Foxe's Book of Martyrs-- Part  Four

with his own man and one of the bishop's, brought him to prison, and delivered 
the warrant to the keeper, which ran as follows - "I will and command you, that 
you receive him who cometh named in this warrant, and that he be kept as a safe 
prisoner, and that no man speak with him, and that you deliver him to no man, 
except it be to the council, or to a justice; for he is a sacramentary, and one 
that speaketh against baptism, a seditious man, a perilous man to be abroad in 
these perilous days." There he remained thirteen days, when the bishop sent two 
of his men unto him, saying, "My lord would be glad to know how you do." He answered 
them, "I do like a poor prisoner." They said, "My lord would know whether you 
be the same man that you were when you departed." He said, "I am no changeling." 
They said, "My lord would be glad that you should do well." He said, "If my lord 
will do me any good, I pray you desire him to suffer my friends to come to me." 
They said they would speak for him, but he heard no more of them. In fact he remained 
in close confinement, neglected by his enemies, insulted by those who had PAGE 
690 the charge of him, and denied the society and advice of his friends, for nearly 
two months, during which it afterwards appeared that Bonner was devising every 
crafty method to prepare him, either for a public recan- tation or a dreadful 
death; or perhaps for both, and for the one as the immediate precursor of the 
other. His second examination took place on the 3rd of September, immediately 
after a sermon by Gardiner at St. Pauls's Cross. In answer to a question from 
Bonner whether he would attend and hear the discourse, Mr. Haukes said - "Yes, 
my lord, I pray you let me go; and that which is good I will receive, and the 
rest I will leave behind me." Bonner soon perceived that the sermon, though prepared 
and preached by one who was bishop of Winchester and lord chancellor at the same 
time, produced no effect in the mind of his steadfast prisoner, except rendering 
him more steadfast in the true faith. He therefore retired to prepare a paper 
that Haukes would be required to sign; meanwhile he left the latter to be reviled 
and taunted by some of his menials. Among these was one Smith, who was an apostate 
from the reformed church, and appears to have been retained by Bonner as a fit 
instrument of his evil designs against the reformers. Mr. Haukes observes of him 
in his journal - "As I stood there, Dr. Smith came unto me, who once recanted, 
as it appeared in print, saying, he would be glad to talk brotherly with me. I 
asked him what he was? Then said they that stood by, he is Dr. Smith. Then said 
I, Are you he that did recant? And he said, It was no recantation, but a declaration." 
To this Mr. Haukes answered with a smile, "You were best to term it well for your 
own honestly: but to be short with you, I will know whether you will recant any 
more or not before I talk with you, credit you, or believe you! and so I departed 
from him to the other side of the chamber." It would be trifling with the reader's 
patience to record the conversa- tions which Mr. Haukes was compelled to hold 
with other individuals even of a meaner stamp: it may be remarked, however, that 
he perfectly con- founded every one of them - being constrained to exercise his 
talent for satire, and to answer the fools according to their folly. At length 
the bishop, having finished his paper, came to Mr. Haukes and laid it before him 
to sign - first reading the following portion of it - "I Thomas Haukes do hereby 
confess and declare before my said ordinary, Edmund, bishop of London, that the 
mass is abominable and detestable, and full of all superstition, and also as concerning 
the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, commonly called the sacrament of 
the altar, that Christ is in no part thereof, but only in heaven: this I have 
believed, and this I do believe." At this point Mr. Haukes said, "Stop there, 
my lord: what I have believed, what have you to do withal? but what I do believe, 
to that stand I and will." Altering the paper accordingly, the bishop went farther 
with his writing, and said, "I Thomas Haukes have talked with my said ordinary, 
and with certain good, godly, and learned men; notwithstanding I stand still in 
mine opinion." Here Mr. Haukes was constrained to protest - "Shall I grant you 
to be good, godly, and learned men, and yet allow myself to stand in a con- trary 
opinion? No, I will not grant you to good, godly, and learned men." PAGE 691 Bonner. 
Ye will grant that ye have talked with us: the other I will put out for your pleasure. 
Then said all his doctors, "If your lordship be ruled by him, he will cause you 
to put out all together." And then he read more: "Here unto this bill have I set 
my hand," and then he offered Haukes the bill and his pen, and bade him set his 
hand to it. Haukes. Ye get not my hand to anything of your making or devising. 
Bonner. Wilt not thou set to thy hand? It shall be to thy shame for the denying 
of it. And then he called all his doctors, and said he would have every man's 
hand to it that was in the chamber. And so he had all their hands to it, and said, 
"He that will not set his hand to it, I would he were hanged;" and so said all 
his chaplains and doctors with a great noise. Then the bishop thrust Haukes on 
the breast with great anger, saying he would be even with him, and with all such 
proud knaves in Essex. Haukes. Ye shall do no more than God shall give you leave. 
Bonner. This gear shall not go unpunished - trust to it. Haukes. As for you cursings, 
railings, and blasphemings, I care not for them: for I know the moths and worms 
shall eat you, as they eat cloth, etc. Bonner. I will be even with you when time 
shall come. Haukes. You may in your malice destroy a man; but, when you have done, 
ye cannot do so much as make a finger; and ye are meetly even with some of us 
already. Then Bonner took the bill, and read it again; and when he saw that he 
could not have his hand to it, then he would have had him to take it into his 
hand, and to give it to him again. Haukes. What needeth that ceremony? Neither 
shall it come into my hand, heart, or mind. - Then the bishop wrapt it up, put 
it in his bosom, and in great anger went his way, and called for his horse; for 
the same day he rode in visitation into Essex. After all these private conferences, 
persuasions, and long debatings had with Thomas Haukes in the bishop's house, 
the bishop, seeing no hope to win him to his wicked ways, was fully set to proceed 
openly against him after the ordinary course of his popish law. Whereupon Thomas 
Haukes, shortly after, was cited with the rest of his other fellows above speci- 
fied, to wit, Thomas Tomkins, Stephen Knight, William Pygot, John Lawrence, and 
William Hunter, to appear in the bishop's consistory, the 8th day of February, 
1555. Upon which appearance was laid against him, in like order as to the others, 
first the bill of his confession, written with Bonner's hand, to the which bill 
ye heard before how this blessed servant of God denied to subscribe. After which 
bill of confes- sion being read, and he constantly standing to the said confession, 
the bishop then assigned him, with the other five, the day following to appear 
before him again, to give a resolute answer what they would stick unto. Being 
exhorted the next day by the bishop to return again to the bosom of the mother-church, 
he answered, "No, my lord, that will I not; for if I had a hundred bodies, I would 
suffer them all to be torn in pieces, rather than I will abjure and recant." Whereupon 
Bonner, at the last, read the sentence of death upon him; and so was he condemned 
the same PAGE 692 day with the residue of his fellows, which was the 9th of February. 
Nevertheless his execution was prolonged, and he remained in prison till the 10th 
day of June. Then was he committed to the hands and charge of the lord Rich, who, 
being assisted with power sufficient of the worship- ful of the shire, had the 
foresaid Thomas Haukes down into Essex, with six other fellow-prisoners, whose 
stories hereafter follow, there to suffer martyrdom; Haukes at Coggleshall, the 
others severally in other several places. By the way, Thomas Haukes used great 
exhoration to his friends; and whensoever opportunity served to talk with them, 
he would familiarly admonish them. When the day and hour of his execution arrived, 
being led to the place appointed for the slaughter, he there mildly and patiently 
prepared himself for the fire, having a strait chain cast about his middle, with 
a multitude of people on every side, unto whom he spare many things. At length, 
after his fervent prayers first made and poured out unto God, the fire was set 
unto him; in the which when he had con- tinued long, and when his speech was taken 
away by violence of the flame, his skin also drawn together, and his fingers consumed, 
so that now all men thought that he had certainly been gone, suddenly this blessed 
servant of God (being mindful of a promise secretly made unto his friends) reached 
up his hands burning on a light fire over his head to the living God, and with 
great rejoicing, as it seemed, struck or clapped them three times together: and 
so the blessed Martyr of Christ, straightway sinking down into the fire, gave 
up his spirit, June 10, 1555. Thomas Watts, of Billericay in Essex, and of the 
diocese of London, was by his occupation a linen draper. Before he was apprehended 
he disposed of his stock in trade, giving much of his cloth to the poor; and being 
in daily expectation of his enemies' virulence, he set his affairs in order, for 
the sake of his wife, and children. On the 26th of April he was apprehended and 
brought before the Lord Rich and other commissioners at Chelmsford, and there 
being accused for not coming to the church, was upon the same examined before 
the lord Rich, Sir Anthony Brown, Edmund Tyrel, and several other magistrates 
of the county. When Mr. Watts first came before the justices at the sessions at 
Chelmsford, lord Rich thus addressed him, "Watts, you be brought hither, as I 
understand, because of disobedience to the king and queen's laws. You will not 
come to the church, you will not hear mass; but have your conventicles a sort 
of you in corners, contrary to the king and queen's proceedings." To this Mr. 
Watts answered, "My lord, if I have offended a law, I am subject to the law." 
Then justice Brown said to him, "Watts, I pray thee tell me who has been thy schoolmaster 
to teach thee this religion, or where didst thou first learn it?" "Forsooth," 
said Watts, "even of you, sir, you taught it me, and none more than you. For in 
king Edward's days in open sessions you spake against the religion now used, no 
preacher more. You then said the mass was abominable, and all their trumpery besides, 
wishing and earnestly exhoring that none should believe there- in, and that our 
belief should be only in Christ: and you then said, that whosoever should bring 
in any strange nation to rule here, it were treason, and not to be suffered." 
PAGE 693 Then said Brown to my lord Rich, "He belies me, my lord. What a knave 
is this! he will soon believe me behind my back, when he doth it before my face." 
And my lord Rich said again, "I dare say he doth so." In conclusion, the commissioners 
being weary of him, or else not willing to meddle further in such high matters, 
sent him up to the bishop of London, with their letter withal, importing the cause 
of his sending up. On Thursday, the 2nd of May, Thomas Watts was accordingly brought 
before the bishop of London; and there being examined, upon his words had before 
the lord Rich and others, as is contained in their letters, he did earnestly affirm 
the same to be true. Whereupon the bishop objected, and examined him upon these 
articles following. (1) That he was of Billericay, and so of the jurisdiction 
of the bishop of London. (2) That he believed not in the sacraments of the church 
of Rome. (3) That he believeth, and also hath taught others, that the substance 
of material bread and wine doth remain in the sacrament after the consecration. 
(4) That he believeth that the very true presence of Christ's body and blood, 
in substance, is not in the sacrament, but only in heaven, and nowhere else. (5) 
That he believeth that the mass now used in the church of Rome is full of idolatry, 
abomination, and wickedness, and that Christ did never institute it. (6) That 
he believeth auricular confes- sion to be not necessary, but superfluous. (7) 
That he believeth that Luther, Wickliffe, Dr. Barnes, and all others that have 
holden against the sacrament, and suffered death by fire for the maintenance of 
the said opinion, were good men, and faithful servants and martyrs of Christ in 
so believing and dying. (8) That he hath and doth believe that to fast, pray, 
or to do alms-deeds, is a thing utterly unprofitable. (9) That coming unto the 
open court at the sessions, he there said openly, that all that is now used and 
done in the church is abominable, hereti- cal, schismatical, and altogether naught. 
(10) That he the said Thomas, by reason of the premises, was and is a manifest 
and open heretic; and for the same is to be declared accursed; and being obstinate 
and incor- rigible, is to be delivered to the secular power, there to be punished 
as a heretic. (11) That he, besides all these offences, had believed and deliberately 
spoken, that the church of Rome, in her rites, ceremonies, sacraments, constitutions, 
and traditions, is the synagogue of Satan. (12) That the premises and every part 
thereof be true, notorious, and manifest, and openly spoken and talked of. - To 
these articles the said Thomas Watts answered: The first he confessed to be true. 
To the second, that he believed in all the sacraments according to Christ's institu- 
tion, but not according to the bishop of Rome's church. To the third, that he 
hath and doth believe that Christ's body is in heaven, and nowhere else; and further, 
that he will never believe that Christ's body is on the sacrament. To the fourth, 
that he will never believe that Christ's body is in the sacrament. To the fourth, 
that he believed the same to be true. To the fifth, that he believed that the 
mass is abominable, and would not go from that belief. To the sixth, that the 
priest could not absolve him of his sins, though he allowed it to be good to ask 
counsel at the priest's mouth. To the seventh, that he knew not what the opinions 
of the said persons were. To the eighth, he denied having thus spoken; but said 
that fasting, prayers, and alms deeds, be works of a lively faith. To the ninth, 
that he did thus speak, and desired God that he might die in that faith and belief, 
wherein he now is. To the tenth, that he will submit himself to the order of the 
law; PAGE 694 and further said, that he trusteth that with God he shall be blessed 
although with men he be accursed. To the eleventh, that he believed the bishop 
of Rome to be a mortal enemy to Christ and his church. To the twelfth, that all 
which before he confessed to be true, is true: all all that he hath denied to 
be true, he denieth again to be true, and believeth the same to be according to 
such things as he hath confessed. Thus having answered the articles, the bishop 
commanded Mr. Watts to appear again in the same place at three o'clock in the 
afternoon; when, after many persuasions to cause him to recant, he ordered him 
to depart, and come again on Saturday at eight o'clock in the morning. The bishop 
being then absent, Harpsfield, the archdeacon, represented him, and earnestly 
exhorted Watts to deny his opinions. But he being still reso- lute, as one whose 
house was built upon a rock, Harpsfield ordered him to appear there again upon 
Friday, the 10th day of the same month. Upon which day the bishop sent for him 
privately into his chamber; but find- ing all persuasion in vain, he was again 
dismissed until the 17th day of May, and then commanded to appear in the consistory; 
when being con- demned he was delivered to the sheriffs of London, by whom he 
was sent to Newgate, where he remained until the 9th of June when he was carried 
to Chelmsford to an inn, where, as he and his fellow sufferers were eating, they 
prayed together both before and after their meal. When this was over, Mr. Watts 
retired, and prayed privately and afterwards came to him his wife and six children, 
when having exhorted them to remain stedfast in the faith, he bade them farewell. 
Being brought to the stake, he kissed it, after which he thus addressed lord Rich: 
"My lord, bewarem, beware, for you do against your own conscience herein, and 
without you repent, the Lord will avenge it; for you are the cause of my death." 
Mention was made before in the story of Thomas Haukes, of six prisoners which 
were sent down with him to Essex; of which six, three were sent to be burned, 
and three to recant and do penance. Their names were, Thomas Osmond, fuller; William 
Bamford, weaver, Nicholas Chamberlain, weaver, Thomas Osborne, fuller, Thomas 
Brodehill, weaver, Richard Web, weaver; being all of the town of Coggleshall. 
The articles objected against Osmond, Bamford, and Chamberlain were similar to 
those of Watts and others, and their answers equally firm and decided. After these 
had been propounded and answered, they were dismissed till the afternoon; at which 
time the bishop and his assistants, by fair and flattering speeches, tried to 
make them recant and revoke their opinions., They, notwithstanding, remained firm, 
and therefore were sent away again until the next day; in the afternoon of which 
the bishop condemned them as heretics, and so delivered them to the sheriffs, 
in whose custody they remained until they were deliverd to the sheriff of Essex, 
and by him executed: Chamberlain at Colchester, on the 14th day of June; Thomas 
Osmond at Manningtree, and William Bamford at Harwich on the day following. Long 
persuasion had been in England with great expectation, for the space of half a 
year or more, that the queen was conceived with child. This report was made by 
the queen's physicians, and others nigh about the court, so that divers were punished 
for saying the contrary. Commandment was given, that in all churches supplication 
and prayer PAGE 695 should - be made for the queen's sage delivery; as may appear 
by provision made before in act of parliament for the child. Such was the public 
excitement that about Whitsuntide, the time that this young prince should come 
into the world, a rumour was blown in London of the prosperous deliverance of 
the queen, and the birth of a son! Then the bells were rung, bonfires and processions 
made, not only in London, and in most other parts of the realm, but also in Antwerp 
guns were shot off upon the river by the English ships, and the mariners thereof 
rewarded with a hundred pistolets, or Italian crowns, by the lady regent, who 
was the queen of Hungary. Yea, divers preachers, after procession and Te Deum, 
took upon them to describe the proportion of the child, how fair, how beautiful, 
and great a prince it was, as the like had not been seen! It is said that a simple 
man, dwelling within four miles of Berwick, who never had been before half way 
to London, cried out concerning the bonfires made for the supposed child - "Here 
is a joyful triumph, but at length all will not prove worth a mess of pottage;" 
as indeed it came to pass: for in the end it proved quite contrary, and the joy 
and expecta- tions of men were much deceived. One thing of mine own hearing and 
seeing I cannot pass over unwitnessed: There came to me, whom I did both hear 
and see, one Isabel Malt, a woman dwelling in Aldersgatestreet, in Horn-alley, 
who before witness made this declaration: that she being delivered of a man-child 
upon the 11th of June, 1555, there came to her the lord North, and another lord 
to her unknown, dwelling then about Old Fish-street, demanding of her if she would 
part with her child, and would swear that she never knew nor had any such child; 
which, if she would, her son (they said) should be well provided for, she should 
take no care for it; with many fair offers if she would part with her child: but 
she in no wise would let go her son, who at the writing hereof being alive, and 
called Timothy Malt, was of the age of thirteen years and upward. Among many other 
great preparations made for the queen's deliverance of child, there was a cradle 
very sumptuously and gorgeously trimmed, upon which these lines were written both 
in Latin and English: The child which thou to Mary, O Lord of Might! hast send, 
To England's joy, in health preserve! - keep, and defend! About this time there 
came over a certain English book, warning English- men of the Spaniards, and disclosing 
certain close practices for recov- ery of abbey-lands, which book was called, 
"A Warning for England." By the occasion of this book, upon the 13th day of this 
month came out a certain proclamation, in the name of the king and queen, repealing 
and disannulling all manner of books written or printed, whatsoever should touch 
any thing to the impairing of the pope's dignity; whereby not only much godly 
edification was hindered, but also great peril grew among the people. Now as these 
papists have in this present proclamation condemned these books above recited; 
so I desire thee to give thy censure upon their books, by them allowed, and upon 
the matter in them contaned, and mark well what good stuff it is. And to begin 
with the Primer in English for children, after the use of Salisbury, called "Our 
Lady's Matins;" let us repeat and survey some part thereof, beginning with the 
first lession of our Lady in these words:- PAGE 696 "Holy Mary, mother most pure 
of virgins all, Mother and daughter of the King Celestial, So comfort us in our 
desolation, That by thy prayer and special mediation We enjoy the reward of thy 
heavenly reign," etc. Confer this with the Scriptures, good reader, and judge 
uprightly, whether this doctrine be tolerable in the church or not. It followeth 
more in the second lesson:- "Holy Mary, of all godly the godliest, Pray for us, 
of all holy the holiest; That He our prayers accept may in good wise Which of 
thee was born, and reigneth above the skies,"etc. The Versicle. - "Pray for the 
people, entreat for the clergy, make intercession the devout woman-kind; let all 
feel thy help, that worthily solemnize thy memorial," etc. "Holy Mother of God, 
make thy petition, That we may deserve Christ's promission," etc. And in the anthem 
after Benedictus, thus it followeth:- "We beseech thee of thy pity to have us 
in remembrance, and to make means for us unto Christ, that we, being supported 
by thy help, may deserve to attain the kingdom of heaven!" Item. - "Holy Mother, 
succour the miserable, comfort the weak-spirited, give courage to the desperate, 
pray for the people, make intercession for the clergy, and be a means for the 
devout woman-kind," etc. Another blasphemy in the said Primer:- "Hail Queen! mother 
of mercy, our life, our sweetness, our hope! Unto thee do we cry and sigh, weeping 
and wailing. Come off, therefore, our patroness; cast upon us thy pitiful eyes; 
and after this our banishment, shew to us the blessed fruit of thy womb. O Gate 
of glory, be for us a reconciliation unto the Father and the Son. From the wretched 
their faults expel: remove the spots of sins unclean," etc. And thus much of this 
catholic primer, called our Lady's Matins, Whereunto, if it were not tedious for 
the reader, we would also adjoin our Lady's Psalter, to the intent that all indifferent 
readers, as they have seen what books these catholic fathers have condemned and 
do condemn for heretical; so they may also see and judge what books on the other 
side they approve as lawful and catholic. And forasmuch as it is not known peradventure 
to all men what our Lady's Psalter is, or what it meaneth, here therefore we will 
first produce the name of the author, who was Bonaventure, a seraphical doctor, 
bishop also and cardinal, canonized moreover by pope Sixtus IV., anno 1482, for 
a saint in the calendar, who, to show himself a devout servant to his Lady, hath 
taken every Psalm of David, (which peculiarly refer to Almighty God,) and hath 
in divers of the said psalms and verses put out the name of the Lord, and hath 
placed in the name of our Lady. This being done, it is now called our Lady's Psalter, 
used to be sung and said in the praise and service of our Lady. A brief taste 
whereof, for example's sake, (for, to show all, it were too long,) here followeth: 
"Blessed is the man which understandeth thy name, O Virgin Mary; thy grace shall 
comfort his soul. PAGE 697 Thou shalt bring forth in him the most plentiful fruit 
of justice, being refreshed as it were with fountains of water. All women thou 
passest in the beauty of thy body, all angels and archangels in the excellency 
of thy holiness. Thy mercy and thy grace are magnified every where. "Why do our 
enemies fret and imagine vain things against us? Let thy right hand defend us, 
O mother of god, terribly confounding and destroy- ing them as with a sword. Come 
unto her, all ye that labour and are troubled, and she will give rest unto your 
souls. Come unto her in your temptations, and her loving countenance shall stablish 
and comfort you. Bless her with all your heart; for the earth is full of her mercy. 
"Why are they so many, O Lady, that trouble me? In thy fury thou shalt persecute 
and destroy them. Loose the bonds of our impiety, and take away the burden of 
our sins. Have mercy upon me, O Lady, and heal my infirmity. Take away my sorrow 
and the anguish of my heart. Deliver me not into the hands of mine enemies, and 
in the day of my death comfort my soul. Bring me unto the haven of salvation, 
and restore my spirit unto my Maker and Creator. "When I called to thee, thou 
heardest me, O my Lady, and out of thy high throne thou didst vouchsafe to think 
upon me. From the roaring of them that prepare themselves to devour me, and out 
of the hands of such as seek after my life, thy grace shall deliver me: because 
thy mercy and thy pity are great towards all them that call upon thy holy name. 
Blessed be thou, O Lady, for ever, and thy majesty for ever and ever. Glorify 
her, all nations of the earth. "Hear my words, O Lady, turn our mourning into 
gladness, and our trouble into rejoicing. Let our enemies fall before our feet, 
and with thy power dash their heads in pieces. O Lady, suffer me not to be rebuked 
in God's anger, nor to be chastened in his heavy displeasure. From the gate and 
deep pit of hell, with thy holy prayers deliver us. Let the everlasting gates 
be opened, that we may shew forth thy marvellous works for ever. Because the dead, 
nor they that be in hell, shall not praise thee, O Lady, but they which shall 
obtain by thy grace life everlasting. "O my Lady, in thee will I put my trust; 
deliver me from mine enemies. Stop the mouth of the lion, and bind the lips of 
the persecutors. Make no tarrying, for thy name's sake, to show thy mercy upon 
me. Let the brightness of thy countenance shine upon us, that our conscience may 
be saved before the Most Highest. If the enemy do persecute my soul, O Lady; help 
me that he destroy me not. I will give thanks to thee, O Lady, with my whole heat, 
and will shew forth among the nations thy praise and glory. They shall find grace 
through thee, the finder out of grace and salvation. The humble and penitent groan 
for pardon and forgiveness; heal thou the sores of their heart. "In thee, O Lady, 
do I put my trust. Seek her even from your youth, and she shall glorify you. Her 
mercy take from us the multitude of our sins, and give unto us plenteousness of 
merits. Save me, O mother of love, and fountain of mercy. Thou thyself alone hast 
gone about the compass of the earth, to help them that call upon thee. How long 
dost thou forget me, O Lady, and dost not deliver me in the day of my trouble? 
How long shall PAGE 698 mine enemy triumph over me? With thy mighty power destroy 
him. We magnify thee the finder and the author of grace, by whom the world is 
repaired. "Preserve me, O Lady, for in thee have I put my trust. Blessed be thy 
breasts, which with thy deifying milk did nourish the Saviour. I will love thee, 
O Lady of heaven and earth; I will call upon thy name among the nations. Confess 
yourselves unto her, ye that are troubled in heart, and she shall strengthen you 
against your enemies. O all ye cloisterers honour her, for she is your helper 
and special advocate. Be thou our refreshing and rest, for thou art the marvellous 
foundation of all relgion.' "Hear us, O Lady, in the day of trouble. Cast us not 
away in the time of our death, but succour our soul when it forsaketh the body. 
Send an angel to meet it, that it may be defended from the enemies. In torments 
and pain let it feel thy comfort, and grant to it a place among the elect of God." 
Moreover, in the Rosary or Garland of our Lady, compiled by the said St. Bonaventure, 
these words are to be read as followeth:- "O Mediatrix between God and man, the 
Lord hath worthily magnified thee, that thou only shouldst conceive his Son. Wherefore, 
O good Mary our mediatrix, mother of grace, and mother mercy," etc. - "Therefore, 
O our Empress and Lady most bountiful, by the authority of a mother command, command 
(I say) thy well-beloved Son." - "O the Advocate of the miser- able, the eyes 
of thy servants be directed to thee," etc. To these I might also adjoin the horrible 
and most blasphemous words of the said Bonaventure, "What greater goodness can 
be, than that Christ is content to be captive upon the altar?" Is not here good 
catholic stuff, Christian reader, trow you? Confer this doctrine with the doctrine 
of the Apostles, who teach us that we are complete in Christ, and I will refer 
ye to no better judge than to your own conscience. And now, therefore, if any 
man be in doubt in times past of the doctrines and proceedings of the church of 
Rome, whether it be rightly charged with blind errors, with blasphemy to be found, 
if it be not here in this Matins and Psalter of our Lady?" Section VIII. The life 
and martyrdom of John Bradford, who together with John Leaf was burned in Smithfield. 
John Bradford was born at Manchester in Lancashire. His parents brought him up 
in learning from his infancy, and continued his education until he attained such 
knowledge in the Latin tongue, and such skill in writ- ing, that he was able to 
gain his own living in a respectable situation. He then entered into the service 
of Sir John Harrington, knight, who in the great affairs of king Henry VIII. and 
Edward VI. which he had in hand when he was treasurer of the king's camps and 
buildings, at Boul- ogne, had such experience of Mr. Bradford's activity in writing, 
his expertness in the art of auditors, as also in his faithfulness, that he placed 
great confidence in him. Thus encouraged and trusted, Mr Bradford PAGE 699 continued 
several years in a thriving way, after course of this world, and so would have 
continued if his mind could have been satisfied. But the Lord had ordained him 
to more glorious and important objects, to preach the word of God to man. He called 
his chosen servant to the understanding and partaking of the gospel; in which 
he was truly taught, that forthwith his effectual mission was perceived by the 
fruits. For then he forsook his worldly affairs, and after a just account given 
to his master of all his doings, he departed from him, to further the kingdom 
of God by the ministry of his holy word, and to give himself wholly to the study 
of the scriptures. The better to accomplish his design, he departed from the Temple 
at London, and went down to the university at Cambridge, where his diligence in 
study, his profiting in knowledge, and his pious conversation, so pleased all 
men, that within a few years after he had been there, the university gave him 
the degree of master of arts. Immediately after, the master and fellows of Pembroke 
Hall gave him a fellowship in their college; and that good man, Martin Bucer, 
held him not only most dear unto him, but also oftentimes exhorted him to bestow 
his talent in preaching. To this Bradford always answered, that he was unable 
to serve in that office through want of learning, to which Bucer was wont to reply, 
"If thou hast not fine wheat bread, yet give the poor people barley bread, or 
whatsoever else the Lord hath committed unto thee." While Mr Bradford was thus 
persuaded to enter into the ministry, Dr. Ridley, according to the order then 
in the church of England, called him to the degree of deacon. This order was not 
without some abuse, to which Mr. Bradford would not consent, and the bishop perceiving 
that he was willing to enter into the ministry, was content to ordain him deacon 
without any abuse, even as he desired. He then obtained for him a licence to preach, 
and gave him a prebend in his cathedral church of St. Paul's, where Mr. Bradford 
diligently laboured for the space of three years. On the 13th of August, in the 
first year of the reign of queen Mary, Mr. Bourne, then bishop of Bath, made a 
sermon at Paul's Cross, which set forth the merits of popery in such sort, that 
it moved the people to such great indignation, that they could scarcely refrain 
pulling him out of the pulpit. Neither could the reverence of the place, nor the 
pres- ence of bishop Bonner, nor yet the command of the lord-mayor of London, 
whom the people ought to have obeyed, stay their rage: but the more they spoke, 
the more the people were incensed. At length Mr. Bourne, seeing the violence of 
the people, and himself in such peril, desired Mr. Bradford, who stood in the 
pulpit behind him, to come forth, and to stand in his place and speak to the people. 
Mr. Bradford at his request obeyed, and spake to the people of godly and quiet 
obedience. As soon as the people heard him begin to speak unto them, they were 
so glad that they gave a great shout. The tumult soon ceased and in the end each 
departed quietly to his house. The same Sunday afternoon, Mr. Bradford preached 
at Bow church in Cheap- side, and reproved the people for their seditious misdemeanor. 
After this he abode in London, with an innocent conscience, to wait what would 
PAGE 700 come to pass. He was not long at liberty, for within three days after 
he was sent for to the Tower, where the queen then was, to appear before the council. 
There he was charged with this act of saving Bourne, which they called seditious; 
and they also objected against him for preaching, and so by them he was committed 
first to the Tower, then to the king's Bench in Southwark, and after his condemnation 
he was sent to the Compt- er in the Poultry in London; in which latter places 
he preached twice a day continually, unless sickness hindered him. He ate but 
one frugal meal a day, and studied continually on his knees. He remained in prison 
from August 1553, till January 1555; upon the 22nd of which month he was called 
before Gardiner, and other of the commis- sioners. On coming into the presence 
of the council, (who had just finished with Dr. Farrar, of whom ye have heard,) 
John Bradford kneeled down; but immediately, by the lord chancellor, was bidden 
to stand up. Then the lord chancellor spake thus to him in effect: that he had 
been of long time justly imprisoned for his seditious behaviour at Paul's Cross, 
the 13th of August, in the year 1553, for his false preaching and arrogancy, taking 
upon him to preach without authority. "But now," said he, "the time of mercy is 
come, and therefore the queen's highness, minding to offer unto you mercy, hath 
by us sent for you, to declare and give the same, if you will with us return: 
and if you will do as we have done, you shall find as we have found, I warrant 
you." Mr. Bradford answered, "Mr lord and lords, I confess that I have been long 
imprisoned, and (with humble reverence be it spoken) unjustly, for that I did 
nothing seditiously, falsely, or arrogantly, in word or deed, by preaching or 
otherwise, but rather sought truth, peace, and all godly quietness, as an obedient 
and faithful subject, both in going about to serve the present bishop of Bath, 
then Mr. Bourne, the preacher at the Cross, and in preaching for quietness accordingly." 
Lord Chan. I know thou hast a glorious tongue, and goodly shews thou makest; but 
all is lies thou speakest. And again, I have not forgotten how stubborn thou wast 
when thou wast before us in the Tower, whereupon thou was committed to prison 
concerning religion: I have not forgotten thy behaviour and talk, for which cause 
thou hast been kept in prison, as one that would have done more hurt than I will 
speak of. Brad. My lord, I stand as before you, so before God, and one day we 
shall all stand before him: the truth then will be the truth, though now ye will 
not so take it. Yea, my lord, I dare say, that my lord of Bath, Mr. Bourne, will 
witness with me, that I sought his safeguard with the peril of mine own life, 
I thank God there - for. I took nothing upon me undesired, and that of Mr. Bourne 
himself, as if he were here present, I dare say he would affirm. For he desired 
me both to help him to pacify the people, and also not to leave him till he was 
in safety. And as for my behaviour in the Tower, and talk before your honours, 
if I did or said any thing that did not beseem me, if your lordships would tell 
me wherein it was, I should and would presently make you answer. Lord Chan. Well, 
to leave this matter: how sayest thou now? Wilt thou return again, and do as we 
have, and thou shalt receive the queen's mercy and pardon? 700 HISTORY OF CHRISTIAN 
MARTYRDOM. What would come to pass. He was not long at liberty, for within three 
days after he was sent for to the Tower, where the queen then was, to appear before 
the council. There he was charged with this act of saving Bourne, which they called 
seditious; and they also objected against him for preaching, and so by them he 
was committed first to the Tower, then to the King's Bench in Southwark, and after 
his condemnation he was sent to the Compter in the Poultry in London; in which 
latter places he preached twice a day continually, unless sickness hindered him. 
He ate but one frugal meal a day, and studied continually on his knees. He remained 
in prison from August 1553, till January 1555; upon the 22nd of which month he 
was called before Gardiner, and other of the commission- ers. On coming into the 
presence of the council, (who had just finished with Dr. Farrar, of whom ye have 
heard,) John Bradford kneeled down; but immediately, by the lord chancellor, was 
bidden to stand up. Then the lord chancellor spake thus to him in effect: that 
he had been of long time justly imprisoned for his seditious behaviour at Paul's 
Cross, the 13th of August, in the year 1553, for his false preaching and arrogancy, 
taking upon him to preach without authority. "But now," said he, "The time of 
mercy is come, and therefore the queen's highness, minding to offer unto you mercy, 
hath by us sent for you, to declare and give the same, if you will with us return: 
and if you will do as we have done, you shall find as we have found, I warrant 
you." Mr. Bradford answered, "My lord and lords, I confess that I have been long 
impris- oned, and (with humble reverence be it spoken) unjustly, for that I did 
nothing seditiously, falsely, or arrogantly, in word or deed, by preach- ing or 
otherwise, but rather sought truth, peace, and all godly quiet- ness, as an obedient 
and faithful subject, both in going about to serve the present bishop of Bath, 
then Mr. Bourne, the preacher at the Cross, and in preaching for quietness accordingly." 
Lord Chan. I know thou hast a glorious tongue, and goodly shews thou makest; but 
all is lies thou speakest. And again, I have not forgotten how stubborn thou wast 
when thou wast before us in the Tower, whereupon thou wast committed to prison 
concerning religion: I have not forgotten thy behaviour and talk, for which cause 
thou hast been kept in prison, as some that would have done more hurt than I will 
speak of. Brad. My lord, I stand as before you, so before God, and one day we 
shall all stand before him: the truth then will be the truth, though now ye will 
not so take it. Yea, my lord, I dare say, that my lord of Bath, Mr. Bourne, will 
witness with me, that I sought his safeguard with the peril of mine own life, 
I thank God there-for. I took nothing upon me undesired, and that of Mr. Bourne 
himself, as if he were here present, I dare say he would affirm. For he desired 
me both to help him to pacify the people, and also not to leave him till he was 
in safety. And as for my behaviour in the Tower, and talk before your honours, 
if I did or said any thing that did not beseem me, if your lordships would tell 
me wherein it was, I should and would presently make you answer. Lord Chan. Well, 
to leave this matter: how sayest thou now? Wilt thou return again, and do as we 
have, and thou shalt receive the queen's mercy and pardon? 701 EXAMINATION OF 
MR. BRADFORD. Brad. My lord, I desire your mercy with God's mercy; but your mercy 
with God's wrath, God keep me from: although, I thank God, my conscience doth 
not accuse, that I did speak any thing why I should need to receive the queen's 
mercy or pardon. For all that ever I did or spake was both agreeable to God's 
laws and the laws of the realm at that time, and did make much to quietness. I 
have not deceived the people, nor taught any other doctrine than, by God's grace, 
I am ready to confirm with my life. And as for its devilishness and falseness, 
I would be sorry you could so prove it. Durham. What say you of the ministration 
of the communion, as now it is? Brad. My lord, I must desire of your lordship 
and of all your honours a question, before I dare make you an answer to any question. 
I have been six times sworn that I shall in no case consent to the practising 
of any jurisdiction, or authority, on the bishop of Rome's behalf within this 
realm of England. Now, before God, I humbly pray your honours to tell me whether 
you ask me this question by his authority, or not? If you do, I dare not answer 
you any thing in his authority, except I would be forsworn, which God forbid. 
I was thrice sworn in Cambridge, when I was admitted master of arts, when I was 
admitted fellow of Pembroke Hall, and when I was there, the visitors came thither 
and sware the universi- ty. Again, I was sworn when I entered into the ministry, 
when I had a prebend given me, and when I was sworn to serve the king, a little 
before his death. Rochester. My lords, I never knew wherefore this man was in 
prison before now: but I see well that it had not been good that this man had 
been abroad: what the cause was that he was put in prison I know not; but I now 
well know that not without a cause he was, and is to be kept in prison. Sec. Bourne. 
Yea, it was reported this parliament time by the earl Derby, that he hath done 
more hurt by letters, and exhorting those that have come to him in religion, than 
ever he did when he was abroad by preaching. In his letters he curseth all that 
teach any doctrine which is not according to that he taught, and most heartily 
exhorteth them to whom he writeth to continue still in that they received by him, 
and such like as he is. How say you, Sir, have you not thus seditiously written 
and exhorted the people? Brad. I have not written nor spoken any thing seditiously; 
neither, I thank God, have I admitted any seditious thought, nor trust ever shall 
do. Concerning my letters, what I have written I have written. Lord Chan. We shall 
never have done with thee, I perceive now: be short, wilt thou have mercy? Brad. 
My lords, if I may live as a quiet subject without a clog of conscience, I shall 
heartily thank you for that pardon; if otherwise I behave myself, then I am in 
danger of the law: in the mean season I ask no more than the benefit of a subject 
till I be convicted of transgres- sion. If I cannot have this, as hitherto I have 
not had, God's good will be done. Here the lord chancellor again offered mercy, 
and Brad- ford answered as before. Mercy with God's mercy should be welcome, but 
otherwise he would have none. Whereupon the lord chancellor rang a bell, when 
the under marshal came in, to whom his lordship said, "You 702 shall take this 
man to you, and keep him close without conference with any man, but by your knowledge, 
and suffer him not to write any letters, for he is of another manner of charge 
to you now than he was before." And so they departed, Bradford looking as cheerfully 
as any man could do, declaring even a desire to give his life for the confirmation 
of his faith and doctrine. The second examination of Mr. Bradford took place immediately 
after the excommunication of Mr. Rogers, who has been before the reader. After 
a long speech of Gardiner and another bishop or two, Mr. Bradford said, "My lord, 
and my lords all, as I now stand in your sight before you, so I humbly beseech 
your honours to consider, that you sit in the seat of the Lord, who (as David 
doth witness) is in the congregation of judges, and sitteth in the midst of them 
judging righteously: and as you would have your place to be by us taken as God's 
place, so demonstrate yourselves to follow him in your sitting; that is, seek 
no guiltless blood, neither hunt by questions to bring into a snare them which 
are out of the same. At this present I stand before you guilty or guiltless: if 
guilty, proceed to give sentence accordingly; if guiltless, then give me the benefit 
of a subject, which hitherto I could not have." Here the lord chancellor said, 
that Bradford began with a true sentence - That the Lord is in the midst of them 
that judge. But, this and all his gesture declared but hypocrisy and vainglory. 
Then he endeavoured to clear himself that he sought not guiltless blood, and began 
a long process, stating that Bradford's fact at St. Paul's Cross was presumptuous 
and arrogant, and declared a taking upon himself to lead the people, which could 
not but turn to much disquietness, in that he was so refractory and stout in religion 
at that present. For which, as he was then committed to prison, so hitherto he 
has been kept in prison, where he has written letters to the great hurt of the 
queen's subjects, as was credibly declared by the earl of Derby in the parlia- 
ment house. And to this he added, that Mr. Bradford did stubbornly behave himself 
the last time he was before them; and therefore not for any other thing did he 
now demand of him, but for his doctrine and religion. Brad. My lord, where you 
accuse me of hypocrisy and vainglory, I must and will leave it to the Lord's declaration, 
who will one day open yours and my truth and hearty meanings: in the mean season, 
I will content myself with the testimony of my own conscience, which if it yield 
to hypocrisy, could not but have God to be my foe also; and so both God and man 
were against me. And as for my fact at St. Paul's Cross, and be- haviour before 
you at the Tower, I doubt not but God will reveal it to my comfort. For if ever 
I did any thing which God used to public bene- fit, I think that my deed was one, 
and yet for it I have been and am kept a long time in prison. And as for letters 
and religion, I answer as I did the last time I was before you. Lord Chan. There 
didst thou say stubbornly and saucily that thou wouldst maintain the erroneous 
doctrine in king Edward's days. 703 Brad. My lord, I said, the last time I was 
before you, that I had six times taken an oath, that I should never consent to 
the practising of any jurisdiction on the bishop of Rome's behalf; and therefore 
I dust not answer to any thing that should be so demanded, lest I should be forsworn, 
which God forbid. Howbeit, saving my oath, I said I was more confirmed in the 
doctrine set forth publicly in the days of king Edward than ever I was before 
I was put in prison: and so I thought I should be, and yet think still shall be 
found more ready to give my life as God will, for the confirmation of the same. 
Lord Chan. I remember well that thou madest much ado about needless matter, as 
though the oath against the bishop of Rome were so great a matter. So others have 
done before thee; but yet not in such sort as thou hast: for thou pretendest a 
conscience in it, which is nothing else but mere hypocrisy. Brad. My conscience 
is known to the Lord, and whether I deal herein hypocritically or no, he knoweth. 
As therefore I said then, my lord, so I say again now - that for fear I should 
be perjured I dare not answer to any thing you should demand of me, if my answering 
should consent to the confirming or practising of any jurisdiction for the bishop 
of Rome here in England. I am not afraid of death, I thank God; for I have looked 
for nothing else at your hands a long time: but I am afraid when death cometh, 
I should have matter to trouble my conscience by the guiltiness of perjury, and 
therefore I answer as I do. Lord Chan. You have written seditious letters, and 
perverted the people thereby, and still seem as though you would defend the erroneous 
doctrine in king Edward's time, against all men: and now you say you dare not 
answer. Brad. I have written no seditious letters, I have not perverted the people: 
but that which I have written and spoken, will I never deny, by God's grace. And 
where your lordship says, I dare not answer you; that all men may know I am not 
afraid, save mine oath, ask me what you will, and I will plainly make you answer, 
by God's grace, although I now see my life lieth thereon. But, O Lord, into thy 
hands I commit it, come what will: only sanctify thy name in me, as in an instrument 
of thy grace, Amen. Bow, ask what you will, and you shall see, I am not afraid, 
by God's grace, flatly to answer. Lord Chan. Well then, how say you to the blessed 
sacrament? Do you not believe there Christ to be present concerning his natural 
body? Brad. My lord, I do not believe that Christ is corporally present at and 
in the due administration of the sacrament. By `corporally,' I mean pres- ent 
corporally unto faith. I have been now a year and almost three quarters in prison, 
and in all this time you have never questioned me hereabout, when I might have 
spoken my conscience frankly without peril; but now you have a law to hang up 
and put to death, if a man answer freely and not to your liking, and therefore 
you come to demand this question. Ah, my lord, Christ used not this way to bring 
men to faith. Nor did the prophets nor apostles. Remember what Bernard writes 
to Eugenius the pope - "I read that the apostles stood to be judged, but I read 
not, that they sat to judge." Lord Chan. I use not this means. It was not my doing, 
although some there be that think this to be the best way: for I, for my part, 
have been challenged for being too gentle oftentimes. 704 Brad. My lord, I pray 
you stretch out your gentleness that I may feel it, for hitherto I have not. Lord 
Chan. With all my heart, not only but the queen's highness would stretch out mercy, 
if with them you would return. The next morning about seven o'clock, one Thomas 
Hussey came into the chamber wherein Mr. Bradford lay, and began a long oration, 
saying, that of love and acquaintance he came to speak that which he would farther 
utter. "You did," said he, "so wonderfully behave yourself before the lord chancel- 
lor, and other bishops yesterday, that even the greatest enemies you have, saw 
that they have no matter against you: and therefore I advise you, this day, to 
desire a time, and men to confer withal, so shall all men think it a wonderful 
wisdom, and piety in you; and by this means you shall escape present danger, which 
else is nearer than you are aware of." To this Mr. Bradford answered, "I neither 
can nor will make such request. For then shall I give occasion to the people, 
to think that I doubt of the doctrine which I confess; which I do not, for thereof 
I am most assured, and therefore will give no such offence." As they were thus 
talking, the chamber door was opened, and Dr. Seaton entered, who after some by-talk 
of Mr. Bradford's age, and his country, began a gay and long discourse of my lord 
of Canterbury, Mr. Latimer, and Mr. Ri- dley, and how they at Oxford were not 
able to answer any thing at all; and that therefore my lord of Canterbury desired 
to confer with the bishop of Durham and others; all which talk tended to this 
end, that Mr. Bradford should make the like suit, being not to be compared in 
learning to Dr. Cranmer. But John Bradford kept still one answer - "I cannot, 
nor I will not so offend the people:" whereat master Seaton waxed hot, and called 
Bradford arrogant, proud, and vainglorious. Bradford answered, "Beware of judging, 
lest you condemn yourself." When all their talk took no such effect as they looked 
for, Hussey asked Brad- ford, "Will ye not admit conference, if my lord chancellor 
should offer it publicly?" To this Bradford replied, "Conference! if it had been 
offered before the law had been made, or if it were offered so that I might be 
at liberty to confer, and as safe as he with whom I should confer, then it were 
something: but else I see not to what other purpose conference should be offered 
but to defer that which at length will come, and the lingering may give more offence 
than do good. Howbeit, if my lord should make such an offer of his own motion, 
I accused Mr. Bradford with being arrogant and proud, and they soon accused Mr. 
Brad- ford with being arrogant and proud, and they soon left him. Shortly after 
they were gone, Mr. Bradford was led to the church and there tarried uncalled 
for till eleven o'clock; meanwhile the excommunication of Mr. Saunders, already 
related, took place. At length the time arrived for Mr. Bradford's last examination. 
He was again brought before the lord chancellor and other bishops, and his lordship 
began to speak to this effect - that if her would answer with modesty and humili- 
ty, and conform himself to the catholic church with them, he might yet find mercy, 
because they would be loth to use extremity. Therefore he concluded with an exhortation, 
that Mr. Bradford would recant his doctrine. 705 Bradford. As yesterday I besought 
your honours to set in your sight the majesty and presence of God to follow him, 
who seaketh not to subvert the simple by subtle questions; so I humbly beseech 
every one of you to do this day: for you know well enough that guiltless blood 
will cry for vengeance. And this I pray not your lordships to do, as one that 
taketh upon me to condemn you utterly herein; but that ye might be more admon- 
ished to do that, which none doth so much as he should do. For our nature is so 
much corrupt, that we are very forgetful of God. And last of all, as yesterday 
the answers I made were by protestation and saving mine oath, so shall mine answers 
be this day; and this I do, that when death (which I look for at your hands) shall 
come, I may not be troubled with the guiltiness of perjury. At these words the 
lord chancellor was wroth, and said that they had given him respite to deliberate 
till this day, whether he would recant his errors of the blessed sacrament, which 
yesterday he uttered before them. Brad. My lord, you gave me no time of any such 
deliberation, neither did I speak anything of the sacrament which you did disallow. 
For when I had declared a presence of Christ to be there to faith, you went from 
that matter to purge yourself, that you were not cruel, and so went to dinner. 
Lord Chan. What! I perceive we must begin all again with thee. Did I not yesterday 
tell thee plainly, that thou madest a conscience where none should be? Did I not 
make it plain, that the oath against the bishop of Rome was an unlawful oath? 
Brad. No, indeed, my lord: you said so, but you have not proved it yet, nor ever 
can do. Lord Chan. O Lord God, what a fellow art thou! Thou wouldst go about to 
bring into the people's heads, that we, all the lords of the parliament house, 
the knights and burgesses, and all the whole realm be perjured. O what a heresy 
is this! Here, good people, you may see what a sense- less heretic this fellow 
is. If I should make an oath I would never help my brother, nor lend him money 
in his need; were this a good answer to tell my neighbour desiring my help, that 
I had made an oath to the contrary? or that I could not do it? Brad. O, my lord, 
discern betwixt oaths that be against charity and faith, and oaths that be according 
to faith and charity, as this is against the bishop of Rome. Here a long time 
was spent about oaths which were good, and those which were evil - the lord chancellor 
cap- tiously asking often of Bradford a direct answer concerning oaths; which 
Bradford would not give simply, but with a distinction. Whereat the chancellor 
was much offended: but Bradford still kept him at bay, that the oath against the 
bishop of Rome was a lawful oath, using thereto the lord chancellor's own book, 
of true obedience, for confirmation of his assertion. Then came master Chamberlain 
of Woodstock, and told my lord chancellor, that Bradford had been a serving-man 
with master Harrington. To which Gardiner said - "True, and he did deceive his 
master of seven- score pounds: and because of this, he went to be a gospeller 
and a preacher, good people; and yet you see how he pretendeth conscience." 706 
Brad. My lord, I set my foot by his, whoever he be, that can come forth, and justly 
vouch to my face, that ever I deceived my master. And as you are chief justicer 
by office in England, I desire justice upon them that so slander me, because they 
cannot prove it. Here my lord chancellor and master Chamberlain were smitten blank, 
and said they heard it. "But," quoth Gardiner, "we have another manner of matter 
than this against you; for you are a heretic." "Yea," quoth the bishop of London, 
"he did write letters to master Pendleton, which knoweth his hand as well as his 
own: your honour did see the letters." Brad. That is not true; I never did write 
to Pendleton since I came to prison, and therefore I am not justly spoken of. 
Lord Chan. Sir, in my house the other day, you did most contemptuously despise 
the queen's mercy, and stoutly said that you would maintain the erroneous doctrine 
of king Edward's days against all men. Brad. Well, I am glad that all men see 
now you have had no matter to imprison me before that day justly. Now say I, that 
I did not contemp- tuously contemn the queen's mercy; but would have had it, (thought 
if justice might take place, I need it not,) so that I might have had it with 
God's mercy, that is, without doing or saying anything against God and his truth. 
And as for maintenance of doctrine, because I cannot tell how you will stretch 
this word maintenance, I well repeat again that which I spake. I said I was more 
confirmed in the religion set forth in king Edward's days than ever I was: and 
if God so would, I trusted I should declare it by giving my life for the confirmation 
and testification thereof. So I said then, and so I say now. Lord Chan. Well, 
yesterday thou didst maintain false heresy concerning the blessed sacrament; and 
therefore we gave thee till today to deliber- ate. Brad. My lord, as I said at 
the first, I spake nothing of the sacrament, but that which you allowed; and therefore 
you reproved it not, nor gave me any time to deliberate. Lord Chan. Didst thou 
not deny Christ's presence in the sacrament? Brad. No, I never denied nor taught, 
but that to faith, whole Christ, body and blood, was as present as bread and wine 
to the due receiver. Lord Chan. Yea, but dost thou not believe that Christ's body 
naturally and really is there, under the forms of bread and wine? Brad. My lord, 
I believe Christ is present there to the faith of the due receiver: as for transubstantiation, 
I plainly and flatly tell you, I believe it not. I deny not his presence to the 
faith of the receiver; but deny that he is included in the bread, or that the 
bread is transub- stantiate. Worcester. If he be not included, how is he then 
present? Brad. Forsooth, though my faith can tell how, yet my tongue cannot express 
it; not you, otherwise than by faith, hear it, or understand it. Here was much 
ado, now one doctor standing up and speaking this, and others speaking that, and 
the lord chancellor talking much of Luther Zuinglius, CEcolampadius; but still 
Bradford kept him at this point, that Christ is present to faith; and that there 
is no transubstantiation not including of Christ in the bread: but all this would 
not save them. Therefore another bishop asked whether the wicked man received 
Christ's very body or no? To which Bradford answered plainly, "No." Whereat my 
lord chancellor made a long oration, showing how that it could not be 707 CONVERSATIONS 
WITH MR. BRADFORD. that Christ was present, except that the evil man received 
it. But Bradford silenced his oration in a few words, that grace was at that time 
offered to his lordship, although he received it not; so that the receiving made 
not the presence, but God's grace, truth, and power, is the cause of the presence, 
which grace, the wicked that lack faith cannot receive. Bradford concluded his 
answer admirably, thus - "My lord, are not these words, Take, eat, a commandment? 
and are not these words, This is my body, a promise? If you will challenge the 
promise, and do not the commandment, may you not deceive yourself?" Here the lord 
chancellor denied Christ to have commanded the sacrament, and the use of it. Bradford 
said, "Why, my lord, is it not plain to children, that Christ, in so saying, commandeth? 
