture, to discern the voice of their true shepherd, 
from the voice of wolves, hirelings, and strangers: forasmuch as Christ saith, 
'My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me.' Yea, and thereby 
they shall have the gift to know the right voice of the true shepherd, and so 
to follow him, and to avoid the contrary, as he also saith, 'The sheep follow 
the shepherd, for they know his voice: a stranger they will not follow, but will 
fly from him, for they know not the voice of a stranger.' Such inward inspiration 
doth the Holy Ghost put into the children of God, being indeed taught of God, 
but otherwise unable to understand the true way of their salvation. And although 
the wolf, as Christ saith, cometh in sheep's clothing, yet by their fruits you 
shall know them. That the Romish religion is ravening and wolfish, is apparent 
in three principal points. It robbeth God of his due and only honour. It taketh 
away the true comfort of conscience, in obscuring, or rather burying, of Christ 
and his office of salvation. It spoileth God of his true worship and service in 
spirit and truth, appointed in his commandments, and driveth men unto that inconvenience, 
against which Christ with the prophet Isaiah doth speak sharply:- 'this people 
honoureth me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me; they worship me 
in vain, teaching the doctrines and precepts of men.' And in another place - 'Ye 
cast aside the commandments of God, to main- tain your own traditions.'" As a 
prisoner in Christ's cause, he resigned himself in such sort as to forbade his 
wife to sue for his delivery; and when others of his friends had by suit almost 
obtained it, he discouraged them, so they did not follow their suit, as may appear 
by the following letter to his wife:- "Grace, mercy, and peace in Christ our Lord, 
Entirely beloved wife, even as unto my own soul and body, so do I daily in my 
hearty prayer wish unto you: for I do daily, twice at least, in this sort remember 
you. And I do not doubt, dear wife, but that both I and you, as we are written 
in the book of life, so we shall together enjoy the same everlastingly, through 
the grace and mercy of God our dear Father, in his Son our Lord Jesus Christ. 
And for this present life, let us wholly appoint ourselves to the will of our 
good God to glorify him either by life or by death; and even that same merciful 
Lord make us worthy to honour him either way as pleaseth him, Amen. I am cheerful, 
I thank my God and my Christ, in whom and through whom I shall be able to fight 
a good fight, and finish a good course, and then receive the crown, which is laid 
up in store for me, and all the true soldiers of Christ. Wherefore, wife, let 
us, in the name of our God, fight lustily to overcome the flesh, the devil, and 
PAGE 612 the world. What our harness and weapons be in this kind of fight, look 
in the sixth chapter unto the Ephesians, and pray, pray, pray. I would that you 
make no suit for me in any wise. Thank you know whom, for her most sweet and comfortable 
putting me in remembrance of my journey whither I am passing. God send us all 
good speed, and a joyful meeting. I have too few such friends to further me in 
that journey, which is indeed the greatest friendship. The blessing of God be 
with you all, Amen. "A prisoner in the Lord, L. Saunders." The constancy of this 
faithful servant of Christ, even unto the end, is sufficiently manifested and 
declared by his valiant contest with those two powerful enemies, antichrist and 
death: to neither of these did he give place, and finally triumphed over both. 
When he was in confinement, an order was sent to the keeper that no person should 
speak with him; but his wife coming to the prison gate with her young child in 
her arms, the keeper, though he durst not, on account of his charge, suffer her 
to come into the prison, yet he took the infant from her, and brought him to his 
father. Mr. Saunders, seeing the child, said, that he rejoiced, more to have such 
a boy, than he should if two thousand pounds were given him. And to the standers-by, 
who praised the goodliness of the child, he said, "What man, fearing God, would 
not lose his life, rather, than by prolonging it, he should adjudge this boy to 
be a bastard? Yea, if there were no other cause, for which a man of my estate 
should lose his life, yet who would not give it, to vouch this child to be legiti- 
mate, and our marriage to be lawful and holy?" I do, good reader, recite this 
saying, not only to let thee see what be thought of priests' marriage; but chiefly 
to let all married couples learn to bear in their bosom true affections, unfeignedly 
mortified to do the natural works and offices of married couples, so long as with 
their doing they may keep Christ with a free confessing faith in a conscience 
unsoiled. And now to come to the examination of this good man: after that the 
bishops had kept him one whole year and a quarter in prison, at length they called 
him, as they did the rest of his fellows, openly to be examined. Of which first 
examination the effect and purport thus follo- weth: Praised be our gracious God 
who preserveth his from evil, and doth give them grace to avoid all such offences 
as might hinder his honour, or hurt his church. - Being convented before the queen's 
most honourable council, sundry bishops being present, the lord chancellor began 
thus to speak: Lord Chan. It is not unknown, that you have been a prisoner for 
such abominable heresies and false doctrine as have been sown by you; and now 
it is thought good that mercy be shewed to such as seek for it. Where- fore if 
now you will shew yourself conformable, and come home again, mercy is ready. We 
must say that we have fallen in manner all: but now we are risen again, and returned 
to the catholic church; you must rise with us, and come home unto it. Give us 
forthwith a direct answer. Saun. My lord, and my lords all, may it please your 
honours to give me leave to answer with deliberation. Chan. Leave off your painting 
and pride of speech: for such is the fashion of you all, to please yourselves 
in your glorious words. Answer yes, or no. PAGE 613 Saun. My lord, it is no time 
for me now to paint. And as for pride, there is no great cause why it should be 
in me; my learning I confess to be but small; and as for riches or wordly wealth, 
I have none at all. Notwithstanding, it standeth me in hand to answer your demand 
circum- spectly, considering that one of these two extreme perils is likely to 
fall upon me, namely, the losing of a good conscience or the losing of this my 
body and life. And I tell you truth, I love both life and liberty, if I could 
enjoy them without the hurt of my conscience. Chan. Conscience! you have none 
at all, but pride and arrogancy, divid- ing yourself by singularity from the church. 
Saun. The Lord is the knower of all men's consciences. And where your lordship 
layeth to my charge this dividing myself from the church, I do assure you that 
I live in the faith wherein I have been brought up since I was fourteen years 
of age; being taught that the power of the bishop of Rome is but usurped, with 
many other abuses springing thereof. Yes, this I have received even at your hands, 
as a thing agreed upon by the catholic church and public authority. Chan. But 
have you received, by consent and authority, all your heresies of the blessed 
sacrament of the altar? Saun. My lord, it is less offence to cut off an arm, hand, 
or joint of man, than to cut off the head. For the man may live though he lose 
an arm, hand, or joint; but he cannot without his head. Now you all agreed to 
cut off the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, whom now you will have to be the 
head of the church again. Bonner interposed with a single accusation, by which 
he hoped to render him at once self-confounded. Addressing the chancellor, he 
obsequiously said - "And if it please your lordship, I have this man's hand-writing 
against the blessed sacrament." Then turning scornfully to Saunders, he asked 
- "How are you able to answer that?" Saun. What I have written, that I have written, 
and further I will not accuse myself. Nothing have you to burden me withal, for 
breaking of your laws since they were in force. Chan. Well, you are obstinate, 
and refuse liberty. Saun. My lord, I may not buy liberty at such a price; but 
I beseech your honours to be means to the queen's majesty for such a pardon for 
us, that we may live and keep our consciences unclogged, and we shall live as 
most obedient subjects. Otherwise, I must say for myself, that by God's grace 
I will abide the utmost extremity that man may do against me, rather than act 
against my conscience. Chan. Ah, sirrah, you will live as you like. The Donatists 
did desire to live in singularity; but indeed they were not fit to live on earth: 
no more are you, and that you shall understand within these seven days: and therefore 
away with him. Saun. Welcome be it, whatsoever the will of God shall be, either 
life or death. And I tell you truly, I have learned to die. But I exhort you to 
beware of shedding innocent blood. Truly it will cry. The Spirit of God rest upon 
you all. Amen. PAGE 614 This examination being ended, the officers led him out 
of the place, and stayed until the rest of his fellow-prisoners were likewise 
examined, that they might have them all together to prison. Mr. Saunders, standing 
among the officers, seeing there a great multitude of people, spoke freely, warning 
them all of that which by their falling from Christ to antichrist they deserved; 
and therefore exhorting them by repentance to rise again, and to embrace Christ 
with stronger faith, to confess him to the end, in the defiance of antichrist, 
sin, death, and the devil: so should they retain the Lord's favour and blessing. 
This faithful proce- dure did not, of course, produce either a diminution of his 
adversaries' cruelty or a delay of his mortal suffering. It rather augmented the 
one and accelerated the other. Almost immediately he was delivered over to the 
secular power, and was brought by the sheriffs of London to the compter, a prisoner 
in his own parish of Bread-street; whereat he rejoiced greatly, both because he 
found there a fellow-prisoner, Mr. Cardmaker, with whom he had much christian 
and comfortable discourse; and because out of prison, as before out of a pulpit, 
he might have an opportunity of preaching to his parishioners. On the fourth day 
of February, Bonner came to the prison to degrade him: which when he had done, 
Mr. Saunders said to him, "I thank God I am none of your church." The day following 
in the morning, the sheriff of London delivered him to certain of the queen's 
guard, which were appointed to carry him to the city of Coventry, there to be 
burned. On his arrival there, a poor shoemaker, who used to serve him, came to 
him, and said, "O my good master, God strengthen and comfort you." "Good shoemaker," 
replied he, "I desire thee to pray for me, for I am the most unfit man for this 
high office that ever was appointed to it: but my gracious God and dear Father 
is able to make me strong enough." The same night he was put into the common gaol 
among other prisoners, where he slept little, but spent the night in prayer, and 
instructing others. The next day, being the 8th of February, he was led to the 
place of execution in the park, without the city, cald in an old gown and shirt, 
bare-footed, and oftentimes falling on the ground for prayer. When he was come 
nigh to the place, the officer appointed to see the execution done, said to Mr. 
Saunders, that he was one of them who marred the queen's realm with false doctrine 
and heresy, wherefore he deserved death; but yet if he would revoke his heresies, 
the queen would pardon him; if not, yonder fire was prepared for him. To whom 
Mr. Saunders answered, "It is not I, nor my fellow-preachers of God's truth, that 
have hurt the queen's realm; but it is yourself, and such as you are, who have 
always resisted God's holy word; it is you who mar the queen's realm. I hold no 
heresies, but the doctrine of God, the blessed gospel of Christ: that hold I, 
that believe I, that have I taught, and that will I never revoke." With that his 
tormentor cried, "Away with him." And away from him went Mr. Saunders, with a 
cheerful courage, towards the fire. He fell to the ground once more and prayed: 
he rose up again and took the stake to which he should be chained in his arms, 
and kissed it, saying, "Welcome the cross of Christ, welcome everlasting life:" 
and being fastened to the stake, and fire put to him, he sweetly slept in PAGE 
615 the Lord. In his life he appeared often prophetic. He had often told his friends, 
that many would suffer, if ever Mary ascended the throne. Before we take our final 
leave of him, one remarkable circumstance in reference to an earlier period of 
his course, merits attention. He was acquainted with one Dr. Pendleton, an earnest 
preacher in king Edwards reign. Meeting together in the country, they debated 
upon what they had best do in the dangerous time that Mary's accession had brought 
upon them. Saunders confessed that his spirit was ready, but he felt the flesh 
was at present too weak for much suffering. But Pendleton admon- ished him, and 
appeared all courage and forwardness to face every peril. They both came under 
the controul of circumstances to London, and there, when danger arose, Pendleton 
shrunk from the cross, and Saunders reso- lutely took it up! "Let him that thinketh 
to stand, take heed lest he fall." SECTION II. The life and martyrdom of John 
Hooper, bishop of Worchester and Gloucester. John Hooper, student and graduate 
in the university of Oxford, having made great advances in the study of the sciences, 
was stirred with a fervent desire to the love and knowledge of the scriptures. 
Advancing more and more, by God's grace, in ripeness and spiritual understanding, 
and shewing withal some sparks of his spirit, being then about the beginning of 
the six articles, in the time of king Henry VIII. fell quickly into the displeasure 
and hatred of certain doctors in Oxford, who soon discovered their enmity to him, 
till at length, by the procure- ment of Dr. Smith, he was compelled to quit the 
university. Removing from thence, he was retained in the house of Sir Thomas Arundel, 
in the capacity of steward, till Sir Thomas, having intelligence of his opin- 
ions and religion, which he in no case did favour, and yet exceedingly favouring 
the person and character of the man, found the means to send him with a message 
to the bishop of Winchester, writing his letter privily to the bishop, by conference 
of learning to do some good unto him, but in any case requiring him to send home 
his servant to him again. The bishop received him courteously; but after long 
conference with him, perceiving that neither he could do that good which he thought 
to him, nor that he would take any good at his hand, according to Arundel's request, 
sent him home again, commending his learning and wit, but yet bearing in his breast 
a secret enmity against him. Not long after this, as malice is always working 
mischief, intelligence was given to Mr. Hooper to provide for himself, for danger 
was arising against him; whereupon he left Sir Thomas Arundel's house, and borrowing 
a horse of a friend, whose life he had saved, took his journey to the sea side 
to go to France, sending back the horse again by one, who indeed did not deliver 
him to the owner. Mr. Hooper being at Paris, remained there not long, but in a 
short time returned into England again, and was retained by Mr. Sentlow, till 
he was again molested and PAGE 616 sought for: when he was compelled under the 
pretence of being captain of a ship going to Ireland, to take to the seas, and 
so escaped through France to the higher parts of Germany; where, commencing acquaintance 
with learned men, he was by them friendly and lovingly entertained, both at Basil 
and at Zurich: at the latter place in particular by Mr. Bullinger. Here he also 
married, and applied very studiously to the study of the Hebrew tongue. At length, 
when God saw it good to end the bloody persecution which arose from the six articles, 
and to give king Edward to reign over this realm, with some peace and rest unto 
the church, amongst many other English exiles who then repaired homeward, was 
Mr. Hooper, who thought it his duty to forward the cause of God in his native 
country. Coming to Mr. Bullinger, and other of his acquaintance in Zurich, to 
give them thanks for their singular kindness towards him, his kind host thus addressed 
him, "Mr. Hooper, although we are sorry to part with your company for your own 
cause, yet much greater cause have we to rejoice, both for your sake, and especially 
for the cause of Christ's true reli- gion, that you shall now return out of long 
banishment to your native country, where you may not only enjoy your own private 
liberty, but also the cause and state of Christ's church by you may fare the better, 
as we doubt not but it will. Another cause why we rejoice with you and for you, 
is this; that you shall remove not only out of exile into liberty, but leave here 
a barren, sour, and unpleasant country, rude and savage, and shall go into a land 
flowing with milk and honey, replenished with all fertility. But with this our 
rejoicing, one fear and care we have, lest you being absent, and so far distant 
from us, or else coming to such abundance of wealth and felicity, in your new 
welfare and plenty of all things, and in your flourishing honours, where you shall 
come perad- venture to be a bishop, and where you shall find so many new friends, 
you will forget us your old acquaintance and well-wishers. If however you shall 
forget and shake us off, yet this persuade yourself, that we will not forget our 
old friend. And if you will please not to forget us, then I pray you let us hear 
from you." Mr. Hooper gave Mr. Bullinger and the rest hearty thanks, for their 
singular good-will and undeserved affection, appearing not only now, but at all 
times towards him; declaring, moreover, that as the principal cause of his removing 
to his country was the matter of religion; so touching the unpleasantness and 
barrenness of that country of theirs, there was no cause therein why he could 
not find in his heart to contin- ue his life there, as soon as in any place in 
the world, and rather than his own native country, if there were nothing else 
in his conscience that moved him to change. And as to the forgetting his old friends, 
although the remembrance of a man's country naturally delights him, and he could 
not deny but God had blessed his country with many great advan- tages; yet neither 
the nature of country, nor pleasure of advantages, nor newness of friends, should 
ever induce him to the oblivion of such benefactors, to whom he was so entirely 
bound; and therefore they should be sure from time to time to hear from him But 
the last news of all I may not be able to write; "for there," said he, (taking 
Mr. Bullinger by PAGE 617 the hand) "where I shall take most pains, there shall 
you hear of me to be burned to ashes: and that shall be news which I shall not 
be able to write unto you, but you shall hear of me from other hands." Having 
thus taken his farewell of Mr. Bullinger, and his friends in Zurich, he repaired 
again into England, in the reign of Edward the Sixth; and coming to London, used 
continually to preach, most times twice, and at least once every day. In all his 
discourses, according to his accustomed manner, he corrected sin, and sharply 
inveighed against the iniquity of the world, and corrupt abuses of the church. 
Nor was his example less proper: his life was so pure and good, that no kind of 
slander could fasten any fault upon him. He was of strong body, his health whole 
and sound, his wit very poignant, his invincible patience able to sustain whatever 
adversity could inflict. He was constant of judgment, frugal of diet, spare of 
words, and still more so of time. In house-keeping very liberal, and sometimes 
more free than his living would extend unto. After he had practised himself in 
this popular preaching, he was, at length, and that not without the great profit 
of many, called to preach before the king, and soon after made bishop of Gloucester 
by his majes- ty's commands. In that office he continued two years, and behaved 
him- self so well, that his very enemies could find no fault in him, except in 
the way in which the foes of Daniel found fault with that holy proph- et - "concerning 
the law of his God." After two years he received, in connection with Gloucester, 
the bishopric of the neighbouring city of Worcester. But sinister and unlucky 
contention concerning the ordering and conse- cration of bishops, and of their 
apparel, with other such trifles, began to disturb the good beginning of this 
bishop. For notwithstanding that godly reformation of religion that arose in the 
church of England, besides other ceremonies more ambitious than profitable, or 
tending to edification, they used to wear such garments and apparel as the popish 
bishops were wont to do; first a chymere, and under that a white rochet; then 
a mathematical cap with four angles, indicative of dividing the world into four 
parts. These trifles tending more to superstition than otherwise, as he could 
never abide, so in no wise could he be persuaded to wear them. For this cause 
he made supplication to the king, most humbly desiring his highness, either to 
discharge him of the bishopric, or else to dispense with him for such ceremonial 
orders: which petition the king granted immediately, writing to the archbishop 
in his behalf. The king's letter was as follows - "Right reverend father, and 
right trusty and well beloved, we greet you will. Whereas we, by advice of our 
councils have called and chosen our right well beloved Mr. John Hooper, professor 
of divinity, to be our bishop of Gloucester, as well for his great knowledge, 
deep judgment, and long study in the scrip- tures; as also for his good discretiion, 
ready utterance, and honest life; to the intent that all our loving subjects, 
which are in his said charge and elsewhere, might by his sound and true doctrine 
learn the better their duty towards God, their obedience towards us, and love 
towards their neighbour; from consecrating of whom we understand you to PAGE 618 
stay, because he would have you omit certain rites and ceremonies offen- sive 
to his conscience, whereby ye think ye should fall under the laws - we have thought 
good, by the advice aforesaid, to despense and discharge you of all manner of 
dangers, penalties, and forfeitures, you shall be liable to run into by omitting 
any of the same. And these our letters shall be your sufficient warrant and discharge." 
The earl of Warwick seconded this request of his majesty by addressing another 
letter to the archbishop, begging that he would dispense with Mr. Hooper's being 
burthened by the oath commonly used in the consecra- tion of bishops. But these 
letters availed not: the bishops still stood earnestly in defence of the ceremonies, 
saying, it was but a small matter, and that the fault was in the abuse of the 
things, and not in the things themselves: adding, moreover, that Mr. Hooper ought 
not to be so stubborn in so light a matter, and that his wilfulness therein was 
not to be suffered. This being the case, Mr. Hooper at length agreed, that sometimes 
he should in his sermons shew himself apparelled as the other bishops were. Accordingly 
being appointed to preach before the king, he appeared in the objectionable habiliments. 
His upper garment was a long scarlet gown down to the foot, and under that a white 
linen rochet, that covered all his shoulders. Upon his head he had a geomet- rical, 
that is, a four-squared cap. But this private contumely and reproach, in respect 
of the public profit of the church, he suffered patiently. Then also very soon 
these differences vanished amidst the rage of persecution; and the trifling shades 
of opinion were lost in their unanimity of essential truths; so that, while they 
were in prison, several affectionate letters passed between them. After this discord, 
and not a little vexation, about vestures, at length Mr. Hooper entering into 
his diocese, there employed his time, under king Edward's reign, with such diligence 
as may be an example to all bishops. So careful was he in his cure, that he left 
neither pains untaken, nor ways unsought, how to train up the flock of Christ 
in the true word of salvation, continually labouring in the same. Other men are 
commonly wont, for lucre or promotion's sake, to aspire to bishoprics, some hunting 
for them, and some purchasing them, as men use to purchase lordships. To this 
class of worldly men bishop Hooper was quite contrary. He abhorred nothing more 
than coventousness, labouring always to save and preserve the souls of his flock. 
No father in his household, no gardener in his garden, nor husbandman in his vineyard, 
was more or better occupied, than he in his diocese amongst his flock, PAGE 619 
going about his towns and villages teaching and preaching to the people. The time 
that he had to spare from preaching, he bestowed either in hearing public causes, 
or else in private study, prayer, and in visiting schools: with his continual 
doctrine he adjoined due and discreet cor- rection, not so severe to any as to 
those who, for abundance of riches and wealthy state, thought they might do what 
they pleased. And doubt- less he spared no kind of people, but was indifferent 
to all, as well rich as poor, to the great shame of many men in these days; whereof 
we see so many addicted to the pleasing of the great and rich, that in the mean 
time they have no regard to the meaner sort whom Christ hath brought as dearly 
as the other. In his personal and private character how virtuous and good he was, 
may be conceived and known evidently by this, that as he was hated by none but 
the evil, the worst of them could not reprove his life in any par- ticular. At 
home, in his domestic concerns, he exhibited an example of a worthy prelate's 
life: bestowing the most part of his care upon the public flock and congregation 
of Christ, for which also he spent his blood; yet there was nothing wanting in 
him to bring up his own children in learning and good manners: insomcuh that it 
is difficult to say, whether he deserved more praise for his fatherly usage at 
home, or his public conduct abroad. Every where he kept religion in one uniform 
doctrine and integrity: so that if you entered into the bishop's palace, you would 
suppose yourselves to have entered into some church or temple. In every corner 
there was the beauty of virtue, good example, honest conversation, and reading 
of the holy scriptures. There was not to be seen in his house any courtly rioting 
or idleness; no pomp, no dishonest word, no swearing, could there be heard. As 
to the revenues of his bishoprics, if any thing surmounted thereof, he saved nothing, 
but bestowed it in hospitality. Twice I was, as I remember, in his house in Worcester, 
where, in his common hall, I saw a table spread with good store of meat, and beset 
full of beggars and poor folk; and I asking his servants what this meant, they 
told me that every day their lord and master's manner was, to have to dinner a 
certain number of poor folk of the said city by course, who were served by four 
at a mess, with hot and wholesome meats; and, when they were served, then he himself 
sat down to dinnerr, and not before. After this sort and manner master Hooper 
exe- cuted the office of most careful and vigilant pastor, by the space of two 
years and more, so long as the state of religion in king Edward's time safely 
flourished. And would God that all other bishops would use the like diligence 
and care in their function! After this, in the reign of queen Mary, religion being 
subverted and changed, this good bishop was one of the first who was sent for 
by a pursuivant to London. Two reasons were assigned for this step. The first, 
that he might answer to Dr. Heath, then re-appointed bishop of that diocese, who 
was deprived thereof in kings Edward's days, why he continued in an office to 
which he had no right? And next to render an account to Bonner, bishop of London, 
because he had in king Edward's time been one of his accusers. Now although he 
was not ignorant of the evils that should happen towards him, being admonished 
by certain of his friends to get away, and shift for himself, yet he would not 
prevent them, but remained, saying, "Once did I flee, and take me to my feet; 
PAGE 620 but now, because I am called to this place and vocation, I am thoroughly 
persuaded to remain, and to live and die with my sheep." On reaching London, before 
he could see Heath or Bonner, he was intercepted, and commanded to appear before 
the queen and her council, to answer certain bonds and obligations, wherein he 
was said to be bound unto her. When he met the council, Gardiner received him 
very opprobriously, railing at him, and accusing him of his religion. He freely 
and boldly answered, and cleared himself. But he was, notwithstanding, commanded 
to ward, and it was declared unto him at his departure, that the cause of his 
impri- sionment was only for certain sums of money, for which he was indebted 
to the queen, and not for religion. This, how false and untrue it was, shall in 
its place more plainly appear. Here it is enough to remark that at a second summons, 
such was the noise, that he could not be permitted to plead his cause, but was 
deprived of his bishoprics. Before we detail the examinations of Hooper, it will 
be proper to let him relate the cruel captivity he endured for eighteen months 
in the Fleet prison. "The first of September, 1553, I was committed unto the Fleet, 
from Richmond, to have the liberty of the prison; and within six days after I 
paid five pounds sterling to the warden for fees for my liberty; who immediately 
upon payment thereof, complained unto the bishop of Winchester, upon which I was 
committed to close prison a quarter of a year in the Tower-chamber of the Fleet, 
and used extremely ill. By the means of a good gentlewoman, I had liberty to come 
down to dinner and supper, but was not suffered to speak with any of my friends; 
but as soon as dinner and supper were done, to repair to my chamber again. Notwithstanding, 
whilst I came down thus to dinner and supper, the warden and his wife picked quarrels 
with me, and complained untruly of me to their great friend the bishop of Winchester. 
"After a quarter of a year, Babington the warden, and his wife, fell out with 
me respecting the wicked mass: and thereupon the warden resorted to the bishop 
of Winchester, and obtained to put me into the wards, where I have continued a 
long time, having nothing appointed to me for my bed, but a little pad of straw 
and a rotten covering, with a tick and a few feathers therein, the chamber being 
vile and stinking, until by God's means good people sent me bedding to lie on. 
On one side of the prison is the sink and filth of the house, and on the other 
the town ditch, so that the stench of the house hath infected me with sundry diseases. 