If it be not a commandment of Christ to take and eat the sacrament, why dare any 
take upon them to command and make that of necessity, which God leaveth free? 
as you do in making it a necessary commandment, once a year for all that be of 
dis- cretion, to receive the sacrament. Here the lord chancellor called him again 
diabolus or calumniator, and began out of these words, "Let a man prove himself, 
and so eat of the bread, [`yea, bread,' quoth Bradford,] and drink of the cup," 
to prove that it was no commandment to receive the sacrament: "for then," quoth 
he, "if it were a commandment, it should bind all men, in all places, and at all 
times." Brad. O my lord, discern between commandments: some be general, as the 
ten commandments, that they bind always, in all places, and all persons; some 
be not so general, as this of the supper, the sacrament of baptism, of the thrice 
appearing before the Lord yearly at Jerusalem, of Abraham offering of Isaac, and 
many others. Here my lord chancellor denied the cup to be commanded of Christ: 
"for then," quoth he, "we should have eleven commandments." To this Bradford said--"Indeed 
I think you think as you speak: for else you would not take the cup from the people, 
in that Christ saith, `Drink ye all of it.' But how say you, my lords? Christ 
saith to you bishops especially, `Go and preach the gospel:' `Feed Christ's flock,' 
etc. Is this a commandment or no?" Here was my lord chancellor in a chafe, and 
said as pleased him. Then the bishop of Durham asked Bradford when Christ began 
to be present in the sacrament - whether before the receiver received it, or no? 
Bradford answered, that the question was curious, and not necessary; and further 
said, that as the cup was the New Testament, so the bread was Christ's body to 
him that received it duly; but yet so, that the bread is bread. "For," quoth he, 
"in all the Scripture ye shall not find this proposition, `Non est panis,' `There 
is no bread.' And he brought forth Chrysostome, `Si in corpore essemus.' Much 
ado was hereabouts; they calling Bradford heretic; and he, desiring them to proceed 
on in God's name, looked for that which God appointed for them to do. Lord Chan. 
This fellow is now in another heresy; as though all things were so tied together, 
that of mere necessity all things must come to pass. Here Bradford prayed him 
to take things as they be spoken, and not wrest them into a contrary sense: "Your 
lordship," said he, "doth discern betwixt God and man. Things are not by fortune 
to God at any time, though to man they seem so sometimes. I speak but as the apostles 
708 did - ' Lord, see how Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the prelates, are gathered 
together against thy Christ, to do that which thy hand and counsel hath before 
ordained for them to do.'" Here the lord chancellor began to read the excommunication. 
And when he came to the name of John Bradford, layman; he said, art thou no priest? 
To which he answered, "No, nor ever was a priest, or beneficed, or married, or 
any preacher, before public authority had established religion, or preacher after 
public authority had altered religion, and yet I am thus handled at your hands: 
but God, I doubt not, will bless where you curse." And so he fell down on his 
knees, and heartily thanked God that he had counted him worthy to suffer for his 
name's sake; and prayed to God to give him repentance and a good mind. After the 
excommunication was read, he was delivered to the sheriff of London, and so had 
to the Clink, and after- wards to the Compter in the Poultry; this being proposed 
by his murder- ers, that he should be delivered from thence to the earl of Derby, 
to be conveyed into Lancashire, and there to be burned in the town of Manchester, 
where he was born: but their purpose concerning the place was afterwards altered, 
for he suffered in London. After his condemna- tion, which was the last day of 
January, Bradford being sent to prison, remained there till the 1st of July; during 
all which time, divers other conferences and conflicts he sustained with sundry 
adversaries, which repaired unto him in the prison: of whom first bishop Bonner, 
coming to the Compter to degrade Dr. Taylor the 4th of February, called first 
for John Bradford, and began to talk with him, the effect whereof here ensueth: 
Bonner. Because I perceive that ye are desirous to confer with some learned men, 
therefore I have brought master archdeacon Harpsfield to you. Brad. I never desired 
to confer with any man, nor yet do. Howbeit if ye will have one to talk with me 
I am ready. Bonner. Well, master Bradford, you are well beloved; I pray you consider 
yourself, and refuse not charity when it is offered.` Brad. Indeed, my lord, this 
is small charity, to condemn a man as you have condemned me, which never brake 
your laws. In Turkey a man may have charity; but in England I could not yet find 
it. I was condemned for my faith, so soon as I uttered it at your requests, before 
I had committed anything against the laws. And as for conference, I am not afraid 
to talk with whom you will. But to say that I desire to confer, that do I not. 
Bon. Well, well. - Then he called for Taylor, and Bradford went his way. On another 
day of February, one master Willerton, chaplain of the bishop of London, came 
to confer with Bradford, and commenced by saying that he swerved from the church. 
Brad. That do I not, but ye do. For the church is Christ's spouse, and Christ's 
obedient spouse, which your church is not, which robbeth the people of the Lord's 
cup, and of service in the English tongue. Willerton. Why? It is not profitable 
to have the service in English; for it is written, "The lips of the priest should 
keep the law, and out of his mouth man must look for knowledge." Brad. Should 
not the people, then, have the Scriptures? Wherefore serveth this saying of Christ, 
"Search the Scriptures?" Wil. This was not spoken to the people, but to scribes 
and learned men. 709 DISPUTATION WITH JOHN BRADFORD. Brad. Then the people must 
not have the Scriptures? Willerton. No; for it is written, "They shall be all 
taught of God." Brad. Must we learn all at the priests? Then would you bring the 
people to hang up Christ, and let Barabbas go; as the priests then wished. At 
which words, Willerton was so offended that he had no wish to talk any more. On 
the 25th of February, Percival Creswell came with master Harpsfield, who, after 
formal salutation, make a long oration to the effect that all men, even the infidels, 
Turks, Jews, anabaptists, and libertines, desire felicity as well as the Christians, 
and that every one thinketh to attain it by his religion. To which Bradford answered 
that he spake not amiss. Harps. But the way thither is not all alike: for the 
infidels by Jupiter and Juno, the Turk by his Alcoran, the Jew by his Talmud, 
do believe to come to heaven. For so may I speak of such as believe the immortality 
of the soul. And here is the matter, to know the way to this heaven. Brad. We 
may not invent any manner of ways. There is but one way, and that is Jesus Christ, 
as he himself doth witness, "I am the way!" Harps. It is true that you say, and 
false also. I suppose that you mean by Christ, believing in Christ. Brad. I have 
learned to discern betwixt faith and Christ. Albeit, I confess, that whoso believeth 
in Christ, the same shall be saved. Harps. No, not all that believe in Christ: 
for some shall say, "Lord, Lord, have we not cast out devils?" etc. But Christ 
will answer in the day of judgment to these, "Depart from me, I know you not." 
Brad. You must make difference betwixt believing, and saying, I believe: as for 
example, if one should swear he loveth you, for all his saying ye will not believe 
him when you see he doeth you all the evil he can. Harps. Well, this is not much 
material. There is but one way, Christ. How come we to know him? Where shall we 
seek to find him? Brad. We must seek him by his word, in his word, and after his 
word. Harps. Very good: but tell my how first we came into the company of then 
that could tell us this, but by baptism? Brad. Baptism is the sacrament, by which 
outwardly we are ingrafted into Christ: I say outwardly, because I dare not exclude 
from Christ all that die without baptism. Harps. Well, we agree, that by baptism 
then we are brought, and begotten to Christ. For Christ is our Father, and the 
church his spouse, is our mother. Now then tell me whether this church of Christ 
hath not been always? Brad. Yes, since the creation of man, and shall be for ever. 
Harps. Very good. But tell me whether this church is a visible church, or not? 
Brad. It is no otherwise visible, than Christ was here on earth; that is, by no 
exterior pomp or shew that setteth her forth commonly: and therefore to see her 
we must put on such eyes, as good men put on to see and know Christ when he walked 
here on earth: for as Eve was of the same substance that Adam was of, so was the 
church of the same substance that Christ was of. Harps. Well, this church is a 
multitude. Hath it not the preaching of the gospel, and the administration of 
the sacraments? And yet more, hath it not the power of jurisdiction? I mean by 
jurisdiction, 710 admonishing one another, and so forth. It hath also succession 
of bishops, which I will endeavour to prove as an essential point. Brad. You say 
as you would have it; for if this part fail you, all the church you go about to 
set up will fall down. You shall not find in all the scripture, this your essential 
part of succession of bishops. In Christ's church antichrist will sit. And Peter 
tells us, as it went in the old church before Christ's coming, so it will be in 
the new church since Christ's coming: that as there were false prophets, and such 
as bear rule were adversaries to the true prophets, so shall there be false teachers, 
even of such as are bishops and bear rule amongst the people. After some further 
talk, Harpsfield departed, promising to come again. On the 23rd of the same month, 
the archbishop of York and the bishop of Chichester came to the Compter to speak 
with Bradford. When he was brought before them, they used him very gently: desired 
him to sit down, and because he would not, they also would not sit. So they all 
stood, and whether he would or not, they would needs have him put on his cap, 
saying to him, that obedience was better than sacrifice. As they were thus standing 
together, the archbishop of York began to tell Mr. Brad- ford that they came to 
him out of pure love and charity, without being sent; and, after commending his 
godly life, he concluded with this question, How he was certain of salvation and 
of his religion? Mr. Bradford thanked him for their good will, and answered thus, 
"By the word of God, even by the scriptures, I am certain of salvation and religion." 
York. Very well said: but how do you know the word of God and the scriptures, 
but by the church? Brad. Indeed, my lord, the church was and is a means to bring 
a man to know the scriptures and the word of God, as the woman of Samaria was 
the means by which the Samaritans knew Christ: but when they heard him speak, 
they said, "Now we know that he is Christ, not because of thy words, but because 
we ourselves have heard." So after we come to the hearing and reading of the scriptures 
shewed unto us, and discerned by the church, we do believe them, and know them 
as Christ's sheep, not because the church saith they are the scriptures, but because 
they be so, being assured thereof by the same Spirit who wrote and spake them. 
York. You know, in the apostles' time at first the word was not written. Brad. 
True, if you mean it for some books of the New Testament; but else for the Old 
Testament St. Peter tells us, "We have a more sure word of prophecy;" not that 
it is simply so, but in respect of the apostles, which being alive and subject 
to infirmity, attributed to the written word more weight, as wherewith no fault 
can be found; whereas for the infirmity of their persons men perchance might have 
found some fault at their preaching; although in very deed no less obedience and 
faith ought to have been given to the one, than to the other; for all proceedeth 
from one Spirit of truth. York. That place of St. Peter is not to be understood 
of the word writ- ten. You know that Irenaeus and others do magnify much, and 
allege the church against the heretics, and not the scripture. 711 Brad. True, 
for they had to do with such heretics as denied the Scrip- tures, and yet did 
magnify the apostles; so that they were forced to use the authority of those churches 
wherein the apostles had taught, and which had still retained the same doctrine. 
Chichester. You speak the very truth; for the heretics did refuse all Scriptures, 
except it were a piece of Luke's gospel. Brad. Then the alleging of the church 
cannot be principally used against me, which am so far from denying of the Scriptures, 
that I appeal to them utterly, as to the only judge. York. A pretty matter, that 
you will take upon you to judge the church! I pray you, where hath your church 
been hitherto? For the church of Christ is catholic and visible hitherto. Brad. 
My lord, I do not judge the church when I discern it from that congregation, and 
those which be not the church; and I never denied the church to be catholic and 
visible, although at some times it is more visible than at others. Chich. I pray 
you tell me where the church which allowed your doctrine was, these four hundred 
years? Brad. I will tell you, my lord, or rather you shall tell yourself, if you 
will tell me this one thing: where the church was in Elias's time, when Elias 
said that he was left alone? Chich. That is no answer. Brad. I am sorry that you 
say so: but this will I tell your lordship, that if you had the same eyes wherewith 
a man might have espied the church then, you would not say it were no answer. 
The fault why the church is not seen by you, is not because the church is not 
visible, but because your eyes are not clear enough to see it. Chich. You are 
much deceived in making this collation betwixt the church then and now. York. 
Very well spoken, my lord; for Christ said, "I will build my church;" and not 
"I do, or I have built it;" but, "I will build it." Brad. My lords, Peter teacheth 
me to make this collation, saying, as in the people there were false prophets, 
which were most in estimation before Christ's coming, so shall there be false 
teachers amongst the people after Christ's coming, and very many shall follow 
them. And as for your future tense, I hope your grace will not thereby conclude 
Christ's church not to have been before, but rather that there is no building 
in the church but Christ's work only: for Paul and Apollos be but wateres. Chich. 
In good faith I am sorry to see you so light in judging the church. Brad. My lords, 
I speak simply what I think, and desire reason to answer my objections. Your affections 
and sorrows cannot be my rules. If you consider the order and case of my condemnation, 
I cannot think but that it shall something move your honours. You know it well 
enough, no matter was laid against me, but was gathered upon mine own confession. 
Because I denied transubstantiation, and the wicked to receive Christ's body in 
the sacrament, therefore I was condemned and excommunicated; but not of the church, 
although the pillars of the church did it. Chich. No; I heard say the cause of 
your imprisonment was, for that you exhorted the people to take the sword in one 
hand, and the mattock in the other. 712 Brad. I never meant any such thing, nor 
spake anything in that sort. York. Yea, and you behaved yourself before the council 
so stoutly at the first, that you would defend the religion then; and therefore 
worthily were you prisoned. Brad. Your grace did hear me answer my lord chancellor 
to that point. But put case I had been so stout as they and your grace make it: 
were not the laws of the realm on my side then? Wherefore unjustly was I prisoned: 
only that which my lord chancellor propounded, was my confes- sion of Christ's 
truth against transubstantiation, and of that which the wicked do receive, as 
I said. York. You deny the presence. Brad. I do not, to the faith of the worthy 
receivers. York. What is that other than to say that Christ lieth not on the altar? 
Brad. My lord, I believe no such presence. Chich. It seemeth that you have not 
read Chrysostome, for he proveth it. Brad. I do remember Chrysostome saith, that 
Christ lieth upon the altar, as the seraphim with their tongs touch our lips with 
the coals of the altar in heaven, which is an hyperbolical locution, of which 
Chrysostome is full. York. It is evident that you are too far gone; but let us 
come then to the church, out of which you are excommunicate. Brad. I am not excommunicated 
out of Christ's church, my lord, although they which seem to be in the church, 
and of the church, have excommuni- cated me, as the poor blind man was, John ix.; 
I am sure Christ receiv- eth me. As I think you did well to depart from the Romish 
church, so I think you have done wickedly to couple yourselves to it again; for 
you can never prove that which you call the mother church, to be Christ's. Chich. 
You were but a child when this matter began. I was a young man, and then coming 
from the university, I went with the world: but, I tell you, it was always against 
my conscience. Brad. I was but a child; gowbeit, as I told you, I think you have 
done evil. For you are come and have brought others to that wicked man which sitteth 
in the temple of God, that is, in the church: for it cannot be understood of Mahomet, 
or any out of the church, but of such as bear rule in the church. York. See how 
you build your faith upon such places of scripture as are most obscure, to deceive 
yourself. Brad. Well, my lord, though I might by fruits judge of you and others, 
yet will I not utterly exclude you out of the church. And if I were in your case, 
I would not condemn him utterly that is of my faith in the sacrament, knowing 
as you know, that at least 800 years after Christ, as my lord of Durham writeth, 
it was free to believe or not believe trans- ubstantiation. Will you condemn any 
man that believeth truly the twelve articles of the faith, although in some points 
he believe not the defi- nition of that which you call the church? I doubt not 
but that he which holdeth firmly the articles of our belief, though in other things 
he dissent from your definitions, yet he shall be saved. "Yea," said both the 
bishops, "this is your divinity." Brad. No, it is Paul's; who saith, that if they 
hold the foundation, Christ, though they build upon him straw and stubble, yet 
they shall be saved. York. How you delight to lean to hard and dark places of 
the Scriptures. 713 Chich. I will show you how that Luther did excommunicate Zuinglius 
for this matter: (and so he read a place of Luther making for his purpose.) Brad. 
My lord, what Luther writeth, as you mind it not, no more do I in this case. My 
faith is not built on Luther, Zuinglius, or CEcolampa- dius, in this point; and 
indeed I never read any of their works in this matter. York. Well, you are out 
of communion of the church; for you would have the communion of it consist in 
faith. Brad. Communion consisteth, as I said, in faith, and not in exterior ceremonies, 
as appeareth both by St. Paul, who would have one faith, and by Irenaeus to Victor, 
for the observation of Easter. York. You think none are of the church but such 
as suffer persecution. Brad. What I think, God knoweth: I pray your grace to judge 
me by my words, and mark what St. Paul saith - "All that will live godly in Christ 
Jesus must suffer persecution," Sometimes Christ's church hath rest here; but 
commonly it is not so, and specially towards the end her form will be more unseemly. 
York. Well, master Bradford, we lease our labour; for ye seek to put away all 
things which are told you to your good: your church no man can know. I pray you, 
whereby can we know it? Brad. Chrysostome says, "by the Scriptures:" and thus 
he often saith. York. That of Chrysostome in Opere imperfecto may be doubted of. 
The thing whereby the church may be known best, is succession of bishops. Brad. 
No, my lord, Lyra full well writeth upon Matthew, that "the church consisteth 
not in men, by reason either of secular or temporal power; but in men endued with 
true knowledge, and confession of faith, and of verity." Hilary, writing to Auxentius, 
says that the church was hidden rather in caves, then did glister and shine in 
thrones of pre-eminence. After they had tarried three hours with Bradford, one 
of their servants came and told them that my lord of Durham waited for them at 
master York's house. And so, after putting up their written books, and wishing 
poor Bradford good in words, they went their way, and he to his prison. Within 
two days following came into the Compter two Spanish friars to talk with master 
Bradford, sent (as they said) by the earl of Derby; of whom one was the king's 
confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had before written a popish book against 
heresies. Alph. What is the matter whereof you were condemned? We know not. Brad. 
I have been in prison almost two years: I never transgressed any of their laws 
for which I might justly be imprisoned; and now I am condemned, because I frakly 
confessed (which I repent not) my faith concerning the sacrament, when I was demanded 
in these two points: one, that there is no transubstantiation; the other, that 
the wicked do not receive Christ's body. Alph. Let us look a little on the first. 
Do you not believe that Christ is present really and corporally in the form of 
bread? Brad. No, I do believe that Christ is present to the faith of the worthy 
receiver, as there is present bread and wine to the senses and outward man: as 
for any such presence of including and placing Christ, I believe not, nor dare 
believe. Alph. I am sure you believe Christ's natural body is circumscrptible. 
And here he made much ado of the two natures of Christ, how that the one 714 is 
everywhere, and the other is in his proper place. After further talk on this subject, 
the friar, in a wonderful rage, spake so high that the whole house rang again; 
and had Bradford been anything hot, one house could not have held them. At the 
length he came to this point, that Bradford could not find in the Scripture baptism 
and the Lord's supper to bear any similitude to each other. Brad. Be patient, 
and you shall see that by the Scripture I will find baptism and the Lord's supper 
coupled together. Paul saith, that as we are baptized into one body, so "we have 
drunk of one spirit," meaning the cup in the Lord's supper. Alph. Paul hath no 
such words. Brad. Yes, that he hath. Give me a Testament, and I will show you. 
The text is plain enough, and there are of the fathers which do so under- stand 
the place: for Chrysostome doth expound it so. Alphonsus, who had the Testament 
in his hand, desirous to suppress this foil, turned the leaves till he came to 
the place, (1 Cor. xi.;) and there he read how that he was guilty who made no 
difference of the Lord's body. Brad. Yea, but therewith he saith, "He that eateth 
of the bread;" call- ing it bread still: and that after consecration, as in 1 
Cor. x., he saith, "The bread which we break," etc. Alph. Oh, how ignorant are 
ye which know not that things, after their conversion, retain the same names which 
they had before, as Moses' rod. Brad. Sir, there is mention made of the conversion, 
as well as that the same appeared to the sense; but here you cannot find it so. 
Find me one word how the bread is converted, and I will then say, you bring some 
matter that maketh for you. I do not trust my own reason, or my own interpretation; 
for I will bring you the fathers of the church 800 years after Christ, to confirm 
what I speak. Alph. This church hath defined the contrary, and that I will prove 
by all the good fathers from Christ's ascension, even for 800 years at least continually, 
yea that the bread is turned into Christ's body. Will you believe? Brad. Belief 
is God's gift, therefore I cannot promise: but I tell you I will give place: and 
I hope I shall believe his truth always, so good is he to me in Christ my Saviour. 
Alph. I find great fault with your answer. But this I let pass, and repeat the 
question, if I can prove it as you said, whether you will give place? Brad. Yes, 
that I will. Give me paper, pen, and ink, to write; and now suppose that I prove 
by the testimony of the fathers, that continually for 800 years after Christ at 
least, they did believe that the substance of bread doth remain in the sacrament, 
what will you do? Alph. I will give place. Brad. Then write you here that you 
will give place if I so prove, and I will write that I will give place if you 
so prove; because you are the elder you shall have the pre-eminency. Here the 
friar fumed marvel- lously, and said, "I came not to learn at thee: are not here 
witnesses? be not they sufficient?" So they arose and talked no more of that mat- 
ter, going away without bidding Bradford farewell. After they were gone, a priest 
came, and willed him not to be so obstinate. 715 On the 21st of March, Mr. Bradford 
was called down, and as soon as he entered into the hall, Dr. Weston very gently 
took him by the hand, and asking how he did, desired all to go out, save himself, 
Mr. Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper, 
Mr. Claydon, and the parson of the church near the Compter. In their pres- ence 
he began to tell Mr. Bradford, that he had often intended to come unto him, being 
desired by the earl of Derby: and that after he per- ceived that he could be contented 
rather to speak with him than any other, he could not but come to do him all the 
good in his power, with- out intending in the least to hurt or injure him. Bradford. 
Sir, when I perceived by the report of my lord's servant, that you did bear me 
good will, more than any other of your sort, I told him then that I could be better 
content and more willing to talk with you, if you should come unto me. This did 
I say: otherwise I desired not your coming. West. Well, Mr. Bradford, I am mow 
come to talk with you: but before we begin, certain principles we must agree upon, 
which shall be this day's work; and the first of these is that I shall greatly 
desire you to put away all vainglory, and not hold any thing for the praise of 
the world. Brad. Sir, St. Augustine maketh that indeed a piece of the definition 
of a heretic; which, if I cannot put away clean, (for I think there will be a 
spice of it remain in us, as long as this flesh liveth) yet I promise you by the 
grace of God, that I purpose not to yield to it. God, I hope, will never suffer 
it to bear rule in them that strive against it, and desire all the dregs of it 
utterly to be driven out of us. West. I am glad to hear you say so, although, 
indeed, I think you do not so much esteem it as others do. And my next wish is, 
I would desire you to put away singularity in your judgment and opinions. Brad. 
Sir, God forbid that I should stick to any singularity or private judgment in 
God's religion. Hitherto I have not desired it. I neither do, nor mind at any 
time to hold any other doctrine than is public and catholic, taking the word catholic 
as good men do according to God's word. West. Very well, this is a good day's 
work. I hope to do you good; and therefore now I shall pray you to write me the 
heads of those things whereupon you stand in the sacrament, and to send them to 
me betwixt this and Wednesday next: until which time, yea, until I come to you 
again, be assured that you are without all peril of death. Of my fidel- ity I 
warrant you, therefore away with all doubts and misgivings of your safety. Brad. 
Sir, I will write to you the grounds I lean upon in this matter. As for death, 
if it come, welcome be it; this which you require of me shall be no great hindrance 
to me therein. West. You know that St. Augustine was a Manichean, yet was he converted 
at the length; so have I good hope of you. Brad. Sir, because I will not flatter 
you, I would you should flatly know, that I am even settled in the religion wherefore 
I am condemned. West. Yea, but if it be not the truth, and you see evident matter 
to the contrary, will you not then give place? 716 Brad. God forbid, but that 
I should always give place to the truth. And I heartily and constantly pray that 
he will more and more confirm me in it, as he hath done and doth. West. Yea, but 
pray with a condition if you be in it already. Brad. No, sir, I cannot pray so, 
because I am settled and assured of this truth. West. Well, as the learned bishop 
answered St. Augustine's mother, that though he was obstinate, yet the tears of 
such a mother could not but win her son; so also I hope your prayers, which you 
offer with tears, cannot but be heard by God, though not as you would, yet as 
best shall please him. Do you not remember the history that I refer to? Brad. 
Yea, Sir, I think it is of St. Ambrose. West. No, that it is not. I would lay 
you a wager on the truth of its being St. Augustine. As you are overseen herein, 
so are you in other things. Brad. Well, Sir, I will not contend with you for the 
name. This St. Augustine writeth in his confessions. West. The people are too 
much persuaded by you to withstand the queen. Send to me the heads of the doctrine 
of the supper, and after Wednesday I will come unto you again. Before I depart 
now I drink to your health. In the mean time, when Mr. Bradford had written his 
reasons and argu- ments, and had sent them to Dr. Weston, soon after, about the 
28th of March, there came to the Compter, Dr. Pendleton, and with him Mr. Colli- 
er, some time warden of Manchester, and Stephen Bech. After saluta- tions, Dr. 
Pendleton began to speak to Mr. Bradford, that he was sorry for his trouble. And 
further, said he, after that I knew you could be content to talk with me I made 
the more speed, being as ready to do you good, and serve you what I can, as you 
would wish. To this Bradford answered, "Sir, I remember that once you were, as 
far as any man might judge, of the religion that I am of at present, and I remember 
that you have earnestly set forth the same. Gladly, therefore, would I learn of 
you what thing it was that moved your conscience to alter, and gladly would I 
see what thing it is that you have seen since which you saw not before. The cause 
for which I am condemned, which you say you do not know, is no other than transubstantiation, 
and because I deny that wicked men do receive Christ's body: wherein I would desire 
you to shew me what reasons, which before you knew not, did move your conscience 
now to alter. For once, as I said, you were as I am in religion." Dr. Pendleton, 
half amazed, began to excuse himself, as though he had not fully denied transubstantiation, 
although he confessed, that the word was not in scripture. He then made an endless 
tale of the thing that moved him to alter: but said he would gather all the places 
which moved him and send him them. And here he desired Mr. Bradford that he might 
have a copy of that which he had sent to Dr. Weston; which Bradford promised him, 
and Pendleton soon after went his way. In the afternoon came Dr. Weston to Bradford; 
and, after gentle salutations, he desired every man to depart. After that he had 
thanked Bradford for his writing to him, he showed the same writing which Bradford 
had sent him, which 717 CONVERSATION WITH MR. BRADFORD. contained certain reasons 
against transubstantiation which he had care- fully collected from the fathers 
and the holy scriptures. "That which is former," saith Tertullian, "is true; that 
which is later, false. But the doctrine of transubstantiation is a late doctrine, 
for it was not defined generally before the council of Lateran, about 1215 years 
after Christ's coming, under Pope Innocent, the third of that name. Before that 
time it was free for all men to believe, or not believe it, as the bishop of Durham 
doth witness in his book of the presence of Christ in his supper, lately published. 
Therefore the doctrine of transubstantia- tion is false. "The words of Christ's 
supper be figurative; the cir- cumstances of the scriptures, the analogy or proportion 
of the sacra- ments, and the opinions of all the holy fathers, which were and 
wrote for the space of 1000 years after Christ's ascension, do teach this: whereupon 
it follows, that there is no transubstantiation. "The Lord gave to his disciples 
bread, and called it his body; the scriptures do witness. For he gave that and 
called it his body, which he took in his hand, whereon he gave thanks; which also 
he brake, and gave to his disciples, that is to say, bread; as the fathers Irenaeus, 
Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Epiphanius, Augustine, and all the residue which 
are of antiquity, do affirm: but inasmuch as the substance of bread and wine is 
another thing than the substance of the body and blood of Christ, it plainly appeareth 
that there is no transubstantiation. "The bread is no more transubstantiate than 
the wine; but that the wine is not trans- ubstantiate, St. Matthew and St. Mark 
reach us: for they witness that Christ said he would drink no more of the fruit 
of the vine, which was not blood but wine: and therefore it follows, that there 
is no transub- stantiation. Chrysostome upon St. Matthew, and Cyprian do affirm 
this reason. "The bread in the Lord's supper is not Christ's natural body, but 
it is his mystical body: for the same Spirit that spake of it, This is my body, 
said also, For we being many are one bread and one body. But now it is not the 
mystical body by transubstantiation, and therefore it cannot be his natural body 
by transubstantiation. "The words spoken over the cup in St. Luke and St. Paul 
are not so mighty and effectual as to transubstantiate it: for then the cup, or 
that which is in it, should be transubstantiated into the New Testament: therefore 
the words spoken over the bread, are not so mighty as to make transubstantiation. 
"The doctrine which agreeth with those churches which be apostolical mother churches, 
is to be counted for truth, because it holdeth that which these churches received 
of the apostles, the apostles received of Christ, and Christ received of God. 
But it is manifest that the doc- trine taught at present by the church of Rome, 
concerning transubstan- tiation, doth not agree with the apostolic and mother 
churches of Greece, of Corinth, of Philippi, Colossia, Thessalonica, and Ephesus, 
which never taught transubstantiation; yea, it agreeth not with the doctrine of 
the church of Rome, as it was taught in times past." After considerable discussion 
on the preceding, Bradford told Weston that he was still even as he was at the 
first: and till he should see matter to 718 teach his conscience the contrary, 
he said he must needs so continue. And so master doctor with most gentle words 
took his leave for three days. On the 5th of April, Dr. Weston came again to the 
Compter; and after much talk he left Bradford, saying, "If I can do you good, 
I will: hurt you I will not. I am no prince, and therefore cannot promise you 
life, except you will submit yourself to the definition of the church." Now after 
his departing came the keeper, master Claydon, and Stephen Bech; and they were 
very hot with Bradford, and spake with him in such sort as utter enemies, notwithstanding 
the friendship they both had hitherto pretended. God be with us, and what matter 
is it who be against us? Among divers which came to master Bradford in prison, 
come to dispute and confer, some to give counsel, some to take comfort, and some 
to visit him, there was a certain gentlewoman's servant, whose mistress had been 
cruelly afflicted, and miserably handled in her fa- ther's house, for not coming 
to the mass, and like at length to have been pursued to death, had not the Lord 
delivered her from her father's house. The servant of this gentlewoman coming 
to master Bradford, and taking him by the hand, said - "God be thanked for you: 
how do you do?" Bradford. Well, I thank God. For as men in sailing, which be near 
to the shore or haven where they would be, would be nearer; even so the nearer 
I am to God, the nearer I would be. - Our quarrel is most just: therefore let 
us not be afraid. How doth your mistress now? Servant. Well, God be praised; but 
she hath been sorer afflicted with her own father and mother, than ever you were 
with your imprisonment; and yet God hath preserved her, I trust, to his glory. 
Brad. I read this day a godly history, written by Basil the Great, of a virtuous 
woman who was a widow, and named Juletta. She had great lands and many children, 
and nigh her dwelt a cormorant, who for her virtuous and pious living had great 
indignation against her, and of malice he took away her lands, so that she was 
constrained to go to law with him: and in conclusion, the matter came to trial 
before the judge, who demanded of this tyrant why he wrongfully withheld these 
lands from this woman? He made answer and said, he might so do, for the woman 
was disobedient to the king's proceedings: for she would in no wise worship his 
gods, nor offer sacrifice unto them. Then the judge hearing that, said unto her, 
`Woman, if this be true, thou art not only likely to lose thy land, but also thy 
life, unless that thou worship our gods, and do sacrifice unto them.' This good 
woman hearing that, stepped forth to the judge, and said - `Is there no remedy 
but either to worship your false gods, or else to lose my lands and life? Then 
farewell suit, farewell lands, farewell children, farewell friends, yea, and farewell 
life too: and in respect to the true honour of the everlasting God, farewell all.' 
And with that saying the judge committed her to prison, and afterwards she suffered 
most cruel death: and being brought to the place of execution, she exhorted all 
women to be strong and constant. For she said they were redeemed with as dear 
a price as men. For although they were made of the rib of the man, yet they were 
all of his flesh; so that also in the case and trial of their faith towards God, 
they ought to be as strong. And thus died she constantly not fearing death. I 
pray you tell your mistress this story. 719 EXAMINATION OF JOHN LEAF John Bradford 
continued in this prison until the month of July, in such labours and sufferings 
as he always had sustained. But when the time of his death was come, he was suddenly 
conveyed out of the Compter, in the night season, to Newgate; and from thence 
he was carried the next morn- ing to Smithfield, where he, constantly abiding 
in the same truth of God which before he had confessed, earnestly exhorting the 
people to repent and to return to Christ, and sweetly comforting the godly young 
man who was burnt with him, cheerfully ended his painful life, to live with Christ. 
With John Bradford was burnt one John Leaf, an apprentice to Humfrey Gawdy, tallow-chandler, 
of the parish of Christ-Church in Lon- don, of the age of nineteen years and above, 
born at Kirby-Moorside, in the county of Youk. Upon the Friday next before Palm-Sunday 
he was committed to the Compter in Bread-street, by an alderman of the ward where 
he dwelt. Afterwards, on coming to examination before Bonner, he gave a firm and 
Christian testimony of his doctrine and profession, answering to such articles 
as were objected to him. First, as touching his belief and faith in the sacrament 
of the altar, he answered, that after the words of consecration, spoken by the 
priest over the bread and wine, there was not the very true and natural body and 
blood of Christ in substance; and further did hold and believe, that the said 
sacrament of the altar, as it is now called, used and believed in this realm of 
England, is idolatrous and abominable; and also said further, that he believed, 
that after the words of consecration spoken by the priest over the material bread 
and wine, there is not the self-same substance of Christ's body and blood there 
contained; but bread and wine as it was before: and further said that he believed, 
that when the priest deliver- eth the said material bread and wine to the communicants, 
he delivereth it but only material bread and wine; and the communicants do receive 
the same in remembrance of Christ's death and passion, and spiritually, in faith, 
they receive Christ's body and blood, but not under the forms of bread and wine. 
He also affirmed, that he believed auricular confession not to be necessary to 
be made unto a priest, for it is no point of soul-health; neither that the priest 
hath any authority given him by the Scripture to absolve and remit any sin. Upon 
these his answers and testimony of his faith, he at that time being dismissed, 
was bid the Monday next, being the 10th of June, to appear again in the said place, 
there and then to hear the sentence of his condemnation. At this time the bishop, 
propounding the said articles again to him as before, essay- ing by all manner 
of ways to revoke him to his own trade, that is, from truth to error, notwithstanding 
all his persuasions, threats, and prom- ises, found him the same man still, so 
planted upon the sure rock of truth, that no words nor deeds of men could remove 
him. Then the bishop, after many words to and fro, at last asked him if he had 
been master Rogers's scholar? To whom John Leaf answered again, granting him so 
to be; and that he did believe in the same doctrine of the said Rogers, and in 
the doctrine of bishop Hooper, Cardmaker, and others of their opinion, who of 
late were burned for the testimony of Christ, and that he would die in that doctrine 
that they died for: and on the bishop moving him again to return to the unity 
of the church, he with great courage answered him in these words:- "My lord, you 
call mine opinion heresy; but it is the true light of the word of God." And again, 
re- peating the same, he professed that he would never forsake his staid and 720 
well-grounded opinion, while the breath should be in his body. Whereu- pon the 
bishop, being too weak either to refute his sentence or to remove his constancy, 
proceeded consequently to read the popish sentence of cruel condemnation: whereby 
this godly and constant young man, being committed to the secular power of the 
sheriffs there present, was then adjudged, and not long after suffered with master 
Bradford, confirming with his death that which he had spoken and professed in 
his life. It is reported of the said John Leaf, by one that was in the Compter 
at the same time, and saw the thing, that after his examinations before the bishop, 
when two bells were sent unto him in the Compter in Bread- street, the one containing 
a recantation, the other his confessions, to know to which of them he would put 
his hand, first hearing the bill of recantation read unto him, (because he could 
not read nor write himself,) that he refused. And when the other was read to him, 
which he well liked of, instead of a pen he took a pin, and so pricking his hand, 
sprinkled the blood upon the said bill, willing the reader thereof to show the 
bishop that he had sealed the same bill with his blood already. When Bradford 
and Leaf came to the stake in Smithfield to be burned, master Bradford lying prostrate 
on the one side, and John Leaf on the other side, they lay flat on their faces, 
praying to themselves the space of a minute. Then one of the sheriffs said to 
master Bradford, "Arise, and make an end; for the press of the people is great." 
At that word they both stood up; and then master Bradford took a fagot in his 
hand, and kissed it, and so likewise the stake. And when he had so done, he desired 
of the sheriffs that his servant might have his rai- ment. "For," said he, "I 
have nothing else to give him: and besides that, he is a poor man." And the sheriff 
said he should have it. And so forthwith master Bradford did put off his raiment, 
and went to the stake; and holding up his hands, and casting his countenance up 
towards heaven, he said thus: "O England, England, repent thee of thy sins, repent 
thee of thy sins! Beware of idolatry, beware of false anti- christs, take heed 
they do not deceive you." And as he was speaking these words the sheriff bade 
tie his hands, if he would not be quiet. "O master sheriff," said Bradford, "I 
am quiet: God forgive you this, master sheriff." One of the officers which made 
the fire, hearing master Bradford so speaking to the sheriff said, "If you have 
no better learning than that, you are but a fool, and were best hold your peace." 
To the which words master Bradford gave no answer; but asked all the world forgiveness, 
and forgave all the world, and prayed the people to pray for him, and turned his 
head unto the young man that suffered with him, and said, "Be of good comfort, 
brother; for we shall have a merry supper with the Lord this night:" and so spake 
no more words that any man did hear, but, embracing the reeds, he said, "Strait 
is the way, and narrow is the gate, that leadeth to eternal salvation, and few 
there be that find it." Thus they both ended their mortal lives, most like two 
lambs, without any alteration of their countenance, being void of all fear, hoping 
to obtain the price of the game they had long run at; to the which I beseech Almighty 
God happily to conduct us, through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour. 
Amen. 721 MR. BRADFORD'S LETTERS This godly Bradford and havenly martyr, furing 
his imprisonment wrote sundry comfortable treatises, and many godly letters: some 
to the city of London, Cambridge, Walden, Lancashire, and Cheshire, and divers 
to his private friends. By which letters it appears how this godly man occupied 
his time in prison, what special zeal he bare to Christ's church, how earnestly 
he admonished all men, how tenderly he comforted the heavy-hearted and how faithfully 
he confirmed those whom he had taught. The first letter (from which the following 
is an extract) was addressed to his mother. "I am at this present in prison, (sure 
enough for starting,) to confirm that I have preached unto you: as I am ready, 
I thank God, with my life and blood to seal the same, if God vouchsafe me worthy 
of that honour. For, good mother and brethren, it is a most special benefit of 
God, to suffer for his name's sake and gospel, as now I do: I heartily thank God 
for it, and am sure that with him I shall be partaker of his glory; as Paul saith, 
`If we suffer with him, we shall reign with him.' Therefore be not faint-hearted; 
but rather rejoice, at the least for my sake, which now am in the right and high 
way to heaven: for by many afflictions we must enter into the kingdom of heaven. 
Now will God make known his children. When the wind doth not blow, then cannot 
a man know the wheat from the chaff; but when the blast cometh, then flieth away 
the chaff, but the wheat remaineth, and is so far from being hurt, that by the 
wind it is more cleansed from the chaff, and known to be wheat. God, when it is 
cast into the fire, is more pre- cious; so are God's children by the cross of 
affliction. "Fear God, stick to his word, though all the world swerve from it. 
Die you must once, and when or how you cannot tell. Die, therefore, with Christ; 
suffer for serving him truly and after his word; for sure may we be, that of all 
deaths it is most to be desired to die for God's sake. This is the most safe kind 
of dying: we cannot doubt but that we shall go to heaven, if we die for his name's 
sake. And that you shall die for his name's sake, God's word will warrant you, 
if you stick to that which God by me hath taught you. You shall see that I speak 
as I think: for, by God's grace, I will drink before you of this cup, if I be 
put to it." The second letter was addressed "to all that profess the gospel and 
true doctrine of Christ in the city of London." The following is an extract: "Cast 
your care on the Lord, knowing he careth for you. Depend on the providence of 
God, not only when you have means to help you, but when you have no means, yea, 
when all means are against you. Give him this honour, which of all other things 
he requireth at your hands - to become his children through belief in Christ his 
blessed Son. When you fall he will put his hand beneath you. Before you call he 
heareth you. Out of all evil he will finally deliver you, and bring you to his 
eternal joy. I would gladly have given here my body to be burned for the confirmation 
of the true doctrine I have taught unto you. But that my country must have; therefore 
I pray you take in good part this signification of my good will towards all of 
you. Impute the want herein to time and trou- ble. Pardon my mine offensive and 
negligent behaviour when I was amongst you. With me repent and labour to amend. 
Continue in the truth which I have truly taught unto you, by preaching in all 
places where I have come; God's name, therefore, be praised. Confess Christ when 
you be called, whatsoever cometh therefrom, and the God of peace be with us all, 
Amen." 722 The third letter, addressed to the University of Cambridge, we insert 
at full length. It is an admirable specimen of faithful remonstrance and reasoning. 
"To all that love the Lord Jesus and his true doctrine, being in the university 
and town of Cambridge, John Bradford, a most unworthy servant of the Lord, now 
not only imprisoned, but also con- demned for the same doctrine, wisheth grace, 
peace, and mercy, with increase of all godliness from God the Father of all mercy, 
through the bloody passion of our Saviour Jesus Christ, by the lively working 
of the Holy Spirit for ever, Amen. "Although I look hourly when I should be had 
to the stake, and although the charge over me is great and strict, yet having 
by the providence of God secretly pen and ink, I could not but signify unto you 
my solicitude which I have for all of you in the Lord, though not as I would, 
yet as I may. You have often and openly heard the truth disputed and preached, 
that it is needless to do any more but only to put you in remembrance of the same; 
but hitherto you have not heard it confirmed, and as it were sealed up, as now 
you do and shall hear by me, that is, by my death and burning. For albeit I have 
deserved - through my uncleanness, hypocrisy, avarice, vainglory, idle- ness, 
unthankfulness, and carnality, whereof I accuse myself, to my confusion before 
the world, that before God through Christ I might, as my assured hope is I shall, 
find mercy - eternal death and hell fire, much more than this affliction and fire 
prepared for me: yet my dearly beloved, it is not these, or any of these things, 
for which the prelates do persecute me, but God's verity and truth. Yea, even 
Christ himself is the only cause for which I am now condemned, and shall be burned 
as a heretic, because I will not grant the antichrist of Rome to be Christ's vicar 
general and supreme head of his church here, and every where upon earth, by God's 
ordinance; and because I will not grant such corporeal, real, and carnal presence 
of Christ's body and blood in the sacrament, as doth transubstantiate the substance 
of bread and wine, and is re- ceived by the wicked. Also I am excommunicated and 
accounted as a dead member of Christ's church, as a rotten branch, and therefore 
shall be cast into the fire. "Therefore you ought heartily to rejoice with me, 
and to give thanks for me, that God the eternal Father hath vouchsafed our mother 
to bring up any child in whom it would please him to magnify his holy name as 
he doth, and I hope for his mercy and truth's sake, will do in me and by me. Oh, 
what such benefit upon earth can it be, as that I who deserved death by reason 
of my sins, should be delivered to a demonstration, a testification, and confirmation 
of God's verity and truth? Thou, my mother the university, hast not only had the 
truth of God's word plainly manifested unto thee by reading, disputing, and preaching 
publicly and privately; but now to make thee altogether excu- seless, and as it 
were, almost to sin against the Holy Ghost, if thou put to thy helping hand with 
the Romish rout to suppress the verity, thou hast my life and blood as a seal 
to confirm thee, if thou wilt be 723 confirmed: else to confound thee, and to 
bear witness against thee, if thou wilt take part with the prelates and clergy, 
which now fill up the measure of their fathers who slew the prophets and apostles, 
that all the righteous blood from Able to Bradford, shed upon earth, may be required 
at their hands. "Of this therefore I thought good before my death, as time and 
liberty would suffer me, to admonish thee, good mother, and my sister the town, 
that you would call to mind from whence you are fallen, and study to do the first 
works. You know these matters of the Romish supremacy, and the antichristian transubstantiation, 
whereby Christ's supper is overthrown, his priesthood evacuated, his sacrifice 
frustrated, the ministry of his word unplaced, repentance repelled, faith fainted, 
piety extinguisted, the mass maintained, idola- try supported, and all impiety 
cherished: you know, I say, that these opinions are not only beside God's word, 
but even directly against whom you cannot prevail. "Therefore for the tender mercy 
of Christ, in his bowels and blood I beseech you to take Christ's eye-salve to 
anoint your eyes, that you may see what you do, and have done, in admitting, as 
I hear you have admitted, yea, alas! authorized, the Romish rottenness which once 
you utterly expelled. O be not, `The dog returned to his own vomit; the sow that 
was washed returned to her wallowing in the mire.' `Beware, lest Satan enter in 
with seven other spirits, and then the last shall be worse than the first.' `It 
had been better ye had never known the truth, than after knowledge to run from 
it.' Ah, woe to this world and the things therein, which hath now so wrought with 
you. Oh that ever the dirt of the devil should daub up the eye of the realm! for 
thou, O mother, art as the eye of the realm. If thou be light and shine, all the 
body shall fare the better: but if thy light be darkness, alas, how great will 
the darkness be! What is man, whose breath is in his nostrils, that thou shouldst 
thus be afraid of him! "Oh what is honour and life here! Bubbles. What is glory 
in this world, but shame! Why art thou afraid to carry Christ's cross? Wilt thou 
come into his kingdom, and not drink of his cup? Dost thou not know Rome to be 
Baby- lon? Dost thou not know that as the old Babylon had the children of Judah 
in captivity, so hath this Rome the true Judah, that is, the confessors of Christ? 
Dost thou not know, that as destruction happened unto it, so shall it do unto 
this? And thinkest thou that God will not deliver his peopled now when the time 
is come, as he did then? Hath not God commanded his people to come out from her? 
Hast thou forgotten the woe that Christ threateneth to offence-givers? Wilt thou 
not remember, that it were better that a mill-stone were hanged about thy neck 
and thou thrown into the sea, than that thou shouldst offend the little ones? 
"And alas, how hast thou offended! Yea, and how dost thou still offend! Wilt thou 
consider things according to the outward shew? Was not the synagogue more seemly 
and like to be the true church, than the simple flock of Christ's disciples? Hath 
not the whore of Babylon more 724 costly array, and rich apparel, externally to 
set forth herself, than the homely housewife of Christ? Where is the beauty of 
the king's daughter, the church of Christ? Without or within? Doth not David say, 
within? O remember that as they are happy which are not offended at Christ, so 
are they happy which are not offended at his poor church. Can the pope and his 
prelates mean honestly, which make so much of the wife, and so little of the husband? 
The church they magnify, but Christ they contemn. If this church were an honest 
woman, (that is, Christ's wife) except they would make much of her husband, Christ 
and his word, she would not be made much of by them. "When Christ and his apostles 
were upon the earth, who was most like to be the true church, they or the prelates, 
bishops and synagogue? If a man should have followed custom, unity, antiquity, 
or the greater part, should not Christ and his company have been cast out of doors? 
therefore Christ saith, `Search the scriptures.' Good mother, shall the servant 
be above his master? Shall we look for better entertainment at the hands of the 
world, than Christ and his dear disciples found? In Noah's time who was taken 
for the church, poor Noah and his family, or all the others that were de- stroyed 
by the flood? Who was taken for God's church in Sodom, righteous Lot, or the others? 
And doth not Christ say, `As it was then, so shall it go now towards the coming 
of the Son of man?' What meaneth Christ when he saith, iniquity shall have the 
upper hand? Doth not he likewise say, that charity shall wax cold? And we plainly 
see the greatest scarcity of it in those, who would now be taken for Christ's 
true catholic church. All that fear God in this realm can tell more of this than 
I can write. "Therefore, dear mother, receive some admoni- tion of one of thy 
poor children, now going to be burnt to ashes for the testimony of Jesus. Come 
again to God's truth; come out of Babylon; confess Christ and his true doctrine; 
repent of what is past, make amends by declaring thy repentance by the fruits. 
Remember the reading and preaching of God's prophet, the true preacher, Martin 
Bucer. Call to mind the threatenings of God against impenitent sinners. Let the 
exile of Leaver, Pilkington, Grindal, Haddon, Horn, Scory, Ponet, and others, 
awake and strengthen thee. Let the imprisonment of thy dear sons, Cranmer, Ridley, 
and Latimer, move thee. Consider the martyrdom of thy intimate friends, Rogers, 
Saunders, and Taylor. And now cast not away my poor admonition, that am now going 
to be burnt and to receive the like crown of glory with my fellows. Take to heart 
God's calling by us. Be not as Pharaoh was, that it may not happen unto thee as 
it did unto him. What is that? Hardness of heart. And what then? Destruc- tion 
eternally both of body and soul. Ah, therefore, good mother, awake, awake, repent, 
repent, and make haste to turn to the Lord. For otherwise it shall be more easy 
for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for thee. O harden not your 
hearts; O stop not your ears to-day in hearing God's voice, though it be by a 
most unworthy messeng- er. O fear the Lord, for his anger is begun to kindle. 
Even now the axe is laid to the root of the tree. "You know I prophesied truly 
before the sweating sickness came, what would come, if you repented not your carnal 
preaching. And now I tell you before I depart hence, that 725 the ears of men 
shall tingle to hear the vengeance of God that will fall upon you all, both town 
and university, if you repent not, if you leave not your idolatry, if you turn 
not speedily to the Lord, if you still be ashamed of Christ's truth which you 
know. "O, Perne, repent; O, Thomp- son, repent! O, doctors, bachelors, and masters, 
repent! O, mayor, aldermen, and town-dwellers, repent, repent, repent, that you 
may escape the approaching vengeance of the Lord! Rend your hearts and make haste 
to come unto the Lord. Let us all say, `We have sinned, we have done wickedly, 
we have not hearkened to thy voice, O Lord. Deal not with us after our deserts, 
but be merciful unto our iniquities, for they are great. O pardon our offences. 
In thine anger remember thy mercy. Turn us unto thee, O Lord God of hosts, for 
the glory of thy name's sake. Spare us and be merciful unto us. Let not the wicked 
people say, Where is now their God? O for thine own sake, for thy name's sake, 
deal mercifully with us. Turn thyself unto us, and us unto thee, and we shall 
praise thy name for ever.' "If in this sort, my dearly beloved, in heart and mouth 
we come unto our Father, and prostrate ourselves before the throne of his grace, 
then surely we shall find mercy. Then shall the Lord look tenderly upon us, for 
his mercy's sake in Christ; then shall we hear him speak peace unto his people. 