During this time I have been sick, and the doors, bars, hasps, and chains being 
all closed upon me, I have mourned, called, and cried for help; but the warden 
when he hath known me many times ready to die, and when the poor men of the wards 
have called to help me, hath commanded the doors to be kept fast, and charged 
that none of his men should come at me, saying, 'Let him alone, it were a good 
riddance of him.' And he did this Oct. 18, 1553, as many can witness. "I paid 
always like a baron to the said workers, as well in fees, as for my board, which 
was twenty shillings a week, besides my man's table, until I was wrongfully deprived 
of my bishoprics; and since that time, I have paid him as the best gentleman doth 
in his house; yet hath he used PAGE 621 me worse, and more vilely, than the veriest 
slave that even came to the common side of the prison. He hath also imprisoned 
my man, William Downton, and stripped him of his clothes to search for letters, 
and could find none, but a little remembrance of good people's names who had given 
me their alms to relieve me in prison; and to undo them also, the warden delivered 
the same bill unto Gardiner, God's enemy and mine. "I have suffered imprisonment 
almost eighteen months, my goods, livings, friends, and comfort taken from me; 
the queen owing me, by just account, fourscore pounds or more. She hath put me 
in prison, and giveth nothing to keep me, neither is there suffered any one to 
come at me, whereby I might have relief. I am by a wicked man and woman cruelly 
treated, so that I see no remedy, saving God's help, but I shall be cast away 
in prison before I come to judgment. But I commit my just cause to God, whose 
will be done, whether it be by life or death." The first examination of bishop 
Hooper was before five bishops as commissioners of London, Durham, Winchester, 
Chichester, and Landaff. On his entering their presence, Gardiner, bishop of Winchester 
and lord chancellor asked whether he was married. To this the good man smilingly 
answered, "Yes, my lord, and will not be unmarried till death unmarry me. And 
this is not enough to deprive me, except you do it against the law." The subject 
of marriage was no more talked of then for some time: but all began to make great 
outcries, and laughed, and used such gestures as were unseemly for the place, 
and for such a matter. Day, bishop of Chichester, called Hooper a hypocrite, with 
vehement voice, and scornful countenance. Tonstal, bishop of Durham, called him 
beast; so did Smith, one of the clerks of the council, and several others that 
stood by. At length the bishop of Winchester said, that all men might live chaste 
who would, and brought in this text. - "There are those that have become eunuchs 
for the kingdom of heaven." To this Hooper said, the text proved not that all 
men could live chaste, but such to whom it was given; and read the verse before 
it. But again there was a clamour and cry, mocking and scorning, calling him beast, 
and exclaiming and the text could not be examined. Then Hooper said, that it appeared 
by the old canons, that marriage was not forbidden unto priests, and then named 
the decrees. But the bishop of Winchester sent for another part, namely, the Clementines, 
or the Extravagants, and perversely, against all reason determined that he should 
have no other, until he was judged by these. Then began such a noise, tumult, 
and speaking together of a great many who favoured not the cause, that nothing 
was done or spoken orderly or charitably. Afterwards, judge Morgan began to rail 
at Hooper a long time, with many opprobrious and foul words relative to his proceedings 
at Gloucester, in punishing of men, and said there was never such a tyrant as 
he was. After that the bishop of Chichester said, that the council of Ancyra, 
which was before the council of Nice, was against the marriage of priests. To 
this Hooper said, my lord of Chichester knoweth, that the great council of Nice, 
by the means of one Paphnutius, decreed, That no PAGE 622 minister should be separated 
from his wife. Again such clamours and cries were used, that the council of Nice 
was not attended to. After alternate clamour and silence, and much illiberal speech, 
Tonstal, bishop of Durham, asked him whether be believed the corporeal presence 
of the sacrament. He said plainly, that here was none such, neither did he believe 
any such thing. The offended bishop would then have read out of a book; but there 
was such a noise and confused talk on every side, that he did not proceed. Then 
the bishop of Winchester asked, What authority had moved him to deny the corporeal 
presence? He said, the authority of God's word, and alleged this text, "Whom heaven 
must hold until the latter day." But the bishop of Winchester would have made 
that text to serve nothing for his purpose, and said, he might be in heaven, and 
in the sacrament also. Then Hooper would have opened the text, but all who stood 
about the bishop prevented his speaking with clamours and cries, so that he was 
not permitted to say any more against Gardiner. Whereupon they bade the notaries 
write, that he was married, and said that he would not go from his wife; and that 
be believed not the corpo- real presence in the sacrament, for which he was worthy 
to be deprived of his bishopric. The next examination of Hooper took place at 
Winchester house, rather more privately than the former, no doubt to prevent such 
of the noise made on that occasion. On the 22nd of January, 1555, Babington, the 
warden of the Fleet, was commanded to bring him before Gardiner and some other 
bishops to Winchester house, in St. Mary Overy's: where the latter moved Hooper 
earnestly to forsake the evil and corrupt doctrine preached in the days of king 
Edward, to return to the unity of the catholic church, and to acknowledge the 
pope's holiness to be head of the same church, according to the determination 
of the whole parliament: promis- ing, likewise, that as they with other their 
brethren, had received the pope's blessing, and the queen's mercy, even so mercy 
was ready to be shewed to him and others, if he would arise with them, and condescend 
to the pope's holiness. Master Hooper answered, that forasmuch as the pope taught 
doctrine altogether contrary to the doctrine of Christ, he was not worthy to be 
accounted as a member of Christ's church, much less to be head thereof; wherefore 
he would in no wise condescend to any such usurped jurisdic- tion. Neither esteemed 
he the church, whereof they call him head, to be the catholic church of Christ; 
for the church only heareth the voice of her spouse Christ, and flieth the strangers. 
"Howbeit," saith he, "if in any point to me unknown I have offended the queen's 
majesty, I shall most humbly submit myself to her mercy, if mercy may be had with 
safety of conscience, and without the displeasure of God." Answer was made, that 
the queen would show no mercy to the pope's enemies. Whereupon Babington was commanded 
to carry him to the Fleet again. He did so, and shifted him from his former chamber 
into another, near unto the warden's own chamber, where he remained six days; 
and, in the mean time, his former chamber was searched by Dr. Martin and others, 
for writings and books which master Hooper was thought to have made, but none 
were found. PAGE 623 One more examination, or rather effort to make Hooper recant, 
occurred at the same place, and before the same crafty and cruel inquisitors. 
Jan. 28th, the bishop of Winchester, and other commissioners, again sat in judgment 
at St. Mary Overy's, where Hooper appeared before them in the afternoon, and after 
much reasoning and disputation, was commanded aside, till Mr. Rogers, who was 
then come, had been examined. Examina- tions ended, the sheriffs were commanded, 
about four o'clock, to carry them to the compter in Southwark, there to remain 
till the following day at nine o'clock, to see whether they would relent and come 
home again to the catholic church. Hooper went before with one of the sheriffs, 
and Mr. Rogers came after with the other; and being out of the church door, Hooper 
looked back and stayed a little till Mr. Rogers drew near, unto whom he said, 
"Come, brother Rogers, must we two take this matter first in hand, and begin to 
fry these fagots?" "Yes, sir," said Mr. Rogers, "by God's grace." "Doubt not," 
said Hooper, "but God will give strength." So going forwards, there was such a 
press of people in the streets, who rejoiced at their constancy, that they had 
much ado to pass. By the way the sheriff said to master Hooper, "I would that 
ye were so hasty and quick with my lord chancellor, and did use more patience." 
He answered, "Master sheriff, I was nothing at all impatient, although I was earnest 
in my Master's cause, and it standeth me so in hand, for it goeth upon life and 
death; not the life and death of this world only, but also of the world to come." 
Then they were committed to the keeper of the compter, and appointed to different 
chambers, with command that they should not be suffered to speak one with another, 
neither was any other permitted to come to them that night. Upon the day following, 
January 29th, at the hour appointed, they were brought up again by the sheriffs 
before Gardiner and the commissioners in the church, where they were the day before. 
And after long and ear- nest talk, when they perceived that Hooper would by no 
means condescend unto them, they condemned him to be degraded, and read unto him 
his condemnation. That done, Mr. Rogers was brought before them, and treated in 
like manner; and both were delivered to the secular power, two sher- iffs of London, 
who were ordered to carry them to the Clink, a prison not far from the bishop 
of Winchester's house, and there to remain till night. When it became dark, Hooper 
was led by one of the sheriffs, with many bills and weapons, through the bishop 
of Winchester's house, and over London bridge through the city to Newgate, and 
by the way some of the serjeants were sent before, to put out the coster-mongers' 
candles, who used to sit with lights in the streets; either fearing, that the 
people would have made some attempt to have taken him away from them by force, 
if they had seen him go to that prison; or else, being burdened with an evil conscience, 
they thought darkness to be a most fit season for such a business. But notwithstanding 
this device, the people having some foreknowledge of his coming, many of them 
came forth to their doors with lights, and saluted him, praising God for his constancy 
in the true doctrine which he had taught them, and desiring God to strengthen 
him in the same to the end. The bishop required the people to make their PAGE 
624 earnest prayer to God for him; and so went through Cheapside to the place 
appointed, and was delivered as close prisoner to the keeper of Newgate, where 
he remained six days, nobody being permitted to come to him, saving his keepers, 
and such as should be appointed thereto. During this time, Bonner, bishop of London, 
and others at his appoint- ment, as Fecknam, Chedsey, and Harpsfield, resorted 
several times unto him, to try if by means they could persuade him to relent, 
and become a member of their church. All the ways they could devise, they attempted. 
For, besides the disputations and allegation of testimonies of the scriptures, 
and of ancient writers wrested to a wrong sense, according to their acustomed 
manner, they used also all outward gentleness and significations of friendship, 
with many great promises of worldly wealth; not omitting, at the same time, most 
grievous threatenings, if with gentleness they could not prevail; but they found 
him always the same man, steadfast and immovable. When they perceived that they 
could by no means reclaim him to their purpose, with such persuasions and offers 
as they used for his conversion, then went they by false rumours and reports of 
recantations to bring him, and the doctrine of Christ which he professed, in discredit 
with the people. This being spread abroad, and believed by some of the weaker 
sort, Hooper was greatly grieved thereat, that the people should give credit to 
such false rumours, having so simple a ground. Hence he was constrained to address 
the following letter to his fellow protestants. "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ 
be with all them who unfeignedly look for the coming of our Saviour Christ. Dear 
brethren and sisters in the Lord, and my fellow-prisoners for the cause of God's 
gospel, I do much rejoice and give thanks unto God for your constancy and perse- 
verance in affliction, unto whom I wish continuance unto the end. And as I do 
rejoice in your faith and constancy in afflictions that be in prison; even so 
do I mourn and lament to hear of our dear brethren that yet have not felt such 
dangers for God's truth, as we have and do feel, and are daily like to suffer 
more, yea, they very extreme and vile death of the fire: yet such is the report 
abroad, as I am credibly informed, that I, John Hooper, a condemned man for the 
cause of Christ, should now after sentence of death, a prisoner in Newgate, and 
looking daily for execution, recant and abjure that which heretofore I have preached. 
And that talk ariseth from this, that the bishop of London, and his chap- lains 
resort unto me. Doubtless, if our brethren were as godly as I could wish them, 
they would think, that in case I did refuse to talk with him, they might have 
just occasion to say, that I was unlearned, and durst not speak with learned men, 
or else proud, and disdained to speak with them. Therefore to avoid just suspicion 
of both, I have, and do daily speak with them when they come, not doubting but 
they report that I am neither proud nor unlearned. And I would wish all men to 
do as I do in this point. For I fear not their arguments, neither is death terrible 
unto me, praying you to make true report of the same, as occa- sion shall serve; 
and that I am more confirmed in the truth which I have heretofore preached, by 
their coming. PAGE 625 "Therefore, you that may send to the weak brethren, pray 
them that they trouble me not with such reports of recantations as they do. For 
I have hitherto left all things of the world, and suffered great pains and imprisonment, 
and I thank God I am as ready to suffer death as a mortal man can be. It were 
better for them to pray for us, than to credit or report such rumours that are 
untrue. We have enemies enough of such as know not God truly; but yet the false 
report of weak brethren is a double cross. I wish you eternal salvation in Jesus 
Christ, and also require your continual prayers, that he which hath begun in us 
may continue it to the end. I have taught the truth with my tongue, and with my 
pen heretofore; and hereafter shortly shall confirm the same, by God's grace, 
with my blood. Forth of Newgate, Feb. 2, 1555. your brother in Christ, John Hooper." 
Upon Monday following, Bonner, bishop of London, came to Newgate, and there degraded 
bishop Hooper. The same Monday at night, his keeper gave Hopper a hint that he 
should be sent unto Gloucester to suffer death, whereat he rejoiced very much, 
lifting up his eyes and hands to heaven, and praising God that he saw it good 
to send him among the people over whom he was pastor, there to confirm with his 
death the truth which he had before taught them: not doubting but the Lord would 
give him strength to perform the same to his glory: and immediately he sent to 
his servant's house for his boots, spurs, and cloak, that he might be in readiness 
to ride when he should be called. The day following, about four o'clock in the 
morning, the keeper with others came and searched him, and the bed whereon he 
lay, to see if he had written any thing; after which, he was led by the sheriffs 
of London, and their officers, from Newgate to a place appointed, not far from 
St. Dunstan's church in Fleet-street, where six of the queen's guard were appointed 
to receive him to conduct him to Gloucester, there to be delivered unto the sheriff, 
who with the lord Chandos, Mr. Wicks, and other commissioners, were appointed 
to see execution done; which guard brought him to the Angel, where he brake his 
fast with them, eating his meat at that time more liberally than he had a good 
while before. About break of day he leaped cheerfully on horseback, having a hood 
upon his head, under his hat, that he should not be known, and so took his journey 
joyfully towards Gloucester; and by the way the guard inquired of him, where he 
was accoustomed to bait or lodge, but always carried him to another inn than the 
one he named. On the Thursday following he came to Cirencester, fifteen miles 
from Gloucester, and there dined at a woman's house who had always hated the truth, 
and spoken all the evil she could of him. This woman, perceiving the cause of 
his coming, shewed him all the friendship she could, lamented his case with tears, 
confessing that she before had often reported, that if he were put to the trial, 
he would not stand to his doctrine. After dinner he resumed his journey, and came 
to Gloucester about five o'clock. At a mile without the town much people assembled, 
who cried and lamented his state; insomuch, that one of the guard rode post into 
the town, to require aid of the mayor and sheriffs, fearing lest he should have 
been taken from them. Accordingly, the officers and their retinue repaired to 
the gate with weapons, and commanded the people to keep their houses; but there 
was none that gave any significa- tion of violence. He was lodged at one Ingram's 
house in Gloucester; and that night, as he had done all the way, he eat his meat 
quietly, and slept soundly, as it was reported by the guard and others. After 
his first sleep, he continued in prayer until morning, and all the day, except 
a little time at his meals, and when conversing with such as the guard permitted 
to speak to him, he spent in prayer. Sir Anthony Kingston, formerly Hooper's good 
friend, was appointed by the queen's letters to attend at his execution. As soon 
as he saw the bishop he burst into tears. Hooper did not know him at first; the 
knight therefore addressing him, said, "Why, my lord, do not you know me - an 
old friend of yours, Anthony Kingston?" "Yes," answered Hooper, "Sir Anthony Kingston; 
I do know you well, and am glad to see you in health, and praise God for the same." 
"But I am sorry to see you, my lord, in this case," replied Kingston, "for as 
I understand you are come hither to die. But alas! consider that life is sweet, 
and death is bitter. Therefore seeing life may be had, desire to live; for life 
hereafter may do good." "Indeed, it is true, Sir Anthony, I am come hither to 
end this life, and to suffer death here, because I will not gainsay the truth 
that I have heretofore taught amongst you in this diocese, and elsewhere; and 
I thank you for your friendly counsel, although it be not as I could wish. True 
it is that death is bitter, and life is sweet; but the death to come is more bitter, 
and the life to come is more sweet." After these, and many other words, they took 
leave of each other, King- ston with bitter tears, Hooper with tears also trickling 
down his cheeks. At his departure the bishop told him, that all the trouble he 
had sustained in prison, had not caused him to utter so much sorrow. Then the 
bishop was committed by the guard into the custody of the sheriffs of Gloucester. 
These men, named Jenkins and Bond, with the mayor and aldermen, repaired to his 
lodging, and at the first meeting saluted him, and took him by the hand. He was 
not insensible to their apparent kindness, nor unaware of their resolution, notwithstanding, 
to execute the law as it now stood. His remarkable and exemplary address to them 
merits particular attention. "I give most hearty thanks to you, and to the rest 
of your brethren, that you have vouchsafed to take me a prisoner and a condemned 
man, by the hand; whereby, to my rejoicing, it is very apparent that your old 
love and friendship towards me is not altogether extinguished: and I trust also 
that all the things I have taught you in times past, are not utterly forgotten, 
when I was your bishop and pastor. For which most true and sincere doctrine, because 
I will not now account in falsehood and heresy, as many other men do, I am sent 
hither, you know, by the queen's commands, to die, and am come where I taught 
it, to confirm it with my blood. And now, master sheriffs, I understand by these 
good men, and my good friends, at whose hands I have found as much favour and 
gentleness on the road hither, as a prisoner could reasonably require, PAGE 627 
for which I most heartily thank them, that I am committed to your custo- dy, as 
unto those that must see me brought to-morrow to the place of execution. My request 
to you shall be only, that there may be a quick fire, shortly to make an end; 
and in the mean time I will be as obedient to you as yourselves could wish. If 
you think I do amiss in any thing, hold up your finger and I have done. For I 
am not come hither as one forced or compelled to die; for it is well known, I 
might have had my life with worldly gain; but as one willing to offer and give 
my life for the truth, rather than consent to the wicked religion of the bishop 
of Rome, received and set forth by the magistrates in England to God's high displeasure 
and dishonour; and I trust, by God's grace, tomorrow to die a faithful subject 
to God, and a true obedient subject to the queen." These words bishop Hooper used 
to the mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen, whereat many mouned and lamented. Notwithstanding, 
the two sheriffs went aside to consult, and were determined to have lodged him 
in the common gaol of the town, called Northgate, if the guard had not made earnest 
intercession for him; who declared at large how quietly, mildly, and patiently, 
he had behaved on the way; adding thereto, that any child might keep him well 
enough, and that they themselves would rather take pains to watch with him, than 
that he should be sent to the common prison. It was therefore determined that 
he should still remain in Robert Ingram's house; and the sheriffs, the sergeants, 
and other officers agreed to watch with him that night themselves. His desire 
was, that he might go to bed betime, saying, that he had many things to remember: 
accordingly he went at five o'clock, and slept one sleep soundly, then spent the 
rest of the night in prayer. After he had got up in the morning, he desired that 
no man should be suffered to come into the chamber, that he might be solitary 
till the hour of execution. About eight o'clock came Sir John Bridges, lord Chandos, 
with a great band of men, Sir Anthony Kingston, Sir Edmund Bridges, and other 
commissioners appointed to see the execution. At nine, Hooper prepared himself 
to be in readiness, the time being now at hand. Immediately he was brought down 
from his chamber, by the sheriffs, who were accompanied with bills and other weapons. 
When he saw the multitude of weapons, he said to the sheriffs, "I am no traitor, 
neither needed you to have made such a business to bring me to the place where 
I must suffer; for if you had suffered me, I would have gone alone to the stake, 
and troubled none of you." Afterwards looking upon the multitude of people who 
were assembled, being by estimation about 7000, he spake unto those who were about 
him, saying, "Alas! why are these people assembled and come together? Peradventure 
they think to hear something of me now, as they have in times past: but alas! 
speech is prohibited me. Notwithstanding the cause of my death is well known unto 
them. When I was appointed here to be their pastor, I preached unto them true 
and sincere doctrine, and that out of the word of God; and because I will not 
now account the same to be heresy and untruth, this kind of death is prepared 
for me." Having said this, he went forward, led between the two sheriffs, in a 
gown of his host's, his hat upon his head, and a staff in his hand to rest himself 
upon; for the pain of the sciatica, which he had taken in PAGE 628 prison, caused 
him somewhat to halt. All the way, being strictly charged not to speak, he could 
not be perceived once to open his mouth; but beholding the people, who mourned 
bitterly for him, he would sometimes lift up his eyes towards heaven, and look 
very cheerfully upon such as he knew; and he ws never known, during the time of 
his being amongst them, to look with so happy and ruddy a countenance as he did 
then. When he came to the place where he should die, he smilingly beheld the stake, 
which was near to the great elm-tree over against the college of priests, where 
he had been wont to preach. The place round about the houses, and the boughs of 
the trees, were filled with spectators: and in the chamber over the gate stood 
the priests of the college. Then he kneeled down (forasmuch as he could not be 
suffered to speak unto the people) to prayer, and beckoned six or seven times 
unto one whom he well knew, that he might hear his prayer, and report faithfully 
the same. When this person came to the bishop he poured tears upon his shoulders 
and in his bosom, and continued his prayer for half an hour: which prayer was 
drawn from the whole creed. While at his prayer a box was brought and laid before 
him upon a stool, with his pardon from the queen if he would recant. At the sight 
of this he cried, "If you love my soul, away with it." The box being taken away, 
the lord Chandos said, "Seeing there is no remedy, dispatch him quickly." Hooper 
replied, "Good, my lord; I trust your lordship will give me leave to make an end 
of my prayers." When he had risen from his last devotions in this world, he prepared 
himself for the stake, and put off his host's gown, and delivered it to the sheriffs, 
requiring them to see it restored unto the owner, and put off the rest of his 
apparel, unto his doublet and hose, wherein he would have burned. But the sheriffs 
would not permit that, unto whose pleasure he very obediently submitted himself; 
and his doublet, hose, and waist- coat were taken off. Thus being in his shirt, 
he took a point from his hose himself, and trussed his shirt between his legs, 
where he had a pound of gunpowder in a bladder, and under each arm the like quantity 
delivered him by the guard. So desiring the people to say the Lord's Prayer with 
him, and to pray for him, he went up to the stake; when he was at it, three irons 
made to bind him thereto were brought: one for his neck, another for his middle, 
and the third for his legs. But he refusing them, said, "You have no need thus 
to trouble yourselves. I doubt not God will give me strength sufficient to abide 
the extremity of the fire without bands: notwithstanding, suspecting the frailty 
and weakness of the flesh, but having assured confidence in God's strength, I 
am content you do as you shall think good." Then the hoop of iron prepared for 
his middle was brought, which being somewhat too short, he shrank and pressed 
in his body with his hand, until it fastened: but when they offered to have bound 
his neck and legs with the other hoops, he refused them, saying, "I am well assured 
I shall not trouble you." Being now ready he looked around on all the people, 
of whom he might be well seen, for he was both tall, and stood also upon a high 
stool, and beheld that in every corner there was noth- ing to be seen but weeping 
and sorrowful people. Then lifting up his eye PAGE 629 and hands to heaven he 
prayed in silence. By and by, he that was appointed to make the fire came to him 
and asked him forgiveness. He asked why he should forgive him, saying that he 
never knew any offence he had committed against him. "O, sir," said the man, "I 
am appointed to make the fire." "Therein," said Mr. Hooper, "thou dost nothing 
to offend me: God forgive thee thy sins, and do thine office, I pray thee." Then 
the reeds were cast up, and he receiving two bundles of them in his own hands 
embraced them, and putting one of them under each arm, showed with his hand how 
the rest should be bestowed, and pointed to the place where any were wanting. 
Command was now given that the fire should be kindled. But because there were 
not fewer green fagots than two horses could carry, it did not kindle speedily, 
but was some time before it took the reeds upon the fagots. At length it burned 
about him; but the wind having full strength in that place, and it being a lowering 
cold morning, it blew the flame from him, so that he was in a manner little more 
than touched by the fire. Endeavours were then made to increase the flame, and 
then the bladders of gunpowder exploded; but did him little good, being so placed, 
and the wind having such power. In this fire he prayed with a loud voice, "Lord 
Jesus, have mercy upon me! Lord Jesus, have mercy upon me! Lord Jesus, receive 
my spirit!" And these were the last words he was heard to utter. Yet he struck 
his breast with his hands, until by the renewing of the fire his strength was 
gone and his hand stuck fast in striking the iron upon his breast. So immediately, 
bowing forwards, he yielded up his spirit. Thus lingering were his last sufferings. 
He was nearly three quarters of an hour or more in the fire, as a lamb, patiently 
bearing the extremity thereof, neither moving forwards, back- wards, nor to any 
side; but he died as quietly as a child in his bed; and he now reigneth as a blessed 
martyr in the joys of heaven, prepared for the faithful in Christ before the foundation 
of the world; for whose constancy all christians are bound to praise God. A poem, 
by Conrade Gesner, on the martyrdom of Dr. John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester and 
Worcester. Hooper, unvanquish'd by Rome's cruelties, Confessing Christ in his 
last moments, dies: Whilst flames his body rack, his soul doth fly, Inflam'd with 
faith, to immortality! His Constancy on earth has rais'd his name, And gave him 
entrance at the gates of fame, Which neither storms, nor the cold north-wind's 
blast, Nor all-devouring time shall ever waste: For he whom God protects shall 
sure attain That happiness, which worldings seek in vain. Example take by him, 
you who profess Christ's holy doctrines; ne'er the world caress In hopes of riches; 
or if fortune frown With inauspicious looks, be not cast down; For man ne'er saw, 
nor can his hear conceive, What God bestows on them that righteous live. PAGE 
630 This good bishop and servant of God whose life and martyrdom is now declared, 
being in prison, wrote divers books and treatises, to the number of twenty-four. 
Also divers letters most fruitful and worthy to be read, especially in these dangerous 
times, of those who seek to serve and follow the Lord through all the storms of 
the evil world, as by the perusal of the following to his godly wife Anne Hooper, 
you shall better understand. "Dearly beloved and godly wife, "Our Saviour Jesus 
Christ in St. Matthew's gospel said to his disciples, that it was necessary scandals 
should come; and that they could not be avoided, he perceived as well by the condition 
of those that should perish and be lost for ever, as also by their affliction 
they should be saved. For he saw the greatest part of the people would contemn 
and neglect whatsoever true doctrine should be shewn unto them, or else receive 
and use it as they thought good to serve their pleasures, with- out any profit 
to their souls, not caring whether they lived as they were commanded by God's 
word or not; but would think it sufficient to be counted to have the name of a 
christian, with such words and fruits of its profession as their fathers and elders, 
after their custom and manner, esteem and take to be good fruits and faithful 
works, without trying them by the word of God. These men by the just judgment 
of God, be delivered unto the craft and subtlety of the devil, that they may be 
kept by one scandalous stumbling-block or other never to come unto Christ, who 
came to save those that were lost; as you may see how God delivereth wicked men 
up unto their own lusts, to do one mischief after another, careless of coming 
into a reprobate mind, that forgetteth itself, and cannot know what is expedient 
to be done,or to be left undone, because they close their eyes, and will not see 
the light of God's word offered unto them: and being thus blinded, they prefer 
their own vanities before the truth of God's word. Where such corrupt minds, be, 
there are also corrupt notions of God's honour; so that the mind taketh falsehood 
for truth, superstitions for true religion, death for life, damnation for salvation, 
hell for heaven, and persecution of Christ's members for God's service and honour. 