For he is gracious and merciful, of great pity and compassion: he cannot be chiding 
for ever: his anger cannot last long to the penitent. Though we weep in the morning, 
yet at night we shall have our sorrow to cease. For he is merciful, and hath no 
pleasure in the death of a sinner: he would rather have him turn from his wickedness 
and live. "Oh turn ye now and re- pent, yet once again, I humbly beseech you, 
and then the kingdom of heaven shall draw nigh. The eye hath not seen, the ear 
hath not heard, nor is the heart of man able to conceive the joys prepared for 
us, if we repent, amend our lives, and heartily turn to the Lord. But if you repent 
not, but be as ye are, and go forwards with the wicked, following the fashion 
of the world, the Lord will lead you on with wicked doers, you shall perish in 
your wickedness, your blood will be upon your own heads, your parts shall be with 
hypocrites, where shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth; you shall be cast from 
the face of the Lord for ever and ever; eternal shame, sorrow, woe, and misery, 
shall be both in body and soul to you world without end. Oh, therefore, right 
dear to me in the Lord, turn you, turn you, repent you, repent you, amend, amend 
your lives, depart from evil, do good, follow peace, and pursue it. Come out from 
Babylon, cast off the works of darkness, put on Christ, confess his truth, be 
not ashamed of his gospel, prepare yourselves for the cross, drink of God's cup 
before it come to the dregs, and then shall I with you and for you, rejoice in 
the day of judgment, which is at hand; and therefore prepare yourselves thereto, 
I heartily beseech you. And thus I take my farewell for ever of you in this present 
life, mine own dear hearts in the Lord. The Lord of mercy be with us all, and 
give us a joyful and sure meeting in his kingdom, Amen. "Your own in the Lord 
for ever, "JOHN BRADFORD." 726 Mr. Bradford's fourth letter was addressed to the 
people of Lancashire and Cheshire, among whom he had laboured with fidelity and 
success. The fifth he wrote to the inhabitants of Walden in Essex, now generally 
called Saffron Walden, where he had many friends, whom he earnestly exhorted to 
be "steadfast and unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord." The sixth 
he calls a letter to his loving brethren, their wives, and families; but the initials 
only of those brethren appear. The seventh he addressed to a friend named Erkinalde 
Rawlins, and this contains a passage not to be omitted. "You have cause to rejoice 
for those days because they are days of trial, wherein you yourselves and all 
true believers shall know that you belong not unto the world, but are the favourites 
and friends of God. Before these days came, Lord God! how many thought themselves 
in God's bosom, and so were taken and would be taken by the world. But now we 
see whose they are. For whom we obey his servants we be. If we obey the world, 
then are we the world's, but if we obey God then are we God's; which thing these 
days have declared to all of us better than we ever knew it before." The eighth 
letter of this devoted saint was addressed to a suffering lady of the reformed 
faith, named Warcup; to whom the thirty-fifth letter was also inscribed, and to 
whose husband, with herself and some mutual friends of the name of Wilkinson, 
he addressed the thirteenth in the collection. From the thirty-fifth an extract 
will appear in due order; at present we must return to the ninth, inscribed to 
his fellow surrerer Mr. Laurence Saunders, who was then in the Marshalsea prison, 
and con- taining allusions to Dr. Taylor and Mr. Philpot, which we have no means 
at hand of explaining. In conclusion he says, "God, our Father and gracious Lord, 
make perfect the good work he hath begun in us. He will do it, my brother, my 
dear brother, whom I have in my inward bowels to live and die with." The tenth 
letter is also addressed to Laurence Saunders, and contains little else than a 
repetition of the preceding. The eleventh letter is addressed "to my dear Fathers, 
Dr. Cranmer, Dr. Ridley, and Mr. Latimer;" and is here given almost entire: "Jesus 
Immanuel. My dear fathers in the Lord, I beseech God our sweet Father through 
Christ, to make perfect the good he hath begun in us all. I had thought that every 
one of your staves had stood next the door, but now it is otherwise perceived. 
Our dear brother Rogers hath broken the ice valiantly, as this day, I think, or 
to-morrow at the uttermost, hearty Hooper, sincere Saunders, and trusty Taylor, 
end their course, and receive their crown. The next am I, which hourly look for 
the porter to open me the gates after them, to enter into the desired rest. God 
forgive me mine unthankfulness for this exceeding great mercy, that amongst so 
many thousands it pleaseth his mercy to choose me to be one, in whom he will suffer. 
For although it be most true, that I justly suffer, (for I have been a great hypocrite, 
and a grievous sinner, the Lord pardon me,) yet he hath done it, he hath done 
it indeed; yet what evil hath he done? Christ whom the prelates persecute, his 
verity which they hate in me, hath done no evil, nor deserved death. Therefore 
ought I most heartily to rejoice of this tender kindness of the Lord towards me, 
which useth a remedy for my sin as a testimonial of his covenant, to his glory, 
to my everlasting comfort, to the edifying of his church, and to the overthrowing 
of antichrist and his kingdom. "Out of prison in haste, looking for the tormentor, 
February 8th, 1555 "JOHN BRADFORD." 727 The fourteenth letter was written to Sir 
James Hales, then a prisoner, like his estimable correspondent for the truth as 
it is in Jesus Christ. Mr. Bradford was, as he says, "unknown to him both by face 
and name;" yet he knew him to suffer for righteousness' sake, and therefore would 
not content himself with calling daily to God in his behalf. His style of writing 
in this letter is somewhat chastened, yet characteristic, as the following extract 
will shew. "Look, good master Hales, on your vocation: not many judges, not many 
knights, not many landed and rich men, hath God chose to suffer for his sake as 
he hath done you. Cer- tainly, I dare say, you think not so of yourself, as though 
God were bound to prefer you, or had need of you; but rather attribute this as 
all things to the free mercy of God in Christ. Being a wise man you do judge of 
things wisely; that is concerning this your cross, you judge of it not after the 
world, which is the great master of error; nor after the judgment of the world's 
wisdom, which is foolishness to faith; nor after the present sense, to which it 
seemeth not to be joyous but grievous; but after the word of God, which tells 
you that the cross is the path way to glory, felicity, and heaven." In the fifteenth 
letter the writer conjures Dr. Hill, a protestant physician of celebrity in that 
day, to abide in the true faith for which he gad begun to suffer, and to fear 
God as the best preservative to the fear of man. In the sixteenth, he entreats 
a pious gentlewoman, whose initials only he gives us, to make God's glory shine 
in all her words and works. The eighteenth is addressed to a faithful and pious 
woman, more exposed to inward than outward distress, and to whom, in a long and 
excellent letter, he thus writes, "Do you not hunger and thirst after righteous- 
ness? and I pray you, saith not he who cannot lie, that happy are such? How should 
God wipe away the tears from your eyes in heaven, if now on earth you shed no 
tears? How could heaven be a place of rest, if on earth you find it? How could 
you desire to be at home, if in your journey you find no difficulty, distress, 
or grief? How could you be made like unto Christ in joy, if in sorrow you never 
sobbed with him? If you will sit at Christ's table in his kingdom, you must first 
abide with him in his temptations. If you will drink of his cup of glory, despise 
not his cup of ignominy. If you were a market sheep, you should go in more fat 
and grassy pasture. If you were for the fair, you should be stall fed, and want 
no wealth; but because you are God's own occupy- ing, therefore you must pasture 
on the bleak and barren heath, abiding the storms and tempests that he may send 
down upon that and upon you." Most of the martyrs of this melancholy reign were 
more or less comfort- ed, and some of them wholly supported as to their mortal 
frame, by the noble lady Vane. Several of the letters of Mr. Philpot and Mr. Trehern 
were addressed to her. She was also one of good Mr. Bradford's corre- spondents, 
and to her the nineteenth and twentieth and twenty-ninth 728 letters in this collection 
were inscribed. The chiefly relate to cer- tain important and intricate queries 
which she had in writing or in conversation proposed to him; but are not of sufficient 
importance to merit the preference of insertion. In the twenty-third letter he 
writes to some persons, whose names are not mentioned, but of whose piety he has 
a good opinion, while what he says implies some apprehen- sion of their fainting 
in the day of final trial. In the twenty-fourth, a class of rather different persons, 
whose integrity he suspects, and of consequence stands in great doubt of their 
stability even in an outward profession of just sentiments, are faithfully admonished 
in the follow- ing terms. "You promised to fight under Christ's standard. You 
learned his cross before you learned your alphabet. Go forward then, and pay your 
vows to the Lord. Fight like men, and valiant men too under the standard of Christ. 
Take up the cross and follow your Master unto death - as your brethren Hooper, 
Rogers, Taylor, and Saunders, have already done; and as now your brethren Cranmer, 
Latimer, Ridley, Farrar, and Bradford, are ready to do." The twenty-fifth letter 
was addressed to his "good brother" John Careless, then a prisoner in the King's 
Bench. It was in answer to one of which he says - "I never received so much consolation 
by any thing since I came into prison as I have by your last letter." It would 
appear that either Bradford had been too unmindful of this friend, or was in a 
state of depression when he wrote very unusual with him; for notwithstanding is 
the letter very brief, but almost full of misgiving and self-accusation. It concludes 
thus, "It is not one or two drops that maketh the stone hollow; but the perpetual 
dropping; so if with hearty prayer for them, and by good example gently working 
upon them, we may at length see the operation of God, we shall in the end rejoice. 
I beseech God to make perfect all the good he hath begun in us all." Letters the 
twenty-sixth and seventh are addressed to Mr. John Hall and his wife, then prisoners 
in Newgate, and contain, with nothing remarkable, his usual flow of consolatory 
reflection and benevolent admonition and advice. The twenty-eighth is in answer 
to a woman who desired to know of him if she might be present at the popish matins, 
provided she were absent from the mass? His reasons against her propo- sals are 
- that they were idolatrous, and therefore sinful - and that her example might 
greatly influence and injure others, for whom she would be called to judgment. 
The thirtieth letter was addressed to the sheriff of Coventry, Mr. Richard Hopkins, 
who to avoid danger and pre- serve unmolested the observance of the true faith 
and worship, fled with his family to Basle, where he remained till Mary's death. 
In the thir- ty-second letter there is this admirable passage, in answer to the 
inquiry of a friend, how he was to reply to his adversaries? "When you shall come 
before the magistrates, to give a reason for the hope that is in you, do it with 
all reverence and simplicity: and if you are afraid of their power and cruelty, 
set before you the example of the good 729 father Moses; for he set the invisible 
God before the eyes of his faith, and with them he looked upon his glorious majesty 
and power, as with the eyes of his body he saw Pharaoh and all his frightful terrors. 
So do you, my dearly beloved, let your inward eyes give light unto you, that while 
you are before the magistrates, so and much more are you and they present before 
the face of God, who will give you such wisdom and strength as your enemies will 
be amazed at." The thirty-fourth is a remarkably serious and spiritual letter 
addressed to Mr. George Eaton. In the thirty-sixth he strongly urges a young lady, 
persecuted by her parents for not going to mass, to be steadfast in the true faith, 
and to reject with firmness and perseverance the papal system. The thirty- seventh 
is a letter of warm and honest thanks to all the friends from whom he had received 
comfort and relief during his long imprisonment. The good man's hour was now drawing 
near, when he fully apprehended, or rather anticipated, that he should pass through 
the fire of earth to the felicity of heaven. Letters forty-one and forty-two are 
to his mother, intimating this expectation as likely soon to be fulfilled. The 
latter is his final farewell to his venerable parent, and thus expresses his perfect 
confidence and calmness in the almost immediate view of death. "My most dear mother, 
I heartily pray and beseech you to be thankful for me to God, who now taketh me 
unto himself. I die not as a criminal, but as a witness of Christ, the truth of 
whose gospel I have hitherto con- fessed, and now am willing to confirm by fire. 
I have nothing to give you, or to leave behind me for you; only I pray God my 
Father, for Christ's sake, to bless you and to keep you from all evil. May he 
make you patient and thankful that he will take the fruit of your womb to witness 
his truth; wherein I confess to the whole world that I die, and depart this life 
in hope of a much better, which I look for at the hands of God my Father, through 
the merits of his Son Jesus Christ. Thus, my dear mother, I take my last farewell 
of you in this life, beseeching the Almighty and eternal Father by Christ, to 
grant us to meet in the life to come, where we shall give him continual thanks 
and praise for ever and ever, Amen." The forty-third letter, the last but one 
in the collection, was addressed to the queen, her council, and the whole parliament. 
Let those who but imagine it possible that John Bradford should have made these 
high powers his resort at last in hope of for- giveness, or, still more, should 
have attempted to conciliate them by flattery, or propitiate them by compromise 
and recantation, read the letter, and confess their suspicion, or fear, or whatever 
else it might be, unfavourable to his pre-eminent reputation for courage and constan- 
cy, to have been both premature itself and an offense against him. "In most humble 
wise complaineth unto your majesty and honours, a poor subject, persecuted for 
the confession of Christ's verity; which verity deserveth at your hands to be 
maintained and defended, as the thing by which you reign, and have your honours 
and authorities. Although we that be professors, and, through the grace of God, 
the constant confes- sors of the same, are, as it were, the out-sweepings of the 
world; yet I say, the verity itself is a thing not unworthy for your ears to hear, 
for your eyes to see, and for your hands to handle, help, and succour as 730 the 
Lord hath made you able, and placed you where you are for the same purpose. Your 
highness and honours ought to know, that there is no innocency in words or deeds, 
where it is enough and sufficient only to accuse. It begoveth kings, queens, and 
all that be in authority, to know, that in the administration of their kingdoms 
they are God's ministers. It begoveth them to know, that they are not kings, but 
plain tyrants, who reign not to this end, that they may serve and set forth God's 
glory after true knowledge; and therefore it is required of them that they would 
be wise, and suffer themselves to kiss their Sovereign, lest they perish; as all 
those potentates, with their principalities and dominions, cannot long prosper, 
but perish indeed, if they and their kingdoms be not ruled with the scepter of 
God, that is, with his word; which whoso honoureth not, honoureth not God; and 
they that honour not the Lord, the Lord will not honour them, but bring them into 
contempt, and at length take his own cause, which he hath chiefly committed to 
them to care for, into his own hands, and so overthrow them, and set up his own 
truth gloriously: the people also perishing with the princes, where the word of 
prophecy is wanting, much more is suppressed, as it is now in this realm of England, 
over which the eyes of the Lord are set to destroy it, your highness and all your 
honours, if in time you look not better to your office and duties herein, and 
not suffer yourselves to be slaves and hangmen to antichrist and his prelates, 
who have already brought your highness and honours in the mind to let Barabbas 
loose, and to hang up Christ. This by the grace and help of God I shall make apparent, 
if first it would please your excellent majesty, and all your honours, to take 
to heart God's doctrine, which rather through the malice of the pharisees, I mean 
the bishops and prelates, than your consciences, is oppressed; and not for our 
contemptible and execrable state in the world to pass the less of it. For this 
doctrine is higher, and of more honour and majesty than all the whole world. It 
standeth invincible above all power, being not our doctrine, but the doctrine 
of the ever-living God, and of his Christ, whom the Father hath ordained king, 
to have dominion from sea to sea, and from the river unto the end of the world. 
And truly so he doth and will reign, that he will shake all the earth with his 
iron and brazen power, with his golden and silver brightness, only by the rod 
of his mouth, to shivers, in such a manner as though they were pots of clay, according 
to what the prophets write of the magnificence of his kingdom. And thus much for 
the doctrine, and your duties to hearken, to propagate, and defend the same. "But 
now will our adversaries mainly cry out against us, because no man be admit- ted 
once to speak against them, that we pretend falsely the doctrine and word of God, 
calling us the most wicked contemners of it, and heretics, schismatics, traitors, 
&c. All which their sayings, how malicious and false they are, though I might 
refer to that which is written by those men whose works they have condemned, and 
all that retain any of them, publicly by proclamation; yet here will I occasion 
your majesty and honours by this my writing, to see that it is far otherwise than 
they report of us. God our Father, for his holy name's sake, direct my pen to 
be his instrument to put into your eyes, ears, and hearts, that which 731 STORY 
OF WILLIAM MINGE AND JAMES TREVISAM. most may make to his glory, in the safeguard 
of your souls and bodies, and preservation of the whole realm. Amen." In the month 
of May before, mention was made of certain letters directed from the king and 
queen to Bonner. Besides which letters, certain others had been directed a little 
before from the council to the said bishop; by occasion of which letters. Bonner 
not long after caused a certain declaration to be made unto the people at Paul's 
cross, by Dr. Chedsey, to purge himself from the general suspicion of cruelty, 
which was spread abroad of him among the common people. The words of which declaration 
were in part as follow: "And whereas by these letters, coming from the king's 
and queen's majesties, it appeareth that their majesties do charge my lord bishop 
of London, and the rest of the bishops, with remissness and negligence in instructing 
the people infected with heresy, if they will be taught, and in punishing them 
if they will be obstinate and wilful, ye shall understand that my lord bishop 
of London, for his part, offer- eth himself ready to do therein his duty to the 
uttermost:- and that he will travail and take pains with all that be of his jurisdiction 
for their amendment; and sorry he is that any are in prison for any such matter. 
And he willed me to tell you, that he is not so cruel or hasty to send men to 
prison as some be - slanderous and wilful to do naught, and lay their faults on 
and John Leaf did suffer in Smithfield, William Minge, a priest, died in prison 
at Maidstone, being there con- fined for religion, and would, had he lived a little 
longer, doubtless have suffered the fury of his adversaries, whose nature was 
to spare and favour none that favoured Christ's pure gospel. William Minge, with 
as great constancy and boldness yielded up his life in prison, as other good and 
godly men had done before at the stake, being of the same spirit with them, and 
having the same glorious hope. Had it pleased God to spare him for the same fate, 
judging by his spirit and conversation, he would have been equally triumphant 
over the flames and over death in that apparently dreadful form. The next individual 
was James Trevisam, of the parish of St. Margaret in Lothbury. Being impotent 
and lame, he kept his bed a long time. He had a servant named John Small, who 
was reading in the Bible, when Berd the promoter came to the house, and would 
needs go up stairs, where he found four persons besides him and his wife; namely, 
the young man that read, and two men and a woman. Berd apprehended and carried 
them all to the Compter, where they re- mained about a fornight, notwithstanding 
all the friends they could make. Not only so, but Berd intended to carry the poor 
lame man to Newgate in a cart, but the neighbours, who had a little more humanity, 
prevented that barbarous design. Nevertheless, the poor man was obliged to have 
two sureties for his forthcoming; for he could not go out of his 732 bed, being 
not only impotent, but also very sick the same time. So within a few days the 
said James lying in extremity, the parson of the church, master Farthing, came 
to him, and had communication with him, and agreed well and so departed. It happened 
after the priest was come down into the street, there met him one Toller, a founder. 
"Yea," saith he, "be ye agreed? I will accuse you, for he denieth the sacrament 
of the altar." Upon that the parson went to him again, and then the priest and 
he could not agree. So the parson went to the bishop of London, and told him. 
The bishop answered, that he should be burnt; and if he were dead, he should be 
buried in a ditch. And so, when he died, the parson was against his wife as much 
as he could, neither would let her have the coffin to put him in, nor anything 
else, but was fain to bear him upon a table to Moorfield, and there was he buried 
on the 3rd of July, 1555. The same night the body was cast up above the ground, 
and his sheet taken from him, and he left naked. After this the owner of the field, 
seeing him, buried him again. A fornight after, the sumner came to his grave, 
and summoned him to appear at Paul's before his ordinary, to answer to such things 
as should be laid against him! But what more befell upon him, I have not certainly 
to say. On the 12th of July, John Bland, John Frankesh, Nicholas Sheterden, and 
Humphrey Middleton, were all burned at Canterbury together of one cause. Frankesh 
and Bland were ministers and preachers of the word of God, the one being parson 
of Adisham, and the other vicar of Rolvendean. Mr. Bland was a man so little born 
for his own advantage, that no part of his life was separat- ed from the common 
and public utility of all men. His first doings were devoted to the bringing up 
of children in learning. Under him were trained up several young men, who afterwards 
flourished. In this number was Dr. Sands, a man of singular learning and worthiness, 
as may well become a scholar for such a tutor. After this coming to the ministry 
in the church of God, or rather being called thereto, he was inflamed with incredible 
desire to profit the congregation; which may appear by this, that whereas he was 
twice cast into Canterbury prison for preach- ing the gospel, and delivered once 
or twice from thence at the interces- sion of his friends, yet he would preach 
again, as soon as he was deliv- ered. Being the third time apprehended, his friends 
yet once again would have found means to deliver him, if he would promise to abstain 
from preaching; but he stood in to earnestly, that he would admit no such condition, 
notably well expressing unto us the manner and example which we read in the apostle 
St. Paul - "Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Tribulation, or anguish, 
or hunger, or nakedness, or persecution, or the sword?" But to express the whole 
life and doings of this godly martyr, seeing we have his own testimony concerning 
the same, it shall be best to refer the reader to his own report, writing to his 
father of the whole discourse of his troubles, from the beginning almost to the 
latter end, in order and manner as followeth: "Dearly beloved father in Christ 
Jesus, I thank you for your gentle letters. And to satisfy your mind as concerning 
the troubles whereof you have heard, 733 ACCOUNT OF MR. JOHN BLAND. these shall 
both declare unto you all that has happened to me since you were with me, and 
also since I received your last letters. God keep you ever. "First, on Sunday 
the 3rd of September, after the service was ended, ere I had put off my surplice, 
John Austen came to the Lord's table and laid both his hands upon it, saying, 
`Who set this here again?' Now they say they took the table down the Sunday before, 
which I knew not, neither do I know who set it up again. The clerk answered that 
he knew not. Then said Austen - `He is a knave, that set it here.' I was then 
going down the church, wondering what he meant, I said - `Goodman Austen, the 
queen's highness hath set forth a proclamation that you move no sedition.' Before 
I could speak any more, he called me a knave, repeating that by God's soul, I 
was a vary knave. Then my clerk spoke to him, but what I am not sure. He called 
us both heretic knaves, and said we had deceived too long already, and if we said 
any service here again, he would turn our table upside down. In that rage he, 
with others,took the table and laid it on a chest in the chancel, and set the 
tressels by it. Soon after, I rode to Mr. Isaac, and declared unto him how seditiously 
Austen had behaved himself. Mr. Isaac directed a warrant to the constable, which 
was immediately served, so that he was brought before him the same night, and 
was bound by recognizance, with sureties, to appear if he were called. But then 
we agreed so well, that it was never called for: and the table was brought down, 
and was permitted as before. "On Sunday the 25th of November, Richard Austen and 
his brother Thomas came again to the table after the communion, and wished to 
speak with me. I said, `What is your will?' He said, `You know that you took down 
the tabernacle wherein the rood did hang, and such other things: we would know 
what recompence you would make us: for the queen's proceed- ings are that such 
things must be put up again.' Quoth I, `I know no such proceedings as yet; and 
as for that I did, I did it by commandment.' `No,' said Thomas Austen, `ye will 
not know the queen's proceedings.' `Yes,' said I, `I refuse not to know them.' 
Then said Richard, `Ye are against the queen's proceedings; for you say there 
are abominable uses and devilishness in the mass.' `Goodman Austen,' said I, `if 
I so said, I will say it again; and stand to the proof of it.' `Masters all,' 
said he, `bear record of these words;' and went his way. "Quoth Thomas Austen, 
`Thou wilt as soon eat this book as stand to them.' `No,'quoth I, `not so soon.' 
`Tell us,' quoth he, `what that devilishness is that is in the mass.' `I have 
often preached it unto you,' said I, `and ye have not believed it, nor borne it 
away, nor will now either, though I should tell you.' `Thou art a heretic,' said 
he, `and hast taught us nothing but heresy.' And at the last he said, `Ye pulled 
down the altar: will ye build it again?' `No,' quoth I, `except I be commanded; 
for I was commanded to do that I did.' `Well, if you will not,' said he, `then 
will I; for I am churchwarden.' `I charge you,' said I, `that you do not, except 
you have authority.' `I will,' said he, `nor let for your charge. For we will 
have a mass here on Sunday, and a preacher that shall prove thee a heretic, if 
thou dare abide his coming.' `God willing,' quoth I, `I will; for he cannot 734 
disprove any doctrine that I have preached.' `Yes,' said Thomas, `and that thou 
shalt hear, if thou run not away ere then.' `No, goodman Austen, I will not run 
away.' `Marry, I cannot tell,' said he. With many other words, we departed out 
of the church. "When the Sunday came, I looked for our preacher, and at the time 
of morning prayer I said to the clerk, `Why do ye not ring? Ye forget that we 
shall have a sermon today.' `No,' quoth he, `master Miles's servant hath been 
here this morning, and said his master hath letters from my lord chancellor, that 
he must go to London, and cannot come.' That day I did preach a sermon to them 
in his stead; and on making an end thereof I desired all men to conform the gospel, 
and to depart quietly in peace. "Upon the Inno- cents' day, being the 28th of 
December, they had procured the priest of Stodmarsh to sat them mass. He had nigh 
made an end of matins ere I came; and, when he had ended, he said to me, `Master 
parson, your neigh- bours have desired me to say matins and mass; I trust ye will 
not be against the queen's proceedings.' `No,' quoth I, `I will offend none of 
the queen's majesty's laws, God willing.' `What say ye?' quoth he; and made as 
he had not heard. And I spake the same words to him again, with a higher voice; 
but he would not hear, though all the chancel heard. So I cried the third time, 
(that all in the church heard,) that I would not offend the queen's laws. Then 
he went to mass; and when he was reading the epistle, I beckoned the clerk unto 
me, and said unto him, `I pray you desire the priest, when the gospel is done, 
to tarry a little; I have something to say to the people.' And the clerk did so. 
"Then the priest came down and sat in the stall; and I stood up in the chancel- 
door, and spake to the people of the great goodness of God, always shewn unto 
his people, unto the time of Christ's coming; and in him and his coming, what 
benefit they had; and among others I spake of the great and comfortable sacrament 
of his body and blood. And after I had briefly declared the institution, the promise 
of life to the good, and damnation to the wicked, I spake of the bread and wine, 
affirming them to be bread and wine after the consecration, as yonder mass book, 
saying - `Holy bread of eternal life, and the cup of perpetual salvation. As our 
bodily mouths eat the sacramental bread and wine, so doth the mouth of our souls, 
which is our faith, eat Christ's flesh and blood.' When I had made an end of that, 
I spake of the misuse of the sacrament in the mass; so that I judged it in that 
use no sacrament, and shewed how Christ bade us all eat and drink; and in the 
mass one only eateth and drinketh, and the rest kneel, knock, and worship. After 
these things ended, as briefly as I could, I spake of the benefactors of the mass, 
and began to declare who made the mass, and recited every man's name: but before 
I had rehearsed them all, the churchwarden and the constable his son-in-law, violently 
came upon me, took my book from me, pulled me down, and thrust me into the chancel, 
with an exceeding noise. Some cried, Thou heretic! some, You traitor! some, Thou 
rebel! and when every man had said his pleasure, and the rage was somewhat past, 
I asked them to be quiet, and let me speak to them quietly. "But they would not 
hear me, and pulled me, one on this side, and another on that. Then Richard Austen 
said, `Peace, masters, no more till mass be done;' when 735 EXAMINATION OF MR. 
BLAND. they ceased. Then I said to the church warden and constable, each holding 
me by the arm; `Masters, let me go into the church-yard till your mass be done.' 
Said the churchwarden, `Thou shalt tarry here till mass be done. Thou shalt tarry, 
for if thou go out thou wilt run away.' Then I said to the constable, `Lay me 
in the stocks, and then you will be sure of me,' and turned my back to the altar. 
By that time Richard Austed had devised what to do with me, and called to the 
constable and churchwarden, and bade them put me into a side chapel, and shut 
the door on me, and there they kept me till mass was ended; when they came into 
the chapel to me, and searched what I had about me; and found a dagger, and took 
it from me. They brought me out of the church, and without the door they railed 
on me without pity or mercy; but anon the priest came out of the church, and Ramsey, 
who of late was clerk, said to me, `Sir, where dwell you?' Therefore Thomas Austen 
took him by the arm, and said, `Come on, sirrah, you are of his opinion,' and 
took his dagger from him, and said he should go with him. "By this time John Gray, 
of Wingham, servant to John Smith, came in at the church-style, and seeing them 
hold Ramsey by the arms, said to him, `How now, Ramsey, have you offended the 
queen's laws?' Therewith Thomas Austen took him, and said, `You are one of their 
opinion, you shall go with them for company,' and took his dagger from him, and 
then demanded what he did there? but afterward they let him go. They carried me 
and Ramsey to Canterbury, guarded by eighteen persons. The next day they made 
a bill against me, but it served not their purpose, which was to have me in prison. 
But James Chapman and Bartholomew Joyes were bound in twenty pounds each for my 
appearance at the next general sessions, or in the mean time to appear, if I was 
sent for, before the queen's majesty's council, or any other commissioners sent 
by the queen's authority. Ramsey was bound to the peace, and to be of good behaviour 
till the next sessions. On the 23rd of February, Sir Thomas Finch, knight, and 
Mr. Hards, sent for me and my sureties to Finch's place, took me from my sureties, 
and sent me to the castle of Canterbury, where I lay ten weeks, and then was bailed 
and bound to appear at the next sessions at Canterbury: but after, they changed 
it to be at Ashford on Thursday in Witsun-week, being the 19th of May; but in 
the mean time the matter was exhibited to the spiritual court." The first examination 
of John Bland in the Spiritual Court, before Harpsfield and Collins, May 18, 1554, 
as recorded by the said John Bland: The 18th day of May, as aforesaid, master 
Harpsfield, archdeacon of Canterbury, made the mayor's sergeant to bring me before 
him and master Collins, commissary, into Christ's-church; and they went with me 
into a chamber, in the suffragan of Dover's house. Then the archdeacon said, `Art 
thou a priest?' And I said, `I was one.' And he said, `Art thou a graduate of 
any university?' And I said, `Yea.' `What degree hast thou taken?' said he. `The 
degree of a master of arts,' I said. `The more pity,' quoth he `that thou shouldest 
behave thyself as thou hast done. Thou hast been a common licensed preacher, has 
thou not? And what hast thou preached?' 736 Bland. God's word, to the edifying, 
I trust, of his people. Harps. No, no! to the destroying of their souls and thine 
both, except the mercy of God be all the greater. I pray thee, what hast thou 
preached: what one matter to the edifying of the people? I only desire to win 
thee from the heresies thou art strap in, and hast infected others withal. Thou 
hast preached, as I am informed, that the blessed sacrament of the altar is not 
the real body and blood of Christ after the consecration. Tell me, hast thou not 
thus preached; and is not this thy opinion? Bland. Sir, I perceive that you seek 
some matter against me. But seeing that I am bound in the sessions to my good 
behaviour for preaching, which may be broken with words, and I know not with what 
words; and also both mine authority to preach, and my living taken from me, I 
think I am not bound to make you an answer. Collins. Do you not remember that 
St. Peter biddeth you make answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the 
faith that is in you? Bland. I know that, and am content so to answer as that 
text biddeth: but I am not asked after that manner, but rather to bring me into 
trouble. Then they said, "No, ye shall not be troubled for anything ye say here." 
Bland. For knowledge'sake I will commune with you, but not otherwise. And so they 
reasoned more than an hour, of the sacrament, both against me. At the last, Collins 
said, "Master Bland, will ye come and take in hand to answer such matter on Monday 
next, as shall be laid to you?" Bland. Sir, ye said I should not be troubled for 
anything said here. And they said, "Ye shall not; but it is for other matters." 
Bland. Sir, I am bound to appear, as some tell me, on Thursday next at Ashford: 
I am in doubt whether I can or no; yet I have purposed to be there, and so to 
London to master Wiseman for certain money owing, to pay my debts withal. But 
I can sustain no great loss if I go not. I pray you let me have a longer day; 
I cannot well come on Monday. Harps. Wilt thou not come, when he so asketh where 
he may command? Bland. Sir, I perceive it shall be for this or like matters: will 
it please you or master Collins, for God's sake, to confer Scriptures privately 
with me in this matter, seeing ye say ye would so gladly win me? Harps. With all 
my heart will I take the pains, and I will also borrow what books thou wilt from 
the bishop's library. - And thus they depart- ed. Now the 17th of May, at Ashford, 
I could not be released, but was bound to appear at the sessions held at Cranbrook 
July 3rd. On the 21st of May I appeared in the Chapter-house, where was a great 
multitude of people; and Harpsfield said, "Ye are come here according as ye were 
appointed; and the cause is, that it hath pleased the queen's highness here to 
place me, to see God's holy word set forth, and to reform those that are here 
fallen into great and heinous errors, to the great dis- pleasure of God, and the 
decay of Christ's sacraments, and contrary to the faith of the Catholic church, 
whereof thou art notably known to be one that is sore poisoned with the same, 
and hast infected and deceived many with thy evil preaching. This if thou wilt 
renounce, and come home again to the catholic church, both I and many others would 
be very glad: and I, for my part, shall be right glad to shew you the favour that 
lieth in me, as I said unto you when you were appointed hither, because you then 
refused to satisfy the people that you had deceived. And 737 DIALOGUE BETWEEN 
HARPSFIELD AND BLAND. whereas it is - feigned by you, that I should openly dispute 
the matter with you this day; although I did neither so intend nor appoint, yet 
I am content to dispute the matter with thee, if thou wilt not without dispuration 
help to heal the souls that are brought hellward by thee. What sayest thou? Bland. 
I do protest before God and you all, that neither is my conscience guilty of any 
error or heresy, neither that I ever taught any error or heresy willingly. And 
where you say that I have feigned an open disputation with you, it is not true, 
as I can thus prove. On Saturday I was at Ugden's, and there Mr. Bingham laid 
it to my charge that such an open disputation as you have here offered, should 
be this day between you and me. Whereat I much marvelled, and said to him, that 
before that present I never heard any such word; neither would I answer nor dispute. 
And to this masters Vaughan, Oxenden, Seth, and Ugden witness; and further, that 
I never spake to you of any disputation, nor you to me. Now, if you have anything 
to say to me, I will answer. Harps. Hear ye what he saith? His conscience is clear. 
I pray thee whereon groundest thou thy conscience? Let me hear whay thy faith 
is. Blad. I know not why ye should more ask me a reason of my faith, than any 
other man in this open audience. Harps. Why, thou heretic, art thou ashamed of 
thy faith? If it were a Christian belief, thou needest not be ashamed of it. Bland. 
I am not ashamed of my faith: for I believe in God the Father, in Jesus Christ 
his only Son, and all the other articles of the creed; and I believe all the holy 
Scriptures of God. I will declare no more than this. Harps. Well, I will tell 
thee whereon I ground my faith: I do believe and ground my faith and conscience 
upon all the articles of the creed, and upon all the holy Scriptures, sacraments, 
and holy doctors of the church, and upon all the general councils. Lo, hereupon 
ground I my faith! When he could get no other answer of me than I had said before, 
he called for a scribe to make an act against me. And after much commu- nication 
I said, "By what law and authority will you proceed against me?" Master Collins 
said, "By the canon law." Bland. I doubt whether it be in strength or no. Yet 
I pray you let me have a counsellor in the law, and I will make answer according 
to the law. Harps. Why, thou heretic, thou wilt not confess thy faith to me, that 
have authority to demand it of thee; and yet I have confessed my faith to thee 
before all this audience. As concerning the blessed sacrament of the altar, thou 
hast taught, that after the consecration it is bread and wine, and not the body 
and blood of our Saviour Jesus Christ. How sayest thou, hast thou not thus taught? 
Bland. Sir, as concerning this matter of the sacrament, when I was with you and 
Mr. Collins, you said then it was for other matters that I should come hither: 
and further, that you would be content at my desire to confer on the scriptures 
with me, to see if you could win me; and you said, you would borrow my lord of 
Dover's library, that I should have what book I would; and now you require me 
thus to answer, contrary to your promise, before any conference be had, and seek 
rather to bring me into trouble, than to win me. 738 Harps. I will, as God shall 
help me, do the best to thee that I can, if if thou wilt be anything conformable; 
and I hope to dissolve all thy doubts, if thou be willing to hear. And I also 
will desire these two worshipful men, my lord of Dover and master Collins, to 
hear us. Bland. No, you shall pardon me of that: there shall be no such witness, 
but, when we agree, set to our hands. - Hereat made the people a noise against 
me, for refusing the witness: and here had we many more words that I can rehearse. 
But at the last I said, "Sir, will you give me leave to ask you one question?" 
And he said, "Yea, with all my heart; for in that thou askest anything, there 
is some hope that thou mayest be won." Bland. Sir, when it pleased Almighty God 
to send his angel unto the Virgin Mary to salute her, and said, `Hail, full of 
grace,' etc., came any substance from God our Father into the Virgin's womb to 
become man? - Whereat the archdeacon, as my lord of Dover and master Collins, 
stayed. But my lord spake first, and said, "The Holy Ghost came to her;" and ere 
he had brought out his sentence, Harpsfield added, "It was the power of God, sent 
by the Holy Ghost." But I said, "Sir, shall I ask one other question: Is there 
in the sacrament, after the consecra- tion, Christ's natural body, with all the 
qualities of a natural body, or no?" Harps. Hark! hear you this heretic? He thinks 
it an absurdity to grant all the qualities of Christ's natural body to be in the 
sacrament. But it is no absurdity: for even that natural body that was born of 
the virgin Mary is glorified, and that same body is in the sacrament after the 
consecration. But perceive you not the arrogancy of this heretic, that will put 
me to answer him, and he will not answer me? He thought to put me to a pinch with 
his question; for I tell you, it is a learned one. Bland. If you be so much disconcerted 
with me, I will say no more; yet I would all men heard, that you say the glorified 
body of Christ is in the sacrament after the consecration. Harps. I may call thee 
gross ignorant. Thou gross ignorant, is not the same body glorified that was born 
of the virgin Mary? Is it then any absurdity to grant that to be in the sacrament? 
- And while he spake many other words, I said to master Petit, that the sacrament 
was insti- tuted, delivered, and received of his apostles, before Christ's body 
was crucified; and it was crucified before it was glorified; which saying Petit 
partly recited to master archdeacon. Harps. Thou art without all learning. Was 
not Christ's body given to his apostles, as in a glorified act? And yet no inconvenience, 
although his natural body was not crucified; for when he was born of the Virgin 
Mary without pain, was not that the act of a glorified body? and when he walked 
on the water, and when he came into the house to his apostles, the doors being 
shut fast, were not these acts of a glorified body? - Then my lord of Dover helped 
him to a better place, and said, "When Christ was in Mount Tabor, he was there 
glorified in his apostles' sight." Harps. Ye say truth, my lord; he was glorified 
in the sight of three of his apostles. Bland. This methinks is new doctrine. Harps. 
Well, seeing he will by no other way be reformed, let the people 739 THIRD EXAMINATION 
OF JOHN BLAND. come in and prove these matters against him. - And therewith he 
brought forth a copy of the bill that was put against me at Christmas. Then he 
rose up and said, "See ye, good people that know this matter, that ye come in, 
and prove it against him. Whereunto answered Thomas Austen, "I pray you, let us 
be no more troubled with him." The master archdeacon departed, and left master 
Cooins to command me to appear the next day. Howbeit, for certain other urgent 
business that I had, I did not appear, but wrote a letter to master commissary, 
desiring him to respite the matter till my coming home again; and if he would, 
I would be content to submit myself to the law when I came home. Now about the 
28th day of June I came to master commissary to show him of my return, and offered 
myself to satisfy the law, if it were proceeded against me, before master Cox 
of Surrey, and Marks the apparitor; but he gently said, that he had done nothing 
against me; and so appointed me to appear before him the Friday seven-night after. 
In the mean time was the sessions holden at Cranbrook, where I was bound to appear; 
and carrying surety with me to be bound again, (for I looked for none other,) 
did appear the 3rd of July. Then sir John Baker said, "Bland, ye are, as we hear 
say, a Scot; where were ye born and brought up?" And I said, "I was born in England." 
He said, "Where?" and I said, "In Sedberg, and brought up by one Dr. Lupton, provost 
of Eton college." "Well," said he, "I know him well. Remain to your bond till 
afternoon." Then said sir Thomas Moyle, "Ah, Bland, thou art a stiff-hearted fellow. 
Thou wilt not obey the law, nor answer when thou art called. Master sheriff, take 
him to your ward:" and the bailiff set me in the stocks, with others, and would 
not hear me speak one word. So we remained in the goal of Maidstone till a fornight 
before Michaelmas, or thereabouts; and then were we carried to Rochester, to the 
assize holden there, where we, among the prisoners, remained two days. And when 
we were called, and the judges of assize asked our causes, when my cause was rehearsed, 
master Barrow, clerk of the peace, said that I was an excommunicate person. Then 
master Roper of Linsted talked with the judges, but what I am not able to say: 
but the judges of assize said, "Take them to Maidstone again, and bring them to 
the sessions that shall be holden next at the town of Malden." Howbeit, the sheriff 
did not send for us; so we tarried at Maidstone till the sessions holden at Greenwich 
the 18th and 19th of of February, [1555.] I and others, being within the bar amongst 
the felons, and irons upon our arms, were called out the latter day by the jailer 
and bailiffs, and eased of our irons, and carried by them into the town to sir 
John Baker, master Petit, master Webb, and two others whom I knew not. Baker. 
Bland, wherefore were you cast into prison? Bland. I cannot well tell. Your mastership 
cast me in. Baker. Yea, but wherefore were you in before that time? Bland. For 
an unjust complaint put upon me. Baker. What was the complaint? (I told him as 
truly and briefly as I could.) Let me see thy book; (and I took him a Latin Testament.) 
Will ye go to the church, and obey and follow the queen's proceedings, and do 
as an honest man should do? 740 Bland. I trust in God to do no otherwise but as 
an honest man should do. Will it please your mastership to give me leave to ask 
you a question: May a man do anything that his conscience is not satisfied in 
to be good? Baker. Away, away:- and threw down the book, and said, "It is no Testa- 
ment." And I said, "Yes." Then master Webb took it up, and said, "Master Bland, 
I knew you when you were not of this opinion; I would to God ye would reform yourself:" 
with other words. I said, "If ye have known me of another opinion, it was for 
lack of knowledge." Baker. Yea, sayest thou so? By St. Mary, and thou hold thee 
there, I will give six fagots to burn thee withal, ere thou shouldest be un- burned: 
hence, knave, hence! And so were we reprieved into our place again within the 
bar; and at night, when judgment of felons and all was done, we were called, and 
the judge said to the jailer, "Take them with you, and deliver them to the ordinary; 
and if they will not be reformed, let them be delivered to us again, and they 
shall have judgment and execution." And one of our company said, "My lord, if 
we be killed at your hands for Christ's sake, we shall live with him for ever." 
Then came we to the castle of Canterbury, and there we remained till the 2nd of 
March, on which day we were brought into the chapter-house of Cree- church, where 
were set the suffragan of Canterbury, master Collins, master Mills, with others; 
and then went to them masters Oxenden, Petit, Webb, and Hardes, justices. And 
when I was called, Webb said, "Here we present this man to you as one vehemently 
suspected of heresy." Bland. Mr. Webb, you have no cause to suspect me of heresy. 
I have been a prisoner this whole year, and no matter has been proved against 
me. I pray you, what is the reason that I have been kept so long in prison? Webb. 
Leave you arrogant asking of questions, and answer to that which is laid to your 
charge. Bland. I do so; for I say you have no cause to suspect me of heresy. Webb. 
Yes; you denied to Sir John Baker, to be conformable to the queen's proceedings. 
Moreover, you were cast into prison, because you fled away from your ordinary. 
Bland. Then have I had wrong: for I never fled nor disobeyed mine ordinart, nor 
did anything contrary to the law. Let them now say if I did. But they said nothing; 
and when I saw they held their peace, I said, "Master commissary, have you been 
the cause of this my imprison- ment? "No," said he. "Ye know that when ye went 
from me, ye were appointed to appear the Friday after the sessions." Here I was 
suffered to speak no more, but was shut up in a corner till my companions were 
presented; and then we were sent to Westgate into prison, and were put into several 
close holds, no man being permitted to come to us. We were four at this appearance: 
but one they dispatched, by what means I cannot tell, whose name was Cornwall, 
a tanner. And thus hitherto passed the talk between Bland and the justices, and 
certain gentlemen of the shire. Now followeth the reasonings between him and the 
clergymen before whom he was examined. Let us hear his own report of his appearance 
before the commissary and others in the Spiritual Court, in the Chapter-house 
of Cree-church, March 9, 1555: Collins. Master Bland, ye know that ye are presented 
unto us as one suspected of heresy. How say ye? Be ye contented to reform yourself 
to the laws of this realm, and of the holy church? Bland. I deny that I am suspected 
justly of heresy; and this ye heard when I was presented, that I denied the suspicion 
to be just, but to defend the unjust punishment that I have suffered: neither 
can ye prove that any occasion hath been given by me, whereby any man should suspect 
me therein. But if ye have a law or authority to proceed against me for anything 
done for a whole year ago and more, I will answer to it. Col. Ye were convented 
before master archdeacon and me, and matter of heresy laid to your charge. Bland. 
That matter was done and said a whole year ago, for I have been in prison this 
year and more. If ye have anything against me by any law, I desire you to let 
me know the law and the matter, and I will answer according tot he law. Then said 
my lord suffragan, "But that I am one of the judges, I would rise, and stand by 
thee, and accuse thee to be a sacramentary, and bring witness to prove it; yea, 
that thou hast called the mass an abominable idol." Bland. You, my lord, never 
heard me say so; but I heard you once say, that in your conscience ye had abhorred 
the mass three years. "Thou liest," quoth he "I never said so." Bland. My lord, 
if they might be heard, I can bring witness to approve it, with the day, time, 
and place; and I once did hear master Collins say, at a visitation in Wingham, 
that Christ was a full satisfaction for all sin, present, past, and to come; contrary 
to that he saith now. Col. This is but a drift. You had better answer now; else 
you shall go to prison again, and be called on Monday, and have articles laid 
to you, and if ye then answer not directly, you shall be condemned as a heretic, 
and that will be worse for you. Bland. Sir, I do not now, nor will then, deny 
to answer anything that you can lay to my charge by the law: wherefore I trust 
ye will let me have the benefit of the law. Col. Well, on Monday, at nine of the 
clock, you shall see the law, and have articles laid unto you. The following Monday 
we were brought to the same place again; but, as I did before, I demanded what 
they had to lay to my charge, and to see the law, which they said before I should 
see. Then they brought forth a decretal, a book of the bishop of Rome's law to 
bind me to answer, which my heart abhorred to look upon. The effect was, that 
the ordinary had authority to examine, and that those whom they so examined must 
needs answer. But I said that it meant such as were justly suspected, as I was 
not. And here we had much communication; for I charged them with unjust imprisonment, 
which they could not avoid. Col. Are you willing to confer with some of us? It 
will be better for you; now we offer it, because you would not desire it. Bland. 
As I did not refuse before, no more will I now. I expected Dr. Faucet would have 
come to me without desiring, if any profit to me had been in conference; for though 
I was never able to do him good, yet once I was his tutor. Col. Will you come 
to his chamber in the afternoon? PAGE 742 Bland. Sir, I am a prisoner; and therefore 
it is meet that I obey, and come whither you will. - And so he departed. Here 
followeth a certain confutation of master Bland against false and manifest absurdities, 
granted by master Mills, priest of Christ's church in Canterbury; which is also 
given as recorded by Bland himself:- Mills. We say, that Christ is in or under 
the sacrament really and corporally, which are the forms of bread and wine, and 
that there is his body contained invisibly; and the qualities which we do see, 
as white- ness and roundness, be there without substance by God's power, as quant- 
ity and weight be there also by invisible measure. Bland. This is your own divinity, 
to make accidents the sacrament, and Christ's real body invisibly contained in 
them, and so to destroy the sacrament altogether. And yet the doctors say, the 
matter of the sacrament is bread and wine. And God by his power worketh no miracles 
with "Hocest corpus meum," so to change the substance of bread and wine into his 
body and blood, in that he maketh accidents to be without their substance by invisible 
measure. I am ashamed to see you so destroy Christ's sacrament, contrary to your 
own doctors, and trifle so with God's work. Mills. We eat Christ's flesh and blood 
spiritually, when we receive it with faith and charity; and we also do eat it 
corporally in the sacra- ment. And the body that we so receive hath life; for 
the Godhead is annexed thereto: which, although it be received with the body of 
Christ, yet it is not visible after a gross sort. And the flesh of Christ that 
we receive is lively; for it hath the Spirit of God joined to it. And if a man 
be drunken, it is not by receiving of the blood of Christ; for it is contrary 
to the nature of Christ's blood. If he be drunken, it is by the qualities and 
quantities, without substance of blood. Bland. I am glad that you are so much 
against all men, to say that Christ's body is alive in the sacrament: it may fortune 
to bring you to the truth in time to come. Me thinketh it is evil to keep Christ's 
body alive in the pix; or else must ye grant, that he is alive in receiving, and 
dead in the pix. And ye say truth, that it is not the natural receiving of Christ's 
blood that maketh a man drunken, for it is the nature of wine that doth that; 
which ye deny not. And a more truth ye confess than ye did think, when ye said, 
"If a man be drunken, for it is the nature of wine that doth that; which ye deny 
not. And a more truth ye confess than ye did think, when ye said, "If a man be 
drunken, it is by the qualities and quantities, without the substance of blood;" 
for indeed blood hath no such qualities with it: by which it is evident that there 
is no natural blood. If a man be drunken with wine consecrated, it must be a miracle, 
as I think you will have it, that the said accidents should be without their natural 
substance, and work all the operations of both substance and accidents: and so 
it followeth, that a man may be drunken by miracle. The body that ye receive, 
ye say, is alive, because it is annexed to the Godhead; and the flesh that ye 
receive is lively, because it hath the spirit of God joined to it. This division 
is of your new inventions, to divide the body and the flesh; the one alive by 
the Godhead, the other lively by God's Spirit, and both one sacrament: ye make 
of it a thing so fantastical, that ye imagine a body without flesh, and flesh 
without a body; as ye do qualities and quantities without substance, and a living 
body without qualities and quantities. PAGE 743 Mills. If case so require, and 
there be a godly intent in the minister to consecrate, after the consecration 
thereof, there is present the body and blood of Christ, and no other substance 
but accidents without substance, to a true believer. Bland. You grant three absurdities, 
that in a tun of wine consecrated is nothing but accidents: and to increase it 
withal, you have brought in two incoveniences; first, that it is not the word 
of God that doth consecrate, but the intent of the priest must help it. And if 
that lack, ye seem to grant no consecration, though the priest speak the word; 
and yet your doctors say, that the wickedness of the priest minisheth not the 
sacrament. And to an unbeliever ye seem to say, that it is not the same that it 
is to the true believer; and then must the believer have something to do in the 
consecration. "Incidit in Scyllam, qui vult vitare Charibdim." Mills. The substance 
of Christ's body doth not fill the mouse's belly; for although he doth receive 
the outward forms of bread and wine, yet he doth not receive the substance inwardly, 
but without violation. And a mouse doth not eat the body of Christ, to speak properly; 
for it doth not feed him spiritually or corporally, as it doth man, because he 
doth not receive it to any inducement of immorality to the flesh. Bland. Ye make 
not your doctrine plain to be understood: we must know how a mouse can receive 
the substance inwardly and outwardly. Ye say he doth not receive the substance 
inwardly, but without violation: ergo, with violation he receiveth the substance 
inwardly. Ye say that the mouse cannot violate Christ's body; but he violateth 
the substance that he eateth. And this your proper speech doth import as much 
as that the mouse should eat the sacrament to as great effect, and the same thing, 
as doth the unworthy receiver; for, if that be the cause that he proper- ly eateth 
not the body of Christ, because he doth not feed upon it spiritually nor corporally, 
nor receiveth it to any inducement of immor- tality, as ye say; then it followeth 
that the unbeliever and the mouse receive both one thing. And yet it cannot be 
denied but the mouse will live with consecrated bread; and then ye must grant 
the absurdity, that a substance is nourished and fed only with accidents. Mills. 
Men's bodies be fed with Christ's body, as with immortal meat, by reason of the 
Godhead annexed to eternal life; but men's bodies be corporally nourished with 
qualities and forms of bread and wine: and we deny that, by the sacramental eating, 
any gross humour turned into blood is made miraculously in the body. Bland. Whereas 
it cannot be denied that a man may live, and be nourished in his natural body 
with the sacramental bread and wine consecrated, you cannot avoid that: but then 
you turn to the spiritual nourishing of man's body, by Christ's body and Godhead 
annexed, which is not to put away the absurdity, that either a man's natural body 
should be fed naturally with accidents, or else to have them changed into gross 
humours. Mills. If the forms of bread and wine be burned, or worms engendered, 
it is no derogation to the body of Christ, because the presence of his body ceaseth 
to be there, and no substance cometh again. Bland. Ye grant here, that a substance 
may be made of accidents, as ashes or worms; but I think you will have it by your 
miracles. And this I count a more absurdity than the other, that Christ's body 
should cease to be there, and no substance to come again; for no word in all the 
Bible seems to serve you for the ceasing of his presence, though we PAGE 744 granted 
you, (which we do not,) that it were there. God Almighty open your heart, if it 
be his will and pleasure, to see the truth. And if I thought not my death to be 
at hand, I would answer you to all the rest, in these and all other my doings. 
I submit myself to our Saviour Jesus Christ, and his holy word, desiring you in 
the bowels of Christ to do the same. At last on the 13th day of June this blessed 
and faithful servant of God was brought before Thornton, bishop of Dover, Robert 
Collins, the com- missary, and Nicholas Harpsfield, the archdeacon, at Canterbury. 