And as such persons voluntarily reject the word of God; so God most justly delivereth 
them up to blindness of mind and hardness of heart, that they cannot under- stand, 
nor yet consent to anything that God would have preached, and set forth to his 
glory, after his own will and word; but they hate it mor- tally, and of all things 
most detest God's holy word. As the devil hath entered into their hears, that 
they cannot or will not come to Christ, to be instructed by his holy word: even 
so can they not abide any other person to be a christian, and to lead his life 
after the word of God; but hate him, persecute him, rob him, imprison him, yea 
and kill him, if God suffer it. And so much are these wicked men blinded, that 
they regard no law, whether it be the law of God or man, but persecute such as 
never offended, yea, do evil to those that have prayed daily for them, and wish 
them God's grace. "In their blind fury they have no respect to nature. For brother 
perse- cuteth brother, and father the son: most dear friends in devilish slan- 
der and offence become most mortal enemies. And no marvel; for when they PAGE 
631 have chosen sundry masters, the one the devil, the other God, the one shall 
agree with the former and the other with the latter. For this cause Christ said, 
it is expedient and necessary that scandals should come, and many may be advised 
to keep the babes of Christ from the heavenly Father. But Christ saith, Woe be 
unto him by whom the offence cometh. Yet is there no remedy, man being of such 
corruption and hatred towards God, but that the evil shall be deceived, and persecute 
the good; and the good shall understand the truth, and suffer persecution for 
it unto the world's end. For 'as he that was born after the flesh, persecuted 
in times past him that was born after the spirit, even so it is now.' Therefore 
as we live in this life amongst so many perils and dangers, we must be well assured 
by God's word how to bear them, and how patiently to take them as they be sent 
to us from God. We must also assure ourselves, that there is no other remedy for 
christians in the time of trouble, than Christ himself hath appointed us. In St. 
Luke he giveth us this commandment, 'Ye shall possess your lives in peace.' In 
which words he giveth us both commandment what to do, and also great comfort and 
consolation in all troubles. "That the spirit of man may feel these consolations, 
the Giver of them, the heavenly Father, must be prayed unto for the merits of 
Christ's passion: for it is not the nature of man that can be contented, until 
it be regenerated and possessed with God's Spirit, to bear patiently the troubles 
of the mind or of the body. When the mind and heart of a man seeth on every side 
sorrow and heaviness, and the worldly eye beholdeth nothing but such things as 
be troubles and wholly bent to rob the poor of what he hath, and also to take 
from him his life; except we weigh these brittle and uncertain treasures with 
the riches of the life to come; and this life of the body, with the life in Christ's 
blood; and so for the love and certainty of the heavenly joys contemn all things 
present, doubtless we shall never be able to bear the loss of goods, life, or 
any other thing of this world. "Therefoe St. Paul giveth a godly and necessary 
lesson to all in this short and transitory life, and therein sheweth how a man 
may best bear the iniquities and troubles of this world. 'If ye be risen again 
with Christ, seek the things which are above, where Christ sitteth at the right 
hand of God the Father.' Wherefore, the christian's faith must be always upon 
the resurrection of Christ when he is in trouble; and in that glorious resurrection 
he shall not only see continual and perpetual joy and consolation; but also victory 
and triumph over all persecution, trouble, sin, death, hell, the devil, and other 
tyrants and persecutors of Christ, and of Christ's people, the tears and weeping 
of the faithful dried up, their wounds healed, their bodies made immortal in joy, 
their souls for ever praising the Lord, in conjunction and society everlasting 
with the blessed company of God's elect in perpetual felicity. But the words of 
St. Paul in that place, if they be not marked, shall do little profit to the reader 
or hearer, and give him no peace at all in this impatient and cruel world. "When 
a man hath, by seeking the word of God, found out what the things above be, then 
must he, saith Paul, 'set his affections' on them. And PAGE 632 this commandment 
is more hard than the other. For men's knowledge many time seeth the best, and 
knoweth that here is a life to come, better than this life present, yet they set 
not their affections upon it: they more affect and love indeed a trifle of nothing 
in this that pleaseth their hearts, than the treasure of treasures in heaven, 
which their own judgment saith is better than all wordly things. Wherefore we 
must "set our affections on the things that be above;" that is to say, when any 
thing worse than heaven upon the earth offereth itself to be ours, if we will 
give our good wills to it, and love it in our hearts, then ought we to see by 
the judgment of God's word, whether we may have the world without offence of God, 
and such things as be for this worldy life without his displeasure. If we cannot, 
St. Paul's commandment must take place - 'Set your affections on things that are 
above.' If the riches of this world may not be gotten nor kept by God's law, neither 
our lives be continued without the denial of his honour, we must set our affec- 
tions upon the riches and life that are above, and not upon things that are on 
earth. Therefore this second commandment of St. Paul requireth, that our minds 
judge heavenly things to be better than things upon the earth, and the life to 
come better than the life present; so we should choose them before the other and 
prefer then, and have such affection to the best, that in no case we set the worst 
before it, as the most part of the world doth and hath done, for they acknowledge 
the best and prove it, and yet follow the worst. "But these things, my godly wife, 
require rather thought, meditation, and prayer, than words or talk. They are easy 
to be spoken of, but not so easy to be use and practised. Wherefore seeing they 
be God's gifts, and yet they may become our privileges, we must seek them at our 
heaven- ly Father's hand, who seeth, and is privy how poor and wretched we be, 
and how naked, how spoiled, and destitute of all his blessed gifts we by reason 
of sin. He did command, therefore, his disciples, when he shewed them that they 
should take patiently the state of this present life full of troubles and persecution, 
to pray that they might well escape those troubles that were to come, and be able 
to stand before the Son of man. When you find yourself too much oppressed as every 
one shall be sometimes with the fear of God's judgement - use the 77th psalm that 
beginneth, "I will cry unto God with my voice, and he shall hearken unto me." 
In which psalm is both godly doctrine and great consolation unto the man or woman 
that is in anguish of mind. "Use also in such trouble the 88th psalm, wherein 
is contained the prayer of one that was brought to extreme anguish and misery, 
and being vexed with adversaries and persecutions, saw nothing but death and hell. 
Yet although he felt in himself, that he had not only man, but also God angry 
towards him; yet he by prayer humbly resorted unto God. Remember also none of 
us must murmur against God, but always say his judgements are right and just, 
and rejoice that it pleaseth him by troubles to use us as he used heretofore such 
as he most loved in this world. "Be glad and rejoice, for your reward is great 
in heaven." His promises shall by his grace, work both consolation and patience 
in afflicted christians. And when our Saviour Christ hath willed men in trouble 
to be content and patient, because God in the end of trouble, in Christ hath ordained 
PAGE 633 eternal consolation; he useth also to take from us all shame and rebuke, 
and make it an honour to suffer for Christ, because the wicked world doth curse 
and abhor such poor troubled christians. Wherefore Christ placeth all his honourably, 
and saith, 'Even so persecuted they the prophets that were before you.' We must 
therefore patiently suffer, and willingly attend upon God's doings, although they 
seem clean contrary, after our judgement, to our wealth and salvation: as Abraham 
did, when bid to offer his son Isaac, in whom God promised the blessing and multi- 
plying of his seed. "And judge things indifferently, my good wife, the troubles 
be not yet generally, as they were in our good fathers' times, soon after the 
death and resurrection of our Saviour Jesus Christ, whereof he spake in St. Matthew. 
From which place you and I have taken many times great conso- lation, and especially 
of the latter part of the chapter, wherein is contained the last day and end of 
all troubles both for you and me, and for all such as love the coming of our Saviour 
Christ to judgement. Remember, therefore, that place, and mark it again, and you 
shall in this time see this consolation, and also learn much patience. Was there 
ever such troubles as Christ threatened upon Jerusalem? Was there since the beginning 
of the world such affliction? Who were then best at ease? The apostles that suffered 
in body persecution, and gathered of it ease and quietness in the promises of 
God. And no marvel, for Christ saith, "Lift up your heads, for your redemption 
is at hand;" that is, your eternal rest approacheth and drawth near. The world 
is stark blind, and more foolish than foolishness itself, and so are the people 
of this world: for when God saith, trouble shall come, they will have ease. And 
when God saith, be merry and rejoice in trouble, we lament and mourn, as though 
we were to be cast-away. But this our flesh (which is never merry with virtue, 
nor sorry with vice: never laugheth with grace, nor ever weepeth with sin) holdeth 
fast with the world, and letteth God slip. But, my dearly beloved wife, you know 
how to perceive and to beware of the vanity, and crafts of the devil well enough 
in Christ. And that you may the better have patience in the Spirit of God, read 
again the 24th of St. Matthew, and mark what difference is between the destruction 
of Jerusalem, and the destruction of the whole world, and you shall see, that 
then there were alive many offenders to repent: but at the latter day there shall 
be absolute judgment and sentence, never to be revoked, of eternal life and eternal 
death upon all men: and yet towards the end of the world we have not so much extremity 
as they had then, but even as we are able to bear. So doth the merciful Father 
lay upon us now imprisonment, and I suppose for my part shortly death; now spoil 
of goods, loss of friends, and the greatest loss of all, the knowledge of God's 
word. His holy will be done. I wish in Christ Jesus our only Mediator and Saviour, 
your constancy and consolation, that you may live for ever and ever, whereof in 
Christ I doubt not; to whom, for his most blessed and painful passion, I commit 
you, Amen. PAGE 634 While in prison, Hooper received a letter from his learned 
and pious friend Henry Bullinger, of Zurich. It was well worthy of its author 
and of the spirit of a saint. He exhorted him to bear with firmness that awful 
task to which the Lord had appointed to him, and to look beyond his troubles to 
the crown that awaited him. One more incident amongst other memorable things worthy 
to be remembered in the history of Hooper, is not to be forgotten: it happened 
a little after the beginning of his imprisonment. A friar came from France to 
England with great vaunt, asking who was the greatest heretic in England, thinking 
no doubt to do some great act upon him. To whom answer was made, that Dr. Hooper 
had then the greatest name to be the chiefest ringleader, who was then in the 
Fleet. The friar coming to him, asked why he was committed to prison? He said 
for debt. "Nay," said he, "it was for heresy;" which when Hooper had denied, "What 
sayest thou," quoth he, "to hoc est corpus meum?" Hooper, being partly moved at 
the sudden question, desired that he might ask of him another, which was this, 
"what remains after the consecration in the sacrament, any bread or no?" "No bread 
at all," said the friar. "And when you break it, what you you break - whether 
bread or the body?" said Hooper. "No bread," said the friar; "but the body only." 
"If ye do so," said Hooper, "you do great injury, not only to the body of Christ, 
but also to the scriptures, which say, Ye shall not break of him one bone." With 
that the friar having nothing to answer, recoiled back, and with circles and crosses 
began to use exorcism as though Hooper had bewitched him! Section III. The life 
and martyrdom of Dr. Rowland Taylord, who suffered for the truth of God's Word, 
under the tyranny of the Roman bishops, the 9th day of February, 1555. The town 
of Hadley was one of the first that received the word of God in all England, at 
the preaching of Thomas Bilney; by whose industry the gospel of Christ had such 
gracious success, and took such root there, that a great number became exceedingly 
learned in the holy Scriptures, as well women as men. Of this parish Dr. Rowland 
Taylor was vicar, being doctor both in the civil and canon laws, and a right perfect 
divine. In addition to eminent learning, his known attachment to the PAGE 635 
pure principles of christianity recommended him to the favour and friendship of 
Cranmer, with whom he lived, till through his interst he obtained the vicarage 
of Hadley. This charge he attended with the utmost diligence, recommending and 
enforcing the doctrines of the gospel, not only by his judicious discourses from 
the pulpit, but also by the whole tenor of his life and conversation. Dr. Taylor 
continued promoting the interest of the great Redeemer, and the souls of mankind, 
both by his preaching and example during the reign of king Edward; but on his 
demise, and on the succession of Mary to the throne, he could not escape the cloud 
that burst on the protestant community. Two of his parishioners, Foster an attorney, 
and Clark a tradesman, out of blind zeal, resolved that mass should be celebrated 
in all its superstitious forms, in the parish church at Hadley, on the Monday 
before Easter. They had even caused an altar to be built in the chancel for that 
purpose, which being pulled down by the protestant inhabitants, they erected another, 
and prevailed with the minister of an adjacent parish to celebrater mass in the 
passion-week. Taylor being employed in his study, was alarmed by the ringing of 
bells at an unusual time, and went to the church to inquire the cause. He found 
the great doors fast, but lifting up the latch of the chancel door, he entered, 
and was surprised to see a priest in his habit prepared to celebrate mass, and 
guarded by a party of men under arms, to prevent interruption. Being vicar of 
the parish, he demanded of the priest the cause of such proceeding without his 
knowledge or consent; and how he dared profane the temple of God with abominable 
idolatries. Foster, the lawyer, insolently replied - "Thou traitor, how darest 
thou to intercept the execution of the queen's orders?" but the doctor undauntedly 
denied the charge of traitor, and asserted his mission as a minister of Christ, 
and delegration to that part of his flock, commanding the priest as a wolf in 
sheep's clothing to depart, nor infect the pure church of God with popish idolatry. 
A violent altercation then ensued, between Foster and Dr. Taylor, the former asserting 
the queen's perogative, and the other the authority of the canon-law, which commanded 
that no mass be said but at a consecrated altar. Meanwhile the priest, intimidated 
by the intrepid behaviour of the protestant minister, would have departed without 
saying mass but Clark said to him, "Fear not, you have a super altare," which 
is a consecrated stone, commonly about a foot square, which the popish priests 
carry instead of an altar, when they say mass in gentlemen's houses. Clark then 
ordered him to proceed in his present duty. They then forced the doctor out of 
the church, celebrated mass, and immediately informed the bishop of Winchester 
of his behaviour, who summoned him to appear and answer the complaints alleged 
against him. Dr. Taylor upon receipt of the summons cheerfully prepared to obey 
the same: and on some of his friends advising him to fly beyond sea, in order 
to avoid the cruelty of his inveterate enemies, he told them that he was determined 
to go to the bishop, and he accordingly repaired to London and waited on him. 
As soon as Gardiner saw him, according to his common custom he reviled him calling 
him knave, traitor heretic, with PAGE 636 many other villanous reproaches, which 
Taylor, having patiently heard for some time, at last answered thus without fear 
or impropiety - "My lord, I am neither traitor nor heretic, but a true subject, 
and a faithful christian, and am according to your commandment, to know the cause 
of your lordship's sending for me." "Art thou come, thou villain?" said the violent 
Gardiner; "how darest thou look me in the face for shame? Knowest thou not who 
I am?" "Yes," said Dr. Taylor, "I know who you are, Dr. Stephen Gardiner, bishop 
of Winchester, and lord chancellor, and yet but a mortal man. But if I should 
be afraid of your lordly looks, why fear you not God, the Lord of us all? How 
dare you for shame look any christian in the face, seeing you have forsaken the 
truth, denied our Saviour Christ and his word, and done contrary to your own oath 
and writing? With what countenance will you appear before the judgement seat of 
Christ, and answer to your oath made first unto king Henry, and afterwards unto 
Edward, his son?" The bishop answered, "That was Herod's oath, unlawful; and therefore 
worthy to be broken, I have done well in breaking it; and I thank God I am come 
home again to our mother, the catholic church of Rome and so I would thou shouldest 
do. Our holy father the pope hath discharged me of it." Then said Dr. Taylor, 
"But you shall not be so discharged before Christ, who doubtless will require 
it at your hands, as a lawful oath made to our liege and sovereign lord the king, 
from whose obedience no man can quit you, neither the pope nor any of his." "I 
see," quoth the bishop, "thou art an arrogant knave and a very fool." "My lord," 
saith Dr. Taylor, "I am a Christian man; and you know that 'he that saith to this 
brother, Raca, is in danger of a council: and he that saith, Thou fool, is in 
danger of hell fire.'" The bishop answered, "Ye are false and lairs, all the sort 
of you." "Nay," quoth Dr. Taylor, "we are true men, and know that it is written, 
'The mouth that lieth, slayeth the soul.' And therefore we abide by God's word, 
which ye deny and forsake." "Thou has resisted the queen's proceedings," Said 
Gardiner, "and would not suffer the parson of Aldham, (a very virtuous and devout 
priest,) to say mass in Hadley." Dr. Taylor answered, "My lord, I am parson of 
Hadley; and it is against all right, conscience, and laws, that any man should 
come into my charge, and presume to infect the flock committed unto me with the 
venom of the popish idolatrous mass." With that the bishop waxed very angry, and 
said, "Thou art a blashpemous heretic indeed, that blasphemest the blessed sacrament, 
(And put off his cap,) and speakest against the holy mass, which is made a sacrifice 
for the quick and the dead." Dr. Taylor answered, "Nay, I blaspheme not the blessed 
sacrament which Christ instituted, but I reverence it as a Christian man ought 
to do; and confess that Christ ordained the holy communion in the remembrance 
of his death and passion. - Christ gave himself to die for our redemption upon 
the cross, whose body there offered was the propitatory sacrifice, full, perfect, 
and sufficient unto salvation for all them that believe in him. And this sacrifice 
did our Saviour Christ offer in his own person himself once for all, neither can 
any priest any more offer him, nor we need any more sacrifice." Then the bishop 
called his men, and said, "Have this fellow to the King's Bench, and charge that 
he be straitly kept." Then Taylor knelt, and held up both his hands and said, 
"Good Lord, I thank thee! and from PAGE 637 the tyranny of the bishop of Rome, 
and all his detestable errors, idola- tries, and abominations, good Lord deliver 
us! and God be praised for good king Edward." They carried him to prison to the 
King's Bench, where he was confined almost two years. Of course Gardiner's command 
for strict confinement was obeyed. These several particulars are mentioned in 
a letter that Dr. Taylor wrote to a friend of his, thanking God for his grace, 
at the same time that he had confessed his truth, and was found worthy for truth 
to suffer prison and bonds, beseeching his friends to pray for him, that he might 
persevere constant unto the end. In January, 1555, Dr. Taylor, Mr. Bradford, and 
Mr. Saunders, were again called to appear before the bishops of Winchester, Norwich, 
London, Salisbury, and Durham, and being again charged with heresy and schism, 
a determinate answer was required, whether they would submit themselves to the 
Roman bishop, and abjure their errors, or hear their condemnation. Dr. Taylor 
and his fellows answered stoutly and boldly, that they would not depart from the 
truth which they had preached in king Edward's days, neither would they submit 
to the Romish Antichrist; but they thanked God for so great mercy, that he would 
call them to be worthy to suffer for his word. When the bishops saw them so boldly, 
constantly, and unmovably fixed in the truth, they read the sentence of death 
upon them, which when they heard they most joyfully gave God thanks, and stoutly 
said unto the bishops, "We doubt not, but God the righteous judge will require 
our blood at your hands; and the proudest of you all shall repent this receiving 
again of Antichrist, and your tyranny that ye now show against the flock of Christ." 
When Dr. Taylor had lain in the Compter in the Poultry about a week, on Feb. 4, 
1555, bishop Bonner, with others, came to degrade him, bringing with them such 
ornaments as do appertain to their massing-mummery. He called for Taylor to be 
brought unto him; the bishop being then in the chamber where the keeper of the 
Compter and his wife lay. Dr. Taylor was accordingly brought down from the chamber 
to Bonner. "I wish you would remember yourself, and turn to your holy mother church, 
so may you do well enough, and I will sue for your pardon," said Bonner. Dr. Taylor 
answered - "I wish that you and your fellows would turn to Christ. As for me, 
I will not turn to antichrist." Said the bishop, "I am come to degrade you: wherefore 
put on these vestures." Dr. Taylor said resolutely, "I will not." "Wilt thou not? 
I shall make thee, ere I go," replied Bonner. "You shall not, by the grace of 
God," said Taylor. Again Bonner charged him upon his obedience to do it, but he 
would not. Upon this he ordered another to put them upon his back; and being thoroughly 
furnished therewith, he set his hands to his side, walking up and down, and said 
- "How say you, my lord, am not I a goodly fool? How say you, my masters, if I 
were in Cheapside, should I not have boys to laugh at these apish toys and trumpery?" 
At this Bonner was so enraged, that he would have given Dr. Taylor a stroke on 
the breast with his crosier-staff, when his chaplain said - "My lord, strike him 
not, for he will certainly strike again." The bishop then laid his curse upon 
him, but struck him not. Dr. Taylor said, "Though you curse me, yet God doth bless 
me." PAGE 638ll bless thee, love and cherish the poor people, and count that thy 
chief riches is to be rich in alms; and when thy mother is waxed old, forsake 
her not; but provide for her to thy power, and see that she lack nothing: for 
so will God bless thee, and give thee long life upon earth and prosperity, which 
I pray God to grant thee." And then turning to his wife, he said - "My dear wife, 
continue stedfast in the fear and love of god: keep yourself undefiled from popish 
idolatires and superstition. I have been unto you a faithful yoke-fellow, and 
so have you to me, for which I pray God to reward you, and doubt not but he will 
reward it. Now the time is come that I shall be taken from you, and you discharged 
of the wedlock bond towards me; therefore I will give you the counsel which I 
think most expedient for you. You are yet a child-bearing woman, and therefore 
it will be most convenient for you to marry." On the following morning the sheriff 
of London with his officers, came by two o'clock, and brought him forth, and without 
any light led him to the Woolpack, an inn without Aldgate. Mrs. Taylor, suspecting 
that her husband would that night be carried away, watched all night in St. Botholph's 
church porch, without Algate, having with her two children, the one named Elizabeth, 
an orphan, whom the doctor had adopted at three years old; the other named Mary, 
his own daughter. When the sheriff and his company came against St. Botolph's 
church, the grateful little Elizabeth cried - "O my dear father! mother, mother, 
here is my father led away!" "Rowland," said his wife, "where art thou?" for it 
was so dark a morning, that the one could not see the other. "Dear wife, I am 
here," said the doctor, and stopped. The sheriff's men would have forced him on; 
but the sheriff said - "Stay a little, I pray you, and let him speak to his wife." 
She then came to him, when he took his daughter Mary in his arms, while he, his 
wife, and Elizabeth, kneeled down and said the Lord's prayer. At which sight the 
sheriff wept much, as did several others of the company. The prayer finished, 
Taylor rose up and kissed his wife, PAGE 639 and pressing her hand, he said - 
"Farewell, my dear wife, be of good comfort, for I am quiet in my conscience. 
God shall stir up a father for my children." And then he kissed his daughter Mary, 
and said, "God bless thee, and make thee his servant:" and kissing Elizabeth, 
he said, "God bless thee. I pray you all, stand strong and stedfast unto Christ 
and his word, and beware of idolatry." Then said his wife unto him, "God be with 
thee, my dear Rowland: I will, with God's grace, meet thee at Hadley." He was 
then led on, while his wife followed him. As soon as he came to the Woolpack, 
he was put into a chamber, wherein he was kept with four yeoman of the guard, 
and the sheriff's men. As soon he entered the chamber, he fell on his knees, and 
gave himself wholly to prayer. The sheriff then seeing Mrs. Taylor there, would 
in no case grant her to speak any more with her husband, but gently desired her 
to go to his house, and use it as her own, promising her, that she should lack 
for nothing, and sending two officers to conduct her thither. Notwithstand- ing 
this, she desired to go to her mother's, whither the officers led her, and charged 
her mother to keep her there till they came again. Meanwhile the journey to Hadley 
was delayed. Dr. Taylor was confined at the Woolpack by the sheriff and his company, 
till eleven o'clock, by which time the sheriff of Essex was ready to receive him; 
when they sat him on horseback within the inn, the gates being shut. On coming 
out of the gates his servant John Hull stood at the rails with young Taylor. When 
the doctor saw them,. he called them saying - "Come hither, my son Thomas." John 
Hull lifted the child up, and set him on the horse before his father; who then 
put off his hat, and said to the people - "Good people, this is mine own son, 
begotten in lawful matrimo- ny: and God be blessed for lawful matrimony." Then 
he lifted up his eyes towards heaven and prayed for his child, placing his hat 
upon his head. After blessing him, he delivered him to his faithful servant, whom 
he took by the hand and said - "Farewell, John Hull, the most faithful servant 
ever man had." After this they rode forth, the sheriff of Essex, and four yeomen 
of the guard, and the sheriff's men leading them. When they were come almost to 
Brentwood, one Arthur Faysie, a man of Hadley, who formerly had been Dr. Taylord's 
servant, met with them, and he, supposing him to have been at liberty, said - 
"Master, I am glad to see you again at liberty," and took him by the hand. "Sir," 
returned the sheriff, "he is a prisoner; what hast thou to do with him?" "I cry 
your mercy," said Arthur, "I knew not so much, and I thought it no offence to 
talk to a true man." The sheriff was very angry with this, and threatened to carry 
Arthur with him to prison; notwithstanding he bid him get quickly away. And so 
they rode forth to Brentwood, where they caused to be made for Dr. Taylor a close 
hood. This they did, that no man should know him, nor he to speak to any man; 
which practice they used also with others. All the way, Dr. Taylor was joyful 
and merry, as one that accounted himself going to a most pleasant banquet or bridal. 
He spake many not- able things to the sheriff and yeomen of the guard that conducted 
him, and often moved them to weep through his much earnest calling upon them Page 
640 to repent, and turn to the true religion. Of these yeomen of the guard three 
used him very tenderly, but the fourth, named Holmes, treated him most unkindly. 
The party supped and slept at Chelmsford. At supper the sheriff earnestly besought 
him to return to the popish religon, thinking with fair words to persuade him, 
and said - "Good Doctor, we are sorry for you, considering the loss of such a 
man as you. You would do much better to revoke your opinions, and return to the 
catholic church of Rome, acknowledge the pope's holiness to be the supreme head 
of the church, and reconcile yourselves to him. You may do well yet if you will: 
doubt not but you shall find favour at the queen's hands. I and all these your 
friends will be suitors for your pardon; this council I give you, Doctor, of a 
good heart and will towards you: and therefore I drink to you." In this joined 
all the rest. When the cup was handed to him, he staid a little, as one studying 
what answer he might give. At last he said - "Mr. Sheriff, and my masters all, 
I heartily thank you for your good will; I have attended to your words, and marked 
well your counsels. And to be plain with you, I find that I have been deceived 
myself, and am like to deceive a great many of Hadley of their expectation." With 
that word they all rejoiced. "Yes, Doctor," said the sheriff, "God's blessing 
on your heart; hold you there still. It is the most comfortable word we have heard 
you speak yet." The cheerful man then explained himself, "I will tell you how 
I have been deceived, and, as I think, I shall deceive a great many. I am, as 
you see, a man of a very large body, which I thought should have been buried in 
Hadley church-yard, had I died as I hoped I should have done; but herein I was 
deceived; and there are a great number of worms in Hadley church yard, which would 
have had merry feeding upon me; but now I know we shall be deceived, both I and 
they; for this carcass must be burned to ashes, and they shall lose their feast." 