Under these a great sort of innocent lambs of Christ were cruelly entreated and 
slain at Canterbury, among whom this aforesaid master Bland was the first. To 
whom it was objected by the commissary, whether he believed that Christ is really 
in the sacrament, or no, etc. To this he answered and said, that he believed that 
Christ is in the sacrament, as he is in all other good bodies: so that he judged 
not Christ to be really in the sacrament. Whereupon, the day being Monday, he 
was bid to appear again upon Wednesday next; and from thence he was deferred again 
to Monday following, being the 20th of June, in the same chapter-house, then to 
hear further what should be done, in case he would not relent to their mind. The 
which day and place he, appearing as before, was required to say his mind plainly 
and fully to the foresaid arti- cles, being again repeated to him: which articles, 
commonly and in course, they use to object to their examinates which be brought 
before them, and which need not again to be repeated. These articles being ministered, 
and his answers taken, respite was given him yet a few days to deliberate with 
himself. So, on the 25th day of the same month of June, he making his appearance 
again in the said chapter- house, there openly and boldly withstood the authority 
of the pope; whereupon his sentence was read, and so he was condemned and committed 
to the secular power. Touching the form and tenor of the sentence, because all 
their sentences of course agree in one, read before in the history of other godly 
martyrs. Having now passed over the examinations of master Bland, let us proceed 
to his fellow-captives, being joined the same time with him in the like cause 
and like affliction; the names of whom were Nicholas Sheterden, John Frankesh, 
Humfrey Middleton, Thacker, and Cocker, of whom Thacker only gave back. The rest 
constantly standing to the truth, were alto- gether condemned by the suffragan 
of Canterbury the 25th day of June; touching whose examinations I shall not need 
long to stand. Forasmuch as the articles ministered against them were all one, 
so in their answers they little or nothing disagreed. And because Nicholas Sheterden 
had most talk with the archdeacon and the commissary, I will first begin with 
the same as recorded by himself. First, the archdeacon and commissary affirmed, 
that the very bare words of Christ, when he said, "This is my body," did change 
the substance, without any other interpretation or spiritual meaning of the words. 
Sheterden. Then, belike, when Christ said, "This cup is my blood," the substance 
of the cup was changed into his blood, without any other meaning; and so the cup 
was changed, and not the wine. Arch. Not so; for when Christ said, "This cup is 
my blood," he meant not the cup, but the wine in the cup. PAGE 745 Shet. If Christ 
spake one thing and meant another, then the bare words did not change the substance; 
but there must be a meaning sought as well of the bread as of the cup. Arch. There 
must be a meaning sought of the cup otherwise than the words stand. But of the 
bread it must be understood only as it standeth. Shet. Then do you make one half 
of Christ's institution a figure, and the other half a plain speech; and so ye 
divide Christ's supper. Arch. Christ meant the wine, and not the cup, though he 
said, "This cup is my blood." Shet. Then show me whether the words which the priests 
speak over the cup change the substance, or whether the mind of the priest doth 
it. Arch. The mind of the priest doth it, and not the words. Shet. If the mind 
of the priest doth it, and not the words, if the priest then do mind his harlot, 
or any other vain thing, that thing so minded was there made, and so the people 
do worship the priest's harlot instead of Christ's blood. And again, none of the 
people can tell when it is Christ's blood, or when it is not, seeing the matter 
standeth in the mind of the priest; for no man can tell what the priest meaneth 
but himself; and so are they ever in danger of committing idolatry. Then was the 
archdeacon somewhat moved, and sat him down, and said to the commissary, "I pray 
you, master commissary, speak you to him another while: for they are unreasonable 
and perverse answers, as ever I heard of" Then stood up the commissary, and said 
- "Your argument is much against yourself; for ye grant that the bread is a figure 
of Christ's body; but the cup can be no figure of his blood, nor yet his very 
blood; and therefore Christ did not mean the cup, but the wine in the cup." Shet. 
My argument is not against me at all; for I do not speak it to prove that the 
cup is his blood, nor the figure of his blood, but to prove that the bare words 
being spoken of the priest, do not change the substance no more of the bread, 
than they do change the cup into blood. It still remaineth for you to answer my 
question to the archdeacon - whether the mind of the priest when he speaketh over 
the cup, doth change it into blood, or the bare words? Com. Both together doth 
it, the words and the mind of the priest together; yea, the intent and words together 
do it. Shet. If the words and intents together do change the substance, yet must 
the cup be his blood, and not the wine, forasmuch as the words are - "This cup 
is my blood," and the intent, ye say, was the wine; or else the words take none 
effect, but the intent only. Com. It was the intent of the priest before he went 
to mass, without the words; for if the priest did intend to do as holy church 
had ordained, then the intent made the sacrament to take effect. Shet. If the 
sacraments take effect of the intent of the priest, and not of God's word, then 
many parishes having a priest that intendeth not well, are utterly deceived both 
in baptizing, and also worshiping that thing to be God which is but bread, because 
for lack of the priest's intent, the words do take none effect in it; so that 
by this it is ever doubtful, whether they worship Christ, or bread, because it 
is doubtful what the priests do intend. PAGE 746 Then the commissary would prove 
to me, that Christ's manhood was in two places at one time, by these words of 
Christ in the third chapter of John; where he saith, "No man ascendeth up to heaven, 
but he that came down from heaven; that is to say, the Son of man which is in 
heaven." By this he would prove that Christ was then in heaven and no earth also, 
naturally and bodily. Shet. This place and other places of scripture must needs 
be understood of the unity of the person, in that Christ was God and man; and 
yet the matter must be referred to the Godhead, or else ye must fall into great 
error. Com. That is not so; for it was spoken of the manhood of Christ, foras- 
much as he saith, the Son of Man which is in heaven. Shet. If ye will needs understand 
it to be spoken of Christ's manhood, then must ye fall into the error of the Anabaptists, 
who deny that Christ took flesh of the Virgin Mary; for if there be no body ascended 
up, but that which came down, where is then his incarnation? for then he brought 
his body down with him. Com. Lo, how you seek an error in me, and see not how 
ye err yourself! For it cannot be spoken of the Godhead, except ye grant that 
God is passable; for God cannot come down, because he is not passable. Shet. If 
that were a good argument, that God could not come down, because he is not passable; 
then it might be said by the like argument, that God could not sit, and then heaven 
is not his seat, and then say as some do, that God hath no right hand for Christ 
to sit at. Com. It is true that God hath no right hand indeed. Shet. Oh, what 
a spoil of Christ's religion will this be, that because we cannot tell how God 
came down, therefore we shall say, that he came not down at all; and because we 
cannot tell what manner of hand he hath, to say that he hath no hand at all; and 
then he cannot reach the utmost part of the sea. O misery! at length will it come 
to pass, that God cannot sit, and then how can heaven be his seat; and if heaven 
be not his seat, then there is no heaven; and then at length I doubt ye will say 
there is no God, or else no other God but such as the heathen gods are, which 
cannot go nor feel. Com. Why, doth not the scripture say, that God is a spirit? 
and what hand can a spirit have? Shet. Truth it is, God is a spirit, and therefore 
is worshiped in spirit and truth; and as he is a spirit, so hath he a spiritual 
power, so hath he a spiritual seat, a spiritual hand, and a spiritual sword; which 
we shall feel, if we go this way to work. Because we know not what God hath, therefore 
if we say he hath none, then it may as well be said there is no Christ. Then the 
commissary said, he would talk no more with me; and so depart- ed. And also he 
was compelled grant, that Christ's testament was broken, and his institution was 
changed from that he left it: but he said they had power so to do. My first answering, 
after their law was established; written from Westgate by me, NIcholas Cherterden: 
Because I know that ye will desire to hear from me some certainty of my state, 
I was called before the suffragan, and seven or eight of the chief priests, and 
examined of PAGE 747 certain articles; and then I required to see their commission. 
They showed it to me, and said, "There it is, and the king and queen's letters 
also." Then I desired to have it read: and so in reading I perceived, that on 
some notable suspicion he might examine upon two articles: Whether Christ's real 
presence were in the sacrament; and whether the church of England be Christ's 
catholic church. To that I answered, that I had been a prisoner three quarters 
of a year, and as I thought wrongfully: reason would, therefore, that I should 
answer to those things wherefore I was imprisoned. The suffragan said, his commission 
was, I must answer directly yea or nay. This commission, said I, was not general 
to examine whom ye will, but on just suspicion. He said I was suspected, and presented 
to him. Then I required that the accusation might be showed. He said he was not 
bound to show it; but he commanded me in the king and queen's name to answer directly. 
Shet. And I,as a subject, do require of you justice, for that I have done I ask 
no favour. Suff. Thou wast cast into prison because thou wast suspected. Shet. 
That was a pretty suspicious, because I suffered imprisonment contrary to God's 
law and the realm, that therefore I must now, for amends, be examined of suspicion 
without cause, to hide all the wrong done to me before. For when I was cast into 
prison, there was no law but I might speak as I did; therefore, in that point, 
I could be no more suspected than you, who preached the some yourself not long 
before. All men shall know, that as ye suspect and prove no cause, so shall ye 
condemn me without a matter, and then shall all men know ye seek my blood, and 
not justice. Suff. No, we seek not thy blood, but thy conversion. Shet. That we 
shall see. For then shall you prove my perversion first, before you condemn me 
on your suspicion without proof of the same: and by that I shall know whether 
you seek blood or no. If you could prove that men might wrongfully imprison before 
a law, and in the meanwhile make laws, and then, under that, hide the first offence, 
then you say true, or else not. - (From Westgate, in haste: Nicholas Sheterden.) 
The next examination of Nicholas Sheterden before the bishop of Winchester, then 
lord chancellor, as recorded by himself:- I was called into a chamber before the 
lord chancellor, the suffragan, and others - priests, I think, for the most part. 
He standing to the table, called me to him, and because I saw the cardinal was 
not there, I bowed myself and stood near. Then said he, "I have sent for you, 
because I hear you are indicted for heresy; and, being called before the commissioners, 
ye will not answer nor submit yourself." I said, " If it like you, I did not refuse 
to answer; but I did plainly answer, that I had been in prison long time, and 
reason it was that I should be charged or dis- charged for that, and not to be 
examined of articles to hide my wrong imprisonment; neither did I know any indictment 
against me. If there were any, it could not be just, for I was not abroad since 
the law was made." Winchester. If thou wilt declare thyself to the church to be 
a Chris- tian, thou shalt go, and then have a writ of wrong imprisonment. Shet. 
I have no mind to sue now, but require to have justice: make a promise I will 
not; but if I offend the law, then punish me accordingly. PAGE 748 For it might 
be that my conscience was not persuaded, nor would be, in prison: seeing these 
things which I have learned, were by God's law openly taught and received by the 
authority of the realm. Win. It was not a few that could be your guides in understanding, 
out the doctors and the whole church; now, whom wouldst thou believe? either the 
few or the many? Shet. I did not believe for the few or for the many, but only 
for him that bringeth the word, and shewed it to me to be so, according to the 
process thereof. Win. Well, then, if an Arian come to thee with scripture, thou 
wilt believe him, if he shew this text - "My Father is greater than I." Shet. 
No, my lord, he must bring me also the contrary place, and prove them both true, 
where he saith - "My Father and I are one." So, after many words, Winchester came 
to the church's faith, and comely orders of ceremonies and images. And then I 
joined to him again with the commandments. He said, that was done that no false 
thing should be made, as the heathen would worship a cat, because she killed mice. 
I said that it was plain that the law forbade not only such, but even to make 
an image of God to any likeness. He asked, where find ye that? Shet. Forsooth, 
in the law where God gave them the commandments: for he said, "Ye saw no shape, 
but heard a voice only:" and added a reason why, "lest they should after make 
images, and mar themselves." Winchester said, I made a goodly interpretation. 
I said, no, it was the text. Then was the Bible called for; and when it came, 
he bade me find it, and I should strait be confounded with mine own words; so 
that if there were any grace in me, I would trust mine own wit no more. And when 
I had read it aloud, he said, "Lo, here thou mayest see; this is no more to forbid 
the images of God, than of any other beast, fowl, or fish," (the place was Deut. 
iv.) I said it did plainly forbid to make any of these an image of God, because 
no man might know what shape he was of. Therefore might no man say of any image, 
"This is an image of God." Win. Well, yet by your leave, so much as was seen we 
may; this is, of Christ, of the Holy Ghost; and the Father who appeared to Daniel. 
Shet. That is no proof that we may make images contrary to the command- ment; 
for though the Holy Ghost appeared like a dove, yet was he not like in shape, 
but in certain qualities; and therefore when I saw the dove, I might remember 
the Spirit to be simple and loving, ect. With that Winchester was somewhat moved, 
and said I had learned my lesson; and asked me who taught me, with many more words. 
And he said he would prove how good and profitable images were to teach the unlearned, 
etc. At the last I said, "My lord, although I were able to make never so good 
a gloss upon the commandments, yet obedience is better than all our good intents:" 
and much ado we had. At last he saw, he said, what I was, and how he had sent 
for me for charity's sake to talk with me, but now he would not meddle; and said 
my wrong imprisonment could not excuse me, but I must clear myself. I said that 
was easy for me to do; for I had not offended. Winchester said, I could not escape 
so; there I was deceived. I said, "Well, then I am under the law," etc. The archdeacon 
was there called in for me, and he laid to me, that with such arrogancy and stoutness 
as never was heard, I behaved myself before him; whereas he was minded with such 
mercy towards me, PAGE 749 etc. I declared that herein he falsely reported me, 
and brought in the queen's proclamation that none should be compelled, till the 
law were to compel. "And I did use him then," said I, "as I use your grace now, 
and no otherwise." Winchester said that I did not use myself very well now. I 
said, I had offered myself to be bailed, and to confer with them, when and where 
they would. - Winchester said, I should not confer, but be obedient. I said, let 
me go, and I will not desire to confer neither; and when I offended, let them 
punish me: and so departed. - By your brother, Nicholas Sheterden. And thus much 
concerning the examinations of Nicholas Sheterden and master Bland. Now to touch 
something of the other martyrs, which were the same time examined, and suffered 
with them together; to wit, Humfrey Middleton, of Ashford, and John Frankest, 
vicar of Rolvendean, in the diocese of Kent. Here first should be declared the 
articles, which publicly, in their last examinations, were jointly and severally 
ministered unto them by the foresaid Thornton, bishop of Dover. But forasmuch 
as these are already expressed in the story of master Bland, it shall not be needful. 
To these seven articles then being propounded to the four persons above named, 
first answered John Frankesh somewhat doubtfully, desiring further respite to 
be given him of fourteen days to deliberate with himself, which was granted. Master 
Bland answered flatly and roundly, as before ye heard. Nicholas Sheterden and 
Humfrey Middleton answered to the first and second articles affirmatively. To 
the third, concerning the catholic church, after a sort they granted. To the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth, concerning the real presence, and the sacrament to be admin- 
istered in the Latin tongue, and in one kind, they utterly refused to answer. 
Sheterden said, he would not answer thereto, before the cause were determined 
why he was imprisoned, and so still remained prisoner, before the laws of parliament 
were known and ascertained. Middleton added moreover and confessed, that he believed 
in his own God, saying - "My living God, and no dead god for me!" These four, 
upon their answers, were condemned by the suffragan of Dover the 25th day of June, 
1555. Being delivered to the secular power, they were all burnt together at Canterbury, 
on the 12th of July, at two several stakes, but in one fire, were they in the 
sight of God and of his holy angels, and before men, like true soldiers of Jesus 
Christ, gave a constant testimony to the truth of his holy gospel. A few days 
before he suffered, Sheterden wrote affectionately to his wife and mother, and 
also two letters to his brother. In the same month of July followed the martyrdoms 
of Nicholas Hall, bricklayer, and Christopher Waid, of Dartford, linen-weaver, 
which both were condemned by Maurice, bishop of Rochester, about the last day 
of June. The six articles administered to them were the same as others which have 
been mentioned: That they were christian men and professed the catholic determinations 
of our holy mother church: That they who maintain or hold otherwise than our holy 
mother the catholic church doth, are heretic: That they hold and maintain, that 
in the sacrament of the altar, under the forms of bread and wine, is not the very 
body and blood of Christ; but that the body of Christ is verily in heaven only, 
and not in the sacrament: That they have and do hold and maintain, that the mass, 
as it is now used in the catholic chruch, is naught and abom- PAGE 750 inable: 
That they have been, and be amongst the people of that jurisdic- tion vehemently 
suspected upon the premises, and thereupon indicted. To these articles they answered 
rather variously, and thus proved them- selves to be honest men as well as christians. 
Hall denied to call the catholic and apostolic church his mother, because he found 
not this word Mother in the scriptures. Concerning the very body and blood of 
Christ to be under the forms of bread and wine in substance, they would not grant; 
affirming the very body of him to be in heaven, and the sacrament to be a token 
or remembrance of Christ's death. Hall adding moreover, That whereas before he 
held the sacrament to be but only a token or remembrance of Christ's death, now 
he said, that there is neither token nor remembrance, because it is now misused 
and clean turned from Christ's institution. Concerning the mass in the fourth 
article, to be abominable, Waid, with the other, answered, that as they had confessed 
before, so they would not now go from what they had said. To the fifth article 
for the people's suspicion, they made no great account nor difficulty to grant 
the same. And thus much concerning the articles and answers of these good men: 
which being received, immediately sentence of condemnation was pro- nounced by 
the said Maurice. Nicholas Hall was burned at rochester about the 19th day of 
July; and Christopher Waid, about the same time, at Dartford. Furthermore, with 
the aforesaid Hall and Waid, three others were condemned, whose names were Joan 
Beach, widow, John Harpol, of Rochester, and Margery Polley: of which latter, 
touching her examina- tion and condemnation, here followeth in story. Margery 
Polley, widow of Richard Polley of Pepenbury, was accused and brought before the 
said Maurice, bishop of Rochester; which bishop, rising out of the chair of his 
majesty, in the swelling style, after his ordinary fashion, to dash the silly 
poor woman, began in these words: "We Marice, by the sufferance of God, bishop 
of Rochester, proceeding of our mere office in a cause of heresy against thee, 
Margery Polley, of the parish of Pepenbury, of our diocese and jurisdiction of 
Rochester, do lay and object against thee all and singular these articles ensuing. 
To which, and to every parcel of them, we require of thee a true, full, and plain 
answer, by virtue of thine oath thereupon to be given." The oath being administered, 
and the articles, which were the same as those against Hall and Waid, commenced 
against her, she so framed her answers, especially to the third and fourth article, 
that she neither allowed the deity of the sacrament, nor the absurdity of the 
mass. Upon which sentence was read against her, and she was condemned for the 
same. Her death followed not immediately, but took place same days after, about 
the time that Waid was burnt. They were brought out together, though they did 
not suffer at the same hour nor on the same spot. Christopher Waid, as has been 
intimated, was sentenced to be burnt at Dartford. On the day appointed for his 
execution, which was in the month of July, there was carried out of town betimes 
in the morning in a cart, a stake, and therewith many bundles of reeds, to a gravel-pit, 
the common place for the execution of felons. Thither also was brought a PAGE 
751 load of fagots and tall wood: unto which place resorted the people of the 
country in great numbers, and there tarried his coming, insomuch that thither 
came divers fruiters with horse-loads of cherries, and sold them. About ten of 
the clock came the sheriff, with a great many other gentlemen and their retinue 
appointed to assist him, and with them Christopher Waid and Margery Polley, riding 
pinioned, and both singing a psalm. As soon as Margery Polley espied afar off 
the multitude gathered about the place where he should suffer, waiting his coming, 
so said unto him very loud and cheerfully, "You may rejoice, Waid, to see such 
a company gathered to celebrate your marriage this day." And so, passing by the 
place, which joined hard to the highway, they were carried straight down to the 
town, where Margery was kept until the sheriff returned from Waid's execution. 
And Waid being made ready, and stripped out of his clothes at an inn, had brought 
unto him a fair long white shirt from his wife, which being put on, he was led 
on foot to the foresaid place. And coming straight to the stake, he took it in 
his arms, embracing it, and kissed it, setting his back unto it, and stand- ing 
in a pitch-barrel, which was taken from the beacon, being hard by. Then a smith 
brought a hoop of iron, and with two staples made him fast to the stake under 
his arms. Thus fixed, with his eyes and hands lifted up to heaven, he repeated 
with a cheerful and loud voice the last verse of the 86th Psalm - "Shew some good 
token upon me, O Lord, that they which hate me may see it, and be ashamed: because 
thou, Lord, hast helped me, and comforted me." Near to the stake was a little 
hill, upon the top whereof were set up four stays, quadrangle-wise, with a covering 
round about like a pulpit: into which place, as Waid was thus praying at the stake, 
entered a friar with a book in his hand; whim when Waid espied, he cried earnestly 
unto the people, to take heed of the doctrine of the whore of Babylon, exhorting 
them to embrace that gospel preached in king Edward's days. While he was thus 
speaking to the people, the sheriff interrupted him, saying, "Be quiet, Waid, 
and die patiently." "I am quiet," said he, "I thank God, Mr. Sheriff, and so trust 
to die." All this while the friar stood still looking over the coverlet, as though 
he would have uttered somewhat: but Waid strongly admonished the people to beware 
of that doctrine; which when the friar perceived, weather he was amazed, or could 
have and audience of the people, he withdrew immediate- ly, without speaking any 
word, and went down to the town. Then the reeds being set about the martyr, he 
pulled them, and embraced them in his arms, and again addressed the people louder 
than before. His tormentors perceiving this, cast fagots at him; but notwithstanding, 
he still put them off, his face being hurt with the end of a fagot. Then the fire 
being kindled he cried unto God often, "Lord Jesus, receive my soul," without 
any token or sign of impatience; till at length he was no longer heard to speak, 
but still holding his hands together over his head towards heaven, even when he 
was dead, as though they had been stayed up with a pro standing under them. PAGE 
PATRICK PACKINGHAM, AND OTHER GODLY MARTY THE 22nd day of this month of July ws 
burned at Lewes, in Sussex, one Dirick Carver, brewer, late of Brighthelmstone, 
in the same country. And the next day was also burned at Stenning, another named 
John Launder, husbandman, late of Godstone, in Surrey. These two men were (with 
others) about the end of October, anno 1554, apprehended by Edward Gage, gentleman, 
as they were at prayers in the house of Carver; and by him sent up to the queen's 
council, who, after examination, sent them to Newgate, there to attend the leisure 
of Boner. From whence (upon the bishop's receipt of a letter from the lord treasurer) 
they were brought on the 8th of June into the bishop's house in London; and there 
(being examined upon divers points of religion) they made their several confes- 
sions, subscribing and signing with their own hands. These being read, the bishop 
objected unto them certain other articles, causing them to swear truly and directly 
to answer thereunto; which articles they confessed to be true, referring themselves 
chiefly to their former confessions. This done, after long persuasions and fair 
exhortations, they were demanded whether they would stand to their answers. Launder 
said, "I will never go from these answers so long as I live." Carver also confirmed 
the same; upon which they were commanded to appear again in the Consistory on 
the 10th. On Monday, being the said 10th of June, these two persons, with others, 
were brought to the bishop's consistory. The bishop, beginning with Carver, caused 
his confession with the articles and answers to be openly read to him, asking 
him whether he would stand to the same. To which Carver answered that he would: 
"for your doctrine," said he, "is poison and sorcery. If Christ were here, you 
would put him to a worse death than he was put to before. You pretend and say 
that you can make a god: ye can make a pudding as well. Your ceremonies in the 
church be begary and poison. And further I say, that auricular confession is contrary 
to God's word, and very poison:" with divers other such words. The bishop, seeing 
this constancy, and finding that neither his flatter- ies nor threatenings could 
once move this good man to incline to their idolatry, pronounced his usual and 
general blessing, as well towards Carver as also upon the said John Launder; who 
(after the like manner of process used with him) remained in the same constancy. 
They were there- fore both delivered unto the sheriffs, who were there present; 
but after wards were confeyed to the places above named, and there most joyfully 
gave their bodies to be burned in the fire, and their souls into the hands of 
almighty God, by Jesus Christ, who had assured them to a better hope of life. 
Furthermore, on the said Carver's coming into the town of Lewes to be burned, 
the people called upon him, beseeching God to strengthen him in the faith of Jesus 
Christ. He thanked them, and prayed unto God to strengthen them in the like faith. 
When he came to the stake, he kneeled down and made his prayers, and the sheriff 
made haste. Then his book was thrown into the barrel; and when he had stripped 
(as a joyful member of God) he went into the barrel himself. And as soon as he 
came in, the PAGE 753 unbending, fearless man took up the New Testament which 
some one had thrown into it, and threw it among the people, as though he would 
not suffer the profanation of the word of the Lord being burnt with him. He then, 
with a serene countenance and solemn voice, addressed them in these words. "Dear 
brethren and sisters, witness you all, that I am come to seal with my blood Christ's 
gospel, because I know that it is true: it is not unknown unto you, but that it 
hath been truly preached here in Lewes, and in all places of England, and now 
it is not. And because that I will not here deny the gospel, and be obedient to 
man's laws, I am condemned to die. Dear brethren, as many of you as do believe 
upon the Father, the son, and the Holy Ghost, unto everlasting life, see you do 
the works appertaining to the same. And as many of you as do believe upon the 
pope of Rome, or any of his laws which he sets forth in these days, you do believe 
to your utter condemnation; and, except the great mercy of God, you shall burn 
in hell perpetually." After that the fire came to him, he cried, "O Lord, have 
mercy upon me;" and sprung up in the fire calling upon the name of Jesus, and 
so ended. About the same time was burnt at Chichester, Thomas Iveson, of Godstone, 
in the country of Surray, carpenter. His apprehension, examination, constancy, 
and condemnation, were at the same time, and nearly in the same form with that 
of Dirick Carver and John Launder. The same fate awaited John Aleworth; but that 
he died in prison at the town of REad- ing, where he was confined, for the testimony 
of the gospel. Although the catholic prelates, according to their usual solemnity, 
excluded him from christian burial, yet we see no cause to exclude him from the 
number of Christ's holy martyrs, and heirs of his heavenly kingdom and glory. 
Among the number that endeavoured in these trying days to keep a good conscience, 
was James Abbes, a young man, who was forced to share his part with his brethren 
in wandering from place to place, to avoid the peril of apprehension. At length 
he was caught by the hands of the enemy, and brought before Dr. Hopton, bishop 
of Norwich: who examining him respecting his religion, and charging him therewith, 
began to threa- ten and persuade him so strongly, that at last he appeared willing 
to recant. After he was dismissed, the bishop calling him again, gave him a piece 
of money, which when James had received, and had again with- drawn, his conscience 
began to throb, and he returned immediately to the bishop, threw him his money, 
and said, he repented that he ever gave his consent to their wicked persuasions. 
Hereupon, Dr. Hopton with his chaplains laboured afresh to win him again, but 
in vain; for he would not yield, but stood manfully in his Master's quarrel to 
the end, and abode the torture of the fire in the consuming of his body to ashes, 
which took place in Bury, the second of August, 1555. In the midst of this rage 
of the malignant adversaries against the saints, there was one Edmund Tyrrel, 
a justice of the peace within the county of Essex, who on returning from the burning 
of some martyrs, met with John Denley, and John Newman, both of Maidstone in Kent, 
travailing upon he way, and going to visit some of their friends in Essex. Full 
of officious zeal, he apprehended them upon suspicion, searched them, and finding 
the confession of their faith about them in writing, sent them PAGE 754 with a 
letter to the queen's commissioners. The commissioners imme- diately dispatched 
them to bishop Bonner, who on June 28th, caused Denley and Newman, with one Patrick 
Packingham, to be brought into his chamber, where examining them upon their confessions, 
they all answered in effect one thing. Upon this they were commanded to appear 
in the bishop's consistory the fifth of the following month. The articles of objection 
to Mr. Denley have some points of diversity from what have already appeared: sufficient 
to claim for them insertion. That the said Denley hath not believed, nor doth 
believe, that there is any catholic church of Christ here in earth. That he hath 
not believed, nor doth believe, that this church of England is any part or member 
of the said catholic church. That he hath believed and doth believe, that the 
mass now used in England is full of idolatry and evil, and plain against God's 
word, and therefore he hath not heard it, nor will hear it. That he hath believed, 
and doth believe, that auricular confession now used in this realm of England, 
is not good, but contrary to God's word; that absolution given by the rest on 
hearing confession, is not good, nor allowable by God's word, but contrary to 
the same; that the christening of children, as it is now used in the church of 
England, is not good, nor allowable by God's word, but against it: likewise confirm- 
ing of children, giving of orders, saying of matins and even-song, anointing of 
sick persons, making of holy bread and water, with the rest of the church; that 
there are but two sacraments in Christ's catholic chruch, namely, that of baptism 
and the sacrament of the altar; that forasmuch as Christ is ascended up into heaven, 
therefore the very body of Christ is not in the sacrament of the altar. To these 
were added the following charge, That thou Patrick Packingham, now being of the 
age of twenty-one at least, being within the house of the bishop of London at 
St. Paul's and by him brought to the great chapel to hear mass there, the said 
23rd day of June, in the year of our Lord 1555, didst unrever- ently stand in 
the said chapel, having thy cap on thy head all the time of mass; and didst also 
refuse to receive holy water and holy bread at the hands of the priest, there 
contemning and despising the mass, and the said holy water and bread. The answers 
to these objections possess also sufficient interest and importance to merit record. 
"I believe the holy catholic church, which is built upon the foundation of the 
prophets and apostles, Christ being the head; which holy chruch is the congregation 
of faithful people dispersed through the whole world; which church doth truly 
preach God's holy word, and doth also administer the two sacraments of baptism 
and the supper of the Lord, according to that word. I do believe that the church 
of England, using the faith and religion which is now used, is no part or member 
of the foresaid catholic church, but is the church of antichrist, the bishop of 
Rome being the head thereof. Christ's testa- ment is that he would have all things 
done to the edifying of the peo- ple, as it appeareth when he taught them to pray; 
and also it appeareth by St. Paul, when he saith - 'He that prophesieth, seaketh 
unto men for their edifying, for their exhortation, and for their comfort: he 
that speaketh with tongues, profiteth himself; he that prophesieth, edifieth PAGE 
755 the congregation. Even so likewise, when you speak with tongues, except you 
speak words that have signification, how shall it be understood what is spoken? 
for you shall but speak in the air.' "I do believe, that the mass now used in 
England is abominable idolatry and blasphemy against God's holy word; for Christ 
is his holy supper instituted the sacrament of bread and wine to be eaten together 
in remembrance of his death till he come, and not to have them worshipped, and 
made an idol of: for God will not be worshipped in his creatures, but we ought 
to give him praise for his creatures, which he hath created for us. For he saith 
in the second commandment, 'Thou shalt not make thyself any graven image, nor 
the likeness of any thing that is in heaven above or in the earth beneath, thou 
shalt not bow down to them, nor worship them.' "I do believe, that auricular confession 
is not good as it is now used. Touching my sins wherein I have offended God, I 
must seek to him for remission thereof; for our Saviour saith, 'Come unto me, 
all ye that labour and are laden, I will give you rest.' The prodigal son saith, 
'I will arise and go to my father, and I will say unto him, Father, I have sinned 
against heaven, and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.' 
Also David saith, 'I acknowledge my sin unto thee. For this shall every one that 
is godly pray unto thee.' "I believe, as touching the sacrament of baptism, it 
is altered and changed; for St. John used nothing but the preaching of the word 
and the water, as it doth appear when Christ required to be baptised of him, and 
others also who came to John to be baptised. The chamberlain said, 'See here is 
the water, what hindereth me to be baptised?' It appeareth here that Philip had 
preached unto him. We do not read, that he asked for any cream, oil, or spittle, 
or conjured water, or conjured wax, or salt; for it seemeth that Philip had preached 
no such thing to him; for he would as well have asked for them as for water; and 
the water was not conjured, but even as it was before. Then there are no more 
sacraments that two; baptism, and the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ; 
except you will make the rainbow a sacrament, ye have my mind written already, 
plainly expressed: for Christ's body is in heaven, and will not be contained in 
so small a piece of bread. And as the words which Christ spake are true indeed, 
so must they also be understood by other places of scripture which Christ spake 
himself, and also the apostles after him. And thus I make an end." All this Denley 
signed with his name. On the 1st day of July, the three prisoners, Denley, Newman, 
and Pack- ingham, were brought into the consistory in St. Paul's, where Bonner 
proceeded against them after the usual form; reading first their confessions, 
articles, and answers, and then tempting them sometimes with fair promises, at 
other times with threatenings, which indeed were his strongest arguments and reasons. 
In the end, seeing their un- moveable constancy, upon the 5th of July he condemned 
them as heretics, and delivered them to the sheriffs of London, as to his common 
execu- tioners. The sheriffs kept them till they were commanded by writ to send 
them to their several places of suffering; and accordingly Mr Denley was PAGE 
756 conveyed to Uxbridge, where he was burned on the 8th of August; and in the 
midst of the flames he sung a psalm with remarkable strength and fervency. Mr. 
Packingham suffered at the same town, about three weeks after. Their fellow-prisoner 
Newman survived another month, during which the following examination of his opinions 
took place. One of the doctors, whose name Newman doth not express, began to question 
him on the words of Christ - "This is my body which is given for you." To this 
Newman promptly replied, "It is a figurative speech, one thing spoken, and another 
meant; as Christ saith - 'I am a vine, I am a door, I am a stone.' Is he therefore 
a material stone, vine, or door? - I do not so believe; for the soul of man doth 
not feed upon natural things as the body doth. I think the soul of man doth feed 
as the angels in heaven, whose feeding is only the pleasure, joy, felicity, and 
delectation that they have of God: and so the souls of man doth fed and eat, through 
faith of the body of Christ. The souls doth life otherwise than the body which 
doth perish: therefore natural things to but feed the body only. I pray you, what 
did Judas receive at the supper? You say that Judas received the very body of 
Christ; but the devil had entered into him before, and then he had the devil and 
Christ in him at one time. We ought to know that Christ will not be in an unclean 
person, who hath the devil." Dr. Thorton, suffragan of Dover, then sought to confound 
Mr. Newman by the favourite popish argument drawn from the omnipotence and omni- 
presence of God. He saith - "Seeing God may do all things, he may do what he list, 
and be where he will. And doth not the Psalm say, He is in hell, and in all places? 
Why should we then doubt of his being in the sacrament?" "Though his Godhead be 
in all places, yet that is not sufficient to prove tat his humanity is in all 
places," answered Newman. "I believe that God is omnipotent, and may do all things. 
I know that he can also be every where; but will you have the humanity of Christ 
in all places as the Deity is? When you say that if it please him he may be in 
all places with the Deity; I dare not even grant that, lest I should deny Christ 
to be a very man, and that were against all the scriptures." Thornton then put 
to him the question plainly - "How say you, is the body of Christ really in the 
sacrament, or no?" To which Newman replied, "I believe it not, and must deny it 
till I be persuaded by a further truth. I stand not,as you say, to mine own opinion 
but to the scriptures of God." Being, like his noble companions, found faithful 
and unalterable in the cause of truth, he was, as before observed, condemned with 
them. Accounts differ concerning the place of his martyrdom - some assigning it 
to Walden in Essex, and others to Chichester, in Sussex. Being an inhabitant of 
Maidstone, it might be conjectured that he suffered there, as the condemned were 
usually appointed to die where they had mostly lived. It is, however, the more 
probable that he endured the fiery PAGE 757 ordeal at Chichester, in company with 
Richard Hook, an equally faithful, though not an equally clever man, the latter 
end of August, 1555. Mention has been already made in the story of Mr. John Bland, 
and Mr. NIcholas sheterden, of other Kentish men, who were with them called for 
the and examined by Thornton, suffragan of Dover, Dr. Harpsfield, Richard Faucet, 
and robert Collins; but their condemnation and execution were deferred till the 
latter end of august. There names were Coker, Hopper, Laurence, Collier, Wright, 
and Stere. The articles objected to them have been before related. To which articles 
they severally answered as follows. William Coker said, he would answer no otherwise 
than he had already; and being offered a respite of six days more, he refused 
it; upon which sentence of condemnation was read against him on the 11th of July. 
William Hoper seemed at first to admit the faith and determination of the Roman 
church, but calling himself better to mind, constantly adhered to the truth, and 
was condemned on the 16th of July. Henry Laurence was examined on the same day, 
and answered to the articles objected against him; first denying auricular confession, 
and that he neither had, nor would receive the sacrament, because the order of 
the holy scripture was changed. So resolute was he, that he was also charged for 
not putting off his cap, when the suffragan made mention of the sacrament, and 
for not doing reverence to the same. After considerable effort made with him he 
was required to subscribe his answers, and wrote under their examinations - "You 
are all of antichrist, and him you follow - ." Here he was stopped from writing 
any further. Being found constant, sentence was given against him on the 2nd of 
August. Richard Collier, of Ashford, was examined on the 16th of August. He answered, 
that he did not believe, that after the consecration there was the real and substantial 
body of Christ, but only bread and wine, and that it is most abominable, most 
detestable, and most wicked to believe otherwise. Upon this, sentence was read 
against him, and he was condemned on the same day. After his condemnation he sung 
a psalm. Wherefore the priests and their officers railed at him, saying he was 
out of his wits. Richard Wright was then required of the judge to declare what 
he believed of the real presence in the sacrament, and answered, that as touching 
the sacrament of the altar and the mass, he ws ashamed to speak of it, or to name 
it, and that he allowed it not, as it was used in the church. On which sentence 
was accordingly read to him. William Stere, also of the parish of Ashford, ws 
brought up on the same day. And as touching the sacrament of the altar, he found 
it not, he said, in the scripture, and, therefore, would not answer thereunto. 
When the judge commanded him to be uncovered, while speaking of the sacrament 
of the altar, William told him, that he needed not to rever- ence that matter 
so highly. Then sentence was pronounced against him; and after it was read, he 
said, that the sacrament of the altar was te most blasphemous idol that ever was. 
These six mrtyrs and witnesses of the truth, being condemned by the bloody suffragan 
of Dover, and equally cruel archdeacon of Canterbury, were burnt all together 
in that city, at three stakes in one fire, about the latter end of August. PAGE 
758 The London prisons beginning now to be overstocked with the persecuted christians, 
and numbers continually coming in, the council and commis- sioners, thinking to 
make quick dispatch, sent ten martyrs, named in the following letter, to bonner, 
by him to be examined and disposed of. The letter is a sample of the coolness 
with which these abettors of cruelty prepared to sacrifice some of the most upright 
men of the nation, and some also of its most amiable and benevolent women, at 
the shrine of a base superstition. "After our hearty commendations to your good 
lord- ship, we send you here John Wade, William Hale, George King, Thomas Leyes, 
Thomas Fust, Robert Smith, Stephen Harwood, George Tankerfield, Elizabeth Warne, 
and Joan Lashford, sacramentaries; all which we desire your lordship to examine, 
and to order according to the ecclesiastical laws: praying your lordship to appoint 
some of your officers to receive them at this bearer's hands. And thus most heartily 
fare your lordship well. From London this 2nd of July. Your lordship's loving 
friends." Signed by four commissioners. We shall now proceed briefly to relate 
the particulars of these worthies, who lived and died in a good confession. We 
begin with the first of the women, Elizabeth Warne. She was the widow of John 
Warne, upholsterer, and martyr, who was burnt the latter end of the May before, 
as has been recorded in his story, in connection with Mr. Cardmaker and others, 
she had been apprehended amongst others the first of January, in a house in Bow 
churchyard, in London, as they were gathered together in prayer, and ws carried 
to the Computer, where she remained till the 11th day of June; when she was brought 
to Newgate, and confined there till the 2nd of July. Then was she sent by the 
queen's commissioners to Bonner, bishop of London, who, on the 6th of the same 
month, caused her, with Robert Smith, George Tankerfield, and others, to be brought 
before him into his palace, and there examine upon sundry articles, such as were 
commonly administered to the martyrs of that day. In addition to the chief objection 
made against her, respecting the corporeal presence of the body and blood of Christ 
in the sacrament of the altar, as the chief ground and most profitable foundation 
for their catholic dignity, many other matters he objected against her and her 
fellow-prisoners, as for not coming to the chruch, for speaking against the mass, 
despising their ceremonies, &c. In the end, when she had been several times 
brought before him and his adherents, and by them earnestly exhorted to recant, 
she said - "Do what you will; for if Christ were in an error, then am I in one." 
Upon which she was condemned as a erratic, on the 12th of the same month, and 
delivered to the secular power, to be put to death, which took place at Stratford 
le Bow on the following month. It is painful to think that the chief procurer 
of her death was Dr. Storey, who was somewhat related to her, or else to her late 
husband. He, at her first apprehension, endeavoured by all means to get her pardon, 
and accordingly applied to PAGE 759 Dr. Martin, one of the commissioners in matters 
of religion, himself not being then one, and by his suit obtained her deliverance 
for that present; yet afterwards, upon what occasion God only knoweth, except 
upon some burning charity, Storey becoming one of the commissioners, caused not 
only John Warne, but also his wife, and afterwards his daughter, to be again apprehended, 
never leaving them till he had brought them all to ashes. George Tankerfield, 
of London, born in York, about the age of twenty- seven years, had been, in the 
days of king Edward, a papist, till the time queen Mary came in; and then perceiving 
the great cruelty which the papists used, he was brought into a doubt of their 
doctrines, and began in his heart to abhor them. Concerning the mass, whereof 
he had but a doubtful opinion before, and much striving with himself in that case, 
he a length fell to prayer, desiring God in mercy to open to him the truth, that 
he might be thoroughly persuaded therein, whether it were of God or not; if not, 
that he might utterly hate it in his heart. The Lord mercifully heard his prayer, 
daily working more and more in him to detest his former errors. He was then moved 
to read the Testament, whereby the Lord enlightened his mind with the knowledge 
of the truth, working a lively faith in him to believe the same, and utterly to 
datest al popery, and at lengths he came no more to their doings. Moreover, the 
truth kindled such a flame in him, as would not be kept in, but uttered itself 
by the confession thereof, reproving his former ways to his friends, exhorting 
them likewise to repent and turn to the truth with him, till they at length discovered 
him. It pleased God to strike him with sickness, whereby he lay long con- fined; 
and on a certain day, to take the air abroad, he rose and walked into the Temple 
fields to see the shooters. In the mean time Mr. Beard, yeoman of the guard, came 
to his house and enquird for him, pretending to his wife, that he came only to 
have him dress a banquet at lord Paget's. His wife, because of his apparel, which 
was very rich, took him to be some great friend, and with all speed prepared herself 
to fetch her husband; and lest this gentleman should be tired with tarry- ing, 
she fetched him a cushion to sit on, and laid a fair napkin before him, and set 
bread thereon, and came to her husband; who, when he heard it, said - "a banquet, 
woman! indeed it is much a banquet as will not be very pleasant to the flesh; 
but God's will be done." When he came home he saw who it was, and called him by 
his name, which when his wife perceived, and wherfore he came, she seized a spit 
and would have run him through, had not the constable which Mr. Beard had sent 
for by his man, come in and rescued him: yet she sent a brickbat after him, and 
hit him on the back. And so Tankerfield was delivered to the constable, and brought 
to Newgate about the last day of February, 1555. Being thus brought out prison 
by his adversaries, at length, with the others before named, he was brought to 
his examination before bishop Bonner, who, after his accustomed manner, ordered 
his articles and positions to be objected against him. To these he answered again, 
constantly declaring his mind concerning auricular confession, the sacrament of 
the popish altar, and the mass. He avowed that he had not PAGE 760 confessed to 
any priest for five years past, nor to any, but only to God; and further declared 
that he would not hereafter be confessed by any priest, for that he found it not 
in Christ's book. Then, as it regardeth the scrament, commonly called the sacrament 
of the altar, he confessed that he neither had nor did believe, that in the sacrament 
there was the real body and blood of Christ, because the body was ascended into 
heaven, and there sitteth at the right hand of God the Father. To these things 
he added his belief that the mass now used in the church of England was full of 
idolatry and abomination, and against the word of God; affirming also, that there 
were but two sacraments in the church of Christ, baptism and the supper of the 
Lord. To these assertions he said he would stand which he did to the end. When 
at last the bishop began to read the sentence, first exharting him, with many 
words, to revoke his heretical opinion, he resisted all their persuasions. "I 
will not, said he, "forsake mine opinion, except you, my lord, can refute them 
by scriptures; and I care not for your divinity; for you condemn all men, and 
prove nothing against them." And after many word of exhortation, which Bonner 
then used, to convert, or rather pervert him, he answered boldly - That the church, 
whereof the pope is supreme head, is no part of Christ's catholic church; and 
adding there- unto, pointing to the bishops, and speaking to the people, saying, 
"Good people, beware of them, and such as them, for these be the people that deceive 
you, and lead you astray like silly sheep." Then the bishop read the sentence 
of condemnation, and gave him to the secular power, who conducted him to St. Alban's, 
where he ended his life with much patience and constancy on the 26th of August, 
for the defence of the truth. The reader will be interested with some particulars 
of this good man's last days, derived form authentic sources of information. He 
was brought to St. Alban's by the high sheriff of Hertfordshir, Edward Brochet, 
esq. and Mr. Pulter, of Hitchen, who was under-sheriff. They put up at the Cross-keys 
inn, where there was a great concourse of people to see and hear the prisoner; 
some were sorry to find so pious a man brought to be burned; others praised God 
for his constancy and perseverance in the truth. Contrarivise, some said, it was 
pity he did stand in such opinions: and others, both old men and women, cried 
against him; one called him heretic, and said it was not fit that he lived. But 
Tankerfield spake unto them so effectually out of the word of God, lamenting their 
ignorance, and protesting unto them his unspot- ted conscience, that God did mollify 
their hardened hearts, insomuch that some of them who had doubted him, departed 
out of the chamber weeping. There came a certain school-master to have communication 
with him, the day before he was coming to St. Alban's, concerning the sacrament 
of the altar, and other points of the popish religion: But as he urged Tanker- 
field with the authority of the doctors, wresting them after his own will; so 
on the other said, Tankefield answered him mightily by the scriptures, not wrested 
fate the mind of any man, but being interpreted after the will of the Lord Jesus. 
As he would not allow such allega- tions a Tankerfield brought out of the scriptures 
without the opinions PAGE 761 of the doctors; so again Tankerfield would not credit 
his doctrine to be true, except he would confirm it by the scriptures. I the end, 
Tanker- field prayed him that he would not trouble him in such matters, for his 
conscience was established. He, therefore, departed from him wishing him well, 
and protesting that he meant him no more hurt than his own soul. When the hour 
drew on that he should suffer, he desired the wine drawer that he might have a 
pint of malmsey and a loaf, that he might eat and drink in remembrance of Christ's 
death and passion, because he could not have it administered to him by others 
in such manner as Christ demanded: and then he kneeled down, making his confession 
unto the Lord with all which were in the chamber with him; and after he had prayed 
earnestly, and had read the institution of the holy supper by the Lord Jesus out 
of the evangelists, and out of St. Paul, he said - "O Lord, thou knowest it, I 
do not this to derogate authority from any man, or in contempt of those which 
are thy ministers, but only because I cannot have it admin- istered according 
to thy word." When he had spoke these and such like words, he received it with 
giving of thanks. Then he was entreated to strengthen him by taking some meat; 
but he said he would not eat that which should do others good that had more need, 
and that had longer to live than he had. He prayed his host to let him have a 
good fire in the chamber, which was granted him; and then sitting on a form before 
it, he put off his shoes and hose , and stretched out his leg to flame; and when 
it had touched his foot he quickly withdrew his leg, shewing the flesh did persuade 
him one way, and the spirit another. The flesh said, "O thou fool, wilt thou burn, 
and needest not?" The spirit said, "Be not afraid, for this is nothing in respect 
of fire eternal." The flesh said, "Do not leave the company of thy friends and 
acquaintance which love thee, and will let thee lack nothing." The spirit said, 
"The company of Jesus Christ and his glorious presence doth exceed all earthly 
friends." The flesh said, "Do not shorten thy time, for thou mayest live if thou 
wilt much longer." The spirit said, "This life is nothing unto the life in heaven 
which lasteth for ever." And all this time the sheriffs were at a gentleman's 
house at dinner, not far from the town, whither also resort- ed many knights and 
gentlemen out of the country, because his son was married that day, and until 
they returned from dinner, the prisoner was left to the care of his host, by whom 
he was kingly treated; and consid- ering that his time was short, his saying was 
- "Although the day be ever so long, yet at the last it ringeth to evening song." 
About two o'clock, when the sheriffs returned from dinner, they brought Mr. Tankerfield 
out of the inn to the place where he should suffer, which was called Romeland, 
being a green place near the west end of the Abbey church; unto which when he 
was come, he kneeled down by the stake that was set up for him; and after he had 
ended his prayers he arose, and with a joyful faith said, that although he had 
a sharp dinner, yet he hoped to have a joyful supper heaven. While the fagots 
were set about him, there came a priest and persuaded him to believe on the sacrament 
of the altar, and he would be saved. But Tankerfield cried vehemently - "I defy 
the whore Babylon! fie on that abominable idol: PAGE 762 good people, do not believe 
him." Then the mayor of the town commanded fire to be set to the heretic, and 
said, if he had but one load of fagots in the world, he would give them to burn 
him. Amidst this confu- sion there was a certain knight, who went unto Tankerfield, 
and taking him by the hand said - "Good brother, be strong in Christ." This he 
spake softly; and Tankerfield said, "O Sir, I thank you, I am so; I thank God." 
Then fire was set unto him, and he desired the sheriff and all the people to pray 
for him; most of them did so. And so embracing the fire, he called on the name 
of the Lord Jesus, and was quickly out of pain. We are now to review the history 
of Mr. Robert Smith, a gentleman whose talents and character gained him the highest 
esteem. Mr. Smith was brought to Newgate on the 5th of November, by John Matthew, 
and yeoman of the guard, by the command of the council. He had formerly devoted 
his services to the house of Sir Thomas Smith, knight, being at the same time 
provost of Eton: from thence he was preferred to Windsor, having there in the 
college a clerkship of ten pounds a year. O stature he was tall and slender, active 
about many things, but chiefly delighted in the art of painting, which many times, 
rather for his amusement than for gain, he practised. In religion he was fervent, 
after he had once tasted the truth; wherein he was much confirmed by the preaching 
of Mr. Turner, of Windsor, and others. At the coming in of queen Mary he was deprived 
of his clerkship by her visitors; and not long after was appre- hended, and brought 
to examination before Bonner. The following exami- nations were written with his 
own hand, and will be given to the reader with only such abridgment as will render 
them the more acceptable. "About nine in the morning I was, among the rest of 
my brethren, brought to the bishop's house; and first of al I was brought before 
him into his chamber, where he began as followeth, after he had asked my name 
- How long is it since you were confessed to any priest? Smith. Never since I 
had years of discretion. For I never saw it needful, neither commanded by God 
to shew my faults to any of that sinful number whom you call priests." Bon. Thou 
shewest thyself even at thy first speech to be a rank here- tic, who being weary 
of painting, art entered into divinity, and so fallen, through thy departing from 
thy vocation, into heresy. Smith. Although I understand painting, yet, I praise 
God, I have had little need hitherto to live by it. Bon. How long is it since 
you received the sacrament of the altar, and what is your opinion of the same? 
Smith. I never received it since I had years of discretion, nor ever will, by 
God's grace; neither do I esteem it in any point, because it hath not God's ordinance, 
but rather is set up to mock him withal. Bon. Do you not believe that the sacrament 
is the very body of Christ naturally, substantially, and really, after the words 
of consecration? Smith. I showed you before it was none of God's ordinances, as 
you use it; then much less to be God, or any part of his substance; but only bread 
and wine erected to the use aforesaid: yet, nevertheless, if you can prove it 
to be the body that you spake of by the word, I will believe it; if not, I will 
do as I do, account it a detestable idol. PAGE 763 Bon. Then there is no remedy, 
but you must be burned. Smith. You shall do no more unto me than you have done 
to better men than either of us. But think not thereby to quench the spirit of 
God, neither to make your matter good. For your wound is too well seen to be healed 
so privily with blood. For even the very children have all your deeds in derision; 
so that though you patch up one place with authority, ye shall it break out in 
forty to your shame. Bon. Well, even now, by my troth, even in good earnest, if 
thou wilt go to confession I will tear this paper of your examination in pieces. 
Smith. It would be too much to your shame to shew it to men of discre- tion. "After 
this answer, I was carried down to the garden with my jailer, and there remained 
till my brother Harwood was examined; then being again brought up before Bonner, 
he demanded if I agreed with Harwood in his confession." Bon. What say you to 
the catholic church? Do you not confess there is one on earth? Smith. Yes, verily, 
I believe that there is one catholic chruch, or faithful congregation, which is 
built upon the prophets and apostles, Christ Jesus being the head corner stone: 
which church, in all her words and works maintaineth the word, and bringeth the 
same for her authority. Of this I hope I am by grace made a member. Bon. You shall 
understand, that I am bound when my brother offendeth, and will not be reconciled, 
to bring him before the congregation: now if your church be the same, where may 
a man find it, to bring his brother before it? Smith. It is written in the Acts 
of the Apostles, that when the tyranny of the bishops was so great against the 
church in Jewry, they were fain to assemble in houses and secret places, as they 
do now: and yet were they nevertheless the church of God: and seeing they had 
their matters redressed being shut up in a corner, may not we do the like now? 
Bon. Yea, their church was known full well. For St. Paul wrote to the Corinthians, 
to have the man punished and excommunicated that had committed evil with his father's 
wife. Whereby we may well perceive it was a known church; but yours is not known. 