When the sheriff and his company heard him say so, they were amazed, and looking 
one on another, marvelled at his constant mind, that thus without fear he could 
speak of the torment and death now prepared for him. At Chelmsford he was delivered 
to the sheriff of Suffolk, and by him conducted to Hadley. On their arrival at 
Lavenham, the sheriff staid there two days; and thither came to him a great number 
of gentlemen and justices, who were appointed to aid him. These endeavoured very 
much to reduce the Doctor to the Romish religion, promising him his pardon, which 
they said they had for him. They also promised him great promo- tions, even a 
bisopric if he would take it: but all their labour and flattery were in vain. 
When they came to Hadley, and were passing the bridge, there waited a poor man 
with five children; who when they saw Dr. Taylor, fell down upon their knees, 
and holding up their hands, cried with a loud voice - "O dear father and good 
shepherd! God help and succour thee as thou hast many a time succoured us!" Such 
witness had the servant of God of his virtuous and charitable life. The streets 
of Hadley were crowded with men and women of the town and country, who waited 
to see him; and in beholding him led to death, with weeping eyes and lamentine 
voices they cried on to another - "Ah, good Lord! there PAGE 641 goeth our good 
shephard from us, who so faithfully hath taught us, so fatherly hath cared for 
us, and so godly hath governed us! Good Lord, strengthen and comfort him." Arriving 
over against the alms-houses, which he well knew, he cast money to the poor people, 
that remained out of what had been given him in the time of his imprisonment. 
His living of Hadley they took from him at his first going to prison, so that 
he was sustained by the charitable alms of good people that visited him. At the 
last, coming to Aldham-common, and seeing a great multitude, he asked, "What place 
is this, and what meaneth it that so much people are gathered hither?" It was 
answered, "It is Aldham-common, the place where you must suffer; and the people 
are come to behold you." Then said he, "Thanked be God, I am even at home;" and 
so alighted from his horse, and with both his hands rent the hood from his head. 
When the people saw him, they cried, "God save thee, good Dr. Taylor! Jesus Christ 
strengthen thee and help thee; the Holy Ghost comfort thee:" with such other like 
godly wishes. Then desired Dr. Taylor license of the sheriff to speak; but he 
denied it him. Perceiving that he could not be suffered to speak, he sat down, 
and seeing one named Soyce, he called him, and said - "Soyce, I pray thee come 
and pull off my boots, and take them for thy labour: thou hast long looked for 
them, now take them." Then he rose up and put off his clothes unto his shirt, 
and gave them away. Which done, he said with a loud voice - "Good people, I have 
taught you nothing but God's holy word, and those lessons that I have taken out 
of God's blessed book, the Holy Bible: and I am come hither this day, to seal 
it with my blood." On hearing his voice, the yeoman of the guard who had used 
him cruelly all the way, gave him a great stroke upon the head and said - "Is 
that keeping thy promise, thou heretic?" Then seeing they would not permit him 
to speak, he kneeled down and prayed, and a poor woman who was among the people 
stepped in and prayed with him: they endeavoured to thrust her away, and threatened 
to tread her down with their horses: notwith- standing this she would not remove, 
but abode and prayed with him. When he had finished his devotions, he went to 
the stake and kissed it, and set himself into a pitch barrel, which they had brought 
for him to stand in, and thus stood with his back upright against the stake, with 
his hands folded together, and his eyes towards heaven, and continually prayed. 
Then they bound a chain around him, and the sheriff called Richard Donningham, 
a butcher, and commanded him to set up the fagots; but the man refused, and said 
- "I am lame, sir, and not able to lift a fagot." The sheriff on this threatened 
to send him to prison; still he would not do it. The sheriff then compelled several 
worthless fellows of the multitiude to set up the fagots and make the fire, which 
they most diligently did: and one of them cruelly cast a fagot at the martyr, 
which struck him on the face, and the blood ran down. He meekly said - "O friend, 
I have suffering enough, what needed that?" Sir John Shelton standing by, as Dr. 
Taylor was speaking, and saying the psalm Miserere in English, struck him on the 
lips - 'You knave," he said, "speak Latin, or I will make thee." At last they 
kindled the fire; when the martyr, holding up his hands, called upon God, and 
said, PAGE 642 said, "Merciful Father of heaven, for Jesus Christ my Saviour's 
sake, receive my soul into thy hands." He then remained still without either crying 
or moving, with his hands folded together, till Soyce with an halberd struck him 
on the head so violently, that his brains fell out, and the dead corpse fell down 
into the fire. Thus rendered he his soul into the hands of his merciful Father, 
and to his most dear and certain Saviour Jesus Christ, whom he most entirely loved, 
faithfully and ear- nestly preached, obediently followed in living, and constantly 
glorified in death. These severities were very hateful to the nation. It was observed 
that in king Edward's time, those that opposed the laws were only turned out of 
their benefices, and some few of them were imprisoned; but now men were put in 
prison on trifling pretences, and kept there till laws were made, by which they 
were condemned merely for their opinions, when they had acted nothing contrary 
to law. One piece of cruelty was remarkable - when the council sent away those 
who were to be burnt in the country, they threatened to cut out their tongues 
if they would not promise to make no speeches to the people; to which they, to 
avoid that butchery, consented. Those who loved the reformation were now possessed 
with great aversion to the popish party, and the body of the nation now detested 
this cruelty, and began to hate king Philip for it. Gardiner and the other counsellors 
had openly said, that the queen set them on to it, so that the blame of it was 
laid on the king, the sourness of whose temper, together with his bigotry in matters 
of religion, made it seem reason- able. He finding that this was likely to raise 
such prejudices against him as might probably spoil his design of making himself 
master of England, took care to vindicate himself. Accordingly his confessor, 
Alphonsus, a Franciscan, preached a sermon at court against taking people's lives 
for opinions in religion; and inveighed against the bishops for doing it; thus 
the blame of it was turned back on them, and this made them stop for some weeks; 
but at last they resolved rather to bear it avowedly, than not advance in their 
favourite career of blood! At this time a petition was printed beyond sea, by 
which the reformers addressed themselves to the queen: they set before her the 
danger of being carried by a blind zeal to destroy the members of Christ, as St. 
Paul had done before his conversion: they reminded her of Cranmer's interposing 
to preserve her life in her father's time: they cited many passages out of the 
books of Gardiner, Bonner, and Tonstal, by which she might see that they were 
not actuated by true principles of conscience, but were turned as their fears 
or interests led them. They shewed her how contrary persecution was to the spirit 
of the gospel; that Chris- tians tolerated Jews; and that Turks, notwithstanding 
the barbarity of their tempers, and the cruelty of their religion, yet tolerated 
Chris- tians. They reminded her, that the first law for burning in England was 
made by Henry the IV. as a reward to the bishops who had helped him to depose 
Richard the II. and so to mount the throne. They represented to her, that God 
had trusted her with the sword, which she ought to employ for the protection of 
her people, and not to abandon them to the cruelty of wolves. The petition also 
appealed to the nobility and the rest of the nation, on the dangers of a Spanish 
yoke, and a bloody PAGE 643 inquisition set before them. Upon this the popish 
authors wrote several books in justification of those proceedings. They observed 
that the Jews were commanded to put blasphemers to death; and said, the heretics 
blasphemed the body of Christ, and called it only a piece of bread. Various other 
pleas were set up, and the nation had bitter experience in the coming years of 
the vigilance and industry with which they were acted upon. Section IV. An account 
of several Protestants, who were persecuted, tormented, and most of them burned, 
under the tyranny of Bonner, Bishop of London. Stephen Gardiner, having condemned 
and burned several great and learned men, presumed that these examples would deter 
all in future from oppos- ing the popish religion: but in this he found himself 
deceived, for within eight or nine days after sentence had passed against bishop 
Hooper and others, six other christians were brought to be examined for the same 
cause. Gardiner seeing this, became discouraged, and from that day meddled no 
more in such kind of condemnations; but referred the whole of this cruel business 
to the more sanguinary Bonner, bishop of London; who called before him in his 
consistory at St. Paul's (the lord mayor and several aldermen sitting with him) 
the six persons, upon the 8th of February, and on the next day read the sentence 
of condemnation upon them. But as their death did not take place till the next 
month, we will defer the account till we come to the time of their suffering, 
and proceed with other incidents of this bloody reign. What occasioned their execution 
to be delayed even a month, cannot with certainty be declared; conjecture, however, 
reasonably ascribes it to the lenient sermon of Alphonsus, the king's confessor: 
for, added to the discourse already mentioned, he preached other sermons of the 
same kind, in which he pleaded the cause of reasoning to convert heretics, rather 
than burning to destroy them. Dr. Robert Farrar, bishop of St. David's, was about 
this time apprehend- ed, and sent to his diocese, where, as we shall soon perceive, 
he suffered the usual cruel death. Some trifling disturbances in London were made 
a pretext for arresting and imprisoning other protestants. The lord chancellor 
caused the image of Thomas a Becket to be set up over the Mercers' chapel door, 
in Cheapside, in the form and shape of a bishop, with mitre and cross, but within 
two days after its erection, its head was taken off; whereupon arose great trouble, 
and many were suspected: among whom one Mr. John Barnes, mercer, dwelling over 
against the chapel, was vehemently by the lord chancellor charged as the offender, 
and the rather as he was a professor of the truth. Wherefore he and three of his 
servants were committed to prison: and at his deliv- ery, although nothing could 
be proved against him, he was bound in a great sum of money, as well to build 
it up again so often as it should be broke down, as also to watch and keep the 
same. Therefore the image PAGE 644 was again set up; but in a few days the head 
was again broken off; which offence was so heinously taken, that the next day, 
there was a proclama- tion that whoever would discover the perpetrator, should 
not only have his pardon, but also one hundred crowns of gold, with hearty thanks. 
But it was never known who did it. Queen Mary at length, after long delay, made 
full answer to the king of Denmark, who had written two letters to her in the 
behalf of Mr. Cover- dale, for his deliverance, who at that time went under sureties, 
and was in great danger, had he not been rescued by the suit and letters of the 
Danish monarch. An intimation was set forth in February 1555, in the name of bishop 
Bonner, wherein was contained a general monition, and strict charge given to every 
man and woman within his diocese, to prepare themselves against the approaching 
Lent, to receive the glad tidings of peace and reconciliation sent from pope Julius 
III. by Pole his cardinal and legate. Judge Hales, of Kent, was now brought before 
the lord chancellor, and examined respecting his having resisted the ceremony 
of the mass, or rather for having acted according to his duty as a justice, and 
as the law then stood, when several Romish priests had been indicted and brought 
before him. Not giving satisfactory answers to the chancellor, he was committed 
to prison. While there he was waited upon by Dr. Day and judge Portman, who by 
some means so worked upon his mind that he was filled with despair; and after 
in vain attempting to destroy himself by a penknife, he found means of drowning 
himself in a shallow river. This unhappy gentleman had, at the death of king Edward, 
stood firmly in defence of Mary's claim and title to the crown. But this service 
was found insufficient to protect him from the persecuting rage of the Roman catholic 
bishops and priests. Mention was made before of six prisoners brought before Bonner 
the 8th of February, whose names were Tomkins, Pygot, Knight, Haukes, Lawrence, 
and Hunter. Thomas Tomkins, a weaver by occupation, and an honest Christian, dwelling 
in Shoreditch, was kept in prison six months and treated with the utmost cruelty. 
Bonner's rages was so great against him that he beat him about the face, and plucked 
off a piece of his beard with his own hands: yet was Tomkins so endued with God's 
mighty Spirit, and so constantly planted in the perfect knowledge of God's truth, 
that by no means could he be removed therefrom. Whereupon this bishop, being greatly 
vexed, devised another practice not so strange as cruel, further to try his constancy. 
So being at his palace at Fulham, and having with him Dr. Chedsey, masters Harpsfield, 
Pembleton, Willerton, and others standing by, he called for Tomkins; who coming 
before the bishop, and standing as he was wont in defence of his faith, Bonner 
fell from beat- ing to burning. For having a taper or wax candle of three or four 
wicks standing upon the table, he took Tomkins by the fingers, and held his hand 
directly over the flame, supposing that by the smart and pain of the fire being 
terrified, he would leave off the defence of his doctrine which he had received. 
Tomkins, thinking that he was there presently to die, began to commend himself 
unto the Lord, saying, "O Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit," etc. His 
hand being in burning, Tomkins afterwards reported to one James Hinse, that his 
spirit was so rapt that he felt no pain. In the burning he never shrunk, till 
the viens shrunk, PAGE 645 and the sinews burst, and the water spurted in Mr. 
Harpsfield's face: insomuch that he, moved with pity, desired the priest to stay, 
saying, that he had tried him enough. When he had been half a year in prison, 
he was brought with several others before bishop Bonner in his consistory, to 
be examined. Against him first was brought forth a certain bill or schedule subscribed 
with his own hand, the fifth day of the same month, containing these words following 
- "Thomas Tomkins of Shoreditch, and of the diocese of London, hath believed and 
doth believe, that in the sacrament of the altar, under the forms of bread and 
wine, there is not the very body and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ in substance, 
but only a token and remem- brance thereof, the very body and blood of Christ 
being only in heaven and no where else. By me, Thomas Tomkins." On this being 
read he was asked, whether he did acknowledge the same subscription to be of his 
own hand. He granted it so to be. The bishop then went about to persuade him with 
fair words, rather than with good reasons, to relinquish his opinions, and to 
return to the unity of the catholic church, promising if he would do so to remit 
all that was past. But he constantly refused. When the bishop saw he could not 
convince him, he brought forth and read to him another writing, containing arti- 
cles and interrogatories, whereunto he should come the next day and answer: in 
the mean time he should deliberate with himself what to do: and then either to 
revoke and reclaim himself, or else in the afternoon of the same day to come again 
and have justice administered unto him. The copy of the articles is as follows. 
"Thou dost believe, that in the sacrament of the altar, under the forms of bread 
and wine, there is not by the omnipotent power of Almighty God, and his holy word, 
really, truly, and in very deed, the very true and natural body of our Saviour 
Jesus Christ, as touching the substance thereof, which was conceived in the womb 
of the Virgin Mary, and hanged upon the cross, suffering death there for the life 
of the world. "Thou dost believe, that after the consecration of the bread and 
wine prepared for the use of the sacrament of the altar, there doth remain the 
substance of material bread and material wine, not changed nor altered in substance 
by the power of Almighty God, but remaining as it did before. "Thou dost believe, 
that it is an untrue doctrine, and a false belief, to think or say, that in the 
sacrament of the altar there is, after consecration of the bread and wine, the 
substance of Christ's natural body and blood, by the omnipotent power of Almighty 
God, and his holy word. "Thou dost believe that thy parents, kinsfolks, friends, 
and acquaint- ance, and also thy godfathers and godmothers, and all people did 
err, and were deceived, if they did believe, that in the sacrament of the altar 
there was, after consecration, the body and blood of Christ, and that there did 
not remain the substance of material bread and wine." To these several articles 
Tomkins declared his free and full consent; acknowledging after each, that what 
he was charged with believing he did believe. PAGE 646 The next day, Tomkins was 
again brought before the bishop and his assis- tants, where the articles were 
again propounded unto him: whereunto he answered in substance as he had done before, 
avowing at the same time his belief in the scriptures, and his persuasion that 
popery was opposed to them. After this answer he also subscribed his name to what 
he had declared. Whereupon, the bishop drawing out of his bosom another con- fession 
subscribed with Tomkins' hand and, also the article that was the first day objected 
against him, caused the same to be openly read, and then willed him to revoke 
and deny his opinions, which he utterly refused to do: therefore he was commanded 
to appear before the bishops again in the same place at two in the afternoon. 
Agreeably with this mandate, being brought before the bloody tribunal of bishops, 
and pressed to recant his errors and return to the mother church; he main- tained 
his fidelity, nor would swerve in the least from the articles he had signed. Having 
therefore declared him an obstinate and damnable heretic, they delivered him up 
to the secular power, and he was burned in Smithfield, March 6th, 1555, triumphing 
in the midst of the flames, and adding to the noble company of martyrs, who had 
preceded him through the path of the fiery trial to the realms of immortal glory. 
The second of this noble band of intrepid saints was an apprentice of only nineteen 
years of age. His name was William Hunter. He had trained to the doctrine of the 
reformation from his earliest youth, being descended from religious parents, who 
carefully instructed him in the principles of true religion. When queen Mary succeeded 
to the crown, orders were issued to the priests of every parish, to summon all 
their parishioners to receive the communion at mass, the Easter after her accession; 
and Hunter, refusing to obey the summons, was threatened to be brought before 
the bishop. His master, fearful of incurring ecclesiastical censure, desired him 
to leave him for a time, upon which he quitted his service, went down to Brentwood, 
and resided with his father about six weeks. One day, finding the chapel open, 
he entered and began to read in the English bible, which lay upon the desk, but 
was severely reprimanded by an officer of the bishop's court, who said to him 
- "William, why meddlest thou with the bible? Understandest thou what thou readest? 
Canst thou expound scripture?" He replied - "I presume not to expound scripture; 
but find- ing the bible here, I read for my comfort and edification." The officer 
then informed a neighbouring priest of the liberty the young man had taken in 
reading the bible; the priest therefore severely chid him, saying - "Sirrah, who 
gave thee leave to read the bible and expound it?" To this fierce rebuke he answered 
as he had done to the officer, and on the priest's telling him, that it became 
him not to meddle with the scriptures, he frankly declared his resolution to read 
them as long as he lived, as well as reproved the vicar for discouraging persons 
from that practice, which the scripture so strongly enjoined. On this the priest 
upbraided him as heretic: he denied the charge, and being asked PAGE 647 his opinion 
concerning the corporeal presence in the sacrament of the altar, he replied, that 
he esteemed the bread and wine but as figures, and looked upon the sacrament as 
an institution in remembrance of the death and sufferings of our blessed Lord 
and Savior Jesus Christ. He was then openly declared a heretic, for not believing 
in the sacrament of the altar, and the vicar threatened to complain to the bishop. 
A neighbouring justice, named Brown, having heard that he maintained heretical 
principles, sent for his father and enquired of him concerning his son; the old 
man assured him that he had left him, that he know not whither he was gone: and 
on the justice threatening to imprison him, he said with tears in his eyes - "Whould 
you have me seek out my son to be burned?" The old man, however, was obliged to 
seek him; and by accident meeting him, with tears said, that it was by command 
of the justice who threatened to imprison him. The son, to prevent his father 
incurring danger, said that he was ready to accompany him home; on which they 
returned together. The following day, he was taken and kept in the stocks four 
and twenty hours; and then brought before the justice, who called for a bible, 
and turning to the sixth chapter of St. John, desired his opinion of the meaning 
of it, as it related to the sacrament of the altar. He fearlessly gave the same 
explanation as he had done to the priest, persisting in his denial of the corporeal 
presence; the justice upbraided him with damnable heresy, and wrote to the bishop 
of London, to whom this valiant young martyr was soon conducted. After Bonner 
had read the letter, he caused William to be brought into the chamber, where he 
began to reason with him in this manner - "I understand, Willian Hunter, by Mr. 
Brown's letter, that you have had communication with the vicar of Weld, about 
the blessed sacrament of the altar, and that you could not agree; whereupon Mr. 
Brown sent for to bring you to the catholic faith, from which, he saith, you have 
departed. Howbeit, if you will be ruled by me, you shall have no harm for any 
thing said or done in this matter." To this William answered - "I am not fallen 
from the catholic faith of Christ, I am sure; but do believe it, and confess it 
with all my heart." Said the bishop - "How sayest thou to the blessed sacrament 
of the altar? Wilt thou not recant thy saying before Mr. Brown, that Christ's 
body is not in the sacrament of the altar, the same that was born of the Virgin 
Mary?" No way daunted, WIlliam said - "My lord, I understand that Mr. Brown hath 
certified you of the talk which he and I had togeth- er, and thereby you know 
what I said to him, which I will not recant by God's help." Then said the bishop, 
"I think thou art ashamed to bear a fagot, and recant openly; but if thou wilt 
recant privately, I will promise that thou shalt not be put to open shame: even 
speak the word here now between me and thee, and I will promise it shall go no 
further, and thou shalt go home again without any hurt." To this cunning, William 
replied - "My lord, if you let me alone, and leave me to my conscience, I will 
go to my father and dwell with him, or else with my master again, and if nobody 
disquiet nor trouble my conscience, I will keep my conscience to myself." PAGE 
648 Then said the bishop, "I am content, so that thou wilt go to the church, and 
receive, and be shriven; and so continue a good catholic Christian." "No," quoth 
William, "I will not do so for the good in the world." "The," quoth the bishop, 
"If you will not do so, I will make you sure enough, I warrant you." "Well," replied 
William, "you can do no more than God will permit you." "Wilt thou not recant 
by any means?" said the bishop. "No," quoth William, "never while I live, God 
willing!" Then the bishop commanded his men to put William in the stocks in the 
gatehouse, where he sat two days and nights, only with a crust of bread and a 
cup of water. At the two days' end the bishop came, and finding the crust and 
the water still by him, said to his men, "Take him out of the stocks, and let 
him break his fast with you." After breakfast, Bonner sent for William, and demanded 
whether he would recant or no. But he made answer, how that he would never recant 
as concerning his faith in Christ. Then the bishop said that he was no Christian; 
but he denied the faith in which he was baptized. But William answered, "I was 
baptized in the faith of the Holy Trinity, which I will not go from, God assisting 
me with his grace." Then the bishop sent him to the convict prison, and commanded 
the keeper to lay irons upon him, as many as he could bear; and moreover asked 
asked him how old he was. William said that he was nineteen years old. "Well," 
said the bishop, "you will be burned ere you be twenty years old, if you will 
not yield yourself better than you have done yet." William answered, "God strengthen 
me in his truth." And then he parted, the bishop allowing him a halfpenny a day 
to live on, in bread or drink. Thus he continued in prison three quarters of a 
year: in the which time he was before the bishop five times, besides when he was 
condemned in the consistory in St. Paul's, the 9th day of February; at the which 
his brother, Robert Hunter, (who continued with his brother William till his death, 
and sent the true report unto us,) was present, and heard the bishop condemn him 
and five others. At one time the bishop, calling for Hunter, asked him if he would 
recant, saying, "If thou wilt yet recant, I will make thee a freeman in the city, 
and give thee forty pounds in good money to set up thine occupation withal; or 
I will make thee steward of my house, and set thee in office; for I like thee 
well, thou hast wit enough, and I will prefer thee if thou recant." But William 
answered, "I thank you for your great offers; notwithstanding, my lord, if you 
cannot persuade my conscience with Scriptures, I cannot find in my heart to turn 
from God for the love of the world; for I count all things worldly, but loss and 
dung, in respect of the love of Christ." Then said the bishop, "If thou diest 
in this mind, thou art condemned for ever." William answered, "God judgeth righteously, 
and justifieth them whom man condemneth unjustly." Then the bishop departed, and 
William and the other prisoners returned to Newgate. About a month after, Hunter 
was sent to Brentwood, on the Saturday before the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary 
that followed on the Monday after; he therefore remained till the Tuesday, because 
they would not put him to death then, for the holiness of the day. In the mean 
time William's father and mother came to him, and desired heartily of God that 
he might continue as he had begun: and his mother said to him, that she was glad 
that ever she bare such a child, who could find in his PAGE 649 heart to lose 
his life for Christ's sake. To this he replied - "For the little pain I shall 
suffer, which will soon be at an end, Christ hath promised me, mother, a crown 
of joy; should not you be glad of that?" With that his mother kneeled down, saying 
- "I pray God strengten thee, my son, to the end: yea, I think thee as well bestowed 
as any child I ever bore." His father, suppressing his tears, then said - "I was 
afraid of nothing but that my son would have been killed in the prison by hunger 
and cold;" a result, however, which the good parent had prevented as well as apprehended, 
for he was at the expence of the very best food and clothing he could send him, 
which the son gratefully acknowledged. He continued at the Swan inn, Brentwood, 
whither resorted many people to see him: and many of William's acquaintance came 
to him, and reasoned with him, and he with them, exhorting them to come away from 
the abomi- nation of popish superstition and idolatry. The short time before his 
martyrdom was thus usefully passed. On Monday night, William dreamed that he was 
at the place where the stake was pitched, at which he should be burned: he also 
thought that he met with his father, and that there was a priest at the stake 
who wanted him to recant; to who he said - "Away, false prophet!" and exhorted 
the people to beware of him, and such as he was: all which came to pass. In the 
morning he was commanded by the sheriff to prepare for his fate. At the same time, 
the sheriff's son came to him, and embraced him, saying - "William, be not afraid 
of these men with bows and weapons prepared to bring you to the place where you 
shall be burned." "I thank God I am not afraid," replied the undaunted youth, 
"for I have reckoned what it will cost me already." Then the sheriff's son could 
speak no more to him for weeping. Hunter then took up his gown, and went foreward 
cheerfully, the sheriff's servant taking him by one arm, and his brother by the 
other; and going along he met with his father according to his dream, who said 
to him weeping - "God be with thee, son William." "God be with you, good father," 
said he, "and be of good comfort; for I hope we shall meet again, when we shall 
be joyful." He then went to the place where the stake stood, even according to 
his dream; where all things not being ready, he kneeled and read the 51st Psalm, 
till he came to these words - "The sacrifice of God is a contrite spirit, a contrite 
and a broken heart, O God, thou wilt not despise." As one was attempting to dispute 
the translation of the words, the sheriff brought a letter from the queen, and 
said - "If thou wilt recant, thou shalt live; if not, thou shalt be burned." "I 
will not recant, God willing," answered the noble youth: on which he rose up and 
went to the stake, and stood upright against it. Addressing the justice, he said 
- "Mr. Brown, now you have that which you sought, and I pray God it be not laid 
to your charge in the last day; howbeit I forgive you. If God forgive you, I shall 
not require my blood at your hands." He then prayed - "Son of God, shine upon 
me!" and immediately the sun in the element shone out of a dark cloud so full 
in his face, that he was constrained to look another way; whereat the people wondered, 
because it was much obscured before. Then then took up a fagot of broom, and PAGE 
650 embraced it. The priest which he had dreamed of now came to his brother Robert, 
with a popish book to carry to William, that he might recant; which book his brother 
would not meddle with. Then William, seeing the priest, and perceiving how he 
would have showed him the book, said, "Away, thou false prophet! Beware of them, 
good people, and come away from their abominations, lest ye be partakers of their 
plagues." "Then," quoth the priest, "look how thou burnest here, so shalt thou 
burn in hell." William answered, "Thou liest, thou false prophet! Away, thou false 
prophet, away!" Then was there a gentleman who said, "I pray God have mercy upon 
his soul." The people said, "Amen, Amen!" Immediately after, the fire was made. 
Then William cast his psalter to his brother, who said, "William! think on the 
holy passion of Christ, and be not afraid of death." And William answered, "I 
am not afraid." Then lift he up his hands to heaven, and said, "Lord, Lord, Lord, 
receive my spirit;" and, casting down his head again into the smothering smoke, 
he yielded up his life for the truth, sealing it with his blood to the praise 
of God. Mention has already been made of six persons who were examined and condemned 
by bishop Bonner, of the which two were burned as ye have heard, viz., Tomkins 
of the 16th of March, and Hunter of the 26th of the same month. Three others, 
to wit, William Pygot and Stephen Knight suffered upon the 28th of March, and 
John Laurence on the following day. At their examinations it was first demanded 
of them what their opinion was of the sacrament of the altar. Whereunto they severally 
answered and also subscribed, that in the sacrament of the altar, under the forms 
of bread and wine, there is not the very substance of the body and blood of our 
Saviour Jesus Christ, but a special partaking of the body and blood of Christ; 
the very body and blood of Christ being only in heaven, and nowhere else. This 
reply thus made, the bishop caused certain articles to be read unto them, tending 
to the same effect as did the articles before of Tomkins, and their answers were 
very similar. The present examination ended, they were commanded to appear again 
the next day, being the 9th of February, at eight o'clock in the morning, and 
in the meanwhile to bethink themselves what they would do. The next day, before 
their open appearance, Bonner sent for Pygot and Knight into his great chamber 
in his palace, where he persuaded with them in recant, and deny their former profession. 
They answered that they could not in their consciences abjure their opinions, 
whereunto they had subscribed. The bishop also had certain talk with John Laurence 
only, who answered that he was a priest, and was consecrated and made a priest 
about eighteen years past; that he was some time a black friar professed; as also 
that he was assured unto a maid, whom he intended to have married. And being again 
demanded his opinion upon the sacrament, he said that it was a remembrance of 
Christ's body, and that many have been deceived in believing the true body of 
Christ to be in the sacrament of the altar: and that all such as do not believe 
as he doth, do err. Being all three brought openly into the consistory, the same 
articles were propounded unto them as unto Thomas Tomkins, and thereto they also 
subscribed these word, "I do so believe." After many fair words and threatenings, 
they were all of them commanded to appear again in the afternoon. At that hour 
they returned thither, and there after the accustomed manner were exhorted to 
recant and revoke their doctrine, and receive the faith. To the which they constantly 
answered that they would not, but would stick to that faith that they had declared 
and subscribed unto; for that they did believe that it was no error which they 
believed, but that the contrary thereof was very heresy. When the bishop saw that 
neither his flatterings nor his threatenings would prevail, he gave them severally 
their judgments. And because John Laurence had been one of their anointed priests, 
he was by the bishop there solemnly degraded. Their sentence of condemnation and 
this degradation ended, they were committed unto the custody of the sheriffs of 
London, who sent them unto Newgate, where they remained with joy together, until 
they were carried into Essex: and there, on the 28th day of March, the said William 
Pygot was burned at Braintree; and Stephen Knight at Maldon, who at the stake 
kneeling upon the ground, said this prayer which here followeth, the spirit of 
which the reader should mark, and compare with the prayer of the papists at the 
sacrifice of the mass:- "O Lord Jesus Christ, for whose love I leave willingly 
this life, and desire rather the bitter death of thy cross, with the loss of all 
earth- ly things, than to abide the blasphemy of thy most holy name, or to obey 
men in breaking thy holy commandment: thou seest, O Lord, that where I might live 
in worldly wealth to worship a false God, and honour thine enemy, I choose rather 
the torment of the body, and the loss of this life, and have counted all things 
but vile dust and dung, that I might win thee; which death is dearer unto me than 
thousands of gold and silver. Such love, O Lord, hast thou laid up in my breast, 
that I hunger for thee, as the wounded deer desireth the pasture. Send thy holy 
comforter, O Lord, to aid, comfort, and strengthen this weak piece of earth, which 
is empty of all strength in itself. Thou rememberest, O Lord, that I am but dust, 
and able to do nothing that is good; there- fore, O Lord, as of thine accustomed 
goodness and love thou hast invited me to this banquet, and accounted me worthy 
to drink of thine own cup amongst thine elect; even so give me strength, O Lord, 
against this raging element, which as to my sight is most irksome and terrible, 
so to my mind it may at thy commandment be sweet and pleasant; that by the strength 
of thy Holy Spirit, I may pass through the rage of this fire into thy bosom, according 
to thy promise, for this mortal receive an immortal life, and for this corruptible 
put on incorruption. Accept this burnt offering, O Lord, not for the sacrifice, 
but for thy dear Son's sake my Saviour, for whose testimony I offer it with all 
my heart and with all my soul. O heavenly Father, forgive me my sins, as I forgive 
all the world. O sweet Son of God my Saviour, spread thy wings over me. O blessed 
and Holy Ghost, through whose merciful inspiration I am come hither, conduct me 
into everlasting life. Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit. Amen." The next 
day Mr. Laurence was taken to Colchester. The irons he had worn in prison had 
so injured his limbs, and his body was so reduced by want of food, that he was 
taken to the fire in a chair, and so sitting, was in his constant faith consumed. 
An incident worthy of remark occurred at his martyrdom: several young children 
came about the fire, and cried, as PAGE 652 well as they could speak, "Lord, strengthen 
thy servant, and keep thy promise: strengthen thy servant, according to thy promise." 
God answered their prayer, for Mr. Laurence died as firmly and calmly as any one 
could wish to breathe his last. Thomas Causton, of Thundersby in Essex, and Thomas 
Higbed, of Horndon on the Hill, were zealous and religious in the true service 
of God. As they could not dissemble with the Lord, nor flatter with the world, 
so in this age of darkness and idolatry, they could not long lie hid from such 
a number of adversaries; but at length were perceived, and discovered to Bonner, 
by whose command they were committed to the officers of Colchester, to be safely 
kept, together with a servant of Causton, who was not inferior to his master in 
true piety. Bonner perceiving these gentlemen to be of good estate, and of great 
estimation in their country, lest any tumult should thereby arise, went himself, 
accompanied by Mr. Fecknam and several others, thinking to reclaim them; so that 
great labour and diligence was taken therein, as well by terrors and threatenings, 
as by great promises and all fair means, to reduce them again to the unity of 
the mother church. Finding, however, after all that nothing could prevail, and 
that they remained steady in their doctrine, setting out also their confession 
in writing, the bishop departed thence, and carried them both with him to London, 
and with them certain other prisoners, who about the same time were apprehended 
in those parts. They were brought to open examination at the consistory in St. 
Paul's, February 17th, 1555, where they were demanded as well by Bonner, as also 
by the bishop of Bath and others, whether they would recant their errors and perverse 
doctrine, and come to the unity of the popish church. On their refusing, the bishop 
ordered them to appear again next day; when he read several articles, and gave 
them respite until the following day to answer to the same, till which time they 
were again committed. The articles being given them in writing, a week was assigned 
them to give up and exhibit their answers to them. Accordingly on the 1st of March, 
being brought before the bishop in the consistory, they there exhibited their 
answers to the articles, in which they declared the true faith. Then the bishop, 
reading their former articles and answers to the same, asked them if they would 
recant; which when they denied, they were again dismissed, and commanded to appear 
in another week. On the 8th of March, therefore, Mr. Causton was first called 
to be re-examined before the bishop and others in his palace, and there had read 
unto him his aforesaid articles with his answers. The bishop again exhorted and 
persuaded him to recant, but he answered - "No, I will not abjure. You said that 
the bishops who were lately burned were heretics, but I pray God make me such 
a heretic as they were." The bishop then leaving Mr. Causton, called for Mr. Higbed, 
using with him the like persuasions that he did with the other; but he answered, 
"I will not abjure; for I have been of this mind and opinion that I am now these 
sixteen years: and do what ye can, ye shall do no more than God will permit you 
to do; and with what measure you measure us, look for the same again at God's 
hands." Then Fecknam asked his opinion in the sacrament of the altar. To whom 
he answered, "I do not believe that PAGE 653 Christ is in the sacrament as ye 
will have him, which is of man's mak- ing." Both their answers thus severally 
made, they were again command- ed to depart for that time, and to appear the next 
day in the consistory at St. Paul's, between one and three in the afternoon. At 
which day and hour, being the 9th of March, they were both brought thither. The 
bishop caused Causton's articles and answers first to be read openly, and after 
persuaded with him to recant and adjure his heretical opinions, and to come home 
now, at the last, to their mother the catholic church, and save himself. But Causton 
answered again, "No, I will not abjure; for I came not hither for that purpose:" 
and there withal he did exhibit in writing unto the bishop (as well in his own 
name, as also in Thomas Higbed's name) a confession of their fiath, to the which 
they would stand. He required leave to read the same, which after great suit was 
obtained; and he read it openly in the hearing of the people. When he had thus 
delivered their confession, the bishop, still persisting sometimes in fair promises, 
sometimes threatening to pronounce judgement, asked them if they would stand to 
this their confession and other answers. To whom Causton said, "We will stand 
to our answers written with our own hands, and to our belief therein contained. 
After which the bishop began to pronounce sentence against him. Then Causton said 
that it was much rashness, and without all love and mercy, to give judgement without 
answering to their confession by the truth of God's word, to which they submitted 
themselves most will- ingly. "And therefore," he said, "because I cannot have 
justice at your hand, but that ye will thus rashly condemn me, I do appeal from 
you to my lord cardinal." Then Dr. Smith said that he would answer their confession. 
But the bishop (not suffering him to speak) willed Harpsfield to say his mind, 
for the stay of the people: who, taking their confession in his hand, neither 
touched nor answered one sentence thereof. After this, Bonner pronounced sentence, 
first against the said Thomas Causton, and then calling Thomas Higbed, caused 
his articles and answers likewise to be read. Then the bishop asked him again, 
Whether he would turn from his error, and come to the unity of their church? To 
whom he said, "No, I would ye should recant - for I am in the truth, and you in 
error." Whereupon Bonner gave judgement on him as he had done upon Causton. When 
all this was thus ended, they were both delivered to the sheriffs and so by them 
sent to Newgate, where they remained fourteen days, praised be God, not so much 
in afflictions as in consolations. These fourteen days expired, they were on the 
23rd of March fetched from Newgate at four o'clock in the morning, and so led 
through the city to Aldgate, where they were delivered unto the sheriff of Essex. 
Being bound fast in a cart, they were brought to their appointed places of burning, 
that is to say, Thomas Higbed to Horndon on the Hill, and Thomas Causton to Raleigh, 
(both in the county of Essex) where they did most constantly, on the 26th day 
of March, seal their faith with the shedding of their blood by most cruel fire, 
to the glory of God, and great rejoicing of the godly. At the burning of Highbed, 
justice Brown and divers gentlemen in the shire were also present, for fear belike 
lest he should be taken from them. And thus much concerning the appre- hension, 
examination, and burning of these two godly martyrs of God. PAGE 654 Of those 
who sealed the truth of Christ with their blood at this period no one merits distinct 
mention more than Dr. Ferrar, the venerable bishop of St. David's. This excellent 
and learned prelate had been promoted to his bishopric by the lord protector, 
in the reign of Edward; but after the fall of his patron, he also had fallen into 
disgrace, through the malice of several enemies, among whom was George Constan- 
tine, his own servant. Articles, to the number of fifty-six, were preferred against 
him, in which he was charged with many negligences and contumacies of church government. 
These he answered and denied. But so many and so bitter were his enemies, that 
they prevailed, and he was in consequence detained in prison till the death of 
king Edward, and the coming in of queen Mary and popish religion, whereby a new 
trouble rose upon him, being now accused and examined not for any matter of praemu- 
nire, but for his faith and doctrine. Whereupon he was called before the bishop 
of Winchester, with master Hooper, master Rogers, master Brad- ford, master Saunders, 
and others, on the 4th day of February. On the which day he should also with them 
have been condemned; but because leisure or list did not so well then serve the 
bishop, his condemnation was deferred, and he sent to prison again, where he continued 
till the 14th day of the said month of February. What his examinations and answers 
were, before the said bishop of Winchester, so much as remained and came to our 
hands I have here annexed in manner as followeth. At his first coming and kneeling 
before the lord chancellor Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, the bishop of Durham, 
and the bishop of Worcester, who sat at the table; and master Rochester, master 
Southwell, master Bourne, and others, standing at the table's end, the lord chancellor 
first addressed him in such questions as these: "Now, sir, have you heard how 
the world goeth here? What say you? do you not know things abroad, notwithstanding 
you are a prisoner? Have you not heard of the coming in of the lord cardinal? 
Farrar. I know not my lord cardinal; but I heard that a cardinal was come in: 
but I did not believe it, and I believe it not yet. Winchester. The queen's majesty 
and the parliament have restored religion into the same state it was in at the 
beginning of the reign of king Henry VIII. Ye are in the queen's debt; and her 
majesty will be good unto you, if you will return to the catholic church. Farrar. 
In what state I am concerning my debts to her majesty, in the court of exchequer, 
my lord treasurer knoweth: and the last time that I was before your honour, and 
the first time also, I showed you that I had made an oath never to consent nor 
agree that the bishop of Rome should have any power or jurisdiction within this 
realm: and further I need not rehearse to your lordship; you know it well enough. 
Bourne. You were once abjured for heresy in Oxford. Farrar. That was I not: it 
is not true. Bourne. You went from St. David's to Scotland. Farrar. That did I 
never: but I went from York into Scotland. Bourne. You carried books out of Oxford 
to the archbishop of York. Farrar. That I did not; but I carried old books from 
St. Oswald's. Bourne. You supplanted your master. Farrar. That did I never in 
my life; but did shield and save my master from danger; and that I obtained of 
king Henry VIII., for my true service, I thank God there-for. PAGE 655 "My lord," 
said master Bourne to my lord chancellor, "he hath an ill name in Wales as ever 
had any." Farrar. That is not so: whosoever saith so, they shall never be able 
to prove it. Bourne. He hath deceived the queen in divers sums of money. Farrar. 
That is utterly untrue: I never deceived king or queen of one penny in my life; 
and you shall never be able to prove that you say. Winchester. Thou art a false 
knave. Then Farrar stood up unbidden, (for all that while he kneeled,) and said, 
"No, my lord, I am a true man; I thank God for it! I was born under king Henry 
VII.; I served king Henry VIII. and king Edward VI. truly; and have served the 
queen's majesty that now is, truly, with my poor heart and word: more I could 
not do; and I was never false, nor shall be, by the grace of God. Winchester. 
How sayest thou? wilt thou be reformable? Farrar. My lord, if it like your honour, 
I have made an oath to God, and to king Henry VIII., and also to king Edward, 
and in that to the queen's majesty, the which I can never break while I live, 
to die for it. Winchester. You made a profession to live without a wife? Farrar. 
No, my lord, if it like your honour; that did I never. I made a profession to 
live chaste - not without a wife. Winchester. Well, you are a forward knave: we 
will have no more to do with you, seeing that you will not come; we will be short 
with you, and that you shall know within this seven-night. Farrar. I am as it 
pleaseth your honour to call me; but I cannot break my oath, which your lordship 
yourself made before me, and gave in example, the which confirmed my conscience. 
Then I can never break that oath whilst I live, to die for it. Durham. Well! he 
standeth upon his oath: call another. My lord chancellor then did ring a little 
bell; and master Farrar said, "I pray God to save the king and queen's majesties 
long to continue in honour to God's glory and their comforts, and the comfort 
of the whole realm; and I pray God save all your honours:" and so he departed. 
After this examination bishop Farrar remained in prison uncondemned, till the 
14th day of February, and then was sent down into Wales, there to receive sentence 
of condemnation. Upon the 26th of February, in the church of Carmarthen, being 
brought by Griffith Leyson, esq. sheriff of the country of Carmarthen, he was 
there personally presented before the new bishop of St. David's and Constantine 
the public notary: who did there and then discharge the said sheriff, and receive 
him into their own custody, further committing him to the keeping of Owen Jones; 
and thereupon declared unto Dr. Farrar the great mercy and clemency that the king 
and queen's highness; pleasure was to be offered unto him, which they there did 
offer; that if he would submit himself to the laws of the realm, and conform himself 
to the unity of the catholic church, he should be received and pardoned. Seeing 
that Dr. Farrar give no answer to the premises, the bishop ministered unto him 
these articles following:- PAGE 656 Whether he believed the marriage of priests 
lawful by the laws of God, and his holy church, or not? and whether be believed 
that in the blessed sacrament of the altar, after the words of consecration duly 
pronounced by the priest, the very body and blood of Christ is really and substan- 
tially contained, without the substance of bread and wine? Upon the bishop requiring 
Dr. Farrar to answer upon his allegiance, the latter, doubting the bishop's authority 
said, he would answer when he saw a lawful commission, and would make no further 
answer at that time. Whereupon the bishop, taking no advantage upon the answer, 
committed him to prison until a new monition; in the mean time to deliberate with 
himself for his further answer to the premises. It has been intimated that a new 
bishop was placed at St. David's: this was one Henry Morgan, a furious papist, 
who now became the chief judge of his persecuted predecessor. This Morgan, sitting 
as judge, ministered unto bishop Farrar certain articles and interrogatories in 
writing; which being openly read unto him a second time, Farrar still refused 
to answer, till he might see his lawful commission and authority. Whereupon Morgan 
pronounced him as contumax, and for the punishment of this his countumacy to be 
counted pro confesso, and so did pronounce him in writing. This done, he committed 
him to the custody of Owen Jones, until the 4th of March, then to be brought again 
into the same place, between one and two. The day and place appointed, the bishop 
appeared again before his haugh- ty successor, submitted himself as ready to answer 
to the articles and positions above mentioned, gently required a copy of the articles, 
and a competent term to be assigned unto him, to answer for himself. This being 
granted, and the Thursday next being assigned to him between one and three to 
answer precisely and fully, he was committed again to custody. On the appointed 
day he again appeared and exhibited a bill in writing, containing in it his answer 
to the articles objected and minis- tered unto him before. Then Morgan offered 
him again the articles in this brief form: That he willed him being a priest to 
renounce matrimony - to grant the natural presence of Christ in the sacrament, 
under the forms of bread and wine - to confess and allow that the mass is a propi- 
tiatory sacrifice for the quick and the dead - that general councils lawfully 
congregated never did, and never can err - that men are not justified before God 
by faith only, but that hope and charity are also necessarily required to justification 
- and that the catholic church only hath authority to expound scriptures and to 
define controversies of religion, and to ordain things appertaining to public 
discipline. To these articles he still refused to subscribe, affirming that they 
were invented by man, and pertain nothing to the catholic faith. After this Morgan 
delivered unto him the copy of the articles, assigning him Monday following, to 
answer and subscribe to them either affirmatively or negatively. The day came, 
and he exhibited in a written paper his mind and answer to the articles, adding 
these words, tenens se de aequitate et justitia esse episcopum Menevensem. The 
bishop assigned the next Wednesday, in the forenoon, to hear his final and definitive 
sentence. On that day, Morgan demanded of him whether he would renounce PAGE 657 
and recant his heresies, schisms, and errors, which hitherto he had maintained, 
and if he would subscribe to the catholic articles otherwise than he had done 
before. Upon this Farrar did exhibit a certain schedule written in English, and 
remaining in the acts, appealing from the bishop, as from an imcompetent judge, 
to cardinal Pole and other the highest authorities. This, however, did not avail 
him. Morgan proceeding in his rage, pronounced the definitive sentence against 
him: by which sentence he pronounced him as a heretic excommunicate, and to be 
given up forthwith to the secular power, namely to the sheriff of the town of 
Carmarthen, Mr. Leyson. After which his degradation followed of course. Thus was 
this godly bishop condemned and degraded, and committed to the secular power, 
and not long after was brought to execution in the town of Carmarthen, where in 
the market-place on the south side of the cross, on the 30th of March, being Saturday 
before Passion-Sunday, he most constantly sustained the torments of the fire. 
Among the incidents of this martyrdom worthy of mention is the following; one 
Richard Jones, a young gentleman, and son of a knight, coming to Dr. Farrar a 
little before his death, seemed to lament the painfulness of what he had to suffer: 
unto whom the bishop answered, that if he saw him once to stir in the pains of 
his burning, he should then give no credit to his doctrine. And as he said, so 
he performed; for so patiently he stood, that he never moved, till one Richard 
Gravell, with a staff, struck him down, that he fell amidst and flames, and expired, 
or rather rose to heaven to live for ever. Among more private persons who suffered 
at this period was Rawlins White, by occupation a fisherman, in the town of Cardiff. 
With respect to his religion at first, it cannot otherwise be known, than that 
he was a great partaker of the superstition and idolatry which prevailed in the 
reign of Henry VIII. But after God of his mercy had raised up the light of his 
gospel, through the government of king Edward VI. White began partly to dislike 
that which before he had embraced, and to have some good opinion of that which 
before by the iniquity of the times had been concealed from him; and happily impressed 
with the importance of truth, he began to be a diligent hearer, and a great searcher 
of the word of God. Because the good man was unlearned, and withal very simple, 
he knew no ready way how he might satisfy his great desire. At length he took 
the following remedy to supply his necessity: he had a little boy, his own son, 
whom he sent to school to learn to read English. Now after the child could read 
indifferently well, his father every night after supper would have him read part 
of the holy scripture, and now and then of some other good book. In this kind 
of virtuous exercise the good man had such delight, that as it seemed, he rather 
practised himself in the study of the scripture, than in the trade or science 
which before-time he had used: so that within a few years in the time of king 
Edward, through the help of his little son, and through much conference besides, 
he so profited and went so forward, that he was able not only to absolve himself 
touching his own former blindness and ignorance, but also to admonish and instruct 
others; and therefore when occasion served, he would go from one place to another 
teaching the truth. PAGE 658 He had thus continued in his new profession about 
five years, when king Edward died, upon whose decease queen Mary succeeded, and 
with her came persecution; the extremity and force whereof at last so pursued 
this good man, that he looked every hour to go to prison; whereupon many who had 
received comfort by his instructions, began to persuade him to shift for himself, 
and dispose of his goods by some reasonable order to the use of his wife and children. 
Fearless, however, White continued in his good purposes, till at last he was taken 
by the officers of his town, as a man suspected of heresy, upon which apprehension 
he was convened before the bishop of Landaff, then at his house near Chepstow, 
by whom, after divers combats and conflicts with him and his chaplins, he was 
committed to Chepstow prison. Thence he was removed to the castle of Cardiff, 
where he continued a whole year; during which time Mr. Dane, who furnished this 
account, resorted to him very often, with money and other relief from Mrs. Dane, 
his mother, who was a great favourer of those that were in affliction those days, 
and others of his friends, which he received with great praises to God. At the 
expiration of a year, the bishop of Landaff caused him to be brought from the 
castle of Cardiff unto his own house near Chepstow; and while he continued there, 
the bishop endeavoured by various means to reduce him to conformity. When he found 
his threatenings and promises ineffectual, the bishop desired him to advise and 
determine with him- self; for he must either recant his opinions, or else suffer 
the rigour of the law; and thereupon gave him a day of determination. This day 
being come, the bishop with his chaplins went into his chapel with a great number 
of the neighbors who had the curiosity to see their proceedings. Being placed 
in order, White was brought before them. The bishop began by making a long discourse, 
declaring that the cause of his being sent for was that he was well known to hold 
heretical opinions, and that by his instructions many were led into blind error. 
In the end, he exhorted him to consider his own state wherein he stood, at the 
same time offering favour if he recanted. At the close of the bishops's address, 
Rawlins bodly said - "My lord, I thank God I am a christian man, and I hold no 
opinions contrary to the word of God; and if I do, I desire to be reformed out 
of the word of God, as a christian ought to be." The bishop then told him plainly, 
that he must proceed against him by the law, and condemn him as a heretic. - "Proceed 
by your law, in God's name" - said the fearless Rawlins; "but for a heretic you 
shall never condemn me while the world stands!" This intrepid answer somewhat 
startled and confounded the bishop, who, after a moment's silence turned to some 
about him and said - "Before we proceed any further with him, let us pray to God 
that he would send some spark of grace upon him, and it may so chance, that God 
through our prayers, will turn his heart." Accordingly having prayed, the bishop 
asked - 'Now, Rawlins, wilt thou revoke thy opinions or not?" The man of truth 
replied - "Surely, my lord, Rawlins you left me, Rawlins you find me, and by God's 
grace PAGE 659 Rawlins I will continue." When the bishop perceived that his artifice 
took no effect, he with sharp words reproved him, and forthwith was ready to read 
the sentence; but upon some advice given to him by his chaplains, he thought it 
best first to have a mass, thinking that by so doing some wonderful change would 
be wrought in his prisoner's mind. During the mass Rawlins betook himself to prayer 
in a secret place, until the priest came to the sacring, as they term it, which 
is a principal part of the idolatry. When Rawlins heard the sacring-bell ring, 
he rose out of his place, came to the choir door, and there stand- ing awhile, 
turned himself to the people, speaking these words - "Good people, if there be 
any brethren amongst you, or at least if there be but one brother amongst you, 
the same one bear witness at the day of judgment, that I bow not to this idol" 
- meaning the host that the priest held over his head. Mass being ended, Rawlins 
was called again, when the bishop repeated his persuastions; but the blessed man 
continued so stedfast in his profession, that the prelate found his discourse 
altogether in vain. Whereupon he caused the definitive sentence to be read. This 
being ended, Rawlins was dismissed, and from thence he was carried again to Cardiff, 
there to be put into the prison of the town, a very dark, loathsome, and vile 
dungeon. Having continued a prisoner there some time, about three weeks before 
the day on which he suffered, the offic- ers of the town who had the charge of 
his execution, wished to burn him to be the sooner rid of him, although they had 
not a writ of execution awarded as by the law they should have: but by the advice 
of the recorder of the town, they sent to London for the writ, upon the receipt 
whereof they hastened the execution. On the night before his death Rawlins was 
engaged in preparing himself by devotion; and on finding his end so near, he sent 
to his wife, and desired her by the messenger, that in any wise she should make 
ready and send unto him his wedding garment, meaning the vest in which he was 
to be martyred. This request, or rather commandment, his wife with grief of heart 
performed, and early in the morning sent it to him. The hour of his execution 
being come, the martyr was brought out of prison, having on his wedding garment, 
and an old russet coat which he was wont to wear. Thus being equipped, he was 
accompanied or rather guarded with a great number of bills and weapons. When he 
beheld this, he said, "Alas! what meaneth it? By God's grace I will not run away: 
with all my heart and mind I give God most hearty thanks that he hath made me 
worthy to abide all this for his holy name's sake." Arriving at a place where 
his poor wife and children stood weeping and making great lamentation, the sudden 
sight of them so pierced his heart, that the tears trickled down his face. But 
soon after, as though he were ashamed of this infirmity of his flesh, he began 
to be as it were altogether angry with himself: insomuch, that striking his breast 
with his hand, he said, "Ah, flesh, hinderest thou me so? Well, I tell thee, do 
what thou canst, thou shalt not, by God's grace, have the victory." By this time 
he approached the stake ready set up, with some wood as prepared for the fire; 
which when he beheld, he set forward very boldly: PAGE 600 but in going towards 
the stake, he fell upon his knees and kissed the ground; and in rising again, 
a little earth sticking on his face, he said, "Earth unto earth, and dust unto 
dust; thou art my mother, and unto thee I shall return." Then he went on, and 
cheerfully set his back close to the stake. A smith came with a great chain of 
iron, whom when he saw, he cast up his hand, and with a loud voice gave God great 
thanks. When the smith had fastened him to the stake, the officers began to lay 
on more wood, with a little straw and reeds: wherein the good man was no less 
occupied than the best; for as far as he could reach his hands, he would pluck 
the straw and reeds, and lay it about him in places most convenient for his speedy 
death. When all things were ready, directly over against the stake, in the face 
of the martyr, there was a standing erected, to which ascended a priest, addressing 
himself to the people, which were many in number, because it was market-day. Rawlins 
perceived him, and considered the cause of his coming; but paid little attention 
to him. Then went the priest forward in his sermon, wherein he spake of many things 
touching the authority of the church of Rome. At last, he came to the sacrament 
of the altar, when be began to inveigh against Rawlin's opinions: in which harangue 
he cited the common place of scripture. When Rawlins heard that he strove not 
only to preach and teach false doctrine, but also to confirm it by scripture, 
he suddenly started up, and beckoned his hands to the people, saying twice, "Come 
hither, good people, and hear not a false prophet preaching." And then said unto 
the preacher, "Ah! thou wicked hypocrite, dost thou presume to prove thy false 
doctrine by Scripture? Look in the text what followeth: did not Christ say, 'Do 
this in remembrance of me!'" Then some that stood by cried out, "Put fire, set 
to fire!" which being set to, the straw and reed cast up both a great and sudden 
flame: in the which flame this good and blessed man bathed his hands until the 
sinews shrunk, and the fat dropped away; saving that once he did, as it were, 
wipe his face with one of them. All this while he cried with a loud voice, "O 
Lord, receive my soul! O Lord, receive my spirit!" until he could not open his 
mouth. At the last, the extremity of the fire was so vehement against his legs, 
that they were consumed almost before the rest of his body was burned, which made 
the whole body fall over the chain into the fire sooner that it would have done. 