Smith. Then could you not persecute it as you do: but as you say the church of 
God at Corinth was manifest both to God and St. Paul; even so is this church of 
God in England, which you persecute, both known to God, and also even to the very 
wicked, although they know not, nor will know their truth nor conversation; yea, 
and your sinful number have professed their verity, and maintained the same a 
long season. Bon. Well, thou sayest that the church of God was only at Corinth, 
when St. Paul wrote unto them; and so will I put in writing, with your permission. 
PAGE 764 Smith. I greatly marvel, my lord, that you are not ashamed to lay snares 
for your brethren in this manner. This is now the third snare you have laid for 
me. First, to make me confess that the church of England is not the church of 
Christ. Secondly, to say it is not known. Thirdly, to say the church of God is 
not universal, but particular. This is not the office of a bishop, for had an 
innocent come in your way you would have done your best, I see, to have entangled 
him. Bon. You are no innocent, as it appeareth. Tell us, how sayest thou of the 
church? Smith. I told you whereon the true church is built, and I affirm it not 
only in England to be the congregation of God, but also in omnem terram: as it 
is written, "Their sound is gone forth into all lands:" and this is the afflicted 
and persecuted church, which ye cease not to imprison, and kill. In Corinth was 
not all th congregation of God, but a select number of those holy people. For 
neither Paul nor Peter were present at Corinth when they wrote, and yet were they 
of the church of God, as many thousands more which also communicate in that Holy 
Spirit. A certain doctor, the same probably who had questioned Mr. Newman, now 
took up the argument with Mr. Smith, politely asking to have some communing, and 
desiring first to know if he were a prisoner. Smith. I am in this flesh a prisoner, 
and subject to my master and yours; but I hope yet the Lord's free man through 
Christ Jesus. Doctor. I do much desire to talk to you lovingly, because you are 
a man I much lament. You say in derision or in despite, Sub melle latest venenum: 
but let me ask you, What derogation was it to Christ, when the Jews spat in his 
face? Smith. If the Jews, being his enemies, did spit in his face, and we being 
his friends throw him into the drought, which of us have deserved the greatest 
damnation? But by your argument, he that doth injury to Christ shall have a most 
plenteous salvation. "Then started the doctor away, and would have his humanity 
incomprehen- sible - making a comparison between our soul and the body of Christ: 
bringing in to serve his turn, which way came Christ in among his disciples, the 
doors being shut? Smith. Although it be said, that when he came the doors were 
shut, yet have I as much to prove, that the doors opened at his coming as you 
have to prove he came through the door. For that Almighty God who brought the 
disciples out of prison, which yet when search was made was found shut, was able 
to let Christ in at the door although it were shut: and yet it maketh not for 
your purpose; for they saw him, heard him, and felt him; that you cannot say you 
do, neither is he in more places than one at the same time. "At this answer they 
made many scoffings, and we were carried into my lord's hall, where we were baited 
by the band of servants almost all the day, until our keeper seeing their rudeness 
shut us all up in a handsome chamber, while my lord went into his synagogue to 
condemn Mr. Denley and Mr. Newman. Then they brought my lord mayor up into the 
chamber where my lord intended to sup, to hear the matter; and I was the first 
that was called; where my lord mayor being set with the bishop and one of the 
sheriffs, wine was flowing on every side, whilst I stood before them PAGE 765 
like a mute; which made me remember how Pilate and Herod were made friends, and 
how no man was sorry for Joseph's hurt. But after my lord had well drunk, my articles 
were sent for and read, and he demanded whether I did say as was written? Smith. 
That which I have said, I have said; and what I have said I mean. Bon. Well, my 
lord mayor, your lordship hath heard, in some measure what a stout heretic this 
is, and that his articles have deserved death; nevertheless forasmuch as they 
report me to seek blood, and call me bloody Bonner, whereas, God knoweth, I never 
sought any man's blood in all my life, I have kept him from the consistory this 
day, whither I could have brought him justly. I desire him to turn, and I will, 
with all speed, dispatch him out of his trouble; and this I profess before your 
lordship and all this audience. Smith. Why, my lord, do you put on this fair vizor 
before my lord mayor, to make him believe that you seek not my blood, to cloak 
you murders, through my stoutness, as you call it? Have you not had my brother 
Tomkind before you, whose hand when you burned most cruelly you burned also his 
body; and not only him, but a great many of the members of Christ, men that lived 
virtuously, and also the queen's most true sub- jects, as their goods and bodies 
have made manifest? And seeing in these saints you have shewed so little mercy, 
shall it seem to my lord and his audience that you shew me more? No, no, my lord. 
But if you mean as you say, why then do you examine me of what I am not bound 
to answer you? Bon. Well, what sayest thou by the sacrament of the altar? Is it 
not the very body of Christ, flesh, blood, and bone, as it was born of the Virgin? 
Smith. I have answered, that it is none of God's order, nor a sacrament, but man's 
own invention. Then he proved before the audience that it was a dead god, declaring 
the distinction appointed between two creatures of bread and wine, and that a 
body without blood hath no life; at which Harpsfield was much offend- ed, and 
said, "I will approve by the Scriptures that ye blaspheme God in so saying: for 
it is given in two parts, because there are two things shown, that is to say, 
his body and his passion, as saith St. Paul; and, therefore, is the bread his 
body, and the wine the representation of his death and blood-shedding." Smith. 
You falsify the word, and rack it to serve your purpose. For the wine was not 
only the shewing of his passion, but the bread also. For our Saviour saith, "So 
often as you do this, do it in remembrance of me." And St. Paul saith, "So oft 
as you eat of this bread, and drink of this cup, you shall show the Lord's death 
till he come." And here is so much reverence given to the one as to the other. 
Wherefore, if the bread be his body, the cup must be his blood, and you may as 
well make his body in the cup, as his blood in the bread. PAGE 766 "Then my lord 
rose up and went to the table, where the lord mayor desired me to save my soul. 
I answered, I hoped it was saved through Christ Jesus; desiring him to have pity 
on his own soul, and remember whose sword he carried, and how much influence he 
had on others. I was then carried into the garden, and there abode till the rest 
of my friends were examined, and then were we sent away to Newgate with many foul 
farewells, my lord giving the keeper a charge to lay me in limbo. This was done 
for two or three days, and on Saturday, at eight o'clock, I was brought to his 
chamber again, and there examined by the bishop. Bon. Thou, Robert Smith, sayest 
that there is no catholic chruch here on earth. Smith. You have heard me both 
speak the contrary,and you have writing as a witness of the same. Must you of 
necessity begin with a lie? It maketh manifest that you determine to end with 
the same. But there shall no liars enter into the kingdom of God. Nevertheless, 
if you will be answered, ask mine articles tat were written yesterday, and they 
shall tell you that I have confessed a church of God, as well in earth as in heaven 
and yet all one chruch, and all emmbers of Christ Jesus. Bon. Well, what sayest 
thou to the auricular confession? Is it not necessary to be used in Christ's church? 
and wilt thou not be confessed by the priest? Smith. It is not needful to be used 
in Christ's chruch, as I answered yesterday. But if it be needful for your chruch, 
it is to pick men's pockets; and such pick-pocket matter is all the whole rabble 
of your ceremonies: for all that you maintain is but a money affair. Bon. Why, 
how art thou able to prove that confession is a pickpocket matter? Art thou not 
ashamed to say so? Smith. I speak by experience: for I have both heard and seen 
the fruits of the same. For first it hath been a betrayer of king's secrets, and 
the secrets of other men's consciences; who being delivered, and glad to be discharged 
from their sins, have given great sums of money to priests to absolve them, and 
sing masses for their souls. Bon. Ah, you are a generation of liars! there is 
not one true word that cometh out of your mouths. Smith. Yes, my lord, I have 
said that Jesus Christ has died for my sins, and risen for my justification, and 
this is no lie. Bon. How sayest thou, Smith, to the seven sacraments? Believest 
thou not that they be of God's order, that is to say, the sacraments of his institution 
and of his chruch? Smith. I believe that in God's chruch are but two sacraments, 
that is to say, the sacrament of regeneration, and the sacrament of the Lord's 
supper: and as for the sacrament of the altar, and all your other sacraments, 
they may well serve your church; but God's church hath nothing to do with them, 
neither have I any thing to do to answer them, nor you to examine me of them. 
PAGE 767 Bon. Why, is God's order changed in baptism? In what point do we dissent 
from the word of God? Smith. First, in hallowing your water; in conjuring of the 
same; in baptising of children with anointing and spitting in their mouths, mingled 
with salt; and with many other lewd ceremonies, of which not one point is able 
to be proved in God's order. Bon. By the mass, this is the most unshame-faced 
heretic that ever I heard speak. Smith. Well sworn, my lord; you keep a good watch. 
Bon. Well, Mr. Comptroller, you catch me at my words: but I will watch thee as 
well, I warrant. Smith. It is a shameful blasphemy against Christ, so to use any 
mingle- mangle in baptising your infants. Bon. I believe, I tell thee, that if 
they die before they be baptised, they be damned. Smith. You shall never be saved 
by that belief. But I pray you, my lord, shew me, are we saved by water, or by 
Christ? Bon. By both. Smith. Then the water died for our sins: and so must ye 
say, that the water hath life; and it being our servant, and created for us, is 
our Saviour. This, my lord, is a good doctrine, is it not? Bon. Why, how understandeth 
thou the scriptures? "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot 
enter into the kingdom of God." And how readest thou again Christ's words - "Suffer 
these children to come unto me?" and if thou wilt not suffer them to be baptised 
after the laudable order, thou hinderest them to come unto Christ. Smith. When 
you allege St. John - "Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, he cannot 
enter into the kingdom of God," and will thereby prove the water to save, and 
so the deed or work to save and put away sins; I will send you to St. Paul, who 
asketh of the Galatians, "Whether they received the Spirit by the deeds of the 
law, or by the preaching of faith?" and there concludeth, that the Holy Ghost 
accompanieth the preaching of faith, and with the word of faith entereth into 
the heart. So now, if baptism reach unto me the washing in Christ's blood, so 
doth the Holy Ghost accompany it, and it is unto me as a preacher and not a Saviour. 
And whereas ye say, I hinder the children to come unto Christ, it is manifest 
by our Saviour's words that you hinder them to come that will not suffer them 
to come unto him without the necessity of water. For he saith "Suffer them to 
come unto me," and not unto the water; and therefore if you condemn them, you 
condemn both the merits and words of Christ. For our Saviour saith, "Except ye 
turn and become as children, ye cannot enter the kingdom of God." Bon. Well, sir, 
what say you to the sacrament of orders? Smith. You may call it the sacrament 
of disorders; for all orders are appointed of God. But as for your shaving, anointing, 
greasing, polling, and rounding, there are no such things appointed in God's book, 
and therefore I have nothing to do to believe your orders. And as for you, if 
you had grace and intelligence, you would not so disfigure yourself as you do. 
PAGE 768 Bon. Sayest thou so? Now, by my troth, I will go shave myself to anger 
thee withal. That Bonner should have had the folly to put his rediculous threat 
into execution, and that at the moment and upon the spot, is almost past belief 
even of that strange man. Yet Mr. Smith's narrative of the affair goes on to say 
that "he sent for his barber, who immediately came: and before my face at the 
door of the next chamber, he shaved himself, desiring me before he went, to answer 
to these articles." Bon. What say you to holy bread and holy water, to the sacrament 
of anointing, and to all the rest of such ceremonies of the church? Smith. I say 
they be baubles for fools to play withal, and not for the children of God to exercise 
themselves in, and therefore they may go among the refuse. "My lord then left 
me with certain doctors, of whom I asked this ques- tion." Smith. Where were you 
all the days of king Edward, that you spake not that which you speak now? Doct. 
We were in England. Smith. Yea, but then ye had the faces of men; but now ye have 
put on lions' faces again, as saith St. John. Ye show yourselves as full of malice 
as ye may be; for ye have for every time a vizor; yea, and if another king Edward 
should arise, ye would then say, "Down with the pope, for he is antichrist, and 
so are all his angels." "Then was I reviled, and so sent away, and brought in 
again before these men; when one of them asked me if I disallowed confession? 
I answered, 'Look in mine articles, and they shall show you what I allow.'" Doct. 
You articles confess that you allow not auricular confession. Smith. Because the 
word alloweth it not, nor commandeth it. Doct. Why, it is written, thou shalt 
not hide thy sins and offences. Smith. No more do I when I confess them to Almighty 
God. Doct. Why, you cannot say that you can hide them from God, and therefore 
you must understand the words are spoken to be uttered to them that do not know 
them. Smith. Yo have made a good answer: then the priest must confess himself 
to me, as well as I to him; for I know his faults and secrets no more than he 
knoweth mine. But if you confess to the priest and not unto God, you shall have 
the reward that Judas had; for he confessed himself to the priest, and presently 
went and hanged himself; and so many as do not acknowledge their faults to God 
are said to hide them. Doct. What did they that came to John to be baptised? Smith. 
They came and confessed their sins to Almighty God. Doct. And not unto John? Smith. 
If it were unto John, as you are not able to prove, yet it was to God, before 
John and the whole congregation. Doct. Why, John was alone in the wilderness. 
Smith. Indeed! and yet the scriptures say he had many disciples, and that many 
pharisees and sadducees came to his baptism! Here the scrip- tures and you agree 
not. If they confessed themselves to John, as you say, it was to all the congregation, 
as St. Paul doth to Timothy, and to all that read his epistles, in opening to 
all the hearers, that he was not worthy to be called an apostle, because he had 
been a tyrant. PAGE 769 But as for ear-confession, you never knew it allowed by 
the word. The prophet David made his confession unto God, and saith - "I will 
confess my sins unto the Lord." Daniel maketh his confession unto the Lord. Judith, 
Toby, Jeremy, Manasseh, with all the fathers, did even so. And the Lord hath said 
- "Call upon me in the time of trouble, and I will deliver thee." This is the 
word of God; now bring somewhat of the word to help yourself withal. You call 
me a dog! Nay, you are dogs, that because holy things are offered, will slay your 
friends. For I may say with St. Paul, "I have fought with beasts," in the likeness 
of men. Bonner now returned to the assault, boasting of having been shaved; and 
exclaiming as he entered - "How standeth it, doctors, have you done any good?" 
Doct. No, my lord, we can do no good to such an evil man. Smith. Then it is fulfilled 
which is written, "How can an evil tree bring forth good fruit?" Bon. Well, wilt 
thou neither hear them nor me? Smith. Yes, I am compelled to hear you; but you 
cannot compel me to follow you. Bon. Well, thou shalt be burnt at a stake in Smithfield, 
if thou wilt not turn. Smith. And you shall burn in hell, if you repent not: but, 
my lord, to put you out of doubt, because I am weary, I will strain courtesy with 
you: I perceive you will not with your doctors come unto me, and I am determined 
not to come unto you by God's grace. For I have hardened my face against you as 
brass. Mr. Smith was now dismissed for some days. "On the 12th of July I was with 
my brethren brought into the consistory, and mine articles read before the lord 
mayor and sheriffs, with all the assistants: to which I answered as I had done 
before. Then my lord proceeded with the rest of my articles, demanding of me if 
I said not as ws written. To which I answered - 'No!' And turning to my lord mayor, 
I said - 'I require you, my lord, in God's behalf, unto whom pertaineth your sword 
and justice, that I may here before your presence answer to these objections that 
are laid against me, and have probation of the same; and if any thing that I have 
said, or will say, be proved heresy, I shall not only with all my heart forsake 
the same, and cleave to the truth, but also recant where- soever you shall assign 
me, and all this audience shall be witness to the same.' L. Mayor. Why, Smith, 
thou canst not deny but this writing contains what thou saidst! Smith. Yes, my 
lord, I deny that which he hath written, because he hath both added to, and diminished 
from the same; but what I have spoken I will never deny. I denied what you call 
the blessed sacrament of the altar to be any sacrament, and I do here stand to 
make probation of the same: but if my lord or any of his doctors be able to prove 
either the name or usage of the same, I will recant mine error. Bon. By my troth, 
Mr. Speaker, you shall preach at a stake, or I am no saint. Smith. No, my lord, 
nor yet a good bishop. For a bishop, saith St. Paul, should be faultless, and 
a vessel dedicated unto God; and are you not ashamed to sit in judgment and be 
a blasphemer, condemning innocents? PAGE 770 Bon. Well, Mr. Comptroller, you are 
faultless. Smith. My lord mayor, I require you in God's name, that I may have 
justice. We be here today a great many innocents wrongfully accused of heresy. 
And I require yo, if you will not seem to be partial, let me have the favour at 
your hands that the apostle had at the hands of Festus and Agrippa, who being 
heathens and infidels, give him leave to speak for him, and also heard the probation 
of his cause. This require I at your hands, who being a christian judge I hope 
will not deny me that right, which the heathen have suffered: if you do, then 
shall all this audience, yea, and the heathen, speak shame of your act. For all 
that do well come to the light, and they that do evil hate the light. "At this 
the lord mayor hanging down his head, said nothing; but the bishop told me, I 
should preach at the stake, and the sheriff cried with the bishop for the officers 
to take me away. I had now been before them four times, desiring justice, but 
could have none: at length my friends required the same with one voice, but could 
not have it; so we had sentence; and then being carried out, were brought in again, 
and received it separately. But before the bishop have be sentence, he told me 
in derision of my brother Tankerfield, a tale between a gentleman and his cook. 
To this I answered, 'My lord, you fill the people's ears with fantasies and foolish 
tales, and make a laughing matter at blood; but if you were a true bishop, you 
should leave these railing sentences, and speak the words of God.'" Bon. Well, 
I have offered to that naughty fellow, Mr. Speaker, your companion the cook, that 
my chancellor should here instruct him, but he hath with great disdain refused 
it. How sayest thou, wilt thou have him instruct thee, and lead thee into the 
right way? Smith. My lord, if your chancellor will do me any good, and take any 
pains, as you say, let him take mine articles in his hands, that you have objected 
against me, and either prove one of them heresy, or any thing that you do to be 
good: and if he be able so to do, I stand here with all my heart to hear him; 
if not, I have no need, I praise God, of his sermon: for I came to answer for 
my life, and not to hear a sermon. Then began the sentence, "In the name of God." 
To which I answered, that he began in a wrong name, requiring of him, where he 
learned in scrip- ture to give sentence of death against any man for his conscience 
sake. To which he made no answer, but went forward to the end, and immediately 
cried - "Away with him!" Then I turned to the mayor, and said - "Is it not enough 
for you, my lord mayor, and you that are the sheriffs, that you have left the 
straight way of the Lord, but you must condemn Christ causeless?" Bon. Well, Mr. 
Comptroller, now you cannot say but I have offered you fair, to have instruction. 
And now, I pray thee, call me bloody bishop, and say, I seek thy blood. Smith. 
Well, my lord, if neither I nor any of this congregation do report the truth of 
your fact, yet shall these stones cry it out rather than it shall be hidden. PAGE 
771 Bon. Away with him, away with him! I then turned to my fellow-sufferers and 
said - "Well, good friends, you have seen and heard the great wrong that we have 
received this day, and you are all witnesses that we have desired the probation 
of our cause by God's book, and it hath not been granted: but we are condemned, 
and our cause not heard. Nevertheless, my lord mayor, forasmuch as you have here 
exercised God's sword causeless, and will not hear the right of the poor, I commit 
my cause to Almighty God, who will judge all men accord- ing to right, before 
whom we shall both stand without authority; and there will I stand in the right, 
and have judgment, to your great confu- sion, except you repent, which the Lord 
grant you to do, if it be his will." And then was I with the rest of my brethren 
carried to Newgate. Thus was this steady martyr condemned on the 12th of July. 
While he remained in prison, between the periods of his sentence and his death, 
he was very active in exhorting and encouraging his fellow martyrs, and teaching 
the way of life to those who were confined for criminal offenc- es, many of whom 
he converted to the truth. He terminated his triumphant career at Uxbridge, on 
the 8th of August, rejoicing in the cross even in the midst of the flames. While 
in prison, he wrote several letters to his friends, some of which were in verse, 
a proof, that he could not be under any impression of fear at his approaching 
death. His verses discover more of the genius of piety than poetry. Considering 
the back- ward state and the paucity of English poetry in the age in which he 
lived, his verse, at the same time, displays an ease and prettiness by no means 
unworthy of perusal. But that the reader may judge for himself, we insert the 
following specimen, addressed to his children. A longer poem, on religious subjects 
generally, precedes this in some former editions; but the domestic one here inserted 
will be more acceptable both for its brevity, and the touching nature of the theme. 
Give ear, my children, to my words, Whom God hath dearly bought: Lay up my law 
within your heart, And print it in your thought. For I your father have foreseen 
The frail and filthy way Which flesh and blood would follow fain, E'en to their 
own decay. For all and every living beast Their crib do know full well; But Adam's 
heirs, above the rest, Are ready to rebel: And all the creatures on the earth 
Full well can keep their way: But man, above all other beasts, Is apt to go astray. 
For earth and ashes is his strength, His glory and his reign; And unto ashes at 
the length, Shall he return again. For flesh doth flourish like a flower, And 
grow up like the grass, And is consumed in an hour, As it is brought to pass. 
In me the image of your years, You treasure and your trust: Whom ye do see before 
your face, Dissolved into dust. For as you see your father's flesh Converted into 
clay: Even so hall ye, my children dear, Consume and wear away. The sun and moon, 
and all the stars, That serve the day and night; The earth and ev'ry earthly thing, 
Shall be consumed quite. And all the worship that is wrought, That have been heard 
or seen, Shall clean consume and come to naught, As it had never been. Therefore 
that ye may follow me, Your father and your friend, And enter into that same life, 
Which never shall have end:- I leave you here a little book, For you to look upon: 
That you may see your father's face When I am dead and gone. PAGE 772 Who for 
the hope of heavenly things, While he did here remain, Gave over all his golden 
years In prison and in pain. Where I among mine iron bands, Inclosed in the dark, 
Not many days before my death Did dedicate this work, To you mine heirs of earthly 
things, Which I have left behind, That ye may read and understand, And keep it 
in your mind; That as you have been heirs of that, Which once shall wear away; 
Even so ye may possess the part Which never shall decay. In following of your 
father's foot, In truth and also love: That ye may likewise be his heirs For evermore 
above. And in example to your youth, To whom I wish all good, I preach you here 
a perfect faith, And seal it with my blood. Have God always before your eyes, 
In all your whole intents: Commit not sin in any wise, Keep his commandments. 
Abhor that arrant whore of Rome, And all her blasphemies; And drink not of her 
decretals, Nor yet of her decrees. Give honour to your mother dear, Remember well 
her pain: And recompense her in her age, In like with love again. Be always aiding 
at her hand, And let her not decay: Remember well your father's fall, That should 
have been her stay. Give of your portion to the poor, As riches do arise: And 
from the needy naked soul, Turn not away your eyes. For he that will not hear 
the cry Of such as are in need, Shall cry himself and not be heard, When he would 
hop to speed. If God have given you great increase, And blessed well your store: 
Remember ye are put in trust, To minister the more. Beware of foul and filthy 
lust, Let whoredom have no place: Keep clean your vessels in the Lord, That he 
may you embrace. Ye are the temples of the Lord, For ye are dearly bought: And 
they that do defile the same, Shall surely come to nought. Possess not pride in 
any case, Build not your nests too high: But have always before your face, That 
ye were born to die. Defraud not him that hired is, Your labours to sustain; But 
give him always out of hand, His penny for his pain. And as ye would that other 
men, Against you should proceed; Do ye the same again to them When they do stand 
in need. And put your portion with the poor, In money and in mean: And feed the 
fainted feeble soul, With that which ye should eat. That when your body lacketh 
meat, And clothing to your back, Ye may the better think on them That now do live 
and lack. Ask counsel also at the wise; Give ear unto the end: Refuse not you 
the sweet rebuke Of him that is your friend. Be thankful always to the Lord, With 
prayer and with praise: Desire you him in all your deeds, For to direct your ways: 
And sin not like that swinish sort. Whose bellies being fed - Consume their years 
upon the earth From belly unto bed. Seek first, I say, the living God; Set him 
always before; And then be sure that he will bless You basket and your store. 
And thus if you direct your days According to this book, Then shall they say that 
see your ways, How like me ye do look. And when you have so perfectly, Upon your 
fingers' ends, Possessed all within your book, Then give it to your friends. And 
I beseech the living God, Replenish you with grace, That I may have you in the 
heav'ns. And see you face to face. And though the sword have cut me off, Contrary 
to my kind, That I could not enjoy your love, According to my mind. Yet I do hope 
when that the heav'ns Shall vanish like a scroll, I shall receive your perfect 
shape, In body and in soul. And that I may enjoy your love. And you enjoy the 
land, I do beseech the living God To hold you in his hand. Farewell, my children, 
from the world, My children and my friends; I hope to God to have you all, When 
all things have their ends. PAGE 773 And if you do abide in God, As you have now 
begun; You course I warrant will be short, Ye have not far to run. God grant you 
so to end your years As he shall think it best; That ye may enter into heav'n, 
Where I do hope to rest. A third letter in prose, addressed to his brother, on 
the education of his daughter, appears in some editions; and a fourth - "to all 
who unfeignedly love God" - appears in others. From the latter an extract will 
interest our readers. After reviewing the principal truths for which he and other 
martyrs were called to lay down their lives, he says:- "These doctrines have all 
the blessed martyrs of Christ's church witnessed with their blood to be true. 
To this truth have the con- sciences of all true believers subscribed ever since 
the ascension of Christ. This witness is not of man, but of God. What better can 
ye give your lives for than the truth. He who does this takes the readiest way 
to life eternal. He that hath the pope's curse for the truth, is sure of Christ's 
blessing. Well then, my brethren, what shall now hinder your going forward as 
ye have begun? Holy on the right way - look not back - have the eye of your soul 
fixed upon Christ - and follow him whithersoever he is pleased to lead you. Away 
with the thorns that choke the heavenly seed of the gospel. Do not those gain 
who find heavenly and immortal treasure for earthly and corruptible riches? Loseth 
that man any thing who is forsaken of all the world, when he is received to be 
the heir of God, and joint heir with Christ? Heavenly for earthly - immortal for 
mortal - permanent for transitory - is infinite gain for a christian conscience." 
Two martyrs named Harwood and Fust suffered about the same time as their brethren, 
Smith and Tankerfield, in whose company they were condemned by bishop Bonner. 
As the proceedings against them were so much alike, it would be superfluous to 
repeat the particulars. Harwood was burnt at Stratford, and Fust at Ware. It is 
worth observing of Mr. Fust, that on his last examination, when Bonner was persuading 
him to recant, he answered with great boldness - "No, my lord, for no truth cometh 
out of your mouth, but all lies: you condemn men, and will not hear the truth." 
An equally remarkable example of intrepid fidelity, in his behaviour before the 
same cruel judge, was one William Hale, who was sent to bishop Bonner by Sir Nicholas 
Hare and other commissioners. He belonged to Throp, in the county of Essex. When 
Boner pronounced his sentence, the fearless man looked around on the assembly 
and said - "Ah, good people, beware of this idolater, and this antichrist," pointing 
to the bishop. He was then delivered to the sheriffs to be burnt as a heretic, 
who sent him to Barnet, where about the latter end of August he most constantly 
sealed the faith with his death. Three others were devoted to death at the same 
time; but a fatal sick- ness while in prison deprived them of the honour of a 
public martyrdom. The names of these martyrs were George King, Thomas Leyes, and 
John Wade. Their close confinement, and the hardships to which they were subjected, 
in Lollard's tower, made them the prey of lingering and loathsome disease; which, 
however, they bore with signal patience till PAGE 774 death, nearly at the same 
time, put a period to their sufferings and degradation; but not to their enemies' 
malice - for their bodies were cast out into the fields to be the prey of beasts, 
and would have been unburied but for the care of some humble and faithful brethren, 
who interred them under cover of a dark night. The same charitable attention ws 
paid by other friends to the remains of a worthy protestant mechanic of the name 
of William Andres, of Horsley, in the country of Essex, who was brought to Newgate 
the 1st day of April, 1555. His principal persecutor was the lord Rich, whose 
influence in the country obtained his arrest. Andrew being twice examined before 
bishop Bonenr, boldly stood in defence of his religion. At length, by the severe 
usage he met with in Newgate, he there lost his life, which otherwise would have 
been taken away by fire: and so after the popish manner he was cast out into a 
field, and by night was privately buried by the hands of good men and faithful 
brethren, reminding us of the impressive facet of christian history - "Devout 
men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation over him." At Cobdock, 
near Ipswich, in the country of Suffolk, lived a justice of the peace named Foster, 
remarked for his zeal and hatred against the faithful, whom he took every means 
of persecuting. Among many whom he had troubled, was Mr. Samuel, in king Edward's 
days a very holy and faithful preacher of God's word, who for his constant behaviour 
in his sermons, seems worthy of high admiration. He was minister at Barfold, in 
Suffolk, where he industriously and successfully taught the flock which the Lord 
had committed to his charge, so long as the time would suffer him to do his duty. 
At last he was removed from the ministry, and deprived of his benefice, and although 
he could not escape the violence of the time, yet would he not give over his care 
for his flock, but continued to teach them by stealth, when he could not openly 
do it. On the order being given by the queen, that all priests who had been married 
in king Edward's days, should put away their wives, and be compelled to return 
to a single life, Mr. Samuel would not obey, because he know it be manifestly 
abominable; but determining with himself, that God's laws were not to be broken 
for man's traditions, he still kept his wife at Ipswich, and gave his diligence 
in the mean time to instructing others which were about him, as occasion served. 
At last Mr. Foster having intelligence thereof, being very officious in those 
parts, spared no time nor diligence, but quickly sent his spies abroad, laying 
cose wait for Mr. Samuel, that if he came home to his wife at any time, they might 
apprehend him, and carry him to prison. In conclusion, they espied him at home 
with his wife, and brought word to the officer, who came to the house, and beset 
it with a great company, and so took him in the night, because they durst not 
do it in the day-time for fear of trouble and tumult, although Mr. Samuel did 
not withstand them at all, but meekly yielded himself into their hands. When they 
had thus caught him, they put him into Ipswich jail, where he patiently spent 
this time among his pious brethren, so long as he was permitted to continue there. 
However, not long after, he was carried to Norwich, where Dr. Hopton, bishop of 
that diocese, and Dr. Dunnings, his PAGE 775 his chancellor, exercised great cruelty 
against him. These men were most abhorred instruments of cruelty, exceeding all 
the rest of their class in tormenting the bodies of the martyrs. For although 
the others were sharp enough in their generation, yet would they be satisfied 
with imprisonment and death, and could go no farther. The bishop therefore, or 
else hes chancellor, thinking that he might as easily prevail with Mr. Samuel, 
as he had done with several before, kept him in a very close prison at his first 
coming, where he was chained upright to a great post, in such sort, that standing 
only on tip-toe, he was fain to stay up the whole poise of his body by the chain. 
And to his they added a far more grievous torment, keeping him without meat and 
drink, whereby he was unmercifully vexed through hunger and thirst; saving that 
he had every day allowed him two or three mouthfuls of bread, and three spoonfuls 
of water, to the end rather that he might be reserved to farther torment, than 
that they would nourish his life. O worthy constancy of the martyr! O pitiless 
hearts of papists, worthy to be complained of, and to be accused before God and 
nature! O wonderful strength of Christ in his members! Whose heart, though it 
had been made of adamant some, would not have relented at the intolerable vexations, 
and extreme pains above nature! At last, when he was brought forth to be burned, 
which was but a trifle in comparison of those pains that he had passed, there 
were several that heard him declare what strange things had happened to him during 
the time of his imprisonment: namely, that after he had been famished or pined 
with hunger two or three days together, he then fell into a deli- cious slumber, 
at which time one clad all in white seemed to stand before him, who administered 
comfort unto him by these words - "Samuel, Samuel, be of good cheer, and take 
a good heart unto thee; for after this day shalt thou never be either hungry or 
thirsty!" This came to pass accordingly, for soon after he was burned; and from 
his dream to his death he felt neither hunger nor thirst. And this he declared, 
to the end, as he said, that all men might behold the wonderful work of God! Many 
other matters concerning the great comfort he had of Christ in his afflictions 
he could utter, he said, besides this, but that modesty would not suffer him to 
utter it. And yet if it had pleased God, I wish he had been less modest in that 
behalf, that the love and care that Christ hath of his servants, might have the 
more appeared thereby unto us by such present arguments, for the more plentiful 
com- fort of the godly, though there be sufficient testimonies of the same in 
the holy scriptures already. No less memorable is it, and worthy also to be noted, 
concerning the three ladders which he said he had seen in his sleep set up towards 
heaven; of which there was one somewhat longer than the rest, but yet at length 
they became one, joining, as it were, all three together. This was a forewarning 
revealed unto him, declaring undoubtedly the martyrdom first of himself, and then 
of two honest women, who were brought forth and suffered in the same town not 
long after. As Mr. Samuel was going to the stake, a certain female came to him, 
and kissed him, which being marked by them that were present, she was sought for 
the next day after to be had to prison and burned: however, as God PAGE 776 of 
his goodness would have it, she escaped their fiery hands, keeping herself secret 
in the town a good while after. But while this female, called Rose Nottingham, 
was marvelously preserved by the providence of God, two other honest women did 
fall into the rage and fury of that time; the one was the wife of a brewer named 
Potten, the other of a shoemaker named Trunchfield. With these two Rose was very 
familiar and well acquainted, an advised one of them, that she should convey herself 
away while she had time and space, seeing she could not bear the queen's proceedings; 
but her friend answered her, that it is ell enough to fly away, which remedy she 
might use if she pleased. "My case standeth otherwise," she said; " I am tied 
to a husband, and have besides young children at home; and then I know not how 
my husband, being a carnal man, will take my departure from him; therefore I am 
minded, for the love of Christ and his truth, to stand to the extremity of the 
matter." The day after that on which Mr. Samuel suffered, these two pious wives, 
Potten and Trunchfield, were apprehended and imprisoned together. As they were 
both by sex and nature somewhat tender, so they were at first less able to endure 
the straitness of the prison, and especially the brewer's wile was cast into great 
agony and trouble of mind thereby. But Christ beholding the weak infirmity of 
his servant, did not fail to help her when she was in this necessity. At length 
they both suffered after Samuel, February 19th, 1556; greatly supported by many 
things that were said of him as well as by him. It was reported by some who were 
present at his sufferings, and saw him burn, that his body did shine as bright 
as new tried silver in the eyes of all that stood by. If, too, these holy women 
had read or heard of Mr. Samuel's letter left behind him, exhorting the faithful 
to patience and perseverance in the cause of Christ, it must have contributed 
much to their final support. "A man knoweth not his time; but as the fish is taken 
with the angle, and as the birds are caught with a snare, so are men caught and 
taken in the perilous time when it cometh upon them. The time cometh; the day 
drawth near. Better were it to die than to live and see the miserable works which 
are done under the sun; such sudden and strange mutation, such woeful, heinous, 
and lamentable divisions so fast approach, and none, or very few, thoroughly repent. 
Alas, for this sinful nation, a people of great iniquity and seed of ungraciousness, 
corrupting their ways. They have forsaken the Lord, they have provoked the Holy 
One of Israel to anger, and are gone backward. Who now liveth not in such security 
and rest, as though all dangers were clean over past? Who now blendeth and buffeteth 
not Christ, and then asketh him to tell the smitter? Yea, who liveth not now in 
such felicity, worldly pleasures and joys, wholly seeking the world, providing 
and craftily shifting for the earthly clod and carnal appetite, as though sin 
were clean forgot- ten, overthrown, and devoured? Loke hoggish Gergesites, we 
are more afraid and ashamed of Christ our Messiah, fearing the loss of our filthy 
pigs, I mean our transitory goods, and disquieting our sinful and mortal bodies 
in this short, uncertain, and miserable life, than of a legion of devils, seducing 
and riving us from hearing, reading, and believing in Christ God's eternal Son, 
and his word, the power to save our soul, unto vanities, lies, and fables, an 
to this bewitching world. PAGE 777 "Let us be constant in obeying God rather than 
men. For although they slay our sinful bodies for God's verity; yet they cannot 
do it but by God's sufferance and good will, to his praise and honour, and to 
our eternal joy and felicity. For our blood shed for the gospel, shall preach 
it with more fruit, and greater furtherance, than did our mouths, lives, and writings; 
as did the blood of Able, and Stephen, with many others. What though they laugh 
Christ and his word to scorn, who sit in the chair of perverse pestilent scoffers; 
to whom, as to the wise Gentiles of the world, the gospel of Christ is but foolishness, 
as it was to the Jews a slander and a stumbling stone, whereat they now being 
fallen, have provoked the wrath and vengeance of God upon them. "Let us therefor 
with an earnest faithlay fast hold on the promises in the gospel, and let us not 
be separated from the same by any temptation, tribulation, or persecution. Let 
us consider the verity of God to be invincible, inviolable, and immutable, promising 
and giving us, his faithful soldiers, life eternal. It is he only that hath deserved 
it for us: it is his only benefit, and of his only mere mercy, and unto him only 
must we render thanks. Let not therefore the vain fantasies and dreams of men, 
and foolish gaudy toys of the world, nor the crafty delusions of the devil, drive 
and separate us from our hope of the last day. O that happy and joyful day, I 
mean to the faithful, when Christ by his covenant shall grant and give unto them 
that overcome, and keep his words to the end, that they may ascend and sit with 
him, as he ascended and sitteth on the throne with his Father. The same body and 
soul that is now with Christ afflicted, shall then with Christ be glorified: now 
in the butcher's hands, as sheep appointed to die, then sitting at God's table, 
with Christ in his kingdom, as God's honourable and dear child- ren; where we 
shall have heavenly riches for earthly poverty; saturity of the pleasant presence 
of the glory of God, for hunger and thirst; celestial joys in the company of angels, 
for sorrows, troubles, and cold irons; and life eternal for bodily death. O happy 
precious souls! O welcome death, and evermore blessed, right dear in the eyes 
of God! to you the spring of the Lord shall ever be flourishing. Then, as saith 
Isaiah, 'The redeemed shall return and come again unto Sion, praising the Lord, 
and eternal mercies shall be over their heads: and they shall obtain mirth and 
solace; sorrow and woe shall be utterly vanquished.' 'Yea, I am he,' saith the 
Lord, 'that in all things giveth you everlast- ing consolation.' To whom with 
the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory and praise for ever. Amen." "ROBERT SAMUEL." 
After the suffering of Mr. Samuel, about the beginning of September, William Allen, 
a labouring man, was burnt in Walsingham in the same country of Norfolk. Being 
brought before the bishop, and asked the cause why he was imprisoned, he answered, 
That he was put in prison because he would not follow the cross, meaning, that 
he would never go PAGE 778 in procession after the popish crucifix. Then being 
willed by the bishop to return again to the catholic chruch, he answered, that 
he would turn to the catholic chruch, but not to the Romish church: adding, that 
if he saw the king and queen, and all others follow the cross, or kneel down to 
the cross, he would not. For this, sentence of condemnation was given against 
him on the 12th of August, to be burnt at the town of his abode and birth. He 
declared such constancy at his martyrdom, and had such credit with the justices, 
by reason of his well-tried conversation among them, that he was suffered to go 
unbound to his execution, and there being fastened with a chain, stood quietly 
without shrinking until he died. The next martyr worthy of notice was a vererable 
patriarch of the name of Roger Coo, who suffered at Yoxford, where he had chiefly 
lived, about the same time as Mr. Allen at Walsingham, and Mr. Samuel at Ipswich. 
All these towns being in the diocese of Norwhich, the martyrdoms of Suffolk as 
well as Norfolk must be ascribed to the "tender mercies" of the bishop of that 
see, Dr. Hopton. Being brought before that cruel prelate, Coo was first asked 
by him why he was imprisoned; and answered boldly - "At the justice's commandment." 
Bish. There was some cause why you were imprisoned? Coo. Here is my accuser, who 
alleges that I would not receive the sacrament. But I thought I had transgressed 
no law, because there was no law to transgress. I have been in prison a long time, 
and know not the law that now is. Accuser. No, nor will not. My lord, ask him 
when he received the sacrament. Coo. I pray you, my lord, let him sit down, and 
examine me yourself. I will not receive, because the bishop of Rome hath changed 
God's ordinances, and given the people bread and wine instead of the gospel, and 
the belief of the same. Bish, is not the holy church to be believed? It hath charge 
of your soul. Coo. I believe it, if it be built upon the word of God: but if you 
have charge of my soul, and you go to the devil for your sins, what shall become 
of me? Bish. Do you not believe as your father did? Was not he an honest man? 
Coo. It is written, that after Christ hath suffered, "There shall come a people 
with the prince that shall destroy both city and sanctuary." I pray you shew me 
whether this destruction was in my father's time, or now? I will obey the laws 
of the kingdom as far as they agree with the word of God; but no farther. Bish. 
Whether they agree with the word of God or not, we are bound to obey them; yea 
and if the king were an infidel. Coo. If Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego had so 
done, Nebuchadnezzar had no confessed the living God. I may say the same of Daniel 
and others. PAGE 779 Bish. These two-and-twenty years we have been governed by 
such kings. Coo. My lord, why were you then dumb, and did not speak or bark? Bish. 
I durst not for fear of death. This hasty, and to all appearance inadvertent and 
unintended confession, operated as much against the bishop's cause as even the 
bold and ingenu- ous answers of honest Roger Coo. On resource was opened to the 
baffled bishop, he could report his prisoner to be contumacious and contemptuous 
to the ecclesiastical court. This was done; on which account Coo says in his narrative 
- "I recollected and wrote down my railing, as they called it, that light should 
not be taken for darkness, nor sin for holiness, and the devil for God, who ought 
to be feared and honoured both now and for ever, Amen." At length, after sundry 
troubles and conflicts with his adversaries, he was committed to the fire at Yoxford, 
in the county of Suffolk, where he most blessedly ended his aged years, about 
Michaelmas 1555. Our next noble confessor, of ignoble birth and occupation, was 
one Thomas Cobb, a butcher of Haverhill, who was condemned on the 12th day of 
August, and executed in the month of September. Being brought and examined by 
Michael Dunnings, the bloody chancellor of Norwich, whether he believed that Christ 
is really and substantially in the sacrament of the altar? he answered, That the 
body of Christ, born of the Virgin, was in heaven, and otherwise he would not 
answer, because he had read it in the scriptures, that Christ did ascend, and 
never did descend since; and therefore said, that he had not learned in the scripture, 
that Christ should be in the sacrament. Then being demanded whether he would obey 
the laws of the realm of England, made for the unity of the faith, or no? he answered, 
That his body should be at the king and queen's commandment so far as the law 
of God would suffer. In fine, being condemned, he was burnt in the town of Thetford. 
We must now return from the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, to Kent and the diocese 
of Canterbury: and here five worthy martyrs, whose lives were forfeited for the 
true testimony of Christ and his gospel, await our attention. George Catmer, and 
Robert Streater, were inhabitants of Hythe, a town on the southern coast. Anthony 
Burward was of Challock; George Brodbridge, of Broomfield; and James Tutty, of 
Brenchley. These good men were all together brought before Dr. Thorton, suffragan 
of Dover, and his accomplices, and were jointly and severally examined upon the 
usual articles, touching the sacrament of the altar, auricular confession, and 
the other peculiarities of the dominant church. Catmer, who was first examined, 
made answer thus - "Christ sitteth in heaven on the right hand of God the Father, 
and therefore I do not believe him to be in the sacrament of the altar; but he 
is in the worthy receiver spiritually; and the sacrament, as you use it, is an 
abominable idol." Next to him Robert Streater was asked, Whether he did believe 
the real presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar? At once the resolute 
and honest man said - "I do not so believe, for you do maintain heresy and idolatry, 
in that you teach to worship a false god in the sacrament, enclosed in a box. 
It is you that are the malignant of the church: for in your church there are twenty 
things used against the law of God." Anthony Burward, though more brief, was equally 
firm and conclusive. PAGE 780 After him it was demanded of George Brodbridge what 
he said to those articles? He answered, that he would not be confessed by a priest, 
because no man could forgive his own sins. He further said, that in the sacrament 
of the altar there is no real body of our Saviour Christ, but bread given in remembrance 
of him. "Moreover," he said, "as for your holy bread, your holy water, and your 
holy mass, I do utterly defy them." Last of all, James Tutty made and confirmed 
the foregoing answers, though in words somewhat different. On this they were condemned 
as heretics, and were all five burned at Canterbury in one fire, about the middle 
of July then next following. Although the rage and vehemency of the terrible persecution 
in queen Mary's days chiefly existed in London, Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Kent, 
as hath been partly declared; yet notwithstanding, few parts of the realm were 
free from this fatal storm, but in almost all places some were put to death for 
the cause of righteousness. In the diocese of Litchfield and Coventry were tow 
persons, Thomas Haywaard and John Goreway, both condemned as heretics, and burnt 
at Litchfield about the time of the martyrdoms just detailed. Unto this present 
time pertaineth also the memorable martyrdom of Mr. Robert Glover, gent., in the 
diocese of Litchfield and Coventry. He was apprehended, and put to death in September; 
but his apprehension and troubles cannot well be treated of, without mentioning 
some things relating to John Glover, for whom the commission was chiefly sent 
down, although it pleased God that John escaped, and Robert in his stead was apprehended 
and martyred. In describing some part of their virtuous order of life, we shall 
begin with John the eldest, who, being heir to his father in the town of Manchester, 
was endowed with considerable possessions and worldly goods; but much more plentifully 
was he enriched with God's heavenly grace, which so wrought in him, that he with 
his brethern, Robert and William, received and embraced the happy light of Christ's 
holy gospel, and also most zealously professed it, and lived accordingly. John 
Glover was a man of a very tender conscience, and seemed to have a deeper sense 
of heavenly things than the others. His spiritual have a deeper sense of heavenly 
things than the others. His spiritual conflicts were very extraordinary. For a 
long time he had dwelt under the fearful impression of having committed the sin 
against the Holy Ghost, as spoken of by the Lord Jesus, which, precluding from 
his mind all hope of future PAGE 781 happiness, rendered him extremely miserable; 
so that he could enjoy nothing, but was worn as by a baleful disease. At length 
it pleased God to give him faith, when his fears were dispersed, and he could 
cry Abba, Father. He now was filled with joy and peace, became dead to the world, 
and seemed like one in heaven, abhorring in his mind all profane doings. Neither 
was his talk any thing different from the fruits of his life, never throwing out 
an idle, vile, or vain word. The most part of his lands he distributed to the 
use of his brethern, and committed the rest to the management of his servants 
and officers, whereby he might the more quietly give himself up to his godly study, 
as to a continual sabbath. This was about the latter end of king Henry's reign, 
and continued in the time of the young and pious Edward. After this, in the persecuting 
days of queen Mary, as soon as the bishop of Coventry heard of his fame, and of 
his being so ardent and zealous in the gospel of Christ, he immediately wrote 
a letter to the mayor and officers of Coventry to apprehend him as soon as possible. 
But by the good providence of God, it happened otherwise: for God disposeth all 
things after his own pleasure. Therefore, of his divine wisdom, thinking it too 
much that one man should be so overcharged with so many suffer- PAGE 782 ngs, 
did provide, that Robert his brother, being both stronger in body, and also better 
furnished with helps of learning to answer the adver- saries, should sustain that 
conflict, and even so it came to pass. For as soon as the mayor of Coventry had 
received the bishop's letters for the apprehending of Mr. John Glover, he forthwith 
sent private notice to him to convey himself away, who accordingly escaped with 
his brother William. But when the officer had searched a long time for him in 
vain, he went into an upper chamber, where he found Robert lying on his bed, he 
having been long sick, and brought him immediately before the sheriff. The sheriff, 
notwithstanding, favouring Robert and his cause, would indeed fain have dismissed 
him, and wrought what means he could, saying, that he was not the man for whom 
they were sent: yet, being terrified with the threats of the officer, who insisted 
on his being detained till the bishop's coming, he was constrained to carry him 
against his well, and so confined him till the bishop arrived. To enter, however, 
upon the story and martyrdom of Mr. Robert Glover, as the whole narration of the 
same by his own record and testimony in writing was sent into his wife, it seems 
best, for the more credit of the matter, to exhibit extracts from his own letter:- 
"To my entirely beloved wife, Mary Glover, "The peace of conscience which passeth 
all understanding, the sweet consolation, comfort, strength, and boldness of the 
Holy Ghost, be continually increased in your heart, through a fervent, earnest, 
and steadfast faith in our most dear and only Saviour Jesus Christ. I thank you 
heartily, for your letters sent to me in my imprisonment. I read them with tears 
more than once or twice; with tears of joy and gladness, that God had wrought 
in you so merciful a work; an unfeigned repentance, a humble and hearty reconciliation, 
a voluntary submission and obedience to the will of God in all things. Which when 
I read in your letters, and judged them to proceed from your heart, I could not 
but be thankful to God, rejoicing for you, and these his great mercies poured 
upon you. "After I came into prison, and had reposed myself there a while, I wept 
for you and gladness, musing much of the great mercies of God, and saying to myself 
- O Lord, who am I, on whom thou shouldst bestow this great mercy, to be numbered 
among the saints that suffer for the gospel's sake! Not long after, Mr. William 
Brasbridge, Mr. Charles Phineas, and Mr. Nicholas Hopkins, came unto me, persuading 
me to be dismissed upon bonds. But I answered, that as the masters had nothing 
to burden me withal; if I should enter into bonds, I should in so doing accuse 
myself; and seeing they had no matter to lay to my charge, they might as well 
let me pass without bonds as with them. "They, however, used many worldly persuasions 
to me to avoid the present peril, and also how to avoid the forfeiture if I brake 
my promise. I said, I had cast up my pennyworth by God's help. They undertook 
also to make the bond easy. - Then the second day after the bishop's coming to 
Coventry, Mr. Warren came to the Guildhall, and ordered the chief jailer to carry 
me to the bishop. I laid to Mr. Warren's charge the cruel PAGE 783 seeking of 
my death; and when he would have excused himself, I told him he could not wipe 
his hands so; for he was as guilty of my blood before God, as though he had murdered 
me with his own hands. Thus he departed from me, saying, I needed not to fear 
if I would be of his belief. "When I cam before the bishop in Mr. Denton's house, 
he began with the protestation, that he was my bishop for lack of a better, and 
willed me to submit myself. Mr. Chancellor standing by, said I was a master of 
arts. Then my lord laid to my charge my not coming to the church. Here I might 
have dallied with him, and put him to his proof, forasmuch a I had not been in 
his diocese for a long season, neither were any of the citizens able to prove 
any such matter against me. Notwithstanding I answered him through God's merciful 
help, that I neither had, nor would come to their chruch, so long as their mass 
was used there, to save, if I had them, five hundred lives. I desired him to shew 
me one jot or tittle in the scriptures for the proof and evidence of the mass. 
To this he answered, he came to teach, and not to be taught. I told him I was 
content to learn of him, so far as he was able to teach me by the word of God. 
"'Who shall judge the world?' then asked the bishop. I answered - 'Christ was 
willing that the people should judge his doctrine by search- ing the scriptures, 
and so was Paul; methinks you should claim no further privilege nor pre-eminence 
than they had. - If you will be believed because you are a bishop, why find you 
fault with the people that believed bishop Latimer, bishop Ridley, and bishop 
Hooper?' 'Because they were heretics,' he quickly answered. I then asked - 'And 
may not you err as well as they?' I expected my lord to use some learned arguments 
to persuade me, but instead of that he oppressed me only with his authority. He 
said, I dissented from the church, and asked me where my church was before king 
Edward's time? But I desired him to shew me where their church was in Elias's 
time, and what outward shew it had in Christ's time? To this he answered, 'Elias's 
complaint was only of the ten tribes that fell from David's house, whom he called 
heretics.' But I said confidently - 'You are not able to shew any prophets that 
the other two tribes had at that same time.' "My lord making no answer to that, 
Mr. Rogers, one of the masters of the city, cometh in the mean season, taking 
upon him as though he would answer to the text. But my lord forthwith commanded 
me to be committed to some tower, if they had any besides the common jail, saying, 
he would at the end of the visitation of his diocese, drive out such wolves. Mr. 
Rogers willed him to content himself for that night, till they had taken further 
order for me. 'Even where it pleaseth you,' said I to my lord - 'I am content;' 
and so I was returned at that time to the common jail again from whence I came. 