Thus died this godly and old man (for he was upwards of sixty years of age) for 
the testimony of God's truth, being now rewarded, no doubt, with the crown of 
the bishop of Ely and the lord Montacute, with seven score horses, were sent as 
ambassadors from the king and queen unto Rome; and on the 28th day of March the 
queen summoned four of her privy council, touching the restoring again of abbey 
lands; declaring that they were taken away from the church by unlawful means, 
and that her conscience would not suffer her to detain them. "Therefore," she 
said, "I here expressly refuse either to claim or to retain the said lands for 
mine; but with all my heart, freely and willingly, without all paction or condition, 
here, and before God, I do surrender and relinqu- ish the said lands and possessions, 
or inheritances whatsoever, and do renounce the same with this mind and purpose, 
that order and disposition therof may be taken, as shall seem best liking to our 
most holy lord the pope, or else his legate the lord cardinal, to the honour of 
God, and wealth of this our realm." This intimation coming to the cardinal's hand, 
he despatched a copy thereof to the pope, who not long after set forth a bull 
of excommunication against all who kept any of the church or abbey lands; by virtue 
of which bull he also excommunicated all such princes, bishops, noblemen, justices, 
and others, who refused to put the same in execution. Albeit neither Winchester 
nor any of the pope's clergy would greatly stir in this matter, perceiving the 
nobility to be too strong for them, and therefore were contented to stay while 
time might better serve their purpose. About the latter end of March pope Julius 
died; and upon commandment from the king and queen, on Wednesday in Easter week 
there were hearses set up, and dirges sung for the said Julius in divers places, 
although this pope had led a very unholy life. At which time it chanced a woman 
to come into St. Magnus' church, in London, and there seeing a hearse and other 
preparations, asked what it meant. Another, who stood by, said that it was for 
the pope, and that she must pray for him. "Nay," quoth she, "that I will not, 
for he needeth not my prayers: and seeing he could forgive us all our sins, I 
am sure he is clean himself; therefore I need not to pray for him." She was heard 
speak these words of certain that stood by, who after awhile carried her unto 
the cage at London bridge, and bade her cool herself there. George Marsh was born 
in the parish of Deane, in the country of Lan- caster, and having received a good 
education, his parents brought him up in the habits of trade and industry. About 
the 25th year of his age, he married a young woman of the country; with whom he 
continued living upon a farm, having several children. His wife dying, he having 
formed a proper establishment for his children, went into the university of Cambridge, 
where he studied, and much increased in learning, and was a minister of God's 
holy word and sacraments, and was for awhile curate to the Rev. Laurence Saunders. 
In this situation he continued for a time, earnestly setting forth the true religion, 
to the weakening of false doctrine, by his godly readings and sermons, as well 
there and in the parish of Deane as elsewhere in Lancashire. PAGE 662 But such 
a zealous protestant could hardly be safe. At length he was apprehended, and kept 
close prisoner in Chester, by the bishop of that see, about the space of four 
months, not being permitted to have the relief and comfort of his friends; but 
charge being given unto the porter, to mark who they were that asked for him, 
and to signify their names to the bishop, as the particular description of his 
story, testi- fied and recorded with his own pen, more evidently will shew. "On 
the Monday before Palm Sunday, which was the 12th of March, it was told me at 
my mother's house, that Roger Wrinstone, with other of Mr. Barton's servants, 
made diligent search for me in Bolton; and when they perceived that I was not 
there, they gave strict charge to Robert Ward and Robert Marsh to find and bring 
me to Mr. Barton the day following, with orders that I should be brought before 
the earl of Derby to be examined in matters of religion. On knowing this, my mother 
and other friends advised me to fly, and avoid the peril, as I intended at first 
to have done. To their counsel my weak flesh would gladly have consented, but 
my spirit did not fully agree; thinking and saying to myself, that if I fled away, 
it would be said, that I did not only fly the country, and my nearest and dearest 
friends, but much rather from Christ's holy word, according as these years past 
I had with my heart, or at least with my outward living, professed, and with my 
word and mouth taught, according to the small talent given me of the Lord. Being 
thus with their counsel and advice, and the thoughts and counsels of my own mind, 
drawn as it were divers ways, I went from my mother's house, saying, I would come 
again in the evening. "In the mean time I ceased not by earnest prayer to seek 
counsel of God, the giver of all good gifts, and of my friends, whose pious judgments 
and knowledge I must trusted to. After this I met with one of my friends on Deane-moor, 
about sunset, and after we had consulted together, not without hearty prayer, 
we departed. Not fully determining what to do, but taking my leave of my friend, 
I said I doubted not but God would give me such wisdom and counsel, as should 
be most to his honour and glory, the profit of my neighbours and brethren in the 
world, and to the obtaining my eternal salvation by Christ in heaven. I then returned 
without fear to my mother's house, where several of Mr. Barton's serv- ants had 
been seeking me; and when they could not find me they strictly charged my brother 
and William Marsh to seek me that night, and bring me to Smethehills the next 
day. They being so charged, were gone to seek me in Adderton, or elsewhere. Thus 
intending before to have been all night with my mother, but now considering that 
my tarrying there would disquiet her, I departed, and went beyond Deane church, 
and stayed all night with an old friend. "At my first awaking, a person came to 
me from a friend, with letters, who said that their advice was that I should in 
no wise fly, but abide and boldly confess the faith of Jesus Christ. At these 
words I was so confirmed and established in my conscience, that from henceforth 
I consulted no more whether it were better to fly or to remain; but was determined 
that I would not fly, but go to Mr. Barton, and there present myself, and patiently 
bear such cross as it should please God to lay upon my shoulders. Rising therefore 
early the next morning, after I had said the English litany with other prayers, 
kneeling by my friend's bed- PAGE 663 side, I prepared myself to go toward Smethehills; 
and on my way I went into the houses of several relations and friends, desiring 
them to pray for me, and have me commended to all my friends, and to comfort my 
mother, and be good to my little children; for I supposed thery would see my face 
no more. I then took leave of them, not without tears shed on both sides, and 
came to Smethehills about nine o'clock, when I pre- sented myself to Mr. Barton; 
who shewed me a letter from the earl of Derby, wherein he was commanded to send 
me with others to Latham; where he told me I was to be brought the next day by 
ten o'clock, before the earl or his council. "We accordingly went to my mother's, 
where praying, I took my leave of her, the wife of Richard Marsh, and both their 
households, they and I both weeping. I then went towards Latham, lay all night 
within a mile and a half of it, and the next day we came to it betimes, and remained 
there till four o'clock in the afternoon. Then was I called before my lord and 
his council. After a little while my lord turned towards me and asked what was 
my name. I answered, Marsh. He then asked me whether I was one of those who sowed 
dissention amongst the people: which I denied, desiring to know my accusers, and 
what could be laid against me. This, however, I could not learn. "He next asked 
me whether I was a priest? I said, no. What had been my living? I answered, I 
was a minister, served a cure, and kept a school. Then said he to his council, 
'This is a wonderful thing: before he said he was no priest, and now he confesseth 
himself to be one.' I answered, 'By the laws now used in this realm I am none.' 
They then demanded who had given me orders, or whether I had taken any. I answered, 
I received orders of the bishops of London and Lincoln. Then said they, 'Those 
are of the new heretics:' and asked me what acquaintance I had with them. I answered, 
I never saw them but when I received orders. "They desired to know how long I 
had been curate, and whether I had ministered with a good conscience. I answered 
I had been curate but one year, and had ministered with a good conscience, I thanked 
God; and if the laws of the realm would have suffered me, I would have ministered 
still; and if they at any time hereafter would suffer me to minister after that 
sort, I would minister again. Then they asked me what my belief was. "I answered, 
I believed in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, according as the scriptures 
of the Old and New Testaments teach, and according to the four symbols or creeds, 
namely, the creed commonly called the Apostle's, the creed of the council of Nice, 
of Athanasius, and of Austin and Ambrose. I said I believe that whoever, according 
to Christ's institution, received the holy sacrament of Christ's body and blood, 
did eat and drink Christ's body, and with all the benefits of his death and resurrection, 
to their eternal salvation; for Christ is ever present with his sacrament. When 
they asked me whether the bread and wine, by virtue of the words pronounced by 
the priest, were changed into the flesh and blood of Christ, and that the sacrament 
was the very body of Christ? I made answer, I knew no farther than I had said. 
PAGE 664 "After many other questions, which I avoided as well as I could, remembering 
the saying of St. Paul, 'Foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing they gender 
strife; my lord commanded me to come to the board, when he gave me pen and ink, 
and commanded me to write my answers to the questions of the sacrament. Accordingly 
I wrote as I has answered before. Being much offended, he commanded me to write 
a more direct answer. I then took the pen and wrote that further I knew not. On 
this he said, I should be put to death like a traitor, with other like words; 
but sometimes giving me fair words, if I would turn and be conformable as others 
were. In the end, after much ado, he commanded me to ward, in a cold, windy, stone 
house, where was little room: there I lay without any bed, saving a few canvass 
tent clothes, and so continued till Palm- Sunday, occupying myself as well as 
I could in meditation, prayer, and study; for no man was suffered to come to me 
but my keeper twice a day, when he brought me meat and drink. "On Palm-Sunday 
after dinner, I was again sent for to my lord and his council, amongst whom were 
Sir John Biron, and the vicar of Prescot. After I had communed apart with the 
vicar of Prescot a good while con- cerning the sacrament, he returned with me 
to my lord and his council, telling them that the answer which I had made before, 
and still made, was sufficient for a beginner, and as one who did not profess 
a perfect knowledge in the matter, until such times as I had learned futher. Wherewith 
the earl was very well pleased, saying, he doubted not but by the means and help 
of the vicar of Prescot I should be conformable in other things; and after many 
fair words he commanded I should have a bed, with fire, and liberty to go amongst 
his servants, on condition I would do no harm with my communication with them. 
Thus, after so much conference, I departed, much more troubled in my mind than 
before, because I had not with more boldness confessed Christ, but in such sort 
as mine adversaries thought they should prevail against me; whereat I was much 
grieved: for hitherto I went about as much as in me lay, to rid myself out of 
their hands, if by any means, without open denying of Christ and his word, that 
could be done. This considered, I cried more earnestly unto God by prayer, desiring 
him to strengthen me with his Holy Spirit, with boldness to confess him. "A day 
or two after I was sent for to the vicar of Prescot and the parson of Grappenhall; 
where our most communication was concerning the mass: and he asked what offended 
me in it. I answered, the whole did offend me, because it was in a strange language, 
whereby the people were not edified, contrary to St. Paul's doctrine, 1 Cor. xiv.; 
and because of the manifold and intolerable abuses contained therein, contrary 
to Christ's priesthood and sacrifice. Then they asked me in what place thereof: 
and I named certain places; which places they went about with gentle and farsought 
interpretations to mitigate, saying, those places were understood far otherwise 
than the words did purport, or than I did take them. Then they caused a mass-book 
to be sent for, and showed me where, in some places of the mass, was written, 
"sacrificium laudis." Whereto I answered, that it followed not therefore that 
in all places it signified a sacrifice or oblation of praise or thanksgiving; 
and although it did, yet was it not a sacrifice of praise or thanksgiving to be 
offered for the sins of the people; for that did Christ, by his own passion, once 
offer on the cross." PAGE 665 After this, Mr. Marsh was sent to Lancaster castle; 
and being brought with other prisoners to the sessions, he was made to hold up 
his hand with the malefactors; when the earl of Derby had the following conversa- 
tion with him, which, like the preceding statements, are given to us partly in 
his own expressive and unaffected language. "I told his lordship, that I had not 
dwelt in the country these three or four years past, and came home but lately 
to visit my mother, children, and other friends, and that I meant to have departed 
out of the country before Easter, and to have gone out of the realm. Wherefore 
I trusted, seeing nothing could be laid against me, wherein I had offended against 
the laws, that his lordship would not with captious questions examine me, to bring 
my body into danger of death, to the great discomfort of my mother. On the earl 
asking me into what land I would have gone? I answered, I would have gone either 
into Germany, or else into Denmark. He said to his council, that in Denmark they 
used such heresy as they have done in England: but as for Germany the emperor 
had destroyed it. "I then said that I trusted, as his lordship had been of the 
honourable council of the late king Edward, consenting and agreeing to acts concerning 
faith towards God and religion, under great pain, would not so soon after consent 
to put poor men to shameful deaths for believing what he had then professed. To 
this he answered that he, with the lord Windsor, lord Dacres, and others, did 
not consent to those acts, and that their refusal would be seen as long as the 
parliament house stood. He then rehearsed the misfortune of the dukes of Northumberland 
and Suffolk, with others, because they favoured not the true religion; and again 
the prosperity of the queen's highness, because she favoured the true religion; 
thereby gathering the one to be good, and of God, and the other to be wicked, 
and of the devil; and said that the duke of Northum- berland confessed so plainly." 
And thus you have heard the whole trouble which George Marsh sustained both at 
Latham and also at Lancaster. While at Latham it was falsely reported that he 
had consented, and agreed in all things with the earl and his council; and while 
at Lancaster many came to talk with him, giving him such counsel as Peter gave 
Christ: but he answered that he could not follow their counsel, but that by God's 
grace he would live and die with a pure conscience, and as hitherto he had believed 
and professed. Within a few days after, the said Marsh was removed from Lancasster; 
and coming to Chester, was sent for by Dr. Cotes, then bishop, to appear before 
him in his hall, nobody being present but they twain. Then he asked him certain 
questions concerning the sacrament, and Marsh made such answers as seemed to content 
the bishop, saving that he utterly denied transubstantiation, and allowed not 
the abuse of the mass, nor that the lay people should receive under one kind only, 
contrary to Christ's institution; in which points the bishop went about to persuade 
him, howbeit, (God be thanked,) all in vain. Much other talk he had with him, 
to move him to submit himself to the universal church of Rome; and when he could 
not prevail he sent him to prison again. And after, being there, came to him divers 
times one massie, a fatherly old man, one Wrench the schoolmaster, one Hensham 
the bishop's chaplain, and the archdeacon, with many more; who, with much philosophy, 
worldly wisdom, and deceitful vanity, after the tradition of men, but not after 
Christ, PAGE 666 endeavoured to persuade him to submit himself to the church of 
Rome, to acknowledge the pope as its head, and to interpret the scripture no otherwise 
than that church did. To these Mr. Marsh answered, that he did acknowledge and 
believe one only catholic and apostolic church, without which there is no salvation; 
and that this church is but one, because it ever hath confessed and shall confess 
and believe one only God, and one only Messiah, and in him only trust for salvation; 
which church also is ruled and led by one Spirit, one word, and one faith; and 
that this church is universal and catholic, because it ever has been since the 
world's beginning, is, and shall endure to the world's end, and comprehending 
within it all na- tions, kindreds, and languages, degrees, states, and conditions 
of men: and that this church is built only upon the foundations of the prophets 
and apostles, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone, and not upon 
the Romish laws and decrees, whose head the bishop of Rome was. And where they 
said the church did stand in ordinary succession of bishops, being ruled by general 
councils, holy fathers, and the laws of the holy church, and so had continued 
for the space of fifteen hundred years and more: he replied, that the holy church, 
which is the body of Christ, and therefore most worthy to be called holy, was 
before any succession of bishops, general councils or Romish decrees neither was 
it bound to any time or place, ordinary succession or traditions of fathers; nor 
had it any supremacy over empires and kingdoms; but it was a poor simple flock, 
dispersed abroad, as sheep without a shepard in the midst of wolves; or as a family 
of orphans and fatherless children: and that this church was led and ruled by 
the word of Christ, he being the supreme head of this church, and assisting succouring, 
and defending it from all assaults, erros, and pesecutions, wherewith it is ever 
encompassed about. He also shewed by plain evidence, by the flood of Noah, the 
destruction of Sodom, the Israelites departing out of Egypt, the parable of the 
sower, of the king's son's marriage, of the great supper, and other plain sentences 
of scripture, that this church was of no estimation, and little in comparison 
with the church of hypocrites, and wicked wordlings. After the bishop of Chester 
had taken pleasure in punishing his prison- er, and often reviling him, giving 
him taunts and odious names of here- tic, etc., he caused him to be brought forth 
into a chapel in the cathe- dral church, called Our Lady Chapel, before him the 
said bishop, at two o'clock in the afternoon; when were also present the mayor 
of the city, Dr. Wall and other priests assisting him, George Wensloe, chancellor, 
and one John Chetham, registrar. Then they caused George Marsh to take an oath 
to answer truly unto such articles as should be objected against him. Upon which 
oath taken, the chancellor laid unto his charge, that he had preached and openly 
published most heretically and blasphemously, within the parishes of Dean, Eccles, 
Bolton, Bury, and many other parishes within the Bishop's diocese, in the months 
of January and February last preceding, directly against the pope's authority, 
and catholic church of Rome, the blessed mass, the sacrament of the altar, and 
many other articles. Unto all which in sum he answered, that he neither heretically 
nor blasphemously preached or spake against any of the said articles, but simply 
and truly, as occasion served, and as it PAGE 667 were thereunto forced in conscience, 
maintained the truth respecting the same articles, as he said all now present 
did likewise acknowledge in the time of king Edward VI. Then they examined him 
severally of every articles, and bade him answer yes or no, without equivocation; 
for they were come to examine, and not to dispute at that present. He accordingly 
answered them every article very modestly, agreeably to the doctrine by public 
authority received, and taught in this realm at the death of king Edward, which 
answers were every one written by the registrar, to the uttermost that could make 
against him. This ended, he was returned to his prison again. Within three weeks 
after this, in the said chapel, and in like sort as before, the bishop and others 
before names, there being assembled, the said George Marsh was brought before 
them. Then the chancellor, by way of an oration, declared unto the people present, 
that the bishop had done what he could in showing his chartiable disposition towards 
the said Marsh, but that all that he could do would not help; so that he was now 
determined, if the said Marsh would not relent and abjure, to pro- nounce sentence 
definitive against him. Wherefore he bade the said George Marsh to be now well 
advised what he would do, for it stood upon his life; and if he would not at that 
present forsake his heretical opinions, it would (after the sentence given) be 
too late, though he might never so gladly desire it. Then the chancellor read 
all his answers that he made at his former examination; and at every one he asked, 
whether he would stick to the same, or no? To the which he answered again, "Yea, 
yea." Here also others took occasion to ask him (for that he denied the bishop 
of ROme's authority in England) whether Linus, Anacletus, and Clement, that were 
bishops of Rome, were not good men, and he answered, "Yes, and divers others. 
But," said he, "they claimed no more authority in England than the bishop of Canterbury 
doth at Rome; and I strive not with the place, neither speak I against the person 
of the bishop, but against his doctrine; which in most points is repugnant to 
the doctrine of Christ." "Thou art an arrogant fellow indeed then," said the bishop. 
"In what article is the doctrine of the church of Rome repugnant to the doctrine 
of Christ?" To whom George Marsh said, "O my lord, I pray you judge not so of 
me, I stand now upon the point of life and death: and a man in my case hath no 
cause to be arrogant, neither am I, God is my record. And as concerning the disagreement 
of the doctrine, among many other things, the church of Rome erreth in the sacrament. 
For Christ in the institution thereof did as well deliver the cup as the bread 
saying, "Drink ye all of this," and St. Mark reporteth that they did drink of 
it. In like manner St. Paul delivered it unto the Corinthians. In the same sort 
also it was used in the primitive church for the space of many hundred years. 
Now the church of Rome doth take away one part of the sacrament from the laity. 
Wherefore if I could be persuaded in my conscience by God's word that it were 
well done, I could gladly yield in this point." Then said the bishop, "There is 
no disputing with a heretic." Therefore, when all his answers were ready, he asked 
him whether he would stand to the same, or else forsake them, and come unto the 
catholic church? to which Mr. Marsh answered, that he held no heretical opinion, 
but utterly abhorred all kind of herresy, although they did so slander him. And 
he desired all to PAGE 668 bear him witness, that in all articles of religion 
he held no other opinion than was by law established, and publicly taught in England 
at the death of Edward VI; and in the same pure religion and doctrine he would, 
by God's grace, stand, live, and die. The bishop of Chester then took a writing 
out of his bosom, and began to read the sentence of condemnation; but when he 
had proceeded half through it, the chancellor called him, and said, "Good my lord, 
stay, stay! for if you read any further it will be too late to call it again." 
The bishop accordingly stopped, when several priests, and many of the ignorant 
people, called upon Mr. Marsh, with many earnest words, to recant. They bade him 
kneel down and pray, and they would pray for him: so they kneeled down, and he 
desired them to pray for him, and he would pray for them. When this was over the 
bishop again asked him, whether he would not have the queen's mercy in time? he 
answered, he gladly desired the same, and loved her grace as faithfully as any 
of them; but yet he durst not deny his Saviour Christ, lest he lose his mercy 
everlasting, and so win everlasting death. The bishop then proceeded with the 
sentence for about five or six lines, when again the chancellor with flattering 
words and smiling countenance stopped him and said, "Yet, good my lord, once again 
stay, for it that word be spoken, all is past, no relenting will then serve." 
Then turning to Mr. Marsh, he asked, "How sayest thou? wilt thou recant?" Many 
of the priests and people again exhorted him to recant and save his life. To whom 
he answered, "I would as fain live as you, if in so doing I should not deny my 
master Christ; but then he would deny me before his Father in heaven. The bishop 
then read his sentence unto the end, and afterwards said unto him, "Now I will 
no more pray for thee, than I will for a dog." Mr. Marsh answered, that notwithstanding, 
he would pray for his lordship. He was then delivered to the sheriffs of the city; 
when his late keeper finding he should lose him, said with tears, "Farewell, good 
George;" which caused the officers to carry him to a prison at the north gate, 
where he was very strictly kept until he went to his death, during which time 
he had little comfort or relief of any creature. For being in the dungeon or dark 
prison, none that would do him good could speak with him, or at least durst attempt 
it, for fear of accusation; and some of the citizens who loved him for the gospel's 
sake, although they were never acquainted with him, would sometimes in the evening 
call to him and ask him how he did. He would answer them most cheerfully, that 
he did well, and thanked God highly that he would vouchsafe of his mercy to appoint 
him to be a witness of his truth, and to suffer for the same, wherein he did most 
rejoice; beseeching that he would give him grace not to faint under the cross, 
but patiently bear the same to his glory, and to the comfort of his church. The 
day of his martyrdom being come, the sheriffs of the city, with their officers, 
went to the Northgate, and thence brought him forth, with a lock upon his feet. 
As he came on the way towards the place of execution, some proffered him money, 
and looked that he should have gone PAGE 669 with a little purse in his hand, 
in order to gather money to give unto a priest to say masses for him after his 
death: but Mr. Marsh said, he would not be troubled to receive money, but desired 
some good man to take it if the people were disposed to give any, and give it 
to the prisoners or the poor. He went all the way reading intently and many said, 
"This man goeth not unto his death as a thief, or as one that deserveth to die." 
On coming to the place of execution without the city, a deputy chamberlain of 
Chester shewed Mr. Marsh a writing under a great seal, saying, that it was a pardon 
for him if he would recant. He answered, Forasmuch as it tended to pluck him from 
God, he would not receive it upon that condition. He now begin to address the 
people, shewing the cause of his death, and would have exhorted them to be faithful 
unto Christ: but one of the sheriffs told him there must be no sermoning now. 
He then kneeling down prayed earnestly, and was then chained to the post, having 
a number of fagots under him, and a barrel with pitch and tar in it, over his 
head. The fire being unskilfully made, and the wind driving it to and fro, he 
suffered great extremity in his death, which notwithstanding he bore very patiently. 