"Certain sergeants and constables at Coventry being appointed to convey us to 
Litchfield, to be delivered there to one Jephcot, the chancellor's man, sent from 
Coventry with us for the same purpose, we were commanded to be on horseback about 
eleven o'clock on Friday, it being a market day, in order that we might be the 
more gazed at: and to set the PAGE 784 people's hearts more against us, they exhibited 
a letter concerning a proclamation made for calling in and disannulling all such 
books as truly expounded the scriptures. We arrived at Litchfield about four o'clock, 
and had leave to repose ourselves till supper-time. The house we put up at was 
the sign of the Swan, where we were entertained friendly and gently. "I was put 
into a prison that same night, where I continued till I was condemned, in a place 
next the dungeon, where was small room, a strong building, and very cold, with 
little light; and there I was allowed a bundle of straw instead of my bed, without 
chair, form, or any thing else to rest myself upon. God of his mercy gave me great 
patience through prayer that night, so that if it had been his pleasure, I could 
have been contented then to have ended my life: but Jephcot, and one Percy, the 
bishop's man, who afterwards was my continual keeper for the most part, came to 
me in the morning, to whom I said - 'This is a great extremity, God send us patience.' 
Upon which they consented that I should have a bed of my own procuring. But I 
was allowed no help, neither night nor day, nor company of any kind, notwithstanding 
my great sickness; nor yet paper, pen, ink, or books, except my New Testament 
in Latin, and a Prayer-book which I brought privily in. "Within two days after, 
Mr. Chancellor, and Mr. Temsey, a prebendary there, came into my prison. The first 
exhorted me to conform myself to my lord and to the church. He wished no more 
hurt to my soul than he did to his own; perhaps this was because I had laid to 
his charge at Coventry the seeking of my blood unjustly and wrongfully. I answered, 
that I refused not to be ruled by that church, which was content to be governed 
by the word of God. He asked me, 'How know you the word of God, but by the church?' 
I answered - 'The church sheweth which is the word of God, therefore the church 
is above the word of God! This is no good reason in learning, Mr. Chancellor. 
For it is like unto this - 'John sheweth the people who Christ was; therefore 
John was above Christ!' "He said, he came not to reason with me, and so departed. 
And I remained for the space of eight days without further conference with any 
man, until the bishop's coming: in which time I gave myself continually to prayer 
and meditation on the merciful promises of God unto all, without exception of 
person, that call upon the name of his Son Jesus Christ. I found in myself daily 
amendment of health of body, increase of peace in conscience, and many consolations 
from God, by the help of his Holy Spirit, and sometimes as it were a taste and 
glimmering of the life to come. "At the bishop's first coming to Litchfield after 
my imprisonment, I was called into a by-chamber next to my prison to meet him. 
When I came before him, and saw none but his officers, chaplains, and servants, 
except it were an old priest, I was partly amazed, and lifted up my heart to God 
for his merciful help and assistance. He asked me how I liked my imprisonment; 
but I gave him no answer touching that question. He then proceeded to persuade 
me to be a member of his church, which had continued so many years. As for my 
chruch, he said to me, it was not known but lately in Edward's time. To this I 
answered, that I professed PAGE 785 myself to be a member of that church which 
is built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ being 
the head corner-stone; and so alleged the place of St. Paul to the Ephesians. 
And this church hath been from the beginning, through it bear no glorious shew 
before the world, being ever for the most part, under the cross and affliction, 
contemned, despised, and persecuted. When my lord contended on the other side, 
that they were the church, I said - 'So cried all the clergy against the prophets 
of Jerusalem, saying, 'The church of the Lord, the church of the Lord.' And always 
when I was about to speak anything, my lord cried, 'Hold thy peace, I me a proud 
arrogant heretic. Upon this contemptuous abuse, I desired him to lay something 
to my charge in particular, and then to convince me with some scriptures and good 
learning. "He began to move certain questions. I refused to answer him in corners, 
requiring that I might make my answer openly. He said I should answer him there. 
I should with him upon that point till he said I should go to prison again, and 
there have neither meat nor drink till I had answered him. Then I lifted up my 
heart to God, that I might stand and agree with the doctrine of his most holy 
word; while he prepared to ask me - How many sacraments Christ instituted to be 
used in the church? I answered without hesitation - The sacrament of baptism, 
and the sacrament that he instituted at his last supper. He expressed surprise 
that I mentioned no other sacraments, and asked me further, Whether I allowed 
their confession, and absolution? to which I answered, 'No:' adding thus - 'To 
all those who declare a true and unfeigned repentance, a sure hope and trust in 
the death of Christ; to such the ministers of Christ have authority to pronounce 
in his name the remission of sins.' Then the bishop would know my mind, what I 
thought of the presence of Christ's body in the sacrament. To which I answered 
- That their mass was neither sacrifice nor sacrament, because they had taken 
away the true institution, which, when they restored again, I would tell them 
my judgment concerning Christ's body in the sacrament." Thus much did this worthy 
martyr of God leave behind him in his own hand-writing, concerning the manner 
of his usage in prison, and also of his disputes with the bishop and his chancellor. 
More examinations he had, no doubt, with the bishop in the public consistory, 
before he was brought forth to be condemned, which he would also have left unto 
us, if either length of life or leisure of time had permitted him to finish what 
he intended; but by reason of the writ of his burning being sent from London, 
want of time did neither serve him so to do, neither could the records of his 
last examination be procured. Only this could be learned by the relation of one 
Austen Bernher, a minister, and a familiar friend of his. Mr. Robert Glover, after 
he was condemned by the bishop, and was now to be delivered out of this world, 
found his heart heavy, and desolate of all spiritual consolation, and felt in 
himself no willingness, but rather a heaviness and dullness of spirit, to bear 
the bitter cross of martyrdom. This led to serious and devout self-examination; 
fearing in himself lest the Lord had PAGE 786 utterly withdrawn his wonted favour 
from him, he made his moan to this Bernher, his friend, signifying unto him how 
earnestly he had prayed day and night unto the Lord, and yet could receive no 
sense of comfort from him. By a faithful friend, but one kind of advice could 
be given. Bernher desired him patiently to wait the Lord's pleasure, and whosoever 
his present feeling ws, yet seeing his cause was just and true, he exhorted him 
constantly to adhere to the same, and to play the man, nothing doubting but that 
the Lord in his good time would visit him, and satisfy his desire with plenty 
of consolation. The night before his martyrdom ws spent in praying for strength 
and courage to endure manfully the fiery trail; but strange to say that strength 
and courage which he sought were delayed till almost the moment that he needed 
them. When the time came of his martyrdom, as he was going to the place, and was 
come within sight of the stake, suddenly he was so mightily replenished with God's 
holy comfort and heavenly joy, that he cried out, clapping his hands to Austen, 
"Austen, he is come, he is come!" and that with such joy and alacrity as one seeming 
rather to be risen from some deadly danger to liberty and life, than as one passing 
out of the world by any pains of death. Such was the change of the marvellous 
working of the Lord's hand upon that good man. It is impossible to read such a 
memorial of divine interposition, preceded by a mysterious absence of courage 
and comfort, without calling to mind several remarkable passages of holy writ. 
"God is our refuge and strength - a very present help in time of trouble. - The 
Lord shall judge his people, and repent himself for his servants, when he seeth 
that their strength is gone, and there is none shut up or left. - It shall come 
to pass in that day the light shall not be clear nor dark: but it shall be one 
day which shall be known unto the Lord, not day nor night; and it shall come to 
pass that at evening time it shall be light." - Pea. xlvi. 1; Deut. xxii. 36; 
Zech. xiv. 6,7. In the same fire with Mr. Glover was Cornelius Bungay, of Coventry, 
likewise burnt. He also was condemned by the bishop of Coventry and Litchfield. 
It was objected against him, that for three years past, in the cities of Coventry 
and Litchfield, and places thereabout, he did hold, maintain, argue, and teach, 
that the priest hath no power to absolve from sins. That by baptism sins are not 
washed away, because that the washing of the flesh purgeth the flesh outwardly, 
and not the soul. That there are in the church only two sacraments, baptism and 
the Lord's supper. That in the sacrament of the altar was not the real body and 
blood of Christ, but the substance of bread and wine. That the pope is not the 
head of the visible church ere on earth. That all these premises are true, manifest, 
and notorious, and that upon the same there hath been and is a public voice and 
fame, as well in the places above rehearsed as in other quarters also about. To 
these articles Mr. Bungay answered much in the manner of his suffer- ing brethern 
preceding him; without fear of the consequence of confess- ing their general application 
to himself; at the same time prudently qualifying all points wherein the charge 
against him was pushed beyond the truth, and he was made responsible for what 
he did not believe. His PAGE 787 condemnation soon followed, and the citizens 
of Coventry were excited by the spectacle of two of the worthiest of their fraternity 
consumed to ashes for no crime, but for their resolute preservation of a good 
conscience and a pure faith. John and William Glover, the brothers of Robert Glover, 
ought not to be omitted in this history: although they were not called to martyrdom, 
yet they were cast out of the church, and excommunicated even after they were 
dead, by having christian burial denied them. When the sheriffs, with their under 
officers and servants, were sent to seek John Glover, they came into his house, 
where he and his wife were. It chanced as he was in a chamber by himself, the 
officers bursting into the house, and searching other rooms. Came to the very 
room where John was, who holding the latch softly in his hand, perceived and heard 
the officers bustle about the door, one of whom having the string in his hand, 
was ready to draw the same. Meanwhile another coming by, whose voice he heard 
and knew, bade them come away, saying, they had been there before. Whereupon they 
departing thence, went to search other corners of the house, till they found Agnes 
Glover, his wife, who being carried to Litchfield, and examined before the bishop, 
at length was constrained to give place to their tyranny. Her husband, in the 
mean time, partly for care of his wife, partly through cold taken in the woods 
where he lay, caught in ague, of which he lost his life, which the cruel papists 
so long had sought for. Six weeks after he was dead and buried in the church-yard, 
without priest or clerk, Dr. Dracot, then chancellor, sent for the parson of the 
town, and demanded how it happened that he was buried there. The parson answered 
that he was sick at the time, and knew not of it. Then the chancellor commanded 
him to go home, and cause the body to be taken up, and cast over the wall into 
the highway. The parson answered, that it had been six weeks in the earth, and 
that in consequence none were able to undertake it. "Well," said Dr. Dracot, "then 
take this bill and pronounce him in the pulpit a damned soul, and a twelvemonth 
after take up his bones, when the flesh will be consumed, and cast them over the 
wall, that the horses may tread upon them, and then I will come and hallow again 
that place in the church-yard where he was buried." This was recorded by the parson 
of the town, and told to Mr. Robert Glover's wife, by whose credible information 
we received the same. Similar usage was practised also by these catholic tyrants 
upon the body of William, the third brother, whom it had pleased Almighty God 
about the same season to call out of this vale of misery. The well-disposed people 
of the Town of Wem, in Shropshire, where he died, brought the body into the parish 
church, intending there to have buried it. But one Bernard, curate of the said 
church, in order to stop the burial, rode to the bishop to inform him of the matter, 
and to have his advice therein. In the mean time the body having lain a whole 
day, in the night time Richard Marice, a tailor, would have interred him, but 
he was hindered by John Thorlyne, of Wem, with some others, who would not suffer 
the body to be buried; expressing the contrary examples of good Tobit; for as 
he was religious in burying the dead, so this man's religion consisted in not 
burying it. So that after he had lain there two days PAGE 788 and a night, Bernard, 
the curate, came with the bishop's letter, which forbad the interment of the body, 
and which commanded the church-wardens to assist the curate in hindering any persons 
who should attempt to put it in the ground. Accordingly they who brought the corpse 
to the church were obliged to carry it back again at their own charges. But as 
it was corrupted, they were forced to draw it with horses into a broom-field, 
and there bury it. The same example of charitable affection was also to be seen 
and noted in the burying of one Edward Burton, Esq. who in the diocese of Chester, 
departing this world the day before queen Elizabeth was crowned, required of his 
friends, as they would answer for it, that his body should be buried in his parish 
church, which was St. Chad's, in Shrews- bury, and that no Romish priest should 
be present thereat. This thing being declared to the curate of that parish, John 
Marshall, and the body being brought to the burial, upon the same day when the 
queen was crowned, the curate said plainly that it should not be buried in the 
church there. Whereunto one of the friends of the deceased, named George Torpelley, 
answering again, said, That God would judge him in the last day. Then said the 
priest, 'Judge, God, or devil, the body shall not come there! And so they buried 
him in his own garden. In the same county, one Oliver Richardine, of the parish 
of Whitchurch, was burnt in Haverford-west, Sir John young being sheriff the same 
time, which seemeth to have been about the last year of king Henry VIII. William 
Wolsey and Robert Pygot were the next who followed Robert Glover and Cornelius 
Bungey to martyrdom. They were both of the town of Wis- beach, and were judged 
and condemned at Ely, by John Fuller, the bishop's chancellor, Dr. Shaxton, his 
suffragan, Robert Steward, dean of Ely, and John Christopherson, dean of Norwich, 
harshly treated by one Everard, a justice, who caused him to put in sureties for 
his good behaviour and appearance at the next general sessions held within the 
isle of Ely. Being called again at the next sessions, he was still constrained 
to put in new sureties, which at length he refused to do, and inconsequence was 
committed to jail at the assize held at Ely in Lent. In the Easter week following, 
Dr. Fuller, the chancellor, with Chris- topherson, and Dr. Young, came to confer 
with him, and charged him with being out of the catholic faith, desiring him to 
meddle no further with the scriptures, than it became such a layman as he was 
to do. Wolsey stood still a great while, suffering them to speak their pleasure; 
at PAGE 789 last he answered - "Good Mr. Doctor, what did our Saviour Christ mean, 
when he spake these words - 'Woe unto you scribes and pharisees, hypocrits; for 
ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, 
neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in." To this Dr. Fuller answered 
that he must understand, that Christ spake to the scribes and pharisees. Nothing 
daunted, Wolsey made this smart reply - "Nay, Mr. Doctor, Christ spake even to 
you, and your fellows here present, and to all such as you are." To ward off this 
charge, Dr. Fuller left him a book to read, of a learned man's writing, that is 
to say, Dr. Watson's, who was then bishop of Lincoln. Wolsey receiving the book, 
diligently read it over, and found it in many places manifestly contrary to God's 
word. At length, a fortnight or three weeks following, Dr. Fuller resorting again 
to the prison to converse with Wolsey, asked him how he liked the book. Wolsey 
replied, that he liked the book no otherwise than he thought before he should 
find it. Whereupon the chancellor taking his book, departing home. But at night, 
when Dr. Fuller came to his chamber to look on it, he found in many places, contrary 
to his mind, the book rased with a pen by Wolsey, and being vexed therewith, called 
him an obstinate heretic. The assizes to be held at Wisbeach drawing nigh, Dr. 
Fuller came again to Wolsey, and spake to him on this manner - "Thou dost much 
trouble my conscience, wherefore I pray thee depart, and rule thy tongue, so that 
I hear no more complaint of thee, and come to the church when thou wilt; and if 
thou be complained upon, so far as I may, I promise thee I will not hear of it." 
The bold and just answer of Wolsey to this crafty proposal was in admirable keeping 
with apostolic precedent. When an earthquake had shaken to the foundation the 
goal in which Paul and Silas were imprisoned at Philippi, the magistrates issued 
a permission for them to depart: but Paul said unto the messenger - "They have 
cast us uncondemned into prison, and now would privily thrust us out: nay, verily; 
but let them come themselves and fetch us out." In the same spirit of truth and 
justice, Wolsey said - "Doctor, I was brought hither by a law, and by a law I 
will be delivered." Being then brought to the sessions, he was laid in the castle 
at Wisbeach, he and all his friends thinking that he should have suffered there 
at that present time, but it proved otherwise. Robert Pygot was a painter, and 
being at liberty, was presented by some evil disposed persons, sworn men as they 
called them, for not coming to the church. Being called in the sessions, he would 
not absent himself, but appeared before Sir Clement Hygham, who was judge, who 
said unto him - "Ah, are you the holy father the painter? How chance you came 
not to the church?" Pygot said - "I am not out of the church, I trust in God." 
The judge, evading the subject, said - "No, Sir, this is no church, this is a 
hall." To which Pagot answered - "I know very well it is a hall: but he that is 
in the true faith of Jesus Christ, is never absent, but ever present in the church 
of God." On this the judge exclaimed - "Ah, sirrah! you are too high for me to 
talk with, wherefore I will send you to them that are better learned than I am." 
He straightway commanded him to the jail where Wolsey lay; and the sessions being 
ended, they were carried again to Ely prison. PAGE 790 In the mean time some of 
their neighbours of Wisbeach being at Ely, came to see how they did. There visited 
them also a chaplain of bishop Good- rike, a Frenchman, named Peter Valentius, 
who said to Wolsey and Pygot - "My brethern, according to my office I am come 
to talk with you, for I have been almoner here these twenty years and above. Wherefore 
I must desire you, to take it in good part that I am come. I promise you not to 
pull you from your faith. But I both require and desire in the name of Jesus Christ, 
that you stand to the truth of the gospel and word, and I beseech the almighty 
God, for his son Jesus Christ's sake, to preserve both you and me in the same 
unto the end. For I know not myself how soon I shall be at the same point that 
you are." Thus with many like words he proceeded, causing all that were there 
present to water their cheeks with tears, contrary to the expectation they all 
had of him. A short time after Pygot and Wolsey were called to judgment, before 
Dr. Fuller, then chancellor, with old Dr. Shaxton, Christopherson, and others 
in commission, who laid earnestly to their charge for their belief in divers articles, 
but especially of the sacrament of the altar was an idol, and that the natural 
body and blood of Christ were not present really in the sacrament; and to this 
opinion they said they would keep, perfectly believing the same to be no heresy, 
but the very truth. On this the doctors said, that they were out of the catholic 
faith. Shaxton added, "Good brethern, remember yourselves, and become new men, 
for I myself was in this fond opinion that you are now in, but I am now become 
a new man." Wolsey answered, "Ah! are you become a new man? Woe be to thee, thou 
wicked new man, for God shall justly judge thee." "Say nought unto him." Dr. Fuller 
then said; "this Wolsey is an obstinate fellow, and one that I could never do 
good upon. But as for the painter, he is a man quiet and indifferent, as far as 
I perceive, and is soon reformed, and may very well be delivered for an ill opinion 
I find in him." In this, however, Fuller was mistaken, for on Christopherson writing 
a confession for Pygot to sign, the latter refused, on the ground that it was 
their faith and not his. On this the writer of the confession taunted Fuller, 
and said - "Lo, Doctor! you would have let this fellow go, who in as much a heretic 
as the other." And so immediately judgment was given upon them to die. Which done, 
after the sentence was read, they were sent again to prison. On the day appointed 
for their execu- tion, one Peacock, a bachelor of divinity, being to preach, took 
his text out of the first epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians, of one that 
had lived inordinately by abusing his father's wife; comparing the martyrs to 
the same man, oftentimes saying that such members must be cut off from the congregation; 
most maliciously reporting Wolsey to be out of the faith, and in many places palpably 
opposing the very letter of scripture. PAGE 791 His sermon being ended, the prisoners 
were brought to the place of execution, and bound to the stake with a chain; thither 
came Richard Colinson, a priest, who said unto Wolsey - "Brother Wolsey, the preacher 
hath openly reported in his sermon this day, that you are quite out of the catholic 
faith, and deny baptism, and that you do err in the holy scripture; wherefore 
I beseech you, for the certifying of my conscience, with others where present, 
that you declare in what place of the scripture you do err and find fault." To 
this Wolsey solemnly answered - "I take the eternal and everlasting God to witness, 
that I do deny no part or point of God's book, the holy bible, but hold and believe 
in the same to be most firm and sound doctrine in all points most worthy for my 
salvation, and for all other christians to the end of the world. Whatsoever mine 
adversaried report of me, God forgive them therefore." With that came one to the 
fire with a great sheet full of books to burn, like as they have been New Testaments. 
Said Wolsey - "O do give me one of them!" Pygot desired another; both of them 
clapping them close to their breasts, saying the 106th Psalm, desiring all the 
people to say, Amen! They then were soon enveloped in flames, committing their 
souls to the Lord Jesus Christ." Wolsey, while in prison at Ely, was visited by 
Thomas Hodilo, brewer. To whom he delivered certain money to be distributed, part 
to his wife, and part to his kinsfolks and friends, and especially six and eight-pence 
to Richard Denton, a smith at Wellney, Cambridgeshire, with his commenda- tion, 
that he marvelled he tarried so long behind him, seeing that he was the first 
who delivered the book of scripture into his hand, and assured him that it was 
the truth. Hodilo both to avoid the danger of the time, and to have a witness 
to the transaction, delivered the sum of money to Mr. Lawrence, a preacher, in 
Essex, to be distributed as Wolsey had appointed; which thing he performed, riding 
from place to place. When this six shillings and eight-pence were delivered to 
Richard Denton, with the message, his answer was this, "I confess it is true, 
but alas! I cannot burn." This was almost a year after Wolsey had suffered. But 
he that could not burn for the cause of Christ, was afterwards burnt against his 
will, even after Christ had given peace to his chruch. For in the year 1564, his 
house was set on fire, and he endeavouring to save his goods, perished in the 
flames, with two others - an event interpreted by most as a judgment for his fearfulness. 
Not much unlike this, was the example of Mr. West, chaplain to bishop Ridley, 
who refusing to suffer in the cause of Christ, with his master, said mass against 
his conscience, and died soon after. PAGE 792 SECTION XVI. HISTORY AND MARTYTRDOM 
OF WINCHESTER. On the 16th of October, 1555, those two pillars of Christ's chruch, 
Dr. Nicholas Ridley, bishop of London, and Mr. Hugh Latimer, some time bishop 
of Worcester, were burnt in one fire at Oxford. Men ever memo- rable for their 
piety, learning, and incomparable ornaments and gifts of grace, joined with no 
less commendable sincerity of life. Dr. Ridley was born in the county of Northumberland, 
and was descended from a most respectable family. He received the rudiments of 
his educa- tion at Newcastle; and, when a child, discovered great promptness in 
learning. From Newcastle he was removed to the university of Cambridge, where 
in a short time he became so famous, that for his singular apt- ness, he was called 
to higher functions and offices of the university, by degrees pertaining thereunto, 
and was at length placed at the head of Pembroke-hall, and there made doctor of 
divinity. After this, departing from thence he travailed to Paris, and at his 
return was made chaplain to king Henry VIII., and promoted afterwards to the bishopric 
of Rochester, and from thence, in king Edward's days, translated to the more important 
bishopric of London. In his several offices he so diligently applied himself by 
preaching and teaching the true and wholesome doctrine of Christ, that no good 
child was more singularly loved by his dear parents, than he by his flock and 
diocese. Every holiday and Sunday he preached in one place or other, except he 
were otherwise hindered by weighty affairs and business; and to his sermons the 
people resorted in great numbers, swarming about him like bees; and so faithfully 
did his life pourtray his doctrines, that even his very enemies could not reprove 
him in anything. His learning, moreover, was superior, his memory was great, and 
he had attained such reading withal, that he deserved to be compared to the best 
men of his age, as his works, sermons, and sundry disputations in both the univer- 
sities well testified. He was also wise of counsel, deep of wit, and very politic 
in all things doings. He was anxious to gain the papists from their erroneous 
opinions, and sought by gentleness to win them to the truth, as his gentleness 
and courteous treatment of Dr. Heath, who was prisoner in his house a whole year, 
sufficiently proved. In fine, he was in all points so good, pious, and spiritual 
a man, that England never saw his superior. He was comely in his person, and well 
proportioned. He took all things in good part, bearing no malice nor rancour against 
any one, but straightways forgetting all injuries and offences done against him. 
He was very kind and faithful to his relations; and yet not bearing with them 
any otherwise than right would require, giving them always for general rule, yea 
to his own brother and sister, that they doing evil should look for nothing at 
his hand, but should be as strangers and aliens to him, and that to be his brother 
and sister in deed and in truth, they must be children of God, disciples of Christ, 
and live towards all men in peace and love. PAGE 793 He used all kinds of ways 
to mortify himself, and was much given to prayer and contemplation: for duly every 
morning, as soon as he was dressed, he went to his chamber, and there upon his 
knees prayed for half an hour; which being done, immediately he went to his study 
where he continued till ten o'clock, and then came to the common prayer daily 
used in his house. These being done he went to dinner; where he talked little, 
except where occasion required, and then it was sober, discreet, and wise, and 
sometimes merry if reasonable cause allowed and justified it. The dinner done, 
which was not very long, he used to sit an hour, or thereabouts, talking, or playing 
at chess: he then returned to his study, and there would continue, except visitors 
or business abroad prevented him, until five o'clock, when he would come to common 
prayer, as in the forenoon; which being finished, he went to supper, behaving 
himself there as at his dinner before. After supper he recreated himself again 
at chess, after which he would return again to his study; continu- ing there till 
eleven o'clock at night, which was his common hour of going to bed, after saying 
his prayers upon his knees as in the morning when his rose. When at his manor 
of Fulham, he used to read daily a lecture to his family at the common prayer, 
beginning at the Acts of the Apostles, and so going through all the epistles of 
St. Paul, giving to every man that could read a New Testament, rewarding them 
also with money, for learning by heart certain principal chapters; being marvelously 
careful over his family, that they might be a pattern of all virtue and honesty 
to others. In short, as he was godly and virtuous himself, so nothing but virtue 
and godliness reigned in his house, feeding them with the food of our Saviour 
Jesus Christ. The following is a striking instance of the benevolence of his temper, 
shewn to Mrs. Bonner, mother of Dr. Bonner, bishop of London. When at his manor 
of Fulham he always sent for Mrs. Bonner, who dwelt in a house adjoining his own, 
to dinner and supper, with Bonner's sister. She was always placed in the chair 
at the head of the table, being as gently treated and welcomed as his own mother, 
and he would never have her displaced from her seat, although the king's council 
had been present; saying, when any of them were there, "By your lordship's favour, 
this place of right and custom is for my mother Bonner." How well he was recompensed 
for this singular kindness and gentle pity afterwards at the hands of Dr. Bonner, 
is too well known. For who afterwards was a greater enemy to Dr. Ridley than Dr. 
Bonner? Who went more about to seek his destruction than he? Recompencing his 
gentleness with extreme cruelty; as well appeared by the severity against Dr. 
Ridley's own sister and her husband: whereas the gentleness of the other permitted 
Bonner's mother, sister, and others of his kindred, not only quietly to enjoy 
all that which they had from bishop Bonner, but also entertained them in his house, 
shewing much courtesy and friendship daily unto them; while, on the other side, 
Bonner being restored again, would not suffer the broth- er and sister of bishop 
Ridley, and other of his friends, to enjoy that which they had by their brother, 
but also churlishly, without all order of law or honesty, wrested from them all 
the livings they had in their own right. PAGE 794 Dr. Ridley was first called 
to the favouring of Christ and his gospel, by the reading of Bertram's book of 
the sacrament; and the conference with archbishop Cranmer, and with Peter Martyr, 
did not a little confirm him in that belief. Being now, by the grace of God, thoroughly 
won and brought to the true way, as he was before blind and zealous in his old 
ignorance, so was he constant and faithful in the right knowledge which the Lord 
had opened unto him, and so long he did much good, when power and authority defended 
the gospel, and supported the peace and happiness of the church. But after it 
pleased God to bereave us of our stay, in taking from us king Edward, the whole 
state of the church of England was left desolate and open to the enemy's hand: 
so that bishop Ridley, after the coming in of queen Mary, was one of the first 
upon whom they laid their hands, and committed to prison, as hath been sufficiently 
de- clared; first in the Tower, and from thence conveyed with archbishop Cranmer 
and bishop Latimer, to Oxford, and with them inclosed in the common prison of 
Bocardo; but at length being separated from them, he was committed to custody 
in the house of one Irish, where he remained till the day of his martyrdom, which 
was upwards of eight months. While he continued in prison with his fellow-sufferer 
Latimer, they would sometimes confer together by letter, when they could not with 
safety converse with the tongue. The following is a specimen of this kind of prison 
conversation. Ridley says, "In writing again you have done me an unspeakable pleasure, 
and I pray that the Lord may requite it you in that day. For I have received great 
comfort at your words: but yet I am not so filled withal, but that I thirst much 
more now than before, to drink more of that cup of yours, wherein you mingle unto 
me profitable with pleasant. I pray you, good father, let me have one draught 
more to comfort my stomach. For surely, except the Lord assist me with his gracious 
aid, in the time of his service, I know I shall play but the part of a whitelivered 
knight. But truly my trust is in him, that in mine infirmity he should try himself 
strong, and that he can make the coward in his cause to fight like a man. I now 
begin almost every day to look when Diotrephes with his warriours shall assault 
me: wherefore I pray you, good father, for that you are an old soldier, and an 
expert warrior, and God knoweth I am but a young solider, and as yet of small 
experience in these feats, help me, I pray you, to buckle my harness. And now 
I would have you to think, that these darts are cast at my head by some one of 
Diotrephes' or Antonius; soldiers." Latimer answers, " 'Except the Lord help me,' 
ye say. Truth it is: 'for without me, ' saith he, 'ye can do nothing;' much less 
suffer death of our adversaries, through the bloody law now prepared against us. 
But it followeth, 'If you abide in me, and my word abide in you, ask what you 
will, and it shall be done for you.' What can be more comfortable? Sir, you make 
answer yourself so well, that I cannot better it. Sir, I begin now to smell what 
you mean by travelling thus with me; you use me as Bilney did once, when he converted 
me, pretending as though he would be taught by me, he sought ways and means to 
teach me, and so do you. I thank you therefore most heartily. For indeed you minister 
armour unto me, whereas I was unarmed before and unprovided, saving that I give 
myself to prayer for my refuge. PAGE 795 The objector, whose darts Ridley apprehended, 
visited both these good men in prison, and thus assailed them. Obj. All men marvel 
greatly, why you, after the liberty granted unto you, more than the rest, do not 
go to mass, which is a thing much esteemed by all men, yea, of the queen herself. 
Rid. Because no man that layeth hand on the plough an looketh back is fit for 
the kingdom of God, and also for the self-same cause why St. Paul would not suffer 
Titus to be circumcised, which is that the truth of the gospel might remain with 
us incorrupt. And also, "If I build again the things which I destroyed, I make 
myself a trespasser." This is likewise another cause: lest I should seem by outward 
fact to allow the thing, which I am persuaded is contrary to sound doctrine, and 
so should be a stumbling-block unto the weak. But "woe be unto him by whom offence 
cometh: it were better for him that a mill-stone were hanged about his neck, and 
he cast into the midst of the sea." Obj. What is it then that offendeth you so 
greatly in the mass, that you will not vouchsafe once either to hear or see it? 
And from whence cometh this new religion upon you? Have you not been used in times 
past to say mass yourself? Rid. I confess my fault and ignorance; but know you 
that for these matters I have done penance long ago, both at St. Paul's Cross, 
and also openly in the pulpit at Cambridge, and I trust that God hath forgiven 
me this mine offence: for I did it ignorantly. But if you be desirous to know, 
and will vouchsafe to hear what things offend me in the mass, I will rehearse 
those which be most clear, and seem most manifestly to impugn God's word, and 
they are these - The strange tongue; the want of the shewing of the Lord's death; 
the breaking of the Lord's commandment of having a communion; the sacrament is 
not communicated to all under both kinds, according to the word of the Lord; the 
sign is servilely worshipped for the thing signified; Christ's passion is injured, 
foras- much as this mass - sacrifice is affirmed to remain for the purging of 
sins; to be short, the manifold superstitions, and trifling fooleries which are 
in the mass, and about the same. Lat. Better a few things well pondered, than 
to trouble the memory with too much; you shall prevail more with praying, than 
with studying, though mixture be best, for so one shall alleviate the tediousness 
or the other. I intend not to contend much with them in words, after a reasonable 
account of my faith given: for it will be but in vain. They will say as their 
fathers said, when they have no more to say - "We have a law, and by our law he 
ought to die." "Be you steadfast and immov- able, abounding in the work. - Stand 
fast." How oft is this repeated - "If you abide in me, and in my word." But we 
shall be called obstinate, sturdy, ignorant, heady, and what not; so that a man 
hath need of much patience, having to do with such men. Obj. But you know how 
great a crime it is to separate yourself from the communion of fellowship of the 
church, and to make a schism, or division. PAGE 796 You have been reported to 
have hated the sect of the anabaptist, and always to have impugned the same. Moreover, 
this was the pernicious error of Novatus, and of the heretics called Cathari, 
that they would not communicate with the church. Rid. I know that the unity of 
the church is to be retained by all means, and the same is necessary to salvation. 
But I do not take the mass, as it is at this day, for the communion of the church, 
but a popish device, whereby both the commandment and the institution of our Saviour, 
for the oft frequenting of the remembrance of his death, is eluded, and the people 
of God are miserably deluded. The sect of the anabaptists, and the heresy of the 
Navatians, ought of right to be condemned, forasmuch as without any just or necessary 
cause, they wick- edly separated themselves from the communion of the congregation; 
for they did not allege that the sacraments were unduly administered; but turning 
their eyes from themselves, and casting their eyes ever upon others, they always 
reproved something, for which they abstained from the communion, as from an unholy 
thing. Lat. I remember that Calvin beginneth to confute the Interim after this 
sort, with this saying of Hilary - "The name of peace is beautiful, and the opinion 
of unity is fair: but who doubteth that to be the true and only peace of the church, 
which is Christ's?" I would you had that little book, there would you see how 
much is to be given to unity. St. Paul, when he requireth unity, joineth with 
it, according to Jesus Christ, no further. Diotrephes now of late, did always 
harp upon unity. Yea, Sir, said I, but in verity, not popery. Better is diversity, 
than unity in popery. Obj. But admit there be in the mass what peradventure might 
be amended, or at least made better; yea, seeing you will have it so, admit there 
be a fault; if you do not consent thereto, why do you trouble yourself in vain? 
Do you not know both by Cyprian and Augustine, that communion of sacraments doth 
not defile a man, but consent of deeds? Rid. If it were any one trifling ceremony, 
or if it were some one thing of itself indifferent, for the continuance of the 
common quietness I could be content to bear it. But forasmuch as things done in 
the mass tend openly to the overthrow of Christ's institution, I judge that by 
no means either in word or deed I ought to consent unto it. As for that which 
is objected out of the fathers, I acknowledge it to be well spo- ken, if it be 
well understood. But it is meant of them which suppose they are defiled, if any 
secret vice be either in the ministers, or in them that communicate with them; 
and is not meant of them which suppose they are defiled, if any secret vice be 
either in the ministers, or in them that communicate with them; and is not meant 
of them which abhor superstition, and wicked traditions of men, and will not suffer 
the same to be thrust upon themselves, or upon the church, instead of God's word 
and the truth of the gospel. Lat. The mass is altogether detestable, and by no 
means to be borne withal; so that of necessity, the mending of it is to abolish 
it for ever. For if you take away ablation and adoration, which hang upon consecration 
and transubstantiation, most of the papists will not set a button by the mass, 
as a thing which they esteem not, but for the gain that followeth thereon. For 
if the English communion, which of late was used, were as gainful to them as the 
mass hath been hertofore, they would strive no more for their mass: from thence 
groweth the grief. PAGE 797 Obj. Consider into what dangers you cast yourself, 
if you forsake the church; and you cannot but forsake it, if you refuse to go 
to mass. For the mass is the sacrament of unity; without the ark there is no salvation. 
The church is the ark and Peter's ship. You know this saying well enough - "He 
shall not have God to be his Father, which acknowledgeth not the church to be 
his mother." Moreover, without the church, as Augustine saith, be the life ever 
so well spent, none shall inherit the kingdom of heaven. Rid. The holy catholic 
or universal church, which is the communion of saints, the house of God, the city 
of God, the spouse of Christ, the body of Christ, the pillar and stay of truth; 
this church I believe according to the creed; this church I do reverence and honour 
in the Lord. But the rule of this church is the word of God, according to which 
rule we go forward unto life. "And as many as walk according to this rule," I 
say with St. Paul, "peace be upon them, and upon Israel, which pertaineth unto 
God." The guide of this church is the Holy Ghost. The marks whereby this church 
is known unto me in this dark world, and in the midst of this crooked and forward 
generation, are - the sincere preaching of God's holy word, the due administration 
of the sacraments, charity, and faithful observing of ecclesiastical discipline, 
according to the word of God. And that church or congregation which is garnished 
with these marks, is in very deed that heavenly Jerusalem, which consisteth of 
those that be born from above. This is the mother of us all, and by God's grace 
I will live and die the child of this church. Out of this, I grant, there is no 
salvation; and I suppose the rest of the places objected are rightly to be understand 
of this church only. 'In times past, there were many ways to know the church of 
Christ, that is to say, by good life, by miracles, by chastity, by doctrine, by 
administering the sacraments. But from the time that heresies took hold of the 
church, it is only know by the scriptures which is the true church. They have 
all things in outward show, which the true church. To that which they say, that 
the mass is the sacrament of unity, I answer - The read which we break, according 
to the institution of the Lord, is the sacrament of the unity of Christ's mystical 
body. "For we being many, are one bread and one body, forasmuch as we are all 
partakers of one bread." But in the mass, the Lord's institution is not observed; 
for we are not all partakers of one bread, but one devoureth all. So that it may 
seem a sacrament of singularity, and of a certain special privilege for one sect 
of people, whereby they may be discerned from the rest, rather than a sacrament 
of unity, wherein our knitting together in one is represented. PAGE 798 Lat. Yea, 
what fellowship hath Christ with antichrist? Therefore it is not lawful to bear 
the yoke with papists. "Come forth from among them, and separate yourselves from 
them," saith the Lord. It is one thing to be the church indeed, another thing 
to counterfeit it. Would to God it were well known what is the forsaking of the 
church. In king Edward's days, who was the church of England? The king and his 
favourers, or mass-mongers in corners? If the king and the favourers of his proceed- 
ings, why were we not now the church, abiding in the same proceeding? If private 
mass-mongers might be of the church, and yet contrary to the king's proceedings, 
why may we not be of the church contrary to the queen's proceedings? Not all that 
are covered with the title of the church, are the church indeed. Separate thyself 
from them that are such, saith St. Paul. From whom? The text hath before - "If 
any man follow other doctrines, he is puffed up and knoweth nothing." Weigh the 
whole text, that you may perceive what is the fruit of contentious disputa- tions. 
But wherefore are such men said to know nothing, when they know so many things? 
You know the old verses - Hoc est nescire, sine Christo plurima scire: Si Christum 
bene scis, sutis est, si cetera nescis. Therefore would St. Paul know nothing 
but Jesus Christ and him cruci- fied. As many as are papists and mass-mongers, 
they may well be said to know nothing. For they know not Christ, forasmuch as 
in their massing, they take much away from the benefit and merit of Christ. Obj. 
That church when you have described to me is invisible, but Christ's church is 
visible and known. For else why should Christ have said, "Tell it unto the church?" 
For he had commanded in vain to go unto the church, if a man cannot tell which 
it is. Rid. The church which I have described is visible, it hath members which 
may be seen; and also I have before declared, by what marks and tokens it may 
be known; but if either our eyes be so dazzled, that we cannot see, or that Satan 
hath brought such darkness into the world, that it is hard to discern the church, 
that is not the fault of the church, but either of our blindness, or of Satan's 
darkness. But yet in this most deep darkness, there is one most clear lamp, which 
of itself alone is able to put away all darkness. "Thy word is a lamp unto my 
feet, and a light into my steps." Obj. The church of Christ is a catholic or universal 
church, dispersed throughout the whole world; this church is the great house of 
God, in which are good men and evil mingled together, goats and sheep, corn and 
PAGE 799 chaff: it is the net which gathereth all kinds of fishes. This church 
cannot err, because Church hath promised it his Spirit, which shall lead it into 
all truth, and that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; that he will 
be with it unto the end of the world; whatsoever it shall loose or bind upon earth 
shall be loosed or bound in heaven. This church is the pillar and stay of truth; 
this is it for which St. Augus- tine saith, he believeth the gospel. But this 
universal church alloweth the mass, because the greater part of the same alloweth 
it. Rid. I grant that the name of the church is taken after three divers manners 
in the scripture. Sometimes for the whole multitude of them who profess the name 
of Christ, of which they are also named Christians. But as St. Paul saith of the 
Jews, not every one is a Jew, that is so outwardly; neither yet all that be of 
Israel are counted the seed; even so, not every one that is a christian outwardly 
is a christian indeed. For if any man have not the spirit of Christ, the same 
is none of his. Therefore that church which is his body, and of which Christ is 
the head, standeth only on living stones, and true christians, not only outwardly 
in name and title, but inwardly in heart and in truth. But forasmuch as this church, 
as touching the outward fellowship, is con- tained within the great house, and 
hath with the same outward society of the sacraments and ministry of the word, 
many things are spoken of that universal church which cannot truly be understood, 
but only if that pure part of the church. So that the rule of Ticonius concerning 
the mingled church, may here well take place; where there is attributed unto the 
whole church that which cannot agree to the same, but by reason of the one part 
thereof; that is, either for the multitude of good men, which is the very true 
church indeed; or for the multitude of evil men, which is the malignant church 
and synagogue of Satan. And there is also a third taking of the church; of which 
although there be seldom mention in the scriptures in that signification, yet 
in the world, even in the most famous assemblies of Christendom, this church hath 
borne the greatest sway. This distinction presupposed of the three sorts of church, 
it is an easy matter, by a figure called synecdoche, to give to the mingled and 
universal church that which cannot truly be understood, but only of the one part 
thereof. But if any man will affirm that universality doth so pertain unto the 
church, that whatsoever Christ hath promised to the church, it must needs be understood 
of that, I would gladly know of the same man where that universal church was in 
the times of the patriarchs and prophets, of Noah, Abraham, and Moses, of Elias, 
and Jeremiah, of Christ and the apostles, in the time of Arius, when Constantius 
was emperor, and Felix, bishop of Rome, succeeded Liberius. It is worthy to be 
noted, what Lyra writeth upon Matthew - "The church doth not stand in men by reason 
of their power or dignity, whether it be ecclesiastical or secular. For princes 
and popes, and other inferiors, have been found to have fallen away from God. 
Therefore the church consisteth in those persons, in whom is true knowledge and 
confession of the faith, and of the truth. Evil men are in the church in name, 
and not in deed." And St. Augustine saith - "Whoever is afraid to be deceived 
by the dark- ness of this question, let him ask counsel at the same church of 
it; which church the scripture doth point out without any doubtfulness." PAGE 
800 All my notes which I have written and gathered out of such authors as I have 
read in this matter, and such like, are come into the hands of such as will not 
let me have the least of all my written books; wherein I am enforced to complain 
of them unto God: for they spoil me of all my labours, which I have taken in my 
study these many years. My memory was never good, for help whereof I have used 
for the most part, to gather out notes of my reading, and so to place them, that 
thereby I might have had the use of time when the time required. But who knoweth 
whether this be God's will, that I should be thus ordered, and spoiled of the 
poor learning I had in store, to the intent that I, now destitute of that, should 
from henceforth with St. Paul learn only to know Christ and him crucified? The 
Lord grant me herein to be a good young scholar, and to learn this lesson so well, 
that neither death nor life, wealth nor woe, make me ever to forget it. Lat. I 
have no more to say in this matter for yourself have said all that is to be said. 
The strong saying of St. Augustine - I would not believe the Gospel, but as the 
church declareth it - was wont to trouble many men; as I remember, I have read 
it well qualified by Philip Melanc- thon. This it is in effect: the church is 
not a judge but a witness. There were some in his time that lightly esteemed the 
testimony of the church, and the outward ministry of preaching, and rejected the 
outward word itself, cleaving only to their inward revelations. Such rash con- 
tempt of the word provoked and drove St. Auaustine into that excessive vehemency. 
In which, after the bare sound of the words, he might seem to such as do not attain 
unto his meaning, that he preferred the church far before the gospel, and that 
the church hath a free authority over the same; but that pious man never thought 
so. It were a saying worthy to be brought forth against the Anabaptists, who thought 
the open ministry to be a thing not necessary, if they any thing esteemed such 
testimonies. I would not hesitate to affirm, that the most part of the whole universal 
church may easily err. And again I would not hesitate to affirm, that it is one 
thing to be gathered together in the name of Christ, and another thing to come 
together with a mass of the Holy Ghost going before. For in the first, Christ 
ruleth; in the latter, the devil beareth the sway; and how can any thing be good 
which they thus go about? From this latter shall our six articles come forth again 
into the light, they themselves being very darkness. But it is demanded, whether 
the sounder or better part of the catholic church may be seen of men? St. Paul 
saith - "The Lord knoweth them that are his." What manner of speaking is this 
in commendation of the Lord, if we knew as well as he who are his? Well, thus 
is the text - "the sure foundation of God standeth still, and hath this seal, 
The Lord knoweth them that are his; and let every man that nameth the name of 
Christ depart from iniquity." Now how many are there of the whole catholic church 
of England who depart from iniquity? How many of the noblemen, how many of the 
bishops or clergy, how many of the rich men, or merchants, how many of the queen's 
counsellors, yea, how many of the whole realm? In how small room then, I pray 
you, is the true church within the realm of England? And where is it? And in what 
state? PAGE 801 Obj. General councils represent the universal church, and have 
this promise of Christ - "Where two or three be gathered together in my name, 
there am I in the midst of them." If Christ be present with two or three, then 
much more where there is so great a multitude. But in general councils mass hath 
been approved and used. Rod. Of the universal church which is mingled of good 
and bad, thus I think - Whensoever they which be chief in it, which rule and govern 
the same, and to whom the whole mystical body of Christ doth obey, are the lively 
members of Christ, and walk after the guiding and rule of his word, and go before 
the flock to everlasting life, then undoubtedly councils gathered together of 
such guides and pastors of the christen flock, do indeed represent the christian 
church; and being so gathered in the name of Christ, they have a promise of the 
gift and guiding of his Spirit into all truth. But that any such council hath 
at any time allowed the mass, such an one as ours was of late, in a strange tongue, 
and stuffed with so many absurdities, errors, and superstitions; that I utterly 
deny, and affirm it to be impossible. For like as there is no agreement betwixt 
light and darkness, betwixt Christ and Belial; so surely superstition and the 
sincere religion of Christ, will-worship and the pure worshipping of God, such 
as God requireth of his, in spirit and truth, never can agree together. You will 
say, where so great a company is gathered together it is not credible but there 
are two or three gathered in the name of Christ. I answer, If there be one hundred 
good, and two hundred bad, what can the less number of voices avail? It is a known 
thing, and a common proverb, oftentimes the greater part overcometh the better. 
Lat. As touching general councils, at this present I have no more to say than 
you have said. Only I refer you to your own experience, to think of our country 
parliaments and convocations, how and what you have seen and heard. The greater 
part in my time did bring forth six articles: for then the king would have it 
so, being seduced of certain. Afterward the greater part did repel the same, our 
good Josias willing to have it so. The same articles now again another great but 
worse part hath restored. O what an uncertainty is this! But after this manner 
most commonly are men's proceedings. God be merciful unto us! Who shall deliver 
us from such torments of mind? Therefore is death the best physician unto the 
faithful, whom he together and at once delivereth from all griefs. Obj. If the 
matter should go thus, that in general councils men should not stand to the greater 
number of the multitude, then should no certain rule be left unto the church, 
by which controversies in weighty matters might be determined: but it is not to 
be believed, that Christ would leave his church destitute of so necessary a help 
and safeguard. Rid. Christ, who is the most loving spouse of his church, who also 
gave himself for it, that he might sanctify it unto himself, did give unto it 
abundantly all things which are necessary to salvation; but yet so, that the church 
should declare itself obedient unto him in all things and PAGE 802 keep itself 
within the bounds of his commandments, and not to seek any thing which he teacheth 
not, as necessary unto salvation. Now for determination of all controversies in 
his religion, Christ himself hath left unto the church not only Moses and the 
prophets, whom he willeth in all doubts to go unto, and ask counsel at, but also 
the gospels, and the rest of the body of the New Testament; in which whatsoever 
is heard of Moses and the prophets, and whatsoever is necessary to be known unto 
salvation, is revealed and opened. So that now we have no need to say - "Who shall 
climb up into heaven, or who shall go down into the depth," to tell us what is 
needful to be done? Christ hath done both, and hath commended us to the word of 
faith, which also is abundantly declared to us; so that hereafter, if we walk 
earnestly in this way to the searching out of the truth, it is not to be doubted 
but through the certain bene- fit of his Spirit, which he hath promised unto us, 
we may find it, and obtain everlasting life. Should men ask counsel of the dead 
for the living? saith Isaiah. Let them go rather to the law and to the testi- 
mony. Christ sendeth them that be desirous to know the truth unto the scriptures, 
saying - "Search the scriptures." I remember a like thing well spoken of St. Jerome 
- "Ignorance of the scriptures is the mother and cause of all errors." And in 
another place, as I remember, in the same author - "The knowledge of the scriptures 
is the food of lasting life." But now methinks I enter into a very broad sea, 
in that I begin to shew, either out of the scriptures themselves, or out of the 
ancient writers, how much the holy scripture is of force to teach the truth of 
our religion. But this is it that I am now about, that Christ would have the church, 
his spouse, in all matters of doubt to ask counsel at the word of his Father, 
written and faithfully left, and commended unto it in both Testaments. Neither 
do we read, that Christ in any place hath laid so great a burden upon the members 
of his spouse, that he hath commanded them to go to the universal church. "Whatsoever 
things are written, are written for our learning." Christ gave unto his church, 
"some apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some shepherds and teachers, 
to the edifying of the saints, till we come all to the unity of the faith." But 
that all men should meet together out of all parts of the world, to define the 
articles of our faith, I neither find it commanded by Christ, nor written in the 
word of God. Lat. There is difference between things pertaining to God or faith, 
and politic and civil matters. For in the first we must stand only to the scriptures, 
which are able to make us all perfect and instructed unto salvation, if they be 
well understood. And they offer themselves to be well understood only to them, 
which have good-wills, and give themselves to study and prayer. Neither are there 
any men less apt to understand them, than the prudent and wise men of the world. 
But in the other, that is, in civil and politic matters, oftentimes the magistrates 
tolerate a less evil for avoiding a greater. And it is the property of a wise 
man to dissemble many things, and he that cannot dissemble, cannot rule. In which 
they betrayed themselves, that they do not earnestly weigh what is just, and what 
is not. Wherefore for as much as man's laws, if they be but in this respect only, 
that they be devised by PAGE 803 men, are not able to bring any thing to perfection, 
but are enforced of necessity to suffer many things out of square, and are compelled 
sometimes to wink at the worst things; seeing they know not how to maintain the 
common peace and quiet otherwise, they do ordain that the greater part shall take 
place. You know what these kind of speeches mean; I speak after the manner of 
men; you walk after the manner of men; all men are liars. St. Augustine well saith 
- "If ye live after man's reason, ye do not life after the will of God." Obj. 
If you say that councils have sometimes erred, or may err, how then should we 
believe the catholic church? since councils are gathered by the authority of the 
catholic church. Rid. From "may be," to "be indeed," is no good argument; but 
from "being," to "may be," no man doubteth but it is a most sure argument That 
councils have sometimes erred, it is manifest. How many were there in the eastern 
world, which condemned the Nicene council? and all those who would not forsake 
the same, they called by a slanderous name, Homousians. Were not Athanasius, Chrysostom, 
Cyril, and Eustachius, men very well learned, and of godly life, banished and 
condemned as famous heretics, and that by evil councils? How many things are there 
in the canons and institutions of the councils, which the papists themselves do 
much dislike? But here peradventure one man will say unto me, We will grant you 
this in provincial councils, or councils of some one nation, that they may sometimes 
err, forsomuch as they do not represent the universal church; but it is not to 
be believed, that the general and full councils have erred at any time. I will 
recite one place only out of St. Augustine which, in my judgment, may suffice 
in this matter instead of many. "Who knoweth not that the holy scripture is so 
set before us, that it is not lawful to doubt of it; and that the letters of bishops 
may be reproved by other men's words, and by councils; and that the councils themselves 
which are gathered by provinces and countries, do give place to the authority 
of the general and full councils; and that the former and general councils are 
amended by the latter, when as by some experience of things, either what was shut 
up is opened, or that which was hid is known?" Thus much out of St. Augustine. 
But I will plead our Antonian, upon matter confessed. Here with us as we popery 
reigned, I pray you how doth that book, which was called, "The bishop's book," 
composed in the time of king Henry VIII. whereof the bishop of Winchester is thought 
to be either the first father, or chief gatherer; how doth it sharply reprove 
the Florentine council, in which was decreed the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, 
and that with the consent of the emperor of Constantinople, and of the Grecian 
heads? So that in those days our learned ancient fathers and bishops of England 
did not hesitate to affirm, that a general council might err. But methinks I hear 
another man despising all that I have brought forth, and saying - "These which 
you have called councils, are not worthy to be called councils, but rather assemblies 
and conventicles of heretics." I pray you, Sir, why do you judge them worthy of 
so scandalous a name? Because they decreed things heretical, contrary to sound 
doctrine and true godliness, and against the faith of true religion? The cause 
must be weighty, for which PAGE 804 they ought of right so to be called. But if 
it be so that all councils ought to be despised which decree any thing contrary 
to sound doctrine. and the true word, which is according to godliness, forsomuch 
as the mass such as we had here of late, is openly against the word of God; forsooth, 
it must of necessity follow, that all such councils as have approved such masses, 
ought to be shunned and despised, as conventicles and assemblies that stray from 
the truth. Another man alleged unto me the authority of the bishop of Rome, without 
which, neither can the councils be lawfully gathered, nor being gathered, determine 
any thing concerning religion. But this objection is only grounded upon the ambitious 
and shameless maintenance of the Romish tyranny and usurped dominion over the 
clergy; which tyranny we Englishmen long age, by the consent of the whole realm, 
have expelled and abjured. And how rightly we have done it, a little book set 
for both of the powers doth clearly shew. I grand that the Romish ambition hath 
gone about to challenge itself, and to usurp such a privilege of old time. But 
the council of Carthage, in the year of our Lord 457, did openly withstand it, 
and also the council at Melevite, in which St. Augustine was present, did prohibit 
any applications to be made to bishops beyond the sea. Obj. St. Augustine saith, 
the good men are not to be forsaken for the evil; but the evil are to be borne 
withal for the good. You will not say that in our congregations all be evil. Rid. 
I speak nothing of the goodness or badness of your congregations; but I fight 
in Christ's quarrel against the mass, which doth utterly take away and overthrow 
the ordinance of Christ. Let that be taken quite away, and then the partition 
wall that made the strife shall be broken down. Now to the place of St. Augustine, 
for bearing with the evil for the good's sake, there ought to be added other words, 
which the same writer hath expressed in other places; that is, if those evil men 
do cast abroad no seeds of false doctrine, nor lead others to destruction by their 
example. Obj. It is perilous to attempt any new thing in the church, which lack- 
eth example of good men. How much more so is it to commit any act, unto which 
the examples of the prophets, of Christ, and of the apostles, are contrary? But 
unto this your fact, in abstaining from the church by reason of the mass, the 
examples of the prophets, of Christ, and of the apostles, are clean contrary. 
The first part of the argument is evident, and the second part I prove thus, In 
the times of the prophets of Christ, and his apostles, all things were most corrupt. 
The people were miserably given to superstition, the priests despised the law 
of God; and yet notwithstanding we read not that the prophets made any chisms 
or divisions; and Christ himself frequented the temple, and taught in the temple 
of the Jews. Peter and John went up into the temple at the ninth hour of prayer. 
Paul after the reading of the law, being desired to say something to the people, 
did not refuse to do it. Yea further, no man can shew that either the prophets, 
or Christ, or his apostles, did refuse to pray together with others, to sacrifice, 
or to be partakers of the sacrament of Moses' law. PAGE 805 Rid. I grant the former 
part of your argument; and to the second part I say, that although it contain 
many true things, as of the corrupt state in the times of the prophets, and the 
apostles; and of the temple being frequented by Christ and his apostles; yet the 
second part of your argument is not sufficiently proved. For you ought to have 
proved, that either the prophets, or Christ, or his apostles, did in the temple 
communicate with the people in any kind of worshipping which is forbid- den by 
the law of God, or repugnant to the word of God. But that can no where be shewed. 
And as for the church, I am not angry with it, and I never refused to go to it, 
and to pray with the people, to hear the word of God, and to do all other things 
whatsoever, that may agree with the word of God. St. Augustine, speaking of the 
ceremonies of the Jess, although he grants they grievously oppressed that people, 
both for the number and bondage of the same, yet he calleth them burdens of the 
law, which were delivered unto them in the word of God; not presumptions of men, 
which notwithstanding, if they were not contrary to God's word, might in some 
measure be borne withal. But now, seeing they are contrary to such things as are 
written in the word of God, whether they ought to be borne by any christian, let 
him judge who is spiritual, who feareth God more than man, and loveth everlasting 
life more than this short and transitory one. To that which was said, that my 
fact lacketh example of the godly fathers that have gone before, the contrary 
is most evident in the history of Tobit; of whom it is said, that when all others 
went to the golden calves, which Jeroboam the king of Israel had made, he himself 
alone fled from their company, and got him to Jerusalem unto the Lord, and there 
worshipped the Lord God of Israel. Did not the man of God threaten grievous plagues 
both unto the priests of Bethel, and to the altar which Jeroboam had there made 
after his own fantasy? Which plagues king Josias, the true minister of God, did 
execute at the time appointed. And where do we read, that the prophets or the 
apostles did agree with the people in their idolatry? For what cause, I pray you, 
did the prophets rebuke the people so much, as for their false worshipping of 
God after their own minds, and not after God's word? For what was so much war 
in Israel as for that? Wherefore the false prophets ceased not to accuse the true 
prophets of God: therefore they beat them, and ban- ished them. How else, I pray 
you, can you understand what St. Paul allegeth, when he saith, "What concord hath 
Christ with Belial? or what part hath the believer with the infidel? Or how agreeth 
the temple of God with idols? For ye are the temple of the living God, as God 
himself hath said; I will dwell among them, and will be their God, and they shall 
be my people. Wherefore, come out from among them, and separate yourselves from 
them, and touch no unclean thing; so will I receive you, and be a Father unto 
you, and you shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord God Almighty." Judity, 
that holy woman, would not suffer herself to be defiled with the meats of the 
wicked. All the saints of God, which truly feared God, when they have been provoked 
to do any thing which they knew to be contrary to God's laws, have chose to die 
rather than forsake the laws of their God. Wherefore the Maccabees put themselves 
in danger of death for the defense of the law, and at length died manfully in 
the defense of the PAGE 806 same. If we praise the Maccabees, and that with great 
admiration, because they did stoutly stand even unto death, for the law of their 
country; how much more ought we to suffer all things for our baptism, for the 
sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, and for all the points of his truth? 
As to the supper of the Lord, such a one as Christ commanded us to celebrate, 
the mass utterly abolisheth, and corrupteth most shamefully. Lat. Who am I, that 
should add any thing to this which you have spoken? Nay, I rather thank you, you 
have vouchsafed to minister so plentiful an armour to me, being otherwise altogether 
unarmed, saving, that he cannot be left destitute of help, who rightly trusteth 
in the help of God. I only learn to die in reading of the New Testament, and am 
always praying unto my God, that he will be an helper unto me in the time of need. 
Obj. Seeing you are obstinately set against them mass, as you affirm, because 
it is done in a tongue not understood by the people, and for other causes, I cannot 
tell you what; therefore it is no the true sacra- ment ordained of Christ. I begin 
to suspect you, that you think not catholicly of baptism also. Is our baptism 
which we use in a tongue unknown to the people, that true baptism of Christ, or 
not? If it be, then the strange tongue doth not hurt the mass. If it be not the 
baptism of Christ, tell me how you were baptised. Or will you have, as the anabaptists 
insist, all which were baptised in Latin, baptised again in the English tongue? 
Rid. Although I would wish baptism to be given in the vulgar tongue, for the people's 
sake which are present, that they may the better understand their own profession, 
and also be more able to teach their children the same, yet, notwithstanding, 
there is not like necessity of the vulgar tongue in baptism, as in the Lord's 
supper. Baptism is given to child- ren, who, by reason of their age, are not able 
to understand what is spoken to them, whatsoever it be. The Lord's supper is and 
ought to be given to them that are at years of maturity. Moreover, in baptism, 
which is accustomed to be given to children in the Latin tongue, all the substantial 
points which Christ commanded to be done, are observed. And therefore I judge 
your baptism to be a true baptism: and that it is not only not needful, but also 
not lawful, for any man so baptised, to be baptised again. But yet they ought 
to be taught the catechism of the christian faith, when they come to years of 
discretion: which catechism whosoever despiseth, or will not desirously embrace 
and willingly learn, in my judgment he playeth not the part of a christian. But 
in the popish mass are wanting certain substantials, that is to say, things commanded 
by the word of God, to be observed in the ministration of the Lord's supper; of 
which there is sufficient declaration made before. Lat. Where you say, "I would 
wish," surely I would wish that you had spoken more strongly, and to have said, 
It is of necessity that all things in the congregation should be done in the vulgar 
tongue, for the edifying and comfort of them that are present, notwithstanding 
that the child itself is sufficiently baptised in the Latin tongue. PAGE 807 Obj. 
Forasmuch as I perceive you are so wedded to your opinion, that no gentle exhortations, 
no wholesome counsels, can call you home to a better mind, there remaineth that 
which in like cases was wont to be the only remedy against stubborn persons, that 
you must be hampered by the laws, and compelled to obey; or else suffer that which 
a rebel to the laws ought to suffer. Do you not know, that whosoever refuseth 
to obey the laws of the realm betrayeth himself to be an enemy to his country? 
Do you not know, this is the readiest way to stir up sedition and civil war? It 
is better that you should bear your own sin, than through the example of your 
breach of the common laws, the common quiet should be disturbed. How can you say 
you will be the queen's true subjects, when you openly profess that you will not 
keep her laws? Rid. O heavenly Father, the Father of all wisdom, understanding, 
and true strength, I beseech thee, for thy only Son our Saviour Christ's sake, 
look mercifully upon me, wretched creature, and send thine Holy Spirit into my 
breast, that not only I may understand according to thy wisdom how this pestilent 
and deadly dart is to be borne off, and with what answer it is to be beaten back, 
but also when I must join to fight in the field for the glory of thy name, that 
then I, being strengthened with the defense of thy right hand, may manfully stand 
in the confession of thy faith, and of truth, and continue in the same unto the 
end of my life, through the same our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. Now to the objection. 
I grant it to be reasonable, that he, which by words and gentleness cannot be 
made to yield to that which is right and good, should be bridled by the strait 
correction of the laws: that is to say, He that will not be subject to God's word, 
must be punished by the laws. It is true that is commonly said, "He that will 
not obey the gospel, must be tamed and taught by the rigour of the law." But these 
thing ought to take place against him who refuseth to do that which is right and 
just according to true godliness, not against him who cannot quietly bear superstitions, 
but doth hate and detest from his heart such kind of proceedings, and that for 
the glory of the name of God. To that which you say, a transgressor of the common 
laws betrayeth himself to be an enemy of his country, surely a man ought to look 
unto the nature of the laws, what manner of laws they be which are broken: for 
a faithful christian ought not to think alike of all manner of laws. But that 
saying ought only truly to be understood of such laws as are not con- trary to 
God's word. Otherwise, whosoever love their country in truth, they will always 
judge, if at any time the laws of God and man be the one contrary to the other, 
that a man ought rather to obey God than man. And they that think otherwise, and 
pretend a love to that country, forasmuch as they make their country to fight 
as it were against God, in whom consisteth the only stay of their country, surely 
I think such are to be judged most deadly enemies and traitors to their country. 
For they that fight against God, who is the safety of their country, what do they 
else but go about to bring upon their country a present ruin and destruction! 
But this is the readiest way, you say, to stir up sedition, to trouble the quiet 
of the commonwealth; therefore are these things to be repressed in time by force 
of law. Behold, Satan doth not cease to practise his old guiles and accustomed 
subtleties. He hath ever his dart in readiness to hurl against his adversaries, 
to accuse them of sedi- tion, that he may bring them, if he can, in danger of 
the higher powers. PAGE 808 For so hath he by his ministers always charged the 
prophets of God. Ahab said unto Elias, "Art thou he that troubleth Israel?" The 
false prophets also complained to their princes of Jeremy, that his words were 
seditious, and not to be suffered. Did not the scribes and pharisees falsely accuse 
Christ as a seditious person, and one that spake against Caesar? Did they not 
at last cry, "If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend?" The orator 
Tertullus, how doth he accuse Paul before Felix the high deputy? "We have found 
this man a pestilent fel- low, and stirrer of sedition, unto all the Jews in the 
whole world." But, I pray you, were these men, as they were called, seditious 
persons? Christ, Paul, and the prophets? God forbid But they were by false men 
falsely accused. And for what, I pray you, but because they reproved before the 
people their guiles, superstition, and deceits? For that which was objected last, 
that he cannot be a faithful subject to his prince, who professeth openly that 
he will not observe the laws which the prince hath made; here I would wish that 
I might have an impartial judge, and one that feareth God, to whose judgment in 
this cause I promise I will stand. I answer, therefore, a man ought to obey his 
prince, but in the Lord, and never against the Lord. For he that know- ingly obeyeth 
him against God, doth not a duty to the prince, but is a deceiver, and a helper 
unto him to work his own destruction. He is also unjust who giveth not to the 
prince that which is the prince's, and to God that which is God's. Here cometh 
to my remembrance that notable saying of Valentinian the emperor, for choosing 
the bishop of Milan - "Set him in the bishop's seat, to whom, if we, as men, do 
offend at any time, we may submit ourselves." Polycarp the most constant martyr, 
when he stood before the chief rulers, and was commanded to blaspheme Christ, 
and to swear by the fortune of Caesar, answered with a mild spirit - "We are taught 
to give honour unto princes, and those powers which be of God; but such honour 
as is not contrary to God's religion." Thus the answers to the objector appear 
at present to end: what fellows seems to have been addressed by Ridley to Latimer 
in a more private conference. "Hitherto you see, good father, how I have in word 
only made, as it were, a flourish before the fight, which I shortly look for, 
and how I have begun to prepare certain kinds of weapons to fight against the 
adversary of Christ, and to muse with myself how the darts of the old enemy may 
be borne off, and after what manner I may smite him again with the sword of the 
Spirit. I learn also to accustom myself to armour, and to try how I can go armed. 
In Tynedale, where I was born, not far from the borders of Scotland, I have known 
my countrymen to watch night and day in their harness, such as they had, and their 
spears in their hands, especially when they had any private warning of the coming 
of the Scots. And so doing, although at every such bickering some of them spent 
their lives, yet by such means, like valiant men, they defended their country. 
And those that so died, I think that before God they died in a good quarrel, and 
their offspring sake. And in the quarrel of Christ our Saviour, in the defence 
of his own divine ordinances, by which he giveth PAGE 809 unto us life and immorality; 
yea, in the quarrel of faith and the chris- tian religion, wherein resteth our 
everlasting salvation, shall we not watch? Shall we not go always armed? Always 
looking when our adversary shall come upon us by reason of our slothfulness? Yea, 
and woe be unto us if he can oppress us unawares, which undoubtedly he will do, 
if he find us sleeping. Let us awake, therefore; for if the good man of the house 
knew at what hour the thief would come, he would surely watch, and not suffer 
his house to be broken up. Let us awake, therefore, I say: let us not suffer our 
house to be broken up. 'Resist the devil, and he will fly from you.' Let us resist 
him manfully, and taking the cross upon our shoulders, let us follow our captain 
Christ, who, by his own blood, hath dedicated and hallowed the way which leadeth 
unto the Father, that is, to the light which no man can attain, the fountain of 
everlasting joys. Let us follow, I say, whither he calleth and inviteth us, that 
after these afflictions, which last but for a moment, whereby he trieth our faith, 
as gold by the fire, we may everlastingly reign and triumph with him in the glory 
of the Father, and that through the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; 
to whom, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, now and 
for ever, Amen. Amen. "Good father, forasmuch as I have determined with myself 
to pour forth these my cogitations into thy bosom, here, methinks, I see you suddenly 
lifting up your head towards heaven, after your manner, and then looking upon 
me with your prophetical countenance, say, 'Trust not, my son, to these word-weapons; 
for the kingdom of God is not in word, but in power.' And remember always the 
words of the Lord: 'Do not imagine beforehand, what and how you will speak; for 
it shall be given you in the same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not you 
that speak, but the spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.' I pray you, 
therefore, father, pray for me, that I may cast my whole care upon him, and trust 
upon him in all perils. For I know, and am surely persuaded, that what- soever 
I can imagine or think beforehand it is nothing, except he assist me with his 
Spirit when the time is. I beseech you therefore father, pray for me, that such 
a complete harness of the Spirit, such a boldness of mind, may be given unto me, 
that I may out of a true faith say with David, 'I will not trust in my bow, and 
it is not my sword that shall save me. For he hath no pleasure in the strength 
of an horse: but the Lord's delight is in them that fear him, and put their trust 
in his mercy.' I beseech you pray, pray that I may enter this fight only in the 
name of God, and that when all is past, I being not overcome, through his gracious 
aid, may remain and stand fast in him till that day of the Lord, in which to them 
that obtain the victory shall be given the lively manna to eat, and a triumphant 
crown for evermore. Now, father, I pray you to help me to buckle on this harness 
a little better. For you know the deepness of Satan, being an old solider, and 
you have collared with him ere now; blessed be God, who hath ever aided you so 
well. I suppose he may well hold you at the bay. But truly he will not be so willing, 
I think, to join with you as with us youngsters. Sir, I beseech you, let your 
servant read this unto you, and now and then, as it shall seem unto you best, 
let your pen run in my book: spare not to blot my paper; I give you good leave." 
PAGE 810 To this admirable communication of Ridley, Latimer returned the follow- 
ing characteristic answer. "Sir, I have caused my man not only to read your armour 
unto me, but also to write it out, for it is not only solid armour, but also well 
buckled armour. I see not how it could be better. I thank you even from the bottom 
of my heart for it, and my prayers you shall not lack, trusting that you do the 
like for me; for indeed there is the 'help in time of need.' And if I were learned 
as well as St. Paul, I would not bestow much amongst them, further than gall them, 
and spur-gall too, when and where occasion were given, and matter came to mind; 
for the law shall be our sheet-anchor, stay, and refuge. Therefore there is no 
remedy, now when they have the master-bowl in their hand, but patience. Better 
is it to suffer what cruelly they will put upon us, than to incur God's high indignation. 
Wherefore, my good lord, be of good cheer in the Lord, with due consideration 
what he requireth of you, and what he doth promise you. Our common enemy shall 
do no more than God will permit him. God is faithful, who will not suffer us to 
be tempted above our strength. Be at a point what you will stand unto; stick unto 
that, and let them both say and do what they list. They can but kill the body, 
which otherwise is of itself mortal. Neither yet shall they do that when they 
list, but as God will suffer them, when the hour appointed is come. It will be 
but in vain to use many words with them, now they have a bloody and deadly law 
prepared for you. "The number of the criers under the altar must needs be fulfilled: 
if we be separated thereunto, happy be we. That is the greatest promotion that 
God giveth in this world, to be such Philippines, 'to whom it is given not only 
to believe, but also to suffer for the sake of Christ.' But who is able to do 
these things? Surely all our ability, all our sufficiency is of God. He requireth 
and promiseth. Let us declare our obedience to his will when it shall be requisite 
in the time of trouble, yea, in the midst of the fire. When the number that cry 
under the altar is fulfilled which I suppose will be shortly, then have at the 
papists, when they shall say, Peace, all things are safe, when Christ shall come 
to keep his great parliament to redress all things that are amiss. But he shall 
not come as the papists feign him, to hide himself, and to play bo-peep as it 
were under a piece of bread; but he shall come gloriously, to the terror and fear 
of all his enemies and to the great consolation and comfort of all that will here 
suffer for him. Comfort yourselves and one another with these words. "Lo, Sir, 
here have I blotted your paper vainly, and played the fool egregiously; but so 
I thought better than not to fulfil your request at this time. Pardon me, and 
pray for me; pray for me I say, pray for me. For I am sometimes so fearful, that 
I would creep into a mouse-hole; sometimes God doth visit me again with his comfort. 
So he cometh and goeth, to teach me to feel and to know mine infirmity, to the 
intent to give thanks to him that is worthy, lest I should rob him of his due, 
as so many do, and almost all the world. What belief is to be given to papists 
may appear by their racking, writing, wrenching, and monstrously PAGE 811 injuring 
of God's holy scripture, as appeareth in the pop's law. But I dwell here now in 
a school of forgetfulness. Fare you well once again, and be you steadfast and 
unmoveable in the Lord. Paul loved Timothy marvellously well, notwithstanding 
he saith unto him - Be thou partaker of the afflictions of the gospel;' and again, 
'Harden thyself to suffer afflictions. Be faithful unto death, and I will give 
thee a crown of life.'" The following letter is an interesting communication from 
Ridley to Bradford and his prison-fellows in the King's Bench, Southwark, 1554. 
"Well beloved in Christ our Saviour, we all with one heart wish to you, with all 
those that love God in deed and truth, grace and health, and especially to our 
dearly beloved companions which are in Christ's cause, and the cause of both of 
their brethren and of their own salvation, to put their neck willingly under the 
yoke of Christ's cross. How joyful it was to us to hear the report of Dr. Taylor, 
and of his godly confes- sion, I assure you it is hard for me to express. Blessed 
be God, which was and is the giver of that, and of all godly strength and support 
in the time of adversity. As for the rumors that have or do go abroad, either 
of our relenting or massing, we trust, that they which know God and their duty 
towards their brethren in Christ, will not be too easy of belief. For it is not 
the slanderer's evil tongue, but a man's evil deed that can with God defile a 
man; and, therefore, with God's grace, you shall never have cause to do otherwise 
than you say you do, that is, not to doubt but that we will by God's grace continue 
steadfast and unmove- able. Like rumours as you have heard of our coming to London, 
have been here spread of the coming of certain learned men prisoners hither from 
London; but as yet we known no certainty which of these rumours is or shall be 
more true. Know you that we have you in our daily remembrance, and which you all 
the rest of our foresaid companions well in Christ. "It would much comfort us, 
if we might have knowledge of the state of the rest of our most dearly beloved, 
which in this troublesome time do stand in Christ's cause, and in the defence 
of the truth thereof. We have heard somewhat of Mr. Hooper's matter, but nothing 
of the rest. We long to hear of father Crome, Dr. Sands, Mr. Saunders, Veron, 
Beacon, Rogers, and others. We are in good health, thanks be to God, and yet the 
manner of using us doth change as sour ale in summer. It is reported to us by 
our keepers, that the university beareth us heavily. A coal happened to fall in 
the night out of the chimney, and burnt a hole in the floor, and no more harm 
was done, the bailiff's servant sitting by the fire. Another night there chanced, 
as the bailiffs told us, a drunk- en fellow to multiply words, and for the same 
he was set in Bocardo. Upon these things, as is reported, there is a rumour risen 
in the town and country about, that we would have broke the prison with such violence, 
as that if the Bailiffs had not played the pretty men, we should have made an 
escape. We had out of our prison a wall that we might have walked upon, and our 
servants had liberty to go abroad in the town or fields, but now both they and 
we are restrained from both. PAGE 812 "My lord of Worchester passed through Oxford, 
but he did not visit us. The same day or restraint began to be more close, and 
the book of the communion was taken from us by the bailiffs at the mayor's command, 
as the bailiffs did report to us. No man is licensed to come unto us; before they 
might, that would see us upon the wall, but that is so grudged at, and so evil 
reported, that we are not restrained. Blessed be God, with all our evil reports, 
grudges, and restraints, we are merry in God, all our care is and shall be, by 
God's grace, to please and serve him, of whom we look and hope, after these temporal 
and momentary miser- ies, to have eternal joy and perpetual felicity with Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, Peter, and Paul, and all the heavenly company of the angels 
in heaven, through Jesus Christ our Lord. As yet there has no learned man, nor 
any scholar, been to visit us since we came into Bocardo, which now in Oxford 
may be called a college of Quondams. For as you know we are no fewer than three, 
and I dare say every one well contented with this portion, which I do reckon to 
be our heavenly Father's good and gracious gift. Thus fare you well. We shall, 
by God's grace, one day meet together, and be merry. The day assuredly aproacheth 
apace; the Lord grant that it may shortly come. For before that day come, I fear 
the world will wax worse and worse. But then all our enemies shall be overthrown 
and trodden under foot: righteousness and truth then shall have the victory, and 
bear the bell away, whereof the Lord grant us to be partakers, and all that love 
truly the truth. "We all pray you, as we can, to cause all our commendations to 
be made unto all such as you know did visit us and you when we were in the Tower, 
with their friendly remembrances and benefits. Mrs. Wilkinson and Mrs. Warcup 
have not forgotten us, but ever since we came to Bocardo, with their charitable 
and friendly benevolence have comforted us: not that else we did lack, (for God 
be blessed, he hath always sufficiently provided for us) but that is a great comfort, 
and an occasion for us to bless God, when we see that he maketh them so friendly 
to tender us, whom some of us were never familiarly acquainted withal." A selection 
only of letters of Ridley can be made. The next deserving special attention is 
one addressed generally to all his suffering brethren through the country. "Grace, 
peace, and mercy, be multiplied among you. What worthy thanks can we render unto 
the Lord for you, my brethren; namely, for the great consolation which, through 
you, we have received in the Lord, who, notwithstanding the rage of Satan, that 
goeth about by all manner of subtle means to beguile the world, and also busily 
laboureth to restore and set up his kingdom again, that of late began to decay 
and fall to ruin; you remain yet still immoveable, as men surely grounded upon 
a PAGE 813 strong rock. And now, albeit that Satan by his soldiers and wicked 
ministers, daily draweth numbers unto him, so that it is said of him, that he 
plucketh the very stars out of heaven, while he driveth into some men the fear 
of death, and loss of all their goods, and sheweth to others the pleasant baits 
of the world; namely, riches, wealth, and all kinds of delights and pleasures, 
fair houses, great revenues, fat bene- ficies, and what not; and all to the intent 
that they should fall down and worship, not the Lord, but the dragon, the old 
serpent, which is the devil, that great beast and his image, and should be enticed 
to commit fornication with the strumpet of Babylon, together with the kings of 
the earth, with the lesser beast, and with the false prophets, and so to rejoice 
and be pleasant with her, and go get drunk with the wine of her fornication: yet 
blessed be God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which hath given unto you 
a manly courage, and hath so strengthened you in the inward man, by the power 
of his Spirit, that you can contemn so well all the allurements of the world, 
esteeming them as vanities, mere trifles, and things of nought; who hath also 
wrought, planted, and surely established in your hearts, so steadfast a faith 
and love of the Lord Jesus Christ, joined with such constancy, that by no engines 
of antichrist, be they ever so terrible or plausible, you will suffer any other 
Jesus, or any other Christ, to be forced upon you, besides him whom the prophets 
have spoken of before, the apostles have preached, the holy martyrs of God have 
confessed and testified with the effusion of their blood. "In this faith stand 
you fast, my brethren, and suffer not yourselves to be brought under the yoke 
of bondage and superstition any more. For you know, brethren, how our Saviour 
warned us before hand, that such should come as would point unto the world another 
Christ, and would set him out with so many false miracles, and with such deceivable 
and subtle prac- tices, that even the very elect, if it were possible, should 
thereby be deceived: such strong delusion to come did our Saviour give warning 
of before. But continue you faithful and constant, and be of good comfort, and 
remember that our great captain hath overcome the world: for he that is in us 
is stronger than he that is in the world, and the Lord promis- eth us, that for 
the elect's sake, the days of wickedness shall be shortened. In the mean season 
abide you and endure with patience as you have begun: 'Endure,' I say, and 'reserve 
yourselves unto better times,' as one of the heathen poets said; cease not to 
shew yourselves valiant soldiers of the Lord, and help to maintain the travailing 
faith of the gospel. "'You have need of patience, that after you have done the 
will of God you may receive the promises. For yet a very little, and he that shall 
come, will come, and will not tarry; and the just shall live by faith: but if 
any withdraw himself, my soul shall have no pleasure in him.' These are the words 
of the living God. 'But we are not they which do withdraw ourselves unto damnation, 
but they which believe unto the salvation of the soul.' Let us not suffer these 
words of Christ to fall out of our hearts by any manner of terror, or threatenings 
of the world. 'Fear not them which kill the body,' the rest you know. For I write 
not unto you, as men which are ignorant of the truth, but who know the truth; 
and to this end only, that we agreeing together in one faith, may PAGE 814 comfort 
one another, and be more confirmed and strengthened thereby. We never had a better, 
or more just cause either to contemn our life, or shed our blood; we cannot take 
in hand the defence of a more certain, clear, and manifest truth. For it is not 
any ceremony for which we contend; but it toucheth the very substance of our whole 
religion, yea, even Christ himself. Shall we, or can we receive any other Christ 
instead of him, who is alone the everlasting Son of the everlasting Father, and 
is the brightness of the glory, and a lively image of the substance of the Father, 
in whom only dwelleth corporeally the fulness of the Godhead, who is the only 
way, the truth, and the life? Let such sickedness, let such horrible wickedness 
be far from us. For although there be that be called gods, whether in heaven or 
in earth, as there may be many gods, and many lords, yet unto us there is but 
one God, who is the Father, of whom are all things, and we by him; but every man 
hath not knowledge. This is life eternal, that they know thee to be the only true 
God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent. If any therefore would force upon us 
any other God, besides him who Paul and the apostles have taught, let us not hear 
him, but let us fly from, and hold him accursed. "Brethren, you are not ignorant 
of the deep and profound subtleties of Satan; for he will not cease to range about 
you, seeking by all means possible whom he may devour: but you play you the men, 
and be of good comfort in the Lord. And although your enemies and the adversaries 
of the truth, armed with all worldly force and power that may be, do set upon 
you: yet be you not faint-hearted, and shrink not therefore, but trust unto your 
captain Christ, trust unto the Spirit of truth, and trust to the truth of your 
cause; which as it may by the malice of Satan be darkened, so can it never be 
clean put out. For we have most plainly, evidently, and clearly on our side, all 
the prophets, all the apostles, and undoubtedly all the ancient ecclesiastical 
writers which have written, until of late years past. "Let us be hearty and of 
good courage therefore, and thoroughly comfort ourselves in the Lord. Be in no 
wise afraid of your adversaries; for that which is to them an occasion of perdition, 
is to you a sure token of salvation, and that of God. For unto you it is given, 
that not only you should believe on him, but also suffer for his sake. And when 
you are railed upon for the name of Christ, remember that by the voice of Peter, 
yea, and of Christ our Saviour also, ye are counted with the prophets, with the 
apostles, and with the holy martyrs of Christ, happy and blessed for ever: for 
the glory and Spirit of God resteth upon you. On their part our Saviour Christ 
is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. For what can they else do 
unto you by persecuting you, and working all cruelty and villany against you, 
but make your crowns more glorious, yea beautify and multiply the same, and heap 
upon themselves the horrible plagues and heavy wrath of God? and therefore, good 
breth- ren, though they rage ever so fiercely against us, yet let us not wish 
evil unto them again, knowing that while for Christ's cause they vex and persecute 
us, they are like madmen, most outrageous and cruel against themselves, heaping 
hot burning coals upon their own heads: but rather wish well unto them, knowing 
that we are thereunto called in Christ PAGE 815 Jesus, that we should be heirs 
of the blessing. Let us pray therefore unto God, that he would drive out of their 
hearts this darkness of errors, and make the light of his truth to shine unto 
them, that they acknowledging their blindness, may with all humble repentance 
be converted unto the Lord, and with us confess him to be the only true God, which 
is the Father of light, and his only Son Jesus Christ, worshipping him in spirit 
and truth. The Spirit of our Lord Jesus Christ comfort your hearts in the love 
of God, and patience of Christ, Amen. Your brother in the Lord, whose name this 
bearer shall signify unto you, ready always by the grace of God to live and die 
with you." Grindal, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, was at this time an exile 
in the city of Frankfort. Thence he addressed a letter to bishop Ridley, lamenting 
his sufferings, and entreating him to be constant and valiant for the truth. In 
the course of the letter he desires to know the mind of Ridley in regard to printing 
a manuscript of his on the subject of transubstantiation. Ridley answers that 
he does nor think it worth while to translate or print the work till it is seen 
how he, the author, is likely to be disposed. There is nothing in the other parts 
of his answer to Grindal that is remarkable, unless it be the following paragraph, 
which shews him to have been a man of humour and wit as well as true wisdom and 
virtue: "Of us three prisoners at Oxford, I am kept most strict; because the man 
in whose house I am a prisoner is governed by his wife - a morose superstitious 
old woman, who thinks she shall merit by having me closely confined. The man himself, 
whose name is Irish, is civil enough to all, but too much ruled by his wife. Though 
I never had a wife, yet from this daily usage I begin to understand how great 
and intolerable a burden it is to have a bad one. The wise man says rightly - 
a good wife is the gift of God, and he who has a good wife is a blessed man." 
Having commenced this chapter with a sketch of the life of Ridley, it will now 
be proper to review the leading incidents in the history of Latimer. He was the 
son of Hugh Latimer, of Thurcaster, in the county of Leicester, a husbandman in 
good repute, with whom he was brought up till he was about four years old: when 
his parents, seeing him to be of a ready, prompt, and sharp wit, purposed to train 
him up to literature; wherein he so profited in the common schools of his own 
country, that at fourteen years of age he was sent to the university of Cambridge: 
where, after some continuance in the exercise of other things, he devoted himself 
to the school divinity of that age. Zealous he was then in the popish religion, 
and therewith so scrupulous, as himself confessed, that being a priest, and officiating 
at the mass, he was so servile an observer of the Romish decrees, that he thought 
he had never sufficient- ly mingled his massing wine with water; and moreover, 
that he should never be damned, if he were once a professed friar, with many such 
superstitious fantasies. And in this blind zeal his was a great enemy to the professors 
of Christ's gospel; as both his oration, when he commenced bachelor of divinity, 
against Melancthon, and his other works, plainly declared. He also was strongly 
excited against Mr. Stafford, reader of the divinity lectures in Cambridge, at 
whom he most spitefull railed, and persuaded the youth of Cambridge in no wise 
to believe him. PAGE 816 Notwithstanding, such was the purpose of God, that when 
he saw his good time, by which he though utterly to have defaced the professors 
of the gospel, and true church of Christ, he was himself by a member of the same 
caught in the blessed net of God's word. For Mr. Thomas Bilney, seeing Mr. Latimer 
to have a zeal, although not according to knowledge, felt a brotherly pity towards 
him, and began to consider by what means he might win this zealous ignorant brother 
to the truth. Wherefore, after a short time, he came to Mr. Latimer's study, and 
desired him to hear his confession, which he willingly did; when he was, by the 
good Spirit of God, so touched, that immediately he forsook the study of the School-doctors, 
and other such fopperies, and became an earnest student in true divinity. So that 
whereas before he was an enemy, and almost a persecutor of Christ, he was now 
a zealous seeker after him, changing his old manner of cavilling and railing, 
into a diligent kind of conferring, both with Mr. Bilney and others, and went 
also to Mr. Stafford before he died, and desired his forgiveness. After his own 
conversion, he was not satisfied without endeavouring to bring about that of others. 
He therefore became both a public preacher, and a private instructor to the rest 
of his brethren within the univers- ity, for the space of three years, spending 
his time partly in the Latin tongue among the learned, and partly amongst the 
simple people in his native language. But the Prince of darkness soon found a 
means to disturb this happy state. There was an Augustine friar, who took occasion 
upon certain sermons of Mr. Latimer, which he preached about Christmas, 1529, 
as well in the church of St. Edward, as also in that of St. Augustine, within 
the university of Cambridge, to inveigh against him, because Mr. Latimer in the 
said sermons, according to the common usage of the season, gave the people certain 
cards out of the 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of St. Matthew, whereupon they might, 
not only then, but at all other times, occupy their time. For the chief triumph 
in the cards he limited the heart, as the principal thing they should serve God 
withal, whereby he quite overthrew all hypocritical and external ceremo- nies, 
not tending to the necessary furtherance of God's holy word and sacraments. For 
the better attaining hereof, he wished the scriptures to be in English, in order 
that the common people might be better enabled to learn their duty to God and 
to their neighbours. His treat- ment of this subject was so apt for the time, 
and so pleasantly applied by him, that it not only declared the wit and dexterity 
of the preacher, but also wrought in the hearers much fruit, to the overthrow 
of popish superstition. This happened on the Sunday before Christmas day; on which 
day coming to the church, he entered the pulpit, taking his tent the words of 
the gospel aforesaid, "Who art thou?" &c. And in delivering the cards as above 
mentioned, he made the heart to be Triumph, exhorting and inviting all men thereby 
to serve the Lord with inward heart and true affection, PAGE 817 and not with 
outward ceremonies: adding moreover, to the praise of that Triumph, that though 
it were ever so small, yet it would take up the best court card beside in the 
bunch, yea, though it were the king of clubs: meaning thereby how the Lord would 
be worshipped and served in simplicity of heart and verity, wherein consisteth 
true christian reli- gion, and not in the outward deeds of the letter only, or 
in the glit- tering shew of man's traditions, or pardons, pilgrimages, ceremonies, 
vows, devotions, voluntary works, and works of supererogation, founda- tions, 
oblations, the pope's supremacy, &c. so that all these either were needless, 
where the other is present; or else were of small estima- tion, in comparison 
of the other. As these sermons were so important in their consequences, we here 
present the reader with the following beautiful extract from one of them, written 
in Cambridge about the year of our Lord 1529:- "Tu quis es? Which words are as 
much as to say in English, "Who art thou?' These be the words of the Pharisees, 
which were sent by the Jews unto John the Baptist in the wilderness, to have knowledge 
of him who he was; which words they spake unto him of an evil intent, thinking 
that he would have taken on him to be Christ, and so they would have had him done 
by their good wills, because they knew that he was more carnal and given to their 
laws, than Christ indeed should be, as they perceived by their old prophecies: 
and also, because they marvelled much at his great doctrine, preaching, and baptising, 
they were in doubt whether he was Christ or not: wherefore they said unto him, 
"Who art thou?" Then answered John, and confessed that he was not Christ. Now 
here is to be noted the great and prudent answer of John the Baptist unto the 
Pharisees, that when they required of him who he was, he would not directly answer 
of himself, what he was himself; but he said he was not Christ, by which saying 
he thought to put the Jews and Pharisees out of their false opinion and belief 
towards him, in that they would have had him to exercise the office of Christ, 
and so declared further unto them of Christ saying - "He is in the midst of you, 
and amongst you, whom he know not, the latchet of whose show I am not worthy to 
unloose." By this you may perceive that St. John spake much in the praise of his 
master Christ, professing himself to be in no wise like unto him. So likewise 
it shall be necessary unto all men and women of this world, not to ascribe unto 
themselves any goodness of themselves, but all unto our Lord God, as shall appear 
hereafter, when this question Who art thou? shall be moved unto them: not as the 
Pharisees did unto John, from an evil purpose, but of a good and simple mind, 
as may appear hereafter. "Now then, according to the preacher, let every man and 
woman, of a good and simple mind, contrary to the Pharisees' intent, ask this 
question - Who art thou? This question must be moved to themselves, what they 
be of themselves, on this fashion - What art thou of thy only and natural generation 
between father and mother, when thou camest into the world? What substance, what 
virtue, what goodness art thou of thyself? Which question, if thou reherse oftentimes 
to thyself, thou shalt well perceive and understand, how thou shalt make answer 
to it: which must be PAGE 818 made in this wise: I am of myself, and by myself, 
coming from my natural father and mother, the child of the anger and indignation 
of God, the true inheritor of hell, except I have better help of another, than 
I have of myself. Now we may see in what state we enter into this world, that 
we be of ourselves the true and just inheritors of hell, the child- ren of the 
ire and indignation of Christ, working all towards hell, whereby we deserve of 
ourselves perpetual damnation, by the right judgment of god and the true claim 
of ourselves: which unthrifty state that we be born unto is come unto us for our 
own deserts, as proveth well this example following. "Let it be admitted for the 
probation of this, that it might please the king's grace now being, to accept 
into his favour a mean man, of simple degree and birth, not born to any possessions; 
whom the king's grace favoureth, not because this person hath of himself deserved 
any such favour, but that the king casteth his favour unto him of his own mere 
motion and fancy: and because the king's grace will more declare his favour unto 
him, he giveth unto this said man a thousand pounds in lands, to him and his heirs, 
on this condition, that he shall take upon him to be the chief captain and defender 
of his town of Calais, and to be true and faithful to him in the custody of the 
same, against the Frenchmen especially above all other enemies. This man then 
taketh on him this charge, promising this fidelity thereunto; it chanceth in process 
of time, that by the singular acquaintance and frequent famil- iarity of this 
captain with the Frenchmen, these Frenchmen give unto the said captain of Calais 
a great sum of money, so that he will be but content and agreeable, that they 
may enter into the said town of Calais by force of arms, and so thereby possess 
the same unto the crown of France. Upon this agreement the Frenchmen do invade 
the said town of Calais, only by the negligence of this captain. "Now the king 
hearing of this invasion, cometh with a great puissance to defend this his said 
town, and so by good policy of war overcometh the said Frenchmen, and entereth 
again into his town of Calais. Then he being desirous to know how these enemies 
of his came thither, maketh strict search and inquiry by whom this treason was 
conspired; by this search it was known and found his own captain to be the very 
author and the beginner of the betraying it. The king seeing the great infidelity 
of this person, dischargeth this man of his office, and taketh from him and his 
heirs this thousand pounds' possessions. Think you not that the king doth use 
justice unto him, and all his posterity and heirs? Yes truly, the said captain 
cannot deny himself but that he had true justice, considering how unfaithfully 
he behaved himself to his prince, contrary to his own fidelity and promise: so 
likewise it was of our first father Adam. He had given unto him the spirit and 
science of knowledge, to work all goodness therewith; this said spirit was not 
given only to him, but unto all his heirs and posterity. He had also delivered 
him the town of Calais, that is to say, paradise in earth, the most strong and 
fairest town in the world, to be in his custody: he nevertheless, by the instigation 
of these Frenchmen, that is, the temptation of the fiend, did consent unto their 
desire, and so he broke his promise and fidelity, the commandment of the everlasting 
King his master. PAGE 819 "Now then, the king seeing this great treason in his 
captain, dispos- sessed him of the thousand pounds' of lands, that is to say, 
from ever- lasting life and glory, and all his heirs and posterity: for likewise 
as he had the spirit of science and knowledge for him and his heirs; so in like 
manner when he lost the same, his heirs also lost it by him, and in him. So now 
this example proveth, that by our father Adam we had once in him the very inheritance 
of everlasting joy; and by him, and in him again we lost the same. The heirs of 
the captain of Calais could not by any manner of claim ask of the king the right 
and title of their father in the thousand pounds, by reason the king might answer 
and say unto them, that although their father deserved not of himself to enjoy 
so great possessions, yet he deserved by himself to lose them, and greater, committing 
so high treason as he did, against his prince's commandment; whereby he had no 
wrong to lose his title, but was unworthy to have the same, and had therein true 
justice; let not you think, which be his heirs, that if he had justice to lose 
his possessions, you have wrong to lose the same. "In the same manner it may be 
answered unto all men and women now in being, that if our father Adam had true 
justice to be excluded from his possessions of everlasting glory in paradise, 
let us not think the contrary that be his heirs, but that we have no wrong in 
losing also the same; yea, we have true justice and right. Then in what miserable 
estate we are, that of the right and just title of our own deserts have lost the 
everlasting joy, and claim of ourselves to be true inheritors of hell! For he 
that committeth deadly sin willingly, bindeth himself to be an inheritor of everlasting 
pain: and so did our forefather Adam willingly eat of the apple forbiddon. Wherefore 
he was cast out of the everlasting joy in paradise, into this corrupt world among 
all vileness, whereby of himself he was not worthy to do any thing laudable or 
pleas- ant to God, evermore bound to corrupt affections and beastly appetites, 
transformed into the uncleanest and most variable nature that was made under heaven, 
of whose seed and disposition all the world is lineally descended; insomuch that 
this evil nature is so much diffused and shed from one into another, that at this 
day there is no man or woman living, who can of themselves wash away this abominable 
vileness: and so we must needs grant ourselves to be in like displeasure unto 
God, as our father Adam was; by reason hereof, as I said, we are of ourselves 
the very children of the indignation of God, the true inheritors of hell, and 
working all towards hell, which is the answer to this question, made to every 
man and woman by themselves - Who art thou? "And now the world standing in this 
damnable state, cometh in the occasion of the incarnation of Christ; the Father 
in heaven perceiving the frail nature of man, that he by himself and of himself 
could do nothing for himself, by his prudent wisdom sent down the second person 
in the Trinity, his Son Jesus Christ, to declare unto man his pleasure and commandment: 
and so at the Father's will, Christ took on him human nature, being willing to 
deliver man out of this miserable way, and was content to suffer cruel passion 
in shedding his blood for all mankind, PAGE 820 and so left behind for our safeguard, 
laws and ordinances, to keep us always in the right path unto everlasting life, 
as the gospels, the sacraments, the commandments; which if we do keep and observe 
according to our profession, we shall answer better unto this question - 'Who 
art thou? than we did before: for before thou didst enter into the sacrament of 
baptism, thou wert by a natural man or our natural woman; as I might say, a man, 
a woman; but after thou takest on thee Christ's religion, thou hast a longer name; 
for then thou art a christian man, a christian woman. Now then, seeing thou art 
a christian man, what shall be the answer of this question - 'Who art thou?' "The 
answer of this question is, when I ask it unto myself, I must say that I am a 
christian man, a christian woman, the child of everlasting joy, through the merits 
of the bitter passion of Christ. This is a joyful answer. Here we may see how 
much we are bound and indebted unto God, that hath revived us from death of life, 
and saved us that were condemned; which great benefit we cannot well consider 
unless we remem- ber what we were of ourselves before we meddled with him or his 
laws: and the more we know our feeble nature, and set less by it, the more we 
shall conceive and know in our hearts what God hath done for us: and the more 
we know what God hath done for us, the less we shall set by our- selves, and the 
more we shall love and please God; so that in no condi- tion we shall either know 
ourselves or God, except we utterly confess ourselves to be mere vileness and 
corruption. Well now it is come unto this point, that we are christian men, christian 
women, I pray you, what doth Christ require of a christian man, or of a christian 
woman? Christ requireth nothing else of a christian man or woman, but that they 
will observe his rules." To relate at full the alarm the preaching of this and 
the other sermons occasioned at Cambridge, would require too much time and space. 
And prior of Black Friars, named Buckenham, attempted to prove that it was not 
expedient for the scripture to be in English, lest the ignorant and vulgar sort, 
through the occasion thereof, might be brought in danger of leaving their vocations, 
or else of running into some inconvenience. As an example he said, "The ploughman, 
when he heareth this in the gospel, "No man that layeth his hand on the plough 
and looketh back, is meet for the kingdom of God,' might peradventure cease from 
his plough. Likewise the baker, when he hears that a little leaven corrupteth 
a whole lump of dough, may perchance leave our bread unleasvened, and so our bodies 
shall be unseasoned. Also the simple man, when he heareth in the gospel, 'If thine 
eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee,' may make himself blind, 
and so fill the world with beggars." These, when some others, this clerkly friar 
brought out, to prove his purpose of keeping scripture in a strange tongue, and 
from the common people! Mr. Latimer hearing the sermon of Buckenham, came shortly 
after the church to answer him. To hear him came a multitude, as well of the university 
as of the town, both doctors and other graduates, with great expectation to learn 
what he could say: among whom also, directly in the face of Latimer, underneath 
the pulpit, sat Buckenham, with his black friar's cowl about his shoulders. Then 
Latimer, first repeating the PAGE 821 reason of Buckenham, whereby he would prove 
it a dangerous thing for the vulgar to have the scriptures in their own tongue, 
so refuted the friar, so answered to his objections, so ridiculed his bald reason 
of the ploughman looking back, of the baker leaving his bread unleavened, and 
of the simple man plucking out his eye, that the vanity of the friar might to 
all men appear, well proving and declaring to the people, that there was no such 
danger from the scriptures being in English. And proceeding moreover in his sermon, 
he began to discourse of the mystical speeches and figurative phrases of the scriptures; 
which he said were not so diffuse and difficult as pretended. Besides this Buckenham, 
there was also another railing friar, a doctor and a foreigner, named Venetus, 
who likewise in his sermons railed and raged against Mr. Latimer, calling him 
a mad and brainless man, and persuading the people not to believe him. To whom 
Mr. Latimer answering again, took for his ground the words of our Saviour Christ, 
"Thou shalt not kill, and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment. 
But I say unto you, Whosoever is angry with his neighbour shall be in danger of 
judgment; and whosoever shall say unto his neighbour Raca, shall be in danger 
of judgment; and whosoever shall say unto his neigh- bour Raca, shall be in danger 
of the council: and whosoever shall say to his neighbour, Fool, shall be in danger 
of hell-fire." The discussing of which, first he divided the offence of killing 
into three branches, one to be with hand, the other with heart, the third with 
word. With hand, when we use any weapon drawn, to spill the blood of our neighbour. 
With heart, when we be angry with him. With word, when we disdainfully rebuke 
our neighbour, or despitefully revile him. But why should we here decipher the 
names of his adversaries, when whole swarms of friars and doctors flocked against 
him on every side, almost through the whole university, preaching against the 
abusing him? Amongst whom was Dr. Watson, master of Christ's college, whose scholar 
Latimer had been. In short, almost as many as were heads of houses, so many were 
the enemies of this worthy standard-bearer of Christ's gospel. At last came Dr. 
West, bishop of Ely, who preaching against him at Barnwell- abby, forbad him within 
the churches of that university to preach any more. Not withstanding, so the Lord 
provided, that Dr. Barnes, prior of the Augustine friars, did license Mr. Latimer 
to preach in his church of the Augustines, and he himself preached at St. Edward's 
church, which was the first sermon of the gospel that Dr. Barnes preached, being 
Sunday and Christmas Eve. Whereupon certain articles were gathered out of his 
sermon, and brought against him by Mr. Tyrell fellow of the King's-hall, and so 
by the vice-chancellor they were presented to the cardinal. Thus Mr. Latimer being 
baited by the friars, doctors, and masters of that university, about the year 
1529, notwithstanding the malice of these malignant adversaries, continued yet 
in Cambridge preaching for about three years together, with favour and applause 
of the godly, also with such admiration of his enemies who heard him, that the 
bishop himself coming in, and witnessing his merit, wished himself to have the 
like, and was compelled to commend him upon it. After this, Mr. Latimer and Mr. 
Bilney continued in Cambridge for some time, where they so frequently conferred 
together, that the field wherein they usually walked was long after called the 
heretics' hill. As their intimacy was PAGE 822 much noted by many of the university, 
so was it full of many good exam- ples, to all who would follow them, both in 
visiting the prisoners, and relieving the needy. The following interesting story 
will exemplify the benevolence of Mr. Latimer. It happened that, with Mr. Bilney, 
he went to visit the prisoners in the tower of Cambridge, and being there, among 
others was a woman who was accused of having killed her own child, which act she 
plainly and steadfastly denied. Whereby it gave them occasion to search for the 
matter, and at length they found that her husband loved her not, and therefore 
sought all means to destroy her. The particulars were thus:- A child of hers had 
been sick a whole year, and at length died in harvest time, as it were in a consumption: 
which when it was gone, she sought her neighbours to help her at the burial, but 
all being abroad in the harvest, she was forced with heaviness of heart, to prepare 
the child alone for the burial. Her husband coming home, accused her of murdering 
the child. This was the cause of her trouble; and Mr. Latimer, by earnest inquisition 
of conscience, thought the woman not guilty. Immediately after this he was called 
to preach before king Henry VIII. at Windsor, and after his sermon the king sent 
for him, and talked familiarly with him. At which time Mr. Latimer, finding an 
opportunity, kneeled down, opened the whole matter to the king, and desired her 
pardon, which he granted, and gave it to him at his return home. In the mean time 
the woman was delivered of a child in the prison, to which Mr. Latimer stood godfather. 
But all the while he would not tell her of the pardon, but laboured to have her 
confess the truth of the matter. At length the time came when she expected to 
suffer, and Mr. Latimer came as he was wont, to instruct her; when she made great 
lamentations, to be purified before her suffering, for she thought she must be 
damned if she died without purification. Mr. Bilney being with Mr. Latimer, told 
her, that law was made for the Jews, and not for us, and that women were as well 
in the favour of God before they be purified as after: and that it was appointed 
for a civil and politic law. They then argued with her till they had better instructed 
her, and at length shewed her the king's pardon, and liberated her. Besides this, 
many other actions equally benevolent, were known to originate from this zealous 
christian; insomuch, that the enemies of truth, instigated by envy, soon sought 
a means to interrupt the harmony of him and his friend. So much virtue provoked 
envy in many. Among the rest of this number was Dr. Redman, a man favouring more 
of superstition than of true religion, after the zeal of the Pharisees, yet not 
so malignant or hurtful, but of a mild disposition, and also liberal in well doing, 
so that few poor scholars were in that university who fared not the better by 
his purse. He was a man of great authority in the university of Cambridge, and 
perceiving the boldness of Mr. Latimer, in publishing in sincerity the genuine 
truths of the gospel, endeavoured by a letter to persuade him from his manner 
of preaching. To this Mr. Latimer wrote the following laconic answer. PAGE 823 
"Reverend Mr. Redman, it is even enough for me, that Christ's sheep hear no man's 
voice but Christ's: and as for you, you have no voice of Christ against me; whereas 
for my part, I have a heart that is ready to hearken to any voice of Christ that 
you can bring me. Thus fare you well, and trouble me no more from talking with 
the Lord my God." Mr. Latimer having thus laboured in preaching and teaching in 
Cambridge about three years, was at length called up to Cardinal Wolsey for heresy, 
by the procurement of some of the university, where he was content to subscribe 
and grant to such articles as they then propounded to him. After that he again 
returned to the university, where shortly after, by the means of Dr. Butts, the 
king's physician, a singular good man, he was placed in the number of those who 
laboured in the cause of the king's supremacy. On this he went to the court, where 
he remained a certain time in Dr. Butts's chamber, and preached very often in 
London. At last being weary of the court, and having a benefice offered by the 
king, at the suit of the lord Cromwell and Dr. Butts, he gladly accepted it, and 
withdrew from the court, wherewith in no case he could agree. The royal gift was 
at West Kingston, in Wiltshire, in the diocese of Sarum. Here this good preacher 
exercised himself with much diligence, teaching his flock and all the country 
about. In fine, his diligence was so great, his preaching so powerful, the manner 
of his teaching so zealous, that there also he could not escape enemies. So true 
it is what St. Paul foretelleth us - "Whosoever will live godly in Christ shall 
suffer persecution." It so happened, that as he was preaching upon the Virgin 
Mary, and reserving all honour to Christ our only Saviour, cer- tain popish priests 
being therewith offended, sought and created much trouble against him, drawing 
out articles and impositions which they falsely and uncharitably imputed unto 
him - That he should preach against our Lady, for that he reproved in a sermon 
the superstitious rudeness of certain blind priests, who taught that she never 
had any sin, and that she was not saved by Christ - that he should say, that saints 
were not to be worshipped - that Ave Maria was a salutation only, and no prayer 
- that there was no material fire in hell - and that there was no purgatory, trifling 
with the subject and saying, that he had rather be in purgatory than in Lallard's 
Tower. The chief enemies and molesters of him, besides these country priests, 
were Dr. Powel, of Salisbury, Dr. Wilsin, sometime of Cambridge, a Mr. Hubberdin, 
and Dr. Sherwood. Of whom some preached and some wrote against him; insomuch that 
by their procurement he was cited up, and called to appear before Warham, archbishop 
of Canterbury, and Stokesly, bishop of London, January 29th, 1531. Against which 
citation, although Mr. Latimer did appeal to his own ordinary, yet notwithstanding 
that, he was brought to London before Warham and Stokesly, where he was greatly 
molested, and detained a long time from his cure at home, being called thrice 
every week before the bishops, to make answer for his preaching, and had certain 
articles or propositions drawn out and laid to him, whereunto they required him 
to subscribe. At length he not only perceiving their practical proceedings, but 
being also much grieved with PAGE 824 their troublesome unquietness, who neither 
would preach themselves, not yet suffer him; he wrote to the archbishop, partly 
excusing his infirmi- ty, whereby he could not appear at their commandment, partly 
expostulat- ing with them for so troubling and detaining him from doing his duty, 
and that for no just cause, but only for preaching the truth against certain vain 
abuses crept into religion, much needful to be spoken against. The letter is as 
follows. "MOST REVEREND GOVERNOR, "Had not sickness prevented me, I had myself 
waited on you at your palace; but these fresh troubles have brought on me a sharp 
return of an old distemper, so that I can't be able to wait on you today without 
great pain; but that your lordship might no longer in vain expect my coming, I 
have sent these lines scribbled with mine own hand to your grace, as to a most 
upright judge, of my excuse, in which I wish I had more time or more judgment 
to frame a just expostulation with your grace for detaining me so long against 
my will from my cure, and that so unseasonably, at a time when it most behoves 
every pastor to be with his flock. But what shall I say, if it is lawful for so 
mean a prisoner to plead with so great a father? If we esteem a priest good for 
doing his duty, who, while he remains in this earthly tabernacle, never ceaseth 
to teach and admonished his congregation, and so much the more as he draws nearer 
his last home, what must we think of those who neither preach themselves now, 
nor permit those who are desirous to do it, unless they are bound to do and say 
nothing but what they please. At first I thought it safe to submit myself entirely 
but what they please. At first I thought it safe to submit myself entirely to 
your clemency, but now it seems as safe to justify myself a little, since one 
thing was pretended in the beginning, but now another, and what will be the end 
I have great room to doubt; but I hope truth only will be used. First I was sent 
to London, where I was before the court of Canterbury; then all was stopped that 
had been done, and the matter had bounds and limits set to it by him who sent 
me; but so the business was handled and brought into doubt, that at length there 
seemed no end of it, but that it must be infinitely prolonged. For while, without 
either method or design, I was questioned of one thing after another, whether 
pertinent or impertinent, now by one and then by another, if I gave them no answer, 
or if I answered them to the purpose - which I thought was not imprudent sometimes 
to put an end to the dispute - I was equally uncivil; while one answer to many 
and of many things, he may inadvertently say something that may prejudice the 
most righteous cause. None ought to judge me wicked for what at most they can 
call but an error of conscience; and to remember all things, it behoves a man 
to remember the foundation of the other world. When a man acts against conscience, 
he doth it to gain, to maintain, or defend his own; but what they charge me with 
is far different, and I believe without example, wickedly requesting to know the 
cause of my confine- ment. If any person is disposed to attack my sermons, that 
they are obscure, or not cautiously enough worded, I am prepared either to explain 
or vindicate them, for I never preached any thing against the truth, against the 
councils of the fathers, or the catholic faith. All that my adversaries or detractors 
truly charge me with, is what I have long desired, and do desire, namely, the 
improving the common people's PAGE 825 judgment. I heartily desired that all men 
might know and comprehend the disagreement of things, the worth, place, time, 
degrees, and order proper for each, and how much they are concerned in those things 
which God has prepared for them to walk in: every man ought to be very dili- gent 
in doing the works of his calling; after which, many things indif- ferent may 
be done with equal diligence, amongst which are all things which no law has forbid, 
unless we forbid them to ourselves. It is lawful to use images, to go on pilgrimages, 
to invocate saints, to remember the souls in purgatory, but these which are voluntary 
acts are to be so restrained, that they diminished not the just esteem of the 
precepts of God, which bestow eternal life on those who follow them: then who 
use them otherwise, are so far from gaining the love of God, that they rather 
incur his hatred. The true love of God is to keep his commandments, as our Saviour 
says, 'He who heareth my words and doeth them, he it is who loveth me.' Let no 
man then have so mean an opinion of the laws of God, as to make them equal to 
the fancies of men, since by those at the last day before the tribunal of Christ 
we shall all be judged, and not by these; as Christ says, 'The word that I speak, 
that shall judge you at the last day:' and what man is able to make amends for 
the breach of one of those commandments, by any or all of these specious additions? 
O that we would be but as ready, as diligent, as devoted to do his will, as we 
are to follow our own empty notions! Many things done with an upright heart God 
accepts of, making allowances for our infirmities, though he has not commanded 
or required them; but these things ought to be taken away when they begin to have 
the force of commands, lest while we do these we omit those that are absolutely 
necessary; and what can be more absurd than to revere as ordinances of God, the 
idle fancies of men, whilst his true ordinances are neglected: whence I in behalf 
of the commandments of God stand hitherto immoveable, not seeking my own but Christ's 
gain, not my own but God's glory: and whilst I live I will stand steadfast. "Thus 
all the German divines have hitherto complained of the intolerable abuse of these 
things, that no man desirous of the glory of Christ can accept of the ministry 
without doing what is against his conscience, and if some have submitted to this 
hardship purely to do good, yet what doth the christian religion suffer by it? 
unless we are so miserably blinded as to think that these things are to be dispensed 
with for our own filthy gain, though they are not for the honour of God. Now who 
can justify the constant practise of such things which in themselves are highly 
criminal? Some things are constantly performed which ought never, while others 
are omitted which ought always to be done: now who cannot see this manifest abuse? 
And who sees, and does not grieve? And who grieves, that would not labour to remove 
it? And when shall it be removed, while it is constantly preached and commended? 
Why, it is hardly possible for it not to be universal. It is one thing barely 
to permit, and another to enforce as law. "Go,' says Christ, 'and teach the people 
whatsoever I have commanded you.' Let us therefore, by the help of God, go and 
do this: let us employ our whole strength to preach the sincere word of God, not 
to flatter or cook up our sermons to men's PAGE 826 depraved taste, then shall 
we be true preachers of God's word. Careless as men are in what relates to God, 
they are diligent enough in what relates to themselves, to this they want no spurs; 
but they are miser- ably deceived by an unjust esteem of things, and an early 
superstition received in their tender years from their forefathers, which we are 
hardly able to remember by any preaching, how frequent, how earnest, how sincere 
and pure soever, which God doth now permit; for in these evil days they who ought 
to preach themselves, forbid them to preach who are willing the able, and on the 
contrary, compel timeservers, who damnably detain the miserable people in superstition 
and false confidence; but the Lord have mercy upon us, and grant we may know his 
way upon earth, not to be found amongst those to whom he says, 'My ways are not 
your ways, neither are my thoughts you thoughts.' Hence I dare not subscribe to 
these propositions, most honoured father, because I would no ways be accessary 
to the longer continuance of these popular superstitions, lest I should be the 
author of my own damnation. Were I worthy, I would even give you some advice, 
but that impertinent thing, the heart, can do little else than guess, none knowing 
the things of a man but the spirit of a man which is in him. It is not any pride 
that hinders me from subscribing to these propositions; on the contrary, I am 
very sorry I cannot wholly perform your request. I know how great a crime it is 
to disobey God rather than man. "My head aches so much; and my body is so weak, 
that I can neither come, nor write over again and correct these lines; but your 
lordship I hope, will approve, if not the judgment, yet the endeavours of your 
lordship's devoted servant." The several articles which he was required by the 
bishops to subscribe were these - "I believe that there is a purgatory to purge 
the souls of the dead after this life; that the souls in purgatory are holpen 
with the masses, prayers, and alms of the living; that the saints do pray as mediators 
now for us in heaven; that they are to be honoured by us in heaven; that it is 
profitable for Christians to call upon the saints, that they may pray as mediators 
for us unto God; that pilgrimages and oblations done to the sepulchers and relics 
of saints are meritorious; that they which have vowed perpetual chastity may not 
marry, nor break their vow, without the dispensation of the pope; that the keys 
of bind- ing and loosing, delivered to Peter, do still remain with the bishops 
of Rome his successors, although they live wickedly, and are by no means, nor 
at any time, committed to laymen; that men may merit and deserve at God's hand 
by fasting, prayer, and other good works of piety; that they which are forbidden 
by the bishop to preach, as suspected persons, ought to cease until they have 
purged themselves before the said bishop, or their superiors, and be restored 
again; that the fast which is used in Lent and other fasts prescribed by the canons, 
and by custom received of the Christians, are to be observed and kept; that God 
in every one of the seven sacraments giveth grace to a man, rightly receiving 
the same; that consecrations, sanctifyings, and blessings, by use and custom received 
in the church, are laudable and profitable; that it is laudable and profitable, 
that the venerable images of the crucifix and other saints should be had in the 
churches as a remembrance, and to the honour and worship of Jesus Christ and his 
saints; that it is laudable and profitable to deck and to clothe those images, 
and set up burning lights before them to the honour of the said saints." PAGE 
827 To these articles, whether he did subscribe or not, it is uncertain. It appears 
by his letter above, that he durst not consent to them; for he says - "I dare 
not subscribe to these propositions, because I would no ways be accessary to the 
longer continuance of these popular supersti- tions, lest I be the author of my 
own damnation." But whether he was compelled afterwards to agree, through the 
cruel dealings of the bishops, remains a doubt. By the words and the title in 
Tonstal's register prefixed before the articles, it may see that he did subscribe. 
The words of the register are these - "Hugh Latimer, bachelor of divinity, of 
the university of Cambridge, in a convocation held at West- minster before the 
lord archbishop of Canterbury, the lord bishop of London, and the rest of the 
clergy, has acknowledge and made the follow- ing confession of his faith, as in 
these articles, March 21st, 1531." If these words be true, it may be thought that 
he subscribed. But it ought to be received with great doubt, considering the subtlety, 
artifice, and want of candour, that prevailed amongst the Romish party. The following 
curious incident was related by himself in a sermon preached at Stamford, October 
9th, 1550. "I was once in examination before fie or six bishops, where I had much 
trouble: thrice every week I came to examinations, and many snares and traps were 
laid to get something. Now God knoweth I was ignorant of the law, but that God 
gave me wisdom what I should speak; it was God indeed, or else I had never escaped 
them. At last I was brought forth to be examined into a chamber hung with arras, 
where I was wont to be exam- ined: but now at this time the chamber was somewhat 
altered. For whereas before there was wont always to be a fire in the chimney, 
now the fire was taken away, and in arras hung over the chimney, and the table 
stood near the fire-place. There was amongst the bishops who examined me, one 
with whom I had been very familiar, and took him for my great friend, an aged 
man, and he sat next to the table's end. Then amongst other ques- tions he put 
forth a very subtle and crafty one, and such an one indeed, as I could not think 
so great danger in. And when I should make answer, one said, 'I pray you, Mr. 
Latimer, speak out, I am very thick of hear- ing, and here may be many that sit 
far off.' I marvelled at this that I was bid to speak out, and begun to suspect, 
and give an ear to the chimney; and there I heard a pen writing in the chimney 
behind the cloth. They had appointed one there to write all mine answers, for 
they made sure that I should not start from them: there was no starting from them. 
God was my good Lord, and gave me answer, I could never else have escaped it." 
The question then and there objected to him was - Whether he thought in his conscience 
that he had been suspected of heresy? This was a captious question. There was 
no holding of peace; for that was to grant himself faulty. To answer it was very 
way full of danger. But God, who always giveth in need what to answer, helped 
him, or else he had never escaped their bloody hands. Although what was his answer 
he doth not there express. PAGE 828 Amongst these hard and dangerous straits, 
it had been hard for him, and almost impossible to have escaped and continued 
so long, had not the almighty helping hand of the Highest preserved him through 
the power of his prince; who with much favour embraced him, and with his mere 
power sometimes rescued and delivered him out of the crooked claws of his enemies. 
Moreover, at length, also through the interest of Dr. Butts and lord Cromwell, 
he advanced him to the dignity of a bishop, namely, bishop of Worchester. It were 
too long to stand particularly upon such things as might be brought to the commendation 
of this pious prelate; but the days then were so dangerous and variable, that 
he could not in all things do what he would. Yet what he could do, that he performed 
to the utmost of his strength, so that although he was not utterly able to extinguish 
all the sparkling relics of superstition, yet he so wrought that they were, in 
a great measure, lessened of their evil. As for example, in this thing, and divers 
others, it appeared that when it could not be avoided, but that holy water and 
holy bread must needs be received, yet so he prepared and instructed them of his 
diocese, with such informations and lessons, that in receiving thereof superstition 
should be excluded, and some remembrance taken thereby, teaching and charging 
the ministers of his diocese, in delivering the holy water and the holy bread, 
to use these forms. On giving the water, which had been blessed, they were to 
say to the people:- "Remember your promise in baptizing; Christ, his mercy and 
blood- shedding, By whose most holy sprinkling, Of all your sins you have free 
pardoning." And on giving the people the consecrated bread, they were to say - 
"Of Christ's body this is a token, Which on the cross for our sins was broken: 
Wherefore of your sins you must be foresakers, If of Christ's death you will be 
partakers." Thus this good man behaved himself in his diocese. But still, both 
in the university and at his benefice, he was tossed and troubled by wicked and 
evil disposed persons; so in his bishopric also, he was not free from some that 
sought his trouble. As among many other evil willers, one especially there was, 
and he no small person, who accused him then to the king for his sermons. He thus 
explained himself in another discourse -"In the king's days that is dead, a great 
many of us were called together before him, to speak our minds in certain matters. 
In the end one kneeleth down and accuseth me of having preached seditious doctrine. 
A heavy salutation, and a hard point of such a man's doing, as if I should name 
you would not think. The king turned to me and said - 'What say you to that, Sir?' 
Then I kneeled down, and turned first to my accuser, and asked him - 'Sir, what 
form of preaching would you appoint me in preaching before a king? Would you have 
me preach nothing as concerning a king in a king's sermon? Have you any commission 
to appoint me what I shall preach?' Besides this, I asked him divers other questions, 
and he would make no answer to any of them all; he had nothing to say. PAGE 829 
"Then I turned to the king, and submitted myself to his grace, and said - 'I never 
thought myself worthy, nor did I ever sue to be a preacher before your grace, 
but I was called to it, and would be willing to give place to my betters; for 
I grant that there be a great many more worthy of the room than I am. And if it 
be your grace's pleasure so to allow them for preachers, I could be content to 
carry they books after them. But if your grace allow me for a preacher, I would 
desire you to give me leave to discharge my conscience, and thus to frame my doctrine 
accord- ing to my audience. I had been a very blockhead to have preached so at 
the borders of your realm, as I preach before your grace.' And I thank Almighty 
God that my sayings were well accepted of the king; for like a gracious lord he 
turned into another communication. It is even as the scripture saith - 'The Lord 
directeth the king's heart.' Some of my friends came to me with tears in their 
eyes, and told me, they expected I should have been in the Tower the same night." 
Besides this, divers other conflicts and combats this godly bishop sustained in 
his own country and diocese, in taking the cause of right and equity against oppression 
and wrong. Thus he continued in his laborious function of a bishop till the coming 
of the six articles. Then being distressed through the straitness of time, he 
must either sacri- fice a good conscience, or else forsake his bishopric; the 
latter of which he freely did, and Dr. Shaxton, bishop of Salisbury, resigned 
likewise with him. At which time he threw off his rochet in his chamber among 
his friends, and suddenly gave a leap for joy, on being discharged of such a heavy 
burden. However, he was not so lightened, but that troubles and labours followed 
him wheresoever he went. For a little after he renounced his bishopric, he was 
much bruised by the fall of a tree: then coming up to London for remedy, he was 
molested and troubled by the bishops, and was at length sent to the Tower, where 
he remained prisoner till the king Edward came to the crown, by which means the 
golden mouth of this preacher, long shut up before, was not opened again. He continued 
all the reign of Edward labouring in the Lord's harvest most fruitfully, discharging 
his talent at Stamford, and before the duchess of Suffolk, and many other places 
in this realm, as at London in the Convocation-house, and especially before the 
king at the court. In the inner garden, which had been applied to lascivious and 
courtly pastimes, there he dispensed the fruitful word of the glorious gospel 
of Jesus Christ, preaching before the king and his whole court, to the edification 
of many; for the most part twice every Sunday, although being so bruised by the 
fall of a tree, and above sixty-seven years of age. As the diligence of this man 
of God never ceased all the time of king Edward, to profit the church both publicly 
and privately, so it is likewise to be observed, that the same good Spirit of 
God who assisted and comforted him in preaching the gospel, did also enable him 
to fore- tell all those plagues which afterwards ensued; if England ever had a 
PAGE 830 prophet, he seemed to be one. And for himself, he ever affirmed that 
the preaching of the gospel would cost him his life, to which be no less cheerfully 
prepared himself; for after the death of king Edward, and not long after Mary 
was proclaimed queen, a pursuivant was sent down into the country to call him 
up, of whose coming, although Mr. Latimer lacked no forewarning, being informed 
thereof about six hours before by one John Careless, yet he was so far from endeavouring 
to escape, that he prepared himself for his journey before the officer came to 
his house. At this the pursuivant marvelled, when Mr. Latimer said unto him - 
"My friend, you are a welcome messenger unto me. And be it known unto you and 
to all the world, that I go as willingly to London at this present, being called 
by my prince to render a reckoning of my doctrine, as ever I was at any place 
in the world. I doubt not but that God, as he hath made me worthy to preach his 
word before two excellent princes, so will he able me to witness the same unto 
the third, either to her comfort or discomfort eternally." When the pursuivant 
had delivered his letters, he departed, affirming that he had command not to wait 
for him. By this it was manifest that they would not have had him appear, but 
rather to have fled out of the realm, knowing that his constancy would deface 
them in their popery, and confirm the godly in the truth. Coming up to London, 
and entering by Smithfield he merrily said, that Smithfield had long groaned for 
him. He was then brought before the council, where he patiently bearing all the 
mocks and taunts given him by the scornful papists, was again sent to the Tower: 
there being assisted by the heavenly grace of Christ, he meekly endured imprisonment 
a long time, notwithstanding the cruel and unmerciful usage of his enemies, who 
then thought their kingdom would never fall; yet he shewed himself not only patient, 
but also merry and cheerful, above all that they could work against him: yea, 
such a valiant spirit the Lord gave him, that he was able not only to despise 
the terrors of prisons and torments, but also to deride and laugh to scorn even 
the cruel proceed- ings of his enemies. It is well known to many what answer he 
made to the lieutenant when he was in the Tower. For when the lieutenant's man 
upon a time came to him, the aged father, kept without fire in the frosty winter, 
and well nigh starved with cold, bade the man tell his master, that if he did 
not look better after him, perchance he might deceive him - meaning by a premature 
death. The lieutenant hearing this, and not knowing what to make of so odd a speech, 
and fearing that he would in earnest make his escape, began to look more strictly 
to his prisoner, and so coming to him, charged him with his words, at the same 
time reciting them. His answer was - "So I said, for I suppose you expect that 
I should burn; but except you let me have some fire, I am like to deceive your 
expectation, for I am in danger of starving here with cold." Thus is good man 
passing a long time in the Tower, with as much patience as a man in his case could 
do, from thence was carried to Oxford, with Cranmer and Ridley, there to dispute 
upon articles sent down from Gardiner, bishop of Winchester as before mentioned: 
the manner and order of which disputations between them and PAGE 831 the university 
doctors, having been sufficiently expressed. Where also is declared, how and by 
whom Mr. Latimer, with his fellow-prisoners, were condemned after disputations, 
and so committed again to the prison, where they continued from the month of April 
till October, occupied either with brotherly conference fervent prayer, or fruitful 
writing. Mr. Latimer, by reason of the feebleness of his age, wrote least of all 
the distinguished martyrs of the day, especially in the latter time of his imprisonment; 
but in prayer he was fervently occupied, earnestly sending up to the throne of 
grace the following among numerous other petitions - That as God had appointed 
him to be a preacher of his word, so also he would give him grace to stand to 
his doctrine until his death. That God of his great mercy would restore his gospel 
to England once again. That of his good providence he would preserve the lady 
Elizabeth, whom in his prayer he used to name, and even with tears desiring God 
to make her a comfort to England. The answer to this prayer especially reminds 
us that "the prayer of a righteous man availeth much." So it appeared in the present 
case: indeed all the requests of this faithful servant were fully granted. His 
letters were equally to his prayers. Many of them were written in Latin; and they 
are so numerous and so long, that our limits will not admit of their insertion. 
The following is a letter of Master Latimer to Master Morrice, concern- ing the 
articles which were falsely and untruly laid against him:- "Right worshipful and 
mine own good master Morrice, health in Christ Jesus. And I thank you, for all 
hearty kindness, not only heretofore shewed unto me, but also that now of late 
you would vouchsafe to write unto me, so poor a wretch, to my great comfort among 
all these my troubles, I trust and doubt nothing in it, but God will reward you 
for me, and abundantly supply my inability. Mr. Morrice, you would wonder to know 
how I have been treated at Bristol, I mean by some of the priests, who first desired 
me, welcomed me, made me cheer, heard what I said, and allowed my saying in all 
things while I was with them; but when I was gone home to my benefice, perceiving 
that the people favoured me so greatly, and that the mayor had appointed me to 
preach at Easter, privily they procured in inhabition for all them that had not 
the bishop's license, which they knew well enough I had not, and so craftily defeated 
master mayor's appointment, pretending they were sorry for it, procuring also 
certain preachers to rail against me, as Hubberdin and Powel, with others; whom 
when I had brought before the mayor, and the wise council of the town, to know 
what they could lay to my charge, wherefore they so declaimed against me, they 
said they spake as they were informed. However no man could be brought forth that 
could stand to any thing: so that they had place and time to belie me shamefully, 
but they had no place or time to lay to my charge when I was present and ready 
to make them answer. God amend them, and assuage their malice, that they have 
against the truth and me. PAGE 832 "They did belie me to have said that our Lady 
was a sinner, when I had said nothing of the sort; but to reprove certain, both 
priests and beneficed men, which do give so much to our Lady, as though she had 
not been saved by Christ, a whole Saviour, both of her, and of all that be or 
shall be saved. I did reason after this manner, that either she was a sinner, 
or no sinner; of a sinner, then she was delivered from sin by Christ; so that 
he saved her, either by delivering or preserving her from sin, so that without 
him neither she nor any other could be saved. And to avoid all offence, I shewed 
how it might be answered, both to certain scriptures, which maketh all generally 
sinners, and also unto Chrysostom and Theophylact, who make her namely and specially 
a sinner. But all would not serve, their malice was so great; notwithstanding 
that 500 honest men can and will bear record. When they cannot reprove that thing 
that I do say, then will they belie me to say that thing which they can reprove; 
for they will needs appear to be against me." This was not the only subject of 
calumny which Latimer's enemies took up. He proceeds thus to describe them. "So 
they lied when I had shewn certain divers significations of this word 'saints' 
among the vulgar people: First, images of saints are called saints, and so they 
are not to be worshipped: take worshipping of them for praying to them; for they 
are neither mediators by way of redemption, nor yet by way of intercession. And 
yet they may be well used when they be applied to the uses for which they were 
ordained, to be laymen's books for remembrance of heavenly things, exciting the 
living to 'follow them who through faith and patience inherit the prom- ises.' 
Take saints for inhabitants of heaven, and worshipping of them, for praying to 
them; I never denied, but that they might be worshipped, and be our mediators, 
though not by way of redemption, in which Christ alone is a whole Mediator, both 
for them and for us; yet by the way of intercession. "Although they have charged 
me with denying pilgrimage, I never denied it. And yet I have said that much scurf 
must be pared away, ere ever it can be well done: superstition, idolatry, false 
faith, and trust in the pilgrimage, unjust estimation of the thing, setting aside 
God's ordinances for doing of the thing; debts must be paid, restitution made, 
wife and children must be provided for, duty to our neighbours discharged. And 
when it is at the beast, before it be vowed, it need not be done, for it is neither 
under the command of God nor man to be done. And wives must advise with their 
husbands, and husbands and wives with curates, before it be vowed to be done. 
etc. PAGE 833 "As for the Ave Maria, who can think that I would deny it? I said 
it was a heavenly greeting or saluting of our blessed Lady, wherein the angel 
Gabriel, sent from the Father of heaven, did annunciate and shew unto her the 
good-will of God towards her, what he would with her, and to what he had chosen 
her. But I said it was not properly a prayer as the Pater Noster, which our Saviour 
Christ himself made for a proper prayer, and bid us to say it for a prayer, not 
adding that we should say ten or twenty Ave Marias withal: and I denied not but 
that we may well say Ave Maria also, but not so that we shall think that the Pater 
Noster is not good, a whole and perfect prayer, and cannot be well said without 
Ave Maria: so that I did not speak against the well saying of it, but against 
the superstitious saying of it, and of the Pater Noster too; and yet I put a difference 
betwixt it, and that which Christ made to be said for a prayer. "Whoever could 
think or say that I alleged that there was no fire whatever in hell? However, 
good authors do make a difference betwixt suffering in the fire with bodies, and 
without bodies. The soul without the body is a spiritual substance, which they 
say cannot receive a corporal quality; and some make it a spiritual fire, and 
some a corpore- al fire. And as it is called a fire, so it is called a worm, and 
it is thought of some not to be a material worm, that is, a living reptile, but 
it is a metaphor, but that is nothing to the purpose; for a fire it is, a worm 
it is, pain it is, torment it is, anguish it is, a grief, a misery, a sorrow, 
a heaviness inexplicable and intolerable, whose nature and condition in every 
point, who can tell, but he that is of God's privy council? God give us grace 
rather to be diligent to keep us out of it, than to be curious to discuss the 
property of it; for certain we be, that there is little ease, yea, none at all, 
but weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth, which be the effects of extreme pain, 
rather certain token what pain there is, than what manner of pain there is." The 
subject of Purgatory has already been before the reader in reference to Latimer. 
He writes thus - "He that sheweth the state and condition of it, doth not deny 
it. But I had rather be in it than Lollard's Tower, that bishop's prison, for 
divers reasons. In this I might die bodily for lack of meat and drink; in that 
I could not. In this I might die spiritually for fear of pain, or lack of good 
counsel; there I could not. In this I might be in extreme necessity; in that I 
could not, if it be peril of perishing. In this I might lack charity; there I 
could not. In this I might lose my patience; in that I could not. In this I might 
be in danger of death; in that I could not. In this I might be without surety 
of salvation; in that I could not. In this I might dishonour God; in that I could 
not. In this I might murmur and grudge against God; in that I could not. In PAGE 
834 this I might displease God; in that I could not. In this I might be displeased 
with God; in that I could not. In this I might be judged to perpetual prison, 
as they call it; in that I could not. In this I might be craftily handled; in 
that I could not. In this I might be brought to bear a fagot; in that I could 
not. In this I might be discontented with God; in that I could not. In this I 
might be separated and dissevered from Christ; in that I could not. In this I 
might be a member of the devil; in that I could not. In this I might be an inheritor 
of hell; in that I could not. In this I might pray out of charity, and in vain; 
in that I could not. In this my lord and his chaplains might manacle me by night; 
in that they could not. In this they might strangle me, and say that I hanged 
myself; in that they could not. In this they might have me to the consistory, 
and judge me after their fashion; from thence they could not. Therefore I had 
rather to be there than here. For though the fire be called ever so hot, yet if 
the bishop's two fingers can shake away a piece, a friar's cowl another part, 
and 'scali coeli' altogether, I will never found abby, college, nor chauntry, 
for that purpose. For seeing there is no pain that can break my charity, break 
my patience, cause me to dishonour God, to displease God, to be displeased with 
God, cause me not to joy in God, nor that can bring me to danger of death, or 
to danger of desperation, or from surety of salvation, that can separate us from 
Christ, or Christ from us, I care the less for it. Chrysostom saith, the greatest 
pain that damned souls have, is to be separate and cut off from Christ for ever: 
which pain the souls in purgatory neither have nor can have. "Consider, Mr. Morrice, 
whether provision for purgatory hath not brought thousands to hell. Debts have 
not been paid; restitution of evil-gotten lands and goods hath not been made; 
christian people whose necessities we see, to whom whatsoever we do Christ reputeth 
done to himself, to whom we are bound under pain of condemnation to do for, as 
we would be done for ourselves, are neglected and suffered to perish; last wills 
unfulfilled and broken; God's ordinance set aside; and also for purga- tory, foundations 
have been taken for sufficient satisfaction; so we have trifled away the ordinances 
of God and restitutions. Thus we have gone to hell with masses, dirges, and ringing 
of many a bell. And who can pill pilgrimages from idolatry, and purge purgatory 
from robbery, but he shall be in peril to come in suspicion of heresy with them? 
so that they may fleece one with pilgrimage, and spoil with purgatory. And verily 
the abuse of them cannot be taken away, but great lucre and advantage shall fall 
away from them, who had rather have profit with abuse, than lack the same with 
use; and that is the wasp that doth sting them, and maketh them to swell. And 
if purgatory were purged of all that it hath gotten, by setting aside restitution, 
and robbing of Christ, it would be but a poor purgatory; so poor, that it should 
not be able to feed so fat, and trick up so many idle and slothful lubbers. "I 
take God to witness, I would hurt no man, but it grieveth me to see such abuse 
continue without remedy. I cannot understand what they mean by the pop's pardoning 
of purgatory, but by way of suffrage: and as for suffrage, unless he do his duty, 
and seek not his own, but Christ's PAGE 835 glory, I had rather have the suffrage 
of Jack of the scullery, who is his calling doth exercise both faith and charity? 
but for his mass. And that is as good of another simple priest as of him. For, 
as for authority of keys, it is to loose from guiltiness of sin and eternal pain, 
due to the same, according to Christ's word, and not to his own private will. 
And as for pilgrimage, you will wonder what juggling there is to get money withal. 
I dwell within half a mile of the Foss- way; and you would wonder to see how they 
come by flocks out of the west country to many images, but chiefly to the blood 
of Hayles. And they believe verily that it is the very blood that was in Christ's 
body, shed upon the mount of Calvary for our salvation; and that the sight of 
it with their bodily eye doth certify them, and putteth them out of doubt, that 
they be clean in life, and in state of salvation without spot of sin, which doth 
bolden them to do many things. For you would wonder if you should commune with 
them both coming and going what faith they have: for, as for forgiving their enemies, 
and reconciling their Christian brethren, they cannot away withal; for the sight 
of that blood doth requite them for a time. "I read in Scripture of two certifications; 
one to the Romans: 'We being justified by faith have peace with God.' If I see 
the blood of Christ with the eye of my soul, that is true faith, that his blood 
was shed for me, etc. Another in the epistle of St. John: 'We know that we are 
translated from death to life, because we love the brethren." But I read not that 
I have peace with God, or that I am translated from death to life, because I see 
with my bodily eye the blood of Hayles. It is very probable, that all the blood 
that was in the body of Christ, was united and knit to his Divinity, and then 
no part thereof shall return to his corruption. And I marvel that Christ shall 
have two resurrections. And if it were that they did violently and injuriously 
pluck it out of his body when they scourged him and nailed him to the cross, did 
see it with their bodily eye, yet they were not in can life. And we see the self- 
same blood in form of wine, when we have consecrated, and may both see it, feel 
it, and receive it to our damnation, as touching bodily receiv- ing. And many 
do see it at Hayles without confession, as they say. God knoweth all, and the 
devil in our time is not dead. "Christ hath left a doctrine behind him, wherein 
we be taught how to believe, and what to believe; he doth suffer the devil to 
use his craftiness, for our trial and probation. It were little thank worthy to 
believe well and rightly, if nothing should move us to false faith, and to believe 
superstitiously. It was not in vain that Christ said, "Beware of false prophets." 
But we are secure and careless as though false prophets could not meddle with 
us, and as if the warning of Christ were no more earnest and effectual, than is 
the warning of mothers when they trifle with their children. Lo, Sir, how I run 
at riot beyond measure. When I began, I was minded to have written but half a 
dozen lines; but thus I forget myself, whenever I write to a trusty friend, who 
will take in worth my folly, and keep it from mine enemy. "As for Dr. Wilson, 
I know not what I should say: but I pray God endue him with charity. Neither he 
nor any of his countrymen did ever love me, since I did inveigh against their 
factions, and partiality in Cambridge. Before that, who was more favoured of him 
than I? That is the bible PAGE 836 that may not be touched. A certain friend showed 
me, that Dr. Wilson is gone now into his country, about Beverley in Holderness, 
and from thence he will go a journey through Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, 
and so from thence to Bristol. What he intendeth by this progress God knoweth, 
and not I. If he come to Bristol, I shall hear. "As for Hubberdin he is a man 
of no great learning, nor yet of stable wit. He is here servus hominum; for he 
will preach whatsoever the bishops will bid him. Verily in my mind they are more 
to be blamed than he. He doth magnify the pope more than enough. As for our Saviour 
Christ and christian kings, they are little beholden to him. No doubt he did miss 
the cushion in many things. Howbeit, they that did send him, men think, will defend 
him; I pray God amend him and them both. They would fain make matter against me, 
intending so either to deliver him by me, or else to rid us both together, and 
so they would think him well bestowed. "As touching Dr. Powel, how highly he took 
upon him in Bristol, and how little he regarded the sword, which representeth 
the king's person, many can tell you. I think there is never an earl in this realm 
that knoweth his obedience by Christ's commandment to his prince, and knoweth 
what the sword doth signify, that would have taken upon him so stoutly. However, 
master mayor, as he is a profound wise man, did flout him prettily; it were too 
long to write all. Our pilgrimages are not a little beholden to him, in favour 
of which he alleged this text: "Whoev- er leaveth father, house, wife, kindred, 
and his own life also for me, shall be my disciple." But that you may perceive 
his hot zeal and crooked judgment. Because I am so belied, I could wish that it 
would please the king's grace to command me to preach before his highness a whole 
year together every Sunday, that he himself might perceive how they belie me, 
saying, that I have neither learning nor utterance worthy thereunto. I pray you 
pardon me, I cannot make an end." Besides his letter to master Morrice, and two 
epistles in Latin, he also wrote other letters, as two to sir Edward Baynton, 
which contain much fruitful matter and worthy to be known, albeit space can here 
be had only for a few extracts. The letter from which these are given was an answer 
to one from Baynton, the purport of which is shown in Latimer's reply: "Either 
I am certain or uncertain that it is truth that I preach. If it be truth, who 
may not I say so, to courage my hearers to receive the same more ardently, and 
ensue it more studiously? If I be uncertain, why dare I be so bold to preach it? 
And if your friends, in whom ye trust so greatly, be preachers themselves, after 
their sermon I pray you to ask them whether they be certain and sure that they 
taught you the truth or no; and send me word what they say, that I may learn to 
speak after them. If they say they be sure, ye know what followeth: if they say 
they be unsure, when shall you be sure, that have so doubtful teachers and unsure? 
And you yourselves, whether are you certain or uncertain that Christ is your Saviour? 
And so forth of other articles that ye be bounden to believe. "Our knowledge her, 
you say, is but 'per speculum in enigmate:' what then? ergo, it is not certain 
and sure. I deny your argument; yea, if it be by faith, it is much sure, 'because 
the certainty of faith is the most surest certainty;' there is a great discrepance 
between certain knowledge and clear knowledge, for that may be of things absent 
that PAGE 837 appear not, this requireth the presence of the object, I mean of 
the thing known; so that I certainly and surely know the thing which I perfectly 
believe, though I do not clearly and evidently know it. I know your school subtleties 
as well as you, which dispute as though enigmati- cal knowledge, that is to say, 
dark and obscure knowledge, might not be certain and sure knowledge, because it 
is not clear, manifest, and evident knowledge; and yet there have been which have 
had a zeal, but not after knowledge. True it is there have been such, and yet 
are too many to the great hinderance of Christ's glory, which nothing doth more 
obscure, than a hot zeal accompanied with great authority without right judgment. 
There have been also, which have had knowledge without any zeal of God, who holding 
the verity of God in unrighteousness, shall be beaten with many stripes, while 
they knowing the will of God do nothing thereafter. I mean not among Turks and 
Saracens that be unchristened, but of them that be christened. And there have 
been also, they that have lost the spiritual knowledge of God's word which they 
had before, because they have not followed after it, nor promoted the same, but 
rather with their mother's wits have impugned the wisdom of the Father, and hindered 
the knowledge thereof, which therefore hath been taken away from them; that Christ 
may be justified in his sayings, and overcome when he is judged: threatening to 
him that hath not, that also which he hath (that is, that which he seemeth to 
have? shall be taken from him: because to abuse that which a man hath, or not 
use it well, is as not to have it; and also seeing it is true, that God's wisdom 
will not dwell in a body subject to sin, albeit it abound in carnal wisdom too 
much: for the mere carnal and philosophical understanding of God's Scriptures 
is not the wisdom of God, which is hid from the wise, and is revealed to little 
ones. And if to call this or that truth requireth a deep and profound knowledge, 
then every man hath either a deep and profound knowledge, or else no man can call 
this or that truth; and it behoveth every preacher to have this deep and profound 
knowledge, that he may call this or that truth, which this or that he taketh in 
hand to preach for the truth; and yet he may be ignorant and uncertain in many 
things, as Apollos was; but which things he will not attempt to preach for the 
truth. As for myself, I trust in God I have my senses well enough exercised to 
discern good and evil in those things, which (being without deep and profound 
knowledge in many things) I preach not: yea, there be many things in Scripture, 
nor yet with help of all interpreters that I have, no content myself and others 
in all scrupulosity that may arise; but in such I am wont to wade no further into 
the stream, than that I may either go over or else return back again, having ever 
respect, not to the ostentation of my little wit, but to the edification of them 
that hear me, as far forth as I can, neither passing mine own nor yet their capacity. 
"And such manner of argumentations might well serve the devil contra pusillanimes, 
to occasion them to wonder and waver in the faith, and to be uncertain in things 
in which they ought to be certain: or else it may PAGE 838 appear to make and 
serve against such preachers as will define great subtleties and high matters 
in the pulpit, which no man can be certain and sure of by God's word to be truth, 
unless a man had a superlative sense to discern good and evil. - Such arguments 
might appear to make well against such preachers, not against me, which simply 
and plainly utter true faith and the fruits of the same, which be the good works 
of God, that he hath prepared for us to walk in, every man to do the thing that 
pertaineth to his office and duty in his degree and calling, as the word appointeth, 
which thing a man may do with soberness, having a sense but indifferently exercised 
to discern good and evil. For it is but foolish humility, willingly to continue 
always an infant in Christ and in infirmity. In reproof of which it was said - 
"Ye have need of milk and not of strong meat." For St. Paul saith not - "Be he 
humble, so as to deceive yourselves by ignorance." For though he would not that 
we should think arrogantly of ourselves, and above what it becometh us to think 
of ourselves, but so to think of ourselves that we may be sober and modest; yet 
he biddeth us so to think of ourselves, as God hath distributed to every one the 
measure of faith. For he that may not with meekness think in himself what God 
hath done for him, and of himself as God hath done for him, how shall he, or when 
shall he give due thanks to God for his gifts? And if your friends will not allow 
the same, I pray you inquire of them, whether they may with sobriety and modesty 
follow St. Paul's advice, where he saith unto us all - "Be not children in understanding, 
but in maliciousness be ye infants." God give us all grace to keep the mean, and 
to think of ourselves neither too high nor too low, but so that we may restore 
unto him who hath sent abroad his gifts again, with good use of the same, so that 
we do our part with the same, to the glory of God. "I pray you what mean your 
friends by a Christian congregation? All those who have been baptised? But many 
of those be in a worse condition, and shall have greater damnation, than many 
unbaptised. For it is not enough to a christian congregation that is of God, to 
have been baptised: but it is to be considered what we promise when we are baptised, 
to renounce satan, his works, his pomps. Which things if we busy not ourselves 
to do, let us not boast that we profess Christ's name in a Christian congregation 
in one baptism. And whereas they add, "in one Lord, "I read in Matt. xvii., "Not 
every one that saith Lord, Lord,' etc. And in Luke the Lord himself complaineth 
and rebuketh such profes- sors and confessors, saying to them, 'Why call you me 
Lord, Lord, and do not that I bid you?' Even as though it were enough to a Christian 
man, or to a Christian congregation, to say every day, 'Domine, dominus noster,' 
and to salute Christ with a double 'domine.' But I would your friends would take 
the pains to read over Chrysostome, super Matthaeum, hom. 49. cap. 24, to learn 
to know a Christian congregation, if it will please them to learn at him. And 
whereas they add, ' in one faith.' St. James saith bodly, "show me thy faith by 
thy works." And St. Jerome, "If we believe, we show the truth in working.' And 
the Scripture saith, "He that believeth God, attendeth to his commandments:' And 
the devils do believe to their little comfort. I pray God to save you and your 
friends from believing congregation, and from that faithful company! PAGE 839 
"But now your friends have learned of St. John, that 'every one that confesseth 
Jesus Christ in flesh, is of God:' and I have learned of St. Paul, that there 
have been, not among the heathen, but among the Chris- tians, which confess Christ 
with their mouth, and deny him with their acts: so that St. Paul should appear 
to expound St. John, saving that I will not affirm anything as of myself, but 
leave it to your friends to show you, 'utrum qui factis negant Christum et vita 
sint ex Deo necne per solam oris confessionem:' for your friends to know well 
enough by the same St. John, 'qui ex Deo est, non peccat:' and there both have 
been and be now too many, 'which with mouth only confess Christ to be come in 
the flesh;' but will not effectually hear the word of God, by consenting to the 
same, notwithstanding that St. John saith - 'He who is of God, heareth God's word; 
you hear not, because you are not of God.' And many shall hear, 'I never knew 
you,' which shall not alonely be christened, but also shall 'prophet are,' and 
do puissant things in the name of Christ. St. Paul said, there would come ravening 
wolves, which would not spare the flock: meaning of them who should with their 
lips confess Christ in the flesh, and yet usurp the office; which Christ biddeth 
us beware of, saying, 'They shall come in sheep's clothing;' not feeding, but 
smiting their fellows, eating and drinking with the drunk- en, which shall have 
their portion with hypocrites. They are called servants, I suppose, because they 
confess Christ in the flesh; and naughty they are called, because they deny him 
in their deeds, not giving meat in due season, and exercising mastership over 
the flock. And yet your friends reason as though there could none bark and bite 
at true preachers, but they that be unchristened, notwithstanding that St. Augustine, 
upon the same epistle of St. John, calleth such confessors of Christ, antichrist; 
and so making division, not between christened and unchristened, but between christians 
and antichristians, when neither tongue nor pen can divide the antichristian from 
their blind folly. "Sir, I have had more business in my little cure since I spake 
with you, what with sick folks, and what with matrimonies, than I have had since 
I came to it, or than I would have thought a man should have in a great cure. 
I wonder how men can go quietly to bed, who have great and many cures, and yet 
peradventure are in none of them all. But I pray you tell none of your friends 
that I spake so foolishly, lest I make a dissension in a christian congregation, 
and divide a sweet and peaceable union, or as many as may rest with this in such 
an age. Sir, I had just made an end of this scribbling, and was beginning to transcribe 
it more correctly, but there came a man of my lord of Farley's, with a citation 
to appear before my lord of London in haste, to be punished for such excesses 
as I committed at my last being there, so that I could not perform my purpose; 
I doubt whether you can read it as it is. If you can, well be it; if not, I pray 
you send it me again, and that you so do, whether you can read it or not. Jesus, 
mercy, what a world is this, that I should be put to so great labour and pains, 
besides great charges, above my power, for preaching a poor simple sermon! But 
I think our Saviour Christ said true, I must needs suffer: so dangerous a thing 
it is to live virtously with Christ, yea, in a christian congregation. God make 
us all Christians, after the right fashion, Amen." PAGE 840 Master Latimer growing 
in some favour with the king, and seeing the great decay of Christ's religion 
by reason of proclamations forbidding the reading of God's holy Scriptures, and 
touched therefore with the zeal of conscience, directed unto king Henry a long 
letter, thereby intending by all means possible to persuade the king's mind to 
set open again the freedom of God's holy word amongst his subjects. The whole 
letter would well repay perusal, but space will only serve to exhibit the following 
extracts: "To the most mighty prince, king of England, Henry the Eighth, grace, 
mercy, and peace from God the Father, by our Lord Jesus Christ. The holy doctor, 
St. Augustine, in an epistle which he wrote to Casalandus saith, that he which 
for fear of any power hideth the truth, provoketh the wrath of God to come upon 
him, for he feareth men more than God. And according to the same, the holy St.John 
Chrysostom saith, that he is not only a traitor to the truth, which openly for 
truth teacheth a lie; but he also whichdoth not freely pronounce and show the 
truth that he knoweth. These sentences, most redoubted king, when I read now of 
late, and marked them earnestly in the inward parts of mine heart, they made me 
sore afraid, troubled, and vexed me grievously in my conscience; and at the last 
drave me to this strait, that either I must show forth such things as I have read 
and learned in Scripture, or else be of that sort who provoke the wrath of God 
upon them, and be traitors unto the truth: the which thing, rather than it should 
happen, I had rather suffer extreme punishment. "First, and before all things, 
I will exhort your grace to mark the life and process of our Saviour Christ, and 
his apostles, in preaching and setting-forth of the gospel; and to note also the 
words of our master Christ, which he said to his disciples when he sent them forth 
to preach his gospel; and to these have ever in your mind the golden rule of our 
master Christ, 'The tree is known by the fruit;' for by the diligent marking of 
these, your grace shall clearly know and perceive who be the true followers of 
Christ, and teachers of his gospel, and who be not. And concerning the first, 
all Scripture showeth plainly, that our Saviour Jesus Christ's life was very poor. 
"But this he did to show us that his followers and vicars should not regard and 
set by the riches and treasures of this world, but after the saying of David we 
ought to take them, which saith thus: "If riches, promotions, and dignity happen 
to a man, let him not set his affiance, pleasure, trust, and heart upon them.' 
So that it is not against the poverty in spirit, which Christ preacheth in the 
gospel of St. Matthew, chapter v., to be rich, to be in dignity and in honour, 
so that their hearts be not fixed and set upon them so much, that they neither 
care for God nor good men. But they be enemies to this poverty in spirit, have 
they never so little, that have greedy and desirous minds to the goods of this 
world, only because they would live after their own pleas- ures and lusts. And 
they also be privy enemies (and so much the worse) which have professed, as they 
have say, wilful poverty, and will not be called wordly men; and they have lords' 
lands, and kings' riches. Yea, rather than they would lose one jot of that which 
yea, between the king and his subjects, and cause rebellion against the temporal 
power, to the which our Saviour Christ himself obeyed, and paid tribute as the 
gospel declareth; unto whom the holy apostle St. Paul teacheth every Christian 
PAGE 841 man to obey: yea, and beside all this, they will curse and ban, as much 
as in them lieth, even into the deep pit of hell, all that gainsay their appetite, 
whereby they think their goods, promotions, or dignities should decay. And although 
I named the spiritualty to be corrupt with this unthrifty ambition, yet I mean 
not all to be faulty therein, for there be some good of them: neither will I that 
your grace should take away the goods due to the church, but take away such evil 
persons from the goods, and set better in their stead. "The holy apostle St. Paul 
saith, that 'every man that will live godly in Christ Jesus, should suffer persecution.' 
And also he saith further, in the Epistle written to the Philipians, in the first 
chapter, that 'it is not only given to you to believe in the Lord, but also to 
suffer persecution for his sake.' Wherefore take this for a sure conclusion, that 
there, where the word of God is truly preached, there is persecu- tion, as well 
of the hearers as of the teachers: and where is quietness and rest in worldly 
pleasure, there is not the truth. For the world loveth all that are of the world, 
and hateth all things that are contrary to it. And, to be short, St. Paul calleth 
the gospel the word of the cross, the word of punishment. And the holy Scripture 
doth promise nothing to the favourers and followers of it in this world, but trouble, 
vexation, and persecution, which these worldly men cannot suffer, nor away withal. 
Therefore pleaseth it your good grace to return to this golden rule of our Master 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, which is this, 'By their fruits you shall know them.' 
"But as concerning this matter, other men have showed your grace their minds, 
how necessary it is to have the Scripture in English. The which thing also your 
grace hath promised by your last proclamation: the which promise I pray God that 
your gracious highness may shortly perform, even today, before tomorrow. - Seeing 
that our Saviour Christ hath sent his servants, that is to say, his true preachers, 
and his own word also, to comfort our weak and sick souls, let not these worldly 
men make your grace believe that they will cause insurrections and heresies, and 
such mischiefs as they madly imagine, lest that he be avenged upon you and your 
realm, as he hath ever upon them which have obstinately withstood his word. "Wherefore, 
gracious king, remember yourself, have pity upon your soul; and think that the 
day is even at hand, when you shall give account of your office, and of the blood 
that hath been shed with your sword. In the which day that your grace may stand 
steadfastly, and not be ashamed, but be clear and ready in your reckoning, and 
to have (as they say) your 'quietus eat' sealed with the blood of our Saviour 
Christ, which only serveth at that day, is my daily prayer to him that suffered 
death for our sins, which also prayeth to his Father for grace for us continually. 
To whom be all honour and praise for ever, Amen. The Spirit of God perserve your 
grace. - Anno Domini 1530. Prom. die Decembris." In this letter of master Latimer 
we have to consider his good conscience to God, his good-will to the king, the 
duty of a right pastor unto truth, and his tender care to the church of Christ. 
Further, we may note the subtle practices of prelates in abusing the name and 
authority of kings, to set forth their own malignant proceedings; and also the 
great goldness of this man, who durst, in defence of Christ's gospel, so freely 
and plainly counsel that which no other durst once speak of. And yet God so wrought 
with his servant's bold adventure that no danger nor displeasure rose to him thereby, 
but rather thanks and good-will of his prince, who soon after advanced him to 
the bishopric of Worchester. PAGE 842 During the time that the said master Latimer 
was prisoner in Oxford, we read not of much that he did write besides his conference 
with Dr. Ridley, and his protestation at the time of his disputation. Otherwise 
of letters we find very few, or none, save only these few lines, which he wrote 
to one Mrs. Wilkinson of London, a godly matron, and an exile afterward for the 
gospel's sake: who, so long as she remained in England, was a singular patroness 
to the good saints of God, and learned bishops, as to Hooper, to the bishop