When the spectators supposed he had been dead, suddenly he spread abroad his arms, 
saying, "Father of heaven, have mercy upon me," and so yielded his spirit into 
the hands of the Lord. Upon this, many of the people said he was a martyr, and 
died marvelously patient; which caused the bishop shortly after to make a sermon 
in the cathedral church, and therein to affirm, that the said Marsh was a heretic, 
burnt as such, and was then a fire-brand in hell. Besides his examinations, this 
good man, George Marsh, wrote divers and sundry letters out of prison, addressed 
to the faithful in Christ Jesus. That concerning his examination here followeth, 
as also an extract from one sent to certain friends in Manchester. "Here you have, 
dearly beloved friends in Christ, the chief articles of christian doctrine briefly 
touched, which heretofore I have believed, professed, and taught, and as yet do 
believe, profess, and teach, and am surely purposed by God's grace, to continue 
in the same until the last day. I want both time and opportunity to write out 
at large the proba- tions, causes, parts, effects, and errors of these articles, 
which whosos desireth to know, let them read over the common places of those pious 
and learned men, Philip Melancthon and Erasmus Sarcerus, whose judgement in these 
matters of religion I do chiefly follow. The Lord give us understanding in all 
things, and deliver us out of the mouth of the lion, and from all evil doing, 
and keep us unto his everlasting and heavenly kingdom. "Though Satan be suffered 
as wheat to sift us for a time, yet our faith faileth not through Christ's aid, 
but that we are at all times able to confirm the faith of our weak brethren, and 
always ready to give an answer to every man that asketh us a reason of the hope 
that is in us, with meekness and fear; having a good conscience, that whereas 
they back-bite us as evil doers, they may be ashamed, when they falsely accuse 
our good conversation in Christ. I thought myself of late years well settled with 
my loving and faithful wife and children, and also well quieted in the peaceable 
possession of that Euphrates; but the PAGE 670 Lord, who worketh all things for 
the best to them that love him, would not there leave me, but did take my dear 
and beloved wife from me; whose death was a painful cross to flesh and blood. 
"Also I thought myself of late well placed under my most loving and gentle Mr. 
Laurence Saunders, in the cure of Langdon. But the Lord of his great mercy would 
not suffer me long there to continue, though for the time I was in his vineyard 
I was not an idle workman. But he hath provided me to taste of a far other cup; 
for by violence hath he drived me out of that pleasing Babylon, that I should 
not taste too much of her wanton pleasures, but with his most dearly beloved disciples 
to have my inward rejoicing in the cross of his Son Jesus Christ; the glory of 
whose church, I see it well, standeth not in the harmonious sound of bells and 
organs, nor yet in the glittering of mitres and copes, neither in the shining 
of gilt images and lights, but in continual labour and daily affliction for his 
name's sake. "Take heed and beware of the leaven of the scribes and of the sadducees; 
I mean the erroneous doctrine of the papists which with their glosses deprave 
the scriptures. The apostle Peter doth teach us 'There shall be false teachers 
amongst us, which privily shall bring in damnable here- sies and many shall follow 
their pernicious ways, by whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of; and through 
covetousness they shall with feigned words make merchandise of us.' Christ also 
earnestly warneth us, to 'Beware of false prophets, which come to us in sheep's 
clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous wolves. By their fruits you shall know 
them.' The fruits of the prophets are their doctrine; and here we are taught, 
that we should try the preachers that come under colour to set forth true religion 
unto use, according to the saying of St. Paul, 'Prove all things, hold fast that 
which is good." Of the letter to his Manchester friends we can give only an extract; 
one, however, of great force as well as truth and beauty. "Beloved in Christ, 
let us not faint because of affliction, wherewith God trieth all that are sealed 
to life everlasting; for the only way into the kingdom of God is through tribulation. 
For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a city built and set upon a broad field, 
and full of good things; but the entrance thereof if narrow, like as it were a 
burning flame on one hand and deep water on the other; and as it were one straight 
path between them, so narrow that one person only can pass at a time. If this 
city were now given to an heir, and he never went through perilous way, how could 
he receive his heritance? Wherefore, seeing we are in this narrow way, which leadeth 
to the most joyful city of everlasting life, let us not halt or turn back afraid 
of the danger; but follow Christ and be fearful of nothing, no not even of death 
itself for this must lead to our journey's end and open to us the gate of everlasting 
JOHN WARNE, JOHN SIMSON, AND JOHN ARDELEY. William Flower, (otherwise named Branch,) 
was born at Snailwell, in Cambridgeshire, at which place he went to school some 
years, and thence to the abbey of Ely; where, after he had remained a while, he 
became a professed monk, according to the order and rule of the house, wearing 
the usual habit, and observing the regulations until the age of twenty- one years; 
before which he had been a priest and celebrated mass. By reason of a visitation, 
and certain injunctions by the authority of Henry the VIII. he forsook the house, 
and casting from him the monk's habit and religion, took upon him the habit of 
a secular priest, returned to Snailwell, and there celebrated mass, and taught 
children for about half a year. He then went into Suffolk, where he served as 
a secular priest about a quarter of a year, from thence he went to Stoniland, 
where he acted in the same capacity until the coming of the six articles: when 
he departed and went into Gloucestershire, where after he had abode awhile, accord- 
ing to God's holy ordinance, he took a wife, with whom he ever after faithfully 
and honestly continued; and after his marriage, he tarried in Tewkesbury about 
two years, and from thence he went to Bursley, where he remained three quarters 
of a year, and practised physic and chirurgery. From thence he removed into Northamptonshire, 
where he assisted a gentlemen in teaching children to read and write. At length 
he came to London; after that, being desirous to see his country, he returned 
to Snailwell, thence to Braintree, then to Coggleshall, where he also taught children. 
Coming to Lambeth, near London, he hired a house, where he and his wife dwelt 
together. Being at home upon Easter-Sunday, about ten or eleven o'clock in the 
forenoon of the same day, he came over the water to St. Margaret's church at Westminister; 
when seeing a priest, named John Cheltam, administering the sacrament of the altar 
to the people, he was so provoked and inflamed, that he struck and wounded him 
upon the head, and also upon the arm and hand, the priest having at the same time 
in his hand a chalice, with certain consecrated hosts therein. For this he was 
immediately examined before bishop Bonner, and confessed he had done wrong, submitting 
himself willingly to punishement, whenever it should come. Howbeit touching his 
belief in the sacrament, and popish ministration, he neither would nor did submit 
himself. Being apprehended and laid in the Gatehouse at Westminister, having as 
many irons as he could bear, he was summoned again before bishop Bonner, April 
19th, 1555, when the bishop, after he had sworn him upon a book, ministered articles 
and interrogatories to him. Previous to this the following conversation took place 
between Mr. Flower and Mr. Robert Smith, a fellow prisoner. PAGE 672 Smith. Friend, 
as I understand that you profess the gospel, and that you have done so a long 
season, I am bold to come unto you, and in the way of communication to demand 
and learn a truth at your own mouth, of certain thing by you committed, to the 
astonishment not only of me, but of others that also profess the truth. Flower. 
I praise God for his great goodness in shewing me the light of his holy word; 
and I give you hearty thanks for your visitation, intend- ing by God's grace to 
declare all the truth that you shall demand law- fully of me, in all things. Smith. 
Then I desire you to shew me the truth of your deed, committed on John Cheltam, 
priest, in the church, as near as you can, that I may hear from your own mouth 
how it was. Flower. I came from my house at Lambeth over the water, and entering 
into St. Margaret's church, and there seeing the people falling down before a 
most detestable idol, being moved with extreme zeal for God, whom I saw before 
my face dishonoured, I drew forth my hanger, and struck the priest which ministered 
the same unto them; whereupon I was immediately apprehended. Smith. Did you not 
know the person that you struck, or were you not zealous upon him for any evil 
will or hatred between you at any time? Flower. No, verily, I never to my knowledge 
saw the person before, neither had evil will or malice; for if he had not had 
it, another should, if I had at any time come where the like occasion had been 
ministred, if God had permitted me to do it. Smith. Do you think that thing to 
be well done, and after the rule of the gospel? Flower. I confess all flesh to 
be subject to the power of Almighty God, whom he maketh his ministers to do his 
will and pleasure; as for exam- ple, Moses, Aaron, Phinease, Joshua, Zimri, Jehu, 
Judith, Mattathias, with many others, not only changing decrees, but also planting 
examples of zeal to his honour, against all order and respect of flesh and blood. 
For, as St. Paul saith, "His works are past finding out." By his Spirit I have 
also given my flesh at this present unto such order, as it shall please the good 
will of God to appoint in death, which before the act committed I looked for. 
Smith. Think you it is convenient for me, or any other, to do the like by your 
example? Flower. No verily, neither do I know whether I could do it again: for 
I was up very early at St. Paul's church upon Christ's day in the morning, to 
have done it in my jealousy: but when I came there, I was to more able to do it, 
than now to undo that which is done; and yet now being compelled by the Spirit, 
not only to come over the water, and to enter the church, being also in mind fully 
content to die for the Lord, I gave over my flesh willingly, without all fear, 
I praise God. Wherefore I cannot learn you to do the like; first, because I know 
not what is in you; secondly, because the rules of the gospel command us to suffer 
with patience all wrongs and injuries. Yet nevertheless, if he make you worthy 
that hath made me zealous, you shall not be letted, judged, nor condemned: for 
he doth in his people his unspeakable works in all ages, which no man can comprehend. 
I humbly beseech you to judge the best of the Spirit, and condemn not God's doings: 
for I cannot express with my mouth the great mercies that God hath shewed me in 
this thing, which I repent not. PAGE 673 Smith. Are you not assured to have death 
ministered unto you for the act, and even with extremity? Flower. I did, before 
the deed committed, adjudge my body to die for the same: whereupon I carried about 
me, in writing, my opinion of the holy scriptures; that if it had pleased God 
to have given them leave to have killed my body in the church, they might in the 
said writing have seen my hope, which I praise God, is laid up safe within my 
breast notwith- standing any death that may be ministered upon my body in this 
world; being ascertained of everlasting life through Jesus Christ our Lord, and 
being most heartily sorry for all my offences committed in this flesh, and trusting 
shortly, through his mercy, to cease from the same. Smith. I need not examine 
or commune with you of the hope that you have any further: for I perceive, God 
be praised, you are in good state, and therefore I beseech God, for his mercies, 
to spread his wings over you, that as for his love you have been zealous, even 
to the loss of this life, so he may give you his Holy Spirit to conduct you out 
of this world into a better life, which I think will be shortly. Flower. I hunger 
for the same, dear friend, being fully ascertained that they can kill but the 
body, which I am assured shall receive life again everlasting, and see no more 
death: entirely desiring you and all that fear the Lord, to pray with me to Almighty 
God, to perform the same in me shortly. On the next examination before Bonner, 
Mr. Flower had the following articles exhibited against him. "That thou being 
of lawful age and discretion, at the least seventeen years old, wast a professed 
monk in the late abbey of Ely, wherein after thy profession thou remainedst until 
the age of twenty-one years, using all the meantime the habit and religion of 
the same house, and wast reputed and taken notoriously for such a person. "That 
thou wast ordained and made priest, according to the laudable custom of the catholic 
church, and afterwards thou didst execute and minister as a priest, and wast commonly 
reputed, named, and taken for a priest. "That after the premises, thou, forgetting 
God, thy conscience, honesty, and the laudable order of the catholic church, didst, 
contrary to thy profession and vow, take as thy wife, one woman, commonly called 
Alice Pulton, in the parish of Tewksbury, with whom thou hadst mutual cohabi- 
tation, as man and wife, and had by her two children. "That thou being a religious 
man and a priest, didst, contrary to the order of the ecclesiastical laws, take 
upon thee to practise in divers places within the diocese of London, physic and 
chirurgery, when thou wast not admitted, expert, nor learned. "That upon Easter 
day last, within the church of St. Margaret's, at Westminster, thou didst maliciously, 
outrageously, and violently pull out thy wood knife or hanger. And whereas the 
priest and minister there, called John Cheltam, was executing his cure and charge, 
especially in doing his service, and administering the sacrament of the altar 
to PAGE 674 communicants, then didst thou wickedly and abominably smite with thy 
said weapon the said priest, first upon the head, and afterwards upon his hands 
and other parts of his body, drawing blood abundantly from him, he then holding 
the said sacrament in his hand, and giving no occasion why thou shouldst so hurt 
him, the people being grievously offended therewith, and the said church polluted 
thereby, so that the inhabitants were compelled to repair to another church to 
communicate, and receive the said sacrament. "That by reason of the premises, 
thou wast and art by the ecclesiastical laws of the church, amongst other penalties, 
excommunicated and accursed in very deed, and not to be accompainied withal, neither 
in the church nor elsewhere, but in special cases. "That thou, concerning the 
truth of Christ's natural body and blood in the sacrament of the altar, hast been 
for the space of one or more years, and yet art at this present of this opinion, 
that in the sacra- ment of the altar, after the words of consecration, there is 
not really, truly, and in very deed contained under the form of bread the very 
true and natural body of our Saviour Jesus Christ. "That thou for the hatred and 
disdain that thou hadst and didst bear against the said sacrament, and against 
the said priest administering the same, didst smite, and hurt him in manner before 
declared. "That thou art also, by order of the ecclesiastical laws of the church, 
to be reputed, taken, and adjudged a very heretic, and to be punished by and with 
the pains due for heresy, by reason of the said heresy and damnable opinion. "That 
all the premises be true, manifest, notorious, and famous, and that upon the same, 
and every part thereof, there was and is within the said parish of St. Margaret's, 
and other places thereabouts, a public voice and fame." It is unnecessary minutely 
to detail the answers of Mr. Flower to these charges. To the greater part of them, 
as an honest man he pleaded guilty, and as a faithful christian he gloried in 
the plea, and was ready to say - "If this be to be vile I will be more vile still." 
He denied, however, having at any time been a monk in his heart, declaring that 
wearing the habit had offended his conscience. On the main point - his violently 
assailing the priest at the altar - he answered with caution, or rather with silence, 
declining to explain his conduct or its motives; evidently under the conviction, 
on the one hand that he had acted from a divine impulse, and on the other that 
such an assertion before a papal court would only have been turned into an occasion 
of profane scoffing. After the deposition of certain witnesses were taken, the 
bishop asked him, if he knew any cause why sentence should not be read, and he 
be pronounced a heretic. Mr. Flower answered, "I have nothing at all to say, for 
I have already said unto you all that I have to say; and what I have said, I will 
not go from: therefore do what you will." The bishop then proceeded to the sentence, 
condemning and excommunicating him for a heretic; and after, pronounced him to 
be degraded, and then committed him to the secular power. Upon the 24th day of 
April he was brought to the place of martyrdom, which was in St. Margaret's churchyard 
at West- PAGE 675 minster, where the fact was committed. There one Mr. Cholmley 
came to him, desiring him to recant his heresy, whereby he might do good to the 
people; or else he would be damned. Flower answered, "Sir, I beseech you, for 
God's sake, be contented; for what I have said, I have said: and I have been of 
this faith from the beginning; and I trust to the living God he will give me his 
Holy Spirit so to continue to the end." Then he desired all the world to forgive 
him whom he had offended, as he forgave all the world. This done, his right hand 
being held up against the stake was struck off; and then fire was set unto him. 
While burning therein, he cried with a loud voice, "O the Son of god, have mercy 
upon me! O the Son of God, receive my soul!" three times; when his speech was 
taken from him. Thus endured this constant witness for God the extremity of the 
fire, being therein cruelly handled by reason of there not being fagots sufficient 
to burn him, so that they were fain to strike him down into the fire; where he 
lying along upon the ground, his nether part was consumed in the fire, while his 
upper part was clear without the fire, his tongue in all men's sight still moving 
in his mouth. May 3rd, 1555, a letter was sent to George Colt and Thomas Daniel, 
to search for and apprehend John Bernard and John Walsh, who used to repair to 
Sudbury, and carrying about with them the bones of Pygot who was burned, shewed 
them to the people, and persuaded them to be constant in his religion; and upon 
examination to commit them to further ordering, according to the laws. The same 
day Stephen Appes was committed to the Little Ease in the Tower, there to remain 
two or three days till further examination. On the 30th of may suffered together, 
in Smithfield, John Cardmaker, alias sir John Taylor, prebendary of the church 
of Wells; and John Warne, upholsterer, of St. John's, Walbrook. Cardmaker was 
an observant friar before the dissolution of the abbeys. He afterwards married, 
and in Edward's time was appointed a reader in St. Paul's, where the papists were 
so enraged against him for his doctrine's sake, that while he was reading they 
cut and mangled his gown with their knives. Mr. Cardmaker being apprehended in 
the beginning of queen Mary's reign, with Mr. Barlow, bishop of Bath, was brought 
to London and put in the Fleet prison, king Edward's laws being yet in force. 
But after the sitting of that parliament, the pope was again admitted as supreme 
head of the English church, and the bishops had also gotten power and authority, 
officially to exercise their tyranny: Barlow and Cardmaker were there- fore brought 
before the bishop of Winchester, and others appointed by commission, to examine 
the faith of such as were then prisoners: and as he had done unto others before, 
so now he did to them - offered the queen's mercy, if they would agree to be conformable 
to the papal church. Such were their answers to this, that the chancellor with 
his fellow commissioners mistook them for papists. Barlow was led again to the 
Fleet, from whence he was afterwards delivered, and did by exile constantly bear 
witness to the truth of Christ's gospel. Cardmaker was conveyed to the Compter 
in Bread street, the bishop of London publishing that he should shortly be delivered, 
after that he had subscribed to transubstantiation and certain other articles. 
Some of the articles objected by Bonner against Cardmaker were, that in times 
past he did profess the rule of St. Francis, and vowed to keep poverty, chastity, 
and obedience, according to that rule; that he did receive all the orders of the 
church then used; that after the said profession and orders, he took to wife a 
widow, and with her lived in wedlock, breaking thereby his vow and order, and 
also the ordinance of the church; that Christ, at his last supper, taking bread 
into his hands, blessing it, breaking it, giving it to his apostles, and saying, 
"Take, eat: this is my body," did instituted a sacrament there, willing that his 
body really and truly should be contained in the said sacrament - no substance 
of bread and wine there remaining, but only the accidents thereof. To these articles 
Cardmaker replied, that while under age he did profess the said order and religion, 
but that he was absolved therefrom by king Henry VIII., that he had received all 
the orders of the church; that by marriage he brake no vow, being set at liberty 
by the laws of the realm, and also by the laws and ordinances of the Endlish church. 
To the last article he answered, that he doth believe it is true; that is to say, 
that Christ, taking bread at his last supper into his hands, blessing it, breaking 
it, giving it to his disciples, and saying, "Take, eat: this is my body," did 
institute a sacrament. And to the other part of this articles, viz. that his body 
really and truly should be contained in the said sacrament, no substance of bread 
and wine there remaining, but only the accidents thereof - he answereth, that 
he doth not believe the same to be true. Cardmaker, calling to mind the cavillings 
of the papist, and thinking he had not fully answered the last article, did the 
next day add the following: "Whereas in my answers to your articles I deny the 
presence of Christ in the sacrament, I mean not his sacramental presence, for 
that I confess; but my denial is of his carnal presence in the same. But ye further, 
because this word is oftentimes taken by the holy fathers, not only for bread 
and wine, but also for the whole administration and receiving of the same according 
to Christ's institution; so I say, that Christ if present spiritually too, and 
in all them who worthily receive the sacrament; so that my denial is still of 
the real, carnal, and corporeal presence in the sacrament, and not of the sacramental 
not spiritual presence. This I have thought good to add to my former answer, because 
no man should misunderstand it." Mr. John Warne, a respectable tradesman of London, 
was the next selected for trial before this iniquitous court. Some little variety 
distin- guished the articles alleged against this individual, as the following 
will shew. "Thou has said, that about a twelvemonth ago and more, a rough spaniel 
of thine was shorn on the head, and had a crown like a priest made on the same, 
thou didst laugh at it, and like it, though thou didst it not thyself, nor knewest 
who did it. "Thou neither this Lent last past, nor at any time since the queen's 
majesty reign, hast come into the church, or heard, mass, or been con- fessed 
or received the sacrament of the altar; and hast said that thou art not sorry 
that thou hast so done, but that thou art glad, because thou hast not therwith 
defiled thy conscience. "Thou wast in time past here in the city of London, accused 
of heresy against the sacrament of the altar, according to the order of the laws 
of this realm of England in the time of king Henry VIII and when alder- PAGE 677 
man Barnes was then sheriff, and the Thursday after Anne Askew was burnt in Smithfield, 
and thereupon thou was sent a prisoner to Newgate, to whom Edmund, bishop of London, 
did repair with his chaplains, to instruct thee in the true faith of Christ, touching 
the said sacrament of the altar, and to bring thee from thy error, which was, 
that in the sacrament of the altar there is not the body of Christ, nor any corpore- 
al presence of Christ's body and blood, under the forms of bread and wine; but 
that in the said sacrament there is only material bread and wine, without any 
substance of Christ's body and blood at all: and because thou wouldst not leave 
and forsake thy said heresy therein, but would persist obstainately therein, thou 
wert, according to the said laws, condemened to be burnt; and thereupon suit being 
made for thee to the king and others in the court, thou hadst a pardon of king 
Henry VIII. and thereby didst save thy life. Neverthless in thy heart and conscience 
thou didst both then, and also afore believe no otherwise than at this present 
thou dost believe, that in the sacrament of the altar there is neither the very 
true body or blood of Christ, nor any other substance but the substance of material 
bread and wine; and to receive the said material bread and wine, and to break 
it, and to distribute it among the people, only is the true receiving of Christ's 
body, and no otherwise. In which thine opinion thou hast ever hitherto since continued, 
and so dost continue at this present, thou confessing all this to be true, and 
in witness thereof subscribing thy name there- unto." Mr. Warne being examined 
upon the above articles on the 23rd of May, answered for the same, confessing 
the articles and contents thereof to be true, according as they were objected 
in every part, subscribing also the same with his hand. Such strength and fortitude 
God's Holy Spirit wrought in him, to stand firmly and confidently to the defence 
of the sincere doctrine of his Son. The bishop, however, exhorted him with many 
persuasions to leave his heresies, and return to the bosom of his mother the holy 
church, and commanded him to appear again the next day. On being brought up, he 
answered as before, and was again earnestly exhorted by the bishop to recant. 
He answered, that he would not depart from his received profes- sion, unless he 
were thoroughly persuaded by the holy scriptures. Upon which he was ordered to 
come again the following day, at one in the afternoon; when the bishop examined 
him again upon all his former arti- cles objected, to which he still constantly 
adhered, with this further answer - "I am persuaded that I am in the right opinion, 
and I see no cause to recant; for all the filthiness and idolatry is in the church 
of Rome." The bishop seeing that notwithstanding all his fair promises and terrible 
threatenings he could not prevail, pronounced the definitive sentence of condemnation 
against him, and charged the sheriffs of London with him, under whose custody 
he remained in Newgate until the 30th of May. Which day being appointed for execution, 
he, with John Cardmaker, were brought by the sheriffs to the place where they 
should suffer; and being come to the stake, first the sheriffs called Mr. Cardmaker 
aside, and talked with him secretly, during which time Mr. Warne having prayed, 
was chained to the stake, and had wood and reeds set about him. The PAGE 678 people 
had before heard a rumour that Mr. Cardmaker would recant, and were greatly afflicted, 
thinking indeed that he would now recant at the burning of Mr. Warne. At length 
Mr. Cardmaker left the sheriffs, came towards the stake, and kneeled down and 
made a long prayer in silence to himself. His prayer ended, he rose, and advanced 
with a bold courage to the stake, and kissed it: then taking Mr. Warne by the 
hand, he heartily comforted him, and cheerfully gave himself to be bound. The 
people seeing this so suddenly done, contrary to their fearful expectation, as 
men delivered out of a great doubt, cried out for joy, saying - "God be praised 
the Lord strengthen thee, Cardmaker, the Lord Jesus receive thy spirit." And this 
continued while the executioner put fire to them, and both passed through the 
flame to the blessed rest and peace among God's holy saints and martyrs, to enjoy 
the crown of triumph and victory prepared for the soldiers of Christ Jesus in 
his kingdom. John Simson and John Ardeley were brought before the same court, 
and condemned for the same cause and on the same day with Cardmaker and Warne, 
namely the 25th of May. It would appear strange that so strict a search and so 
severe a proceeding were taken in reference to four indi- viduals of no distinction 
in society. The surprise, however, may be dismissed on finding that on the preceding 
day Bonner had received a letter from their majesties at Hampton-court relative 
to the further persecution of the protestants, which acted as a stimulus upon 
the cruelty and craft of this sanguinary man, and was, doubtless, a means of hastening 
the condemnation, as well as multiplying the number of the martyrs. The letter 
is remarkable as a proof of the cruel disposition of Philip and Mary, and of the 
sophistry with which they could proceed to gratify them. "Right reverend father 
in God, right trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. And whereas of late 
we addressed our letters to the justice of peace within every of the counties 
of this our realm, whereby amongst other instructions given them for the good 
order and quiet government of the country round about them, they are willed to 
have a special regard unto such disordered persons as do lean to any erroneous 
and heretical opinions, refusing to shew themselves conformable to the catholic 
reli- gion of Christ's church; wherein if they cannot by good admonitions and 
fair means reform them, they are willed to deliver them to the ordinary, to be 
by him charitably travelled withal, and removed from their naughty opinions, or 
else, if they continue obstinate, to be ordered according to the laws provided 
in that behalf: understanding now, to our no little marvel, that divers of the 
said disorderly persons, being by the justic- es of the peace, for their contempt 
and obstinacy, brought to the ordi- naries to be used as aforesaid, are either 
refused to be received at their hands, or if they be received, are neither so 
travelled with as christian charity requireth, nor yet proceeded withal according 
to the order of justice, but are suffered to continue in their errors, to the 
dishonour of Almighty God, and dangerous example of others; like as we find this 
matter very strange, so we have thought convenient both to signify our knowledge, 
and therewith also to admonish you to have in this behalf such regard henceforth 
to the office of a good pastor and PAGE 679 bishop, as when any such offenders 
shall be by the said officers or justices of the peace brought unto you, you use 
your good wisdom and discretion in procuring to remove them from their errors, 
if it may be, or else in proceeding against them according to the order of the 
laws; so as through your good furtherance, both God's glory may be better advanced, 
and the commonwealth more quietly governed. Given under our signet as our manor 
of Hampton-court, the 24th of May, the first and second years of our reign." The 
first article against Simson and Ardeley was of the most sweeping kind; that they 
had not believed, and did not believe, that there is on earth one catholic and 
universal whole church, which doth hold all the faith and religion of Christ, 
and all the necessary articles and sacra- ments. Secondly, that they had not believed, 
nor did believe, that they were necessarily bounden, under the pain of damnation, 
to give full faith and credence unto the said catholic and universal church, and 
to the religion of the same, in all necessary points of the said faith and religion, 
without wavering or doubting in the said faith or religion, or in any part thereof. 
Thirdly, that they had not believed that that faith and religion which both the 
church of Rome and all other churches in Europe do believe and teach, is agreeing 
with the said catholic and universal church and the faith and religion of Christ; 
but contrariwise, that that faith and religion which the church of Rome and all 
other churches aforesaid have believed, and do now believe, is false, and ought 
in no wise to be believed and kept of any Christian man. The four other articles 
alleged that they would not acknowledge the corporeal presence in the eucharist, 
or the sacrifice of the mass; and that they condemned as superfluous, vain, and 
unprofitable, auricular confession, and all the ceremonies and services of the 
church, saying that services in a foreign tongue were unlawful and naught. The 
answers of John Simson, and also of John Ardeley, to the foresaid articles, taken 
out of the bishops' own registers:- To the first they believe, that here on earth 
there is one catholic and universal holy church, which doth hold and believe as 
is contained in the first article; and that this church is dispersed and scattered 
abroad throughout the whole world. To the second, they believe that they are bound 
to give faith and credence unto it, as is contained in the second article. To 
the third, as concerning the faith and religion of the church of Rome, of Italy, 
Spain, France, Ireland, Scotland, and other churches in Europe, they have nothing 
to do with that faith and religion: but as concerning the faith and religion of 
England, that if the said chruch of England be ruled and governed by the Word 
of Life, then the church of England hath the faith and religion of the catholic 
church, and not otherwise; and do say also, that if the church of England were 
ruled by the heresy. To the fourth they answer, that in the sacrament of the altar 
there is very bread and very wine, not altered or changed in substance in any 
wise; and that he that receiveth the said bread and wine, doth spiritually and 
by faith only receive the body and blood of Christ; but not the very natural body 
and blood of Christ in substance under the forms of bread and wine. To the fifth 
they say they have answered in answering to the said fourth article. To the sixth 
they PAGE 680 say they believe that the mass is of the pope, and not of Christ; 
and therefore it is not good, nor having in it any goodness, saving the "Gloria 
in excelsis," the epistle and gospel, the creed and the Lord's prayer; and for 
this cause they have not, nor will they come and hear mass. To the seventh, John 
Ardeley answered that he believeth the same to be true; but John Simson doth answer, 
that he is not fully resolved with himself what answer to make thereunto, and 
further saith that as touch- ing the common and daily service said and used in 
the church, he saith that he never said that the service in the church ought to 
be said but in the English tongue; nor yet he never said, that if it be otherwise 
said and used than in English, it is unlawful and naught. These articles being 
to them objected, and their answers made unto the same, the bishop, according 
to the mode of his consistory court, respit- ed them to the afternoon. At which 
time the bishop repeating again the said articles unto them, and beginning with 
John Ardeley, urged and solicited him to recant. But he constantly standing to 
his religion answered - "My lord, neither you, nor any of your religion, are of 
the catholic church; for you are of a false faith: and I doubt not but ye shall 
be deceived at length, bear as good a face as you can. Ye will shed the innocent 
blood, and ye have killed many, and yet go about to kill more. And if every hair 
of my head were a man, I would suffer death in the opinion and faith that I am 
now in." These, with many other words, he spake. Then the bishop yet demanded 
if he would relinquish his erroneous opinions, and be reduced again to the unity 
of the church. He answered, "No! God foreshield that I should so do, for then 
I should lose my soul." After this, the bishop asking John Ardeley if he knew 
any cause why he should not have sentence condemnatory against him, read the condemna- 
tion, as he also did against John Simson, standing likewise in the same cause 
and constancy with John Ardeley. So were they both committed to the secular power, 
that is, to the hands of the sheriffs, on the 25th day of May, 1555, to be conveyed 
to the place where they should be executed. Being thus delivered to the sheriffs, 
they were shortly after sent down from London to Essex, where they were both put 
to death about the 10th of June. John Simson suffered at Rochford; and John Ardeley, 
on the same day, at Rayleigh, finished his martyrdom most quietly in the quarrel 
of Christ's gospel. Furthermore it is not unworthy to be noted of all men, and 
known to all posterity, concerning the examination of Ardeley and his company, 
how that they, on being brought before the commissioners, were by them greatly 
charged with stubbornness and vain glory. Unto whom they answered in defence of 
their own simplicity, that they were content willingly to yield to the queen all 
their gods and lands, so that they might be suffered to live under her, in keeping 
their conscience free from all idolatry and popery. Yet this would not be granted, 
although they had offered all to their heart's blood; so greedy and so thirsty 
be these persecutors of Christian blood. The Lord give them repentance, if it 
be his will, and keep from them the just reward of such cruel dealing! Amen. PAGE 
and Bonner thirsted for the blood of living reformers, cardinal Pole, possessed 
of somewhat less cruelty but even greater superstition, directed his attention 
to every means of degrading the remains of those who were dead. By his order, 
the bones of Martin Bucer and Paulus Phagius, who had been nearly two years in 
their graves, were taken up and burned to ashes at Cambridge. And because he would 
shew some token of his diligence in this degrading work in both universities, 
he caused the remains of the wife of Peter Martyr, who had been buried in St. 
Mary's church-yard, to be dug up and cast on a dunghill! Nor was the cardinal 
contented with thus treating the relics of distin- guished persons; where the 
least public profession of the reformed opinions had appeared, he was anxious 
to follow it up with this dis- graceful treatment of what remained of those who 
made it. Thus, because one Tooly, who had robbed a Spaniard and was executed for 
the crime at Charing-cross, read from a reformed book under the gallows, and spoke 
against the papal church before he suffered, he became an object of the cardinal's 
vengeance, who instigated the authorities to disturb the slumber of this unhappy 
man in his ignominious grave, and to burn the corpse of him whom they had omitted 
to consume before. To be sure he had been a sinner against the Romish church of 
no small degree; for not only had he robbed a countryman of king Philip, as he 
was called; but at his execution for the crime had said that, as he and his fellows 
had stolen through covetousness, so the bishop of Rome sold his masses and trentals 
from the same motives. Mention has already been made of six men brought before 
bishop Bonner upon the 8th day of February, of which number was Thomas Haukes, 
who was condemned likewise with the other five on the 9th day of the foresaid 
month, though his execution was prolonged till the 10th of June follow- ing. As 
touching his education and order of life, first he was of the country of Essex, 
born of an honest stock, in calling and profession a courtier, brought up daintily 
from his childhood, and like a gentleman. He was a man of great comeliness and 
stature, well endued with excellent qualities; but his gentle behaviour and stature, 
well endued with excel- lent qualities; but his gentle behaviour towards others, 
and his fervent study and singular love unto true religion and godliness, did 
surmount all the rest. Haukes following the fashion of the court, as he grew in 
years, entered into service with the lord of Oxford, with whom he remained a good 
space, being esteemed and loved by all the household, so long as Edward VI. lived. 
But he dying, all things began to go backward, religion to decay, true piety not 
only to wax cold, but also to be in danger every where, and chiefly in the houses 
of the great. Haukes misliking the state of things, and forsaking the nobleman's 
house, departed thence to his own home, where he might more freely give himself 
to God, and use his own conscience. Meanwhile he had born unto him a son, whose 
baptism was deferred to the third week, because he would not suffer him to be 
PAGE 682 baptized after the papal manner. This his adversaries would not suffer, 
but laid hands upon him, brought him to the earl of Oxford, there to be reasoned 
with as not sound in religion, but seeming to contemn the sacraments of the church. 
The earl, either intending not to trouble himself in such matters, or else himself 
not able to contend with him in such points of religion, sent him up to London 
with a messenger and the following letter to the bishop of London - "Most reverend 
father in God, be it known unto you that I have sent you Thomas Haukes of the 
county of Essex, who hath a child that hath remained unchristened more than three 
weeks; who being upon the same examined hath denied to have it baptized, as it 
is now used in the church, whereupon I have sent him to your good lordship, to 
use as you think best by your good discretion." Thus willing to clear his own 
hands, he put him in the hands of Bonner, bishop of London, who began to communicate 
with Mr. Haukes, first asking, what should move him to leave his child unchristened 
so long? To this he answered - "Because we are bound to do nothing contrary to 
the word of God. His institution I do not deny; but I deny all things invented 
and devised by man: your oil, your cream, your salt, your spittle, your candle, 
and your conju- ring of water." Then the dialogue thus went on. Bonner. Will you 
deny that which the whole world and your forefathers have been contented withal? 
Haukes. What my fathers and all the world have done, I have nothing to do with: 
but what God hath commanded me to do, to that stand I. Bonner. The catholic church 
hath taught it. Haukes. What is the catholic church? Bonner. It is the faithful 
congregation, wheresoever it be dispersed throughout the whole world. Haukes. 
Who is the head thereof? Bonner. Christ is the head thereof. Haukes. Are we taught 
in Christ, or in the church now? Bonner. Have you not read in the fourteenth of 
St. John where he said, He would send his comforter which should teach you all 
things? Haukes. I grant you it is so, that he would send his comforter, but to 
what end? Forsooth to this end, that he should lead you into all truth and verity, 
and that is not to teach a new doctrine. Bonner. Ah, sir, you are a right scripture 
man; for you will have noth- ing but the scripture. There are a great number of 
your countrymen of your opinion. Mr. Haukes himself informs us that at this point 
of the dialogue the bishop sent for a preacher of Essex of the name of Baget. 
He knew and respected Mr. Haukes, and yet the bishop hoped to have influence enough 
over him to induce him to impeach his friend. At first he could not succeed; but 
after a little private conversation with Baget the conver- sation was thus resumed:- 
Bonner. How say you now unto baptism? Say whether it be to be frequented and used 
in the church, as it is now, or not? Baget. Forsooth, my lord, I say it is good. 
Bonner. Befool your heart, could you not have said so before? You have wounded 
this man's conscience. How say you now, sir, this man is turned and converted? 
PAGE 683 Haukes. I build not my faith upon this man, neither upon you but upon 
Christ Jesus only, who, as St. Paul saith, is the founder and author of all men's 
faith. Bonner. I perceive you are a stubborn fellow; I must, therefore, go to 
work another way with you, to win you. Haukes. Whatsoever you do, I am ready to 
suffer it; for I am in your hands to abide it. Bonner. Well, you are so; come 
on your ways, shall go in, and I will use you christian-like: you shall have meat 
and drink, such as I have in my house: but in any wise talk not. Haukes. I purpose 
to talk nothing but the word of God and truth. Bonner. I will have no heresy talked 
of in my house. Haukes. Why, is the truth become heresy? God hath commanded that 
we should have none other talk in our houses, in our beds, at our meat, and by 
the way, but all truth. Bonner. If you will have my favour be ruled by my counsel. 
Haukes. Then I trust you will grant me my request. Bonner. What is that? Haukes. 
That your doctors and servants give me no occasion: for if they do, I will surely 
utter my conscience. Upon this the bishop commanded his men to take in Baget, 
that Haukes and he might not have an opportunity to talk together. And so thus 
they departed and went to dinner, dining at the servant's table. After dinner, 
the bishop's chaplains and his men began to talk with Mr. Haukes; and in the company 
there was one Darbyshire, principal of Broad- gates, in Oxford, and the bishop's 
kinsman, who said that Haukes was too curious: "for ye will have," said he, "nothing 
but your little pretty God's book." "And is not that sufficient for my salvation?" 
Haukes enquired. "Yes," said he, "it is sufficient for our salvation, but not 
for our instruc- tion." At the time that they thus reasoned, Bonner came in; and 
after reproving Haukes for talking, they all went into his orchard again, when 
the bishop resumed the dialogue. Bonner. Would not ye be contented that your child 
should be christened after the book that was set out by king Edward? Haukes. Yes, 
with a good will: it is what I desire. Bonner. I thought so: ye would have the 
same thing. The principal is in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, and in the necessi- ty it may serve. Will ye be content to tarry here, 
and your child shall be baptized, and you shall not know of it, so that you will 
agree to it? Haukes. If I would so have done, I needed not to have come to you: 
for I had the same counsel given before. Bonner. You seem to be a lusty young 
man; you will not give your head for the washing; you will stand in the defense 
of it for the honour of your country. Do ye think that the queen and I cannot 
command it to be done in spite of your teeth? PAGE 684 Haukes. What the queen 
and you can do I will not stand in it: but ye get my consent never the sooner. 
Bonner. Well, you are a stubborn young man; I perceive I must work another way 
with you. Haukes. Ye are in the hands of God, and so am I. Bonner. Whatsoever 
you think, I will not have you speak such words unto me. They departed until even-song 
time: and ere even-song was begun, my lord called Haukes unto the chapel, and 
said - "Haukes, thou art a proper young man, and God hath done his part unto thee; 
I would be glad to do thee good. Thou knowest that I am thy pastor, and one that 
should answer for thee. If I would not teach thee well I should answer for thy 
soul." Haukes. That I have said, I will stand to it, God willing: there is no 
way to remove it. Bonner. Nay, nay, Haukes, thou shalt not be so wilful. Remember 
Christ bade two go into his vineyard; the one said he would, and went not; the 
other said he would not, and went. Do thou likewise, and I will talk friendly 
with thee; how sayest thou? It is in the sixth of St. John - "I am the bread of 
life, and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life 
of the world. And whosoever eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood, hath everlasting 
life. My flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. And he that eateth 
my flesh and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him." Do ye believe this? 
Haukes. Yea, I must needs believe the scriptures. Bonner. Why, then I trust you 
be sound in the blessed sacrament. Haukes. I beseech your lordship to feel my 
conscience no farther than in that which I was accused in unto you. Bonner. Well, 
well, let us go unto even-song. Why will you not tarry even-song? Haukes. Because 
I have no edifying thereby, for I understand no Latin. Bonner. Why, you may pray 
by yourself. What books have you? Haukes. I have the New Testament, the book of 
Solomon, and Psalter. Bonner. Then I pray you tarry here, and pray you on your 
Psalter. Haukes. I will not pray in this place, nor in any such. Then said one, 
"Let him go, my lord." So Bonner went to even-song; and within an hour after sent 
for Haukes into his chamber. Bonner. You know of the talk that was between you 
and me, as concerning the sacrament. You would not have your conscience sought 
any farther, than in that you were accused of. Haukes. I thought you would not 
be both mine accuser and judge. Bonner. Well, you shall answer me to the sacrament 
of the altar, the sacrament of baptism, the sacrament of penance, and the sacrament 
of matrimony. Haukes. There are none of these, but I dare speak my conscience 
in them. Bonner. The sacrament of the altar you seem to be sound in. Haukes. In 
the sacrament of the altar? Why, sir, I do not know it PAGE 685 Bonner. Well, 
we will make you to know it, and believe in it too before we have done with you. 
Haukes. No, that shall ye never do. What God thinketh meet to be done, that shall 
ye do, and more ye shall not do. Bonner. Do you not believe that there remaineth 
in the blessed sacrament of the altar, after the words of consecration be spoken, 
no more bread, but the very body and blood of Christ? Why did not Christ say, 
"Take, eat, this is my body?" Haukes. Christ said so: but therefore it followeth 
not that the sacra- ment of the altar is so as you teach, neither did Christ ever 
teach it so to be. Bonner. Why, the catholic church taught it so, and they were 
of Christ's church. Haukes. How prove you it? The apostles never taught it so. 
Neither St. Peter nor St. Paul ever taught it, nor instituted it so. Bonner. Ah, 
sir, you will have no more than the scripture teacheth, but even as Christ hath 
left it bare. Haukes. He that teacheth me any otherwise, I will not believe him. 
Bonner. Why, then you must eat a lamb, if you will have but Christ's institution 
only. Haukes. Nay, that is not so, for before Christ instituted the sacrament, 
that ceremony ceased, and then began the sacrament. Except you teach me by the 
word of God, I never will credit you, nor believe you. And thus they concluded. 
The next day the bishop went to London, for Fecknam was made dean that day. Upon 
the Monday morning, very early, the bishop called for Haukes, having with him 
Harpsfield, archdeacon of London, to whom he said, "This is the man which I told 
you of, who would not have his child christened, nor will have any ceremonies." 
Archdeacon. Christ used ceremonies. Did he not take clay from the ground, and 
took spittle, and made the blind man to see? Haukes. That I well know; but Christ 
never used it in baptism. If ye will needs have it, put it to the use that Christ 
put it unto. Archdeacon. Admit your child die unchristened, what a heavy case 
you stand in! Marry, then you are damned, and your child both. Do you not know 
that your child is born in original sin? and how is original sin washed away? 
Haukes. By true faith and belief in Christ Jesus. Archdeacon. How can your child, 
being an infant, believe? Haukes. The deliverance of it from sin standeth in the 
faith of his parents. "The unbelieving man is sanctified by the believing woman, 
and the unbelieving woman is sanctified by the believing man, or else were your 
children unclean, but now are they holy." Bonner. Recant, recant: do you not know 
that Christ said, "Except ye be baptised, ye cannot be saved?" Haukes. I say as 
St. Peter saith, "Not the washing of water purgeth the filthiness of the flesh, 
but a good conscience consenting unto God." Bonner. Let us make an end here. How 
say you to the mass? Haukes. I say it is detestable, abominable, and unprofitable. 
Bonner. What, nothing profitable in it? What say you to the epistle and gospel? 
PAGE 686 Haukes. It is good if it be used as Christ left it to be used. Bonner. 
How say you to the Confiteor? Haukes. I say it is abominable and detestable, yea, 
and a blasphemy against God, and his son Jesus Christ, to call upon any, to trust 
to any, or to pray to any, save only Christ Jesus. Archdeacon. What books have 
you? Haukes. The New Testament, Solomon's books, and the psalter. Archdeacon. 
Will you read any other books? Haukes. Yes, Latimer's books, my lord of Canterbury's 
book, Bradford's sermons, and Ridley's books. Bonner. Away, away, he will have 
no books but such as maintain his heresies! The next day came an old bishop, who 
had a pearl in his eye, and he brought with him unto my lord a dish of apples, 
and a bottle of wine. For he lost his living because he had a wife. Then the bishop 
called Mr. Haukes again unto the orchard, and said to the old bishop, "This young 
man hath a child, and will not have it christened." Haukes. I deny not baptism. 
Bonner. Thou art a fool; thou canst not tell what thou wouldst have. Haukes. A 
bishop must be blameless, sober, discreet, no brawler, nor given to anger. Bonner. 
Thou judgest me to be angry: no, by my faith I am not. With that he struck himself 
upon the breast. Then the old bishop said to Mr. Haukes, "Alas, good young man, 
you must be taught by the church, and by your elders, and do as your forefathers 
have done before you." Bonner. No, no, he will have nothing but the scriptures, 
and God knows, he doth not understand them. He will have no ceremonies in the 
church, no not one: what say you to holy water? The scriptures allow it? We prove 
it in the book of Kings, where Elisha threw salt into the water. Haukes. You say 
truth, that it is written in the Kings, the children of the prophets came to Elisha, 
saying - "The dwelling of the city is pleasant, but the waters to corrupted." 
This was the cause that Elisha threw salt into the water, and it became sweet 
and good: and so when our waters be corrupted, if you can, by putting in salt, 
make them sweet, clear, and wholesome, we will the better believe your ceremonies. 
Bonner. How say you to holy bread? Have you not read where Christ fed five thousand 
men with five loaves and two small fishes. Haukes. Will ye make that holy bread? 
There Christ dealt fish with his holy bread. He did not this miracle, or other, 
because we should do the miracle, but because we should believe and credit his 
doctrine thereby. Thus closed the dialogue with the bishop for the present. Mr. 
Haukes now went to dinner, and, if a humble and holy consciousness of attachment 
to the word of God amidst personal danger could impart appetite for the food of 
this life, his meal must have been a source of real enjoyment. After dinner he 
was called into the hall again, when his lordship desired the old bishop to take 
him into his chamber, to see if he could convert him. So he took him, and sat 
himself down in a chair, and said PAGE 687 - "I would to God I could do you some 
good: you are a young man, and I would not wish you to go too far, but learn of 
your elders to bear somewhat." To this Haukes answered - "I will bear nothing 
that is contrary to the word of God." Next day, Fecknam came and said, "Are you 
he that will have a ceremo- nies? You will not have your child christened but 
in English, and you will have no ceremonies." To this Haukes replied - "Whatsoever 
the scripture commandeth to be done, I refuse not." A short conversation then 
followed between Haukes and Fecknam concerning the real presence and the true 
interpretation of the words of Christ - "This is my body." The usual arguments 
on both sides were repeated. At length Fecknam said - "I perceive you hang and 
build on them that be at Oxford; I mean Latimer, Cranmer, and Ridley. Haukes. 
I build my faith upon no man, and that shall ye well know: for if those men, and 
as many more as they be, should recant and deny that they have said and done, 
yet will I stand to it; and by this shall ye know that I build my faith upon no 
man. Bonner. If any of those recant, what will ye say to it? Haukes. When they 
recant, I will make you an answer. Bonner. Then thou wilt say as thou dost now 
for all that? Haukes. Yes indeed will I, and that, trust to it, by God's grace. 
Bonner. I dare say Cranmer would recant, so that he might have his living. And 
so the bishop and Fecknam departed from Haukes with great laughing, and he went 
again to the porter's lodge. The next day came Dr. Chedsey to the bishop; and 
then was Haukes called into the garden again. After some talk, Chedsey inquired, 
"What say ye to the church of Rome?" Haukes. I say it is a church composed of 
vicious cardinals, priests, monks, and friars, which I will never credit nor believe. 
Chedsey. What say you to the bishop of Rome? Haukes. From him and all his detestable 
enormities, good Lord deliver us. Bonner. He will by no means come within my chapel, 
nor hear mass: for neither the mass nor the sacrament of the altar can he abide, 
neither will he have any service but in English. Chedsey. Christ never spake in 
English. Haukes. Neither did he ever speak in Latin, but always in such a tongue 
as the people might be edified thereby. And St. Paul saith that tongues profit 
us nothing. He maketh a similitude between the pipe and the harp, and except it 
be understood what the trumpet meaneth, who can prepare himself to the battle? 
So if I hear a tongue that I do not understand, what profit have I thereby? no 
more than he hath by the trumpet, that knoweth not what it meaneth. Chedsey. If 
you understand St. Paul's saying, he speaketh it under a prophecy - "If one prophesy 
to you in tongues." Haukes. St. Paul maketh a distinction between prophesying 
and tongues, saying - "If any man speak with tongues, let it be two or three at 
the most, and let another interpret it. But if there be no interpreter, let them 
keep silence in the congregation, and let himself pray unto God: and then let 
the prophets speak two or three, and that by course, and let the others judge: 
and if any revelation be made to him that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace:" 
so that it seemeth that St. Paul maketh a distinction between tongues and prophesying. 
PAGE 688 Chedsey. Hath any man preached other than Christ's doctrine unto you? 
Haukes. Yea; I have been taught, since I came here, praying to saints and to our 
Lady, trusting in the mass, holy bread, holy water, and idols. Chedsey. He that 
teaches you so, teacheth not amiss. Haukes. Cursed be he that teacheth me so! 
for I will not trust him, nor believe him. The next day Dr. Chedsey preached in 
the bishop's chapel, and did not begin his sermon until the service was done: 
and then came the porter for Haukes, and said - "My lord would have you come to 
the sermon;" and so he went to the chapel and stood without the door, and when 
Bonner commanded him in, Haukes refused and answered, "I will come no nearer," 
and so stood at the door. Then Dr. Chedsey put the stole about his neck, and carried 
the holy water unto the bishop, who blessed him, and sprinkled him with holy water, 
and so he went to his sermon. His text was the sixteenth of St. Matthew - "Whom 
do men say that I the Son of Man am? Peter said, Some say that thou art Elias, 
some that thou art John the Baptist, some say thou art one of the prophets. But 
whom say ye that I am? Then said Peter, Thou art Christ the Son of the liveing 
God." Then he left the text there, and said, " 'Whose sins soever ye bind, are 
bound:' which authority is left to the heads of the church, as my lord here is 
one, and so unto all the rest that be underneath him. But the church hath been 
much kicked at since the beginning: yet kick the heretics, spurn the heretics 
ever so much, the church doth stand and flourish." Then he went straightway to 
the sacrament, and said his mind on it, exalting it above heaven, as most of them 
do, and so returned to this place again, saying, "Whose sins ye so remit, are 
remitted and forgiven:" and so he applied it to the bishops and priest to forgive 
sins, and said, "All that be of the church will come and receive the same." And 
this he attempted to prove by St. John saying, that Christ came to raise Lazarus, 
who, when he was risen, was bound in bands: then said Christ to them that were 
in authority, "Go ye and loose him, let him go." And this was the effect of his 
sermon, applying all to the bishops, that they have the same authority that Christ 
spake of to his apostles. The several parties separated after this sermon for 
dinner. After dinner Mr. Haukes was called into the chapel, where were several 
of the queen's servants, and other strangers whom he did not know. The conversation 
was thus resumed:- Bonner. Haukes, how like you the sermon? What, are you not 
edified thereby? It was made only because of you. Haukes. Why, then I am sorry 
that you had no more heretics here, as you call them: I am sorry that you have 
bestowed so much labour on one, and that the labour was so little regarded by 
him. Bonner. Well, I will leave you here, for I have business; I pray my friends 
to talk with him, for if you could do him good, I would be glad. This the bishop 
spake to the queen's men, who said unto Haukes "Alas! what mean you to trouble 
yourself about such matters against the queen's proceedings?" PAGE 689 Haukes. 
This matter have I answered before them in authority: and unless I see you have 
a further commission, I will answer you nothing at all. The bishop had borne with 
answers equally firm and decisive as this; but the servants were more haughty 
than their lord, and instantly resented what they affected to consider an insult. 
They loudly exclaimed as with one heart and voice, "Fagots! burn him! hang him! 
to prison with him! it is pity he liveth! lay irons upon him!" and with a great 
noise they spake these words. In the midst of all their rage he departed from 
them to the porter's lodge again. The next day the bishop called him unto his 
chamber, and said, "You have been with me a great while, and you are never the 
better, but worse and worse: and therefore I will delay the time no longer, but 
send you to Newgate. Come on your ways, you shall see what I have written." Then 
did he shew certain articles, and this is the substance of them - whether the 
catholic church doth teach and believe, that Christ's real presence doth remain 
in the sacrament or no, after the words of consecration, according to these words 
of St. Paul; "Is not the bread which we break the partaking of the body of Christ, 
and the cup which we bless, the partaking of the blood of Christ?" which, if it 
were not so, St. Paul would never have said it. Haukes. What your church doth 
understand I cannot tell: but I am sure that the holy catholic church doth never 
so take it, nor believe it. Bonner. Whether doth the catholic church teach and 
believe the baptism that now is used in the church, or no? Haukes. I answered 
to it as I did to the other question before. Again the opponents separated for 
the night. The next morning, which was the first of July, the bishop called Haukes 
from the porter's lodge, commanding him to make himself ready to go to prison, 
and to take such things with him as he had of his own. Then he wrote his warrant 
to the keeper of the Gate-house at Westminster, and delivered it to Harpsfield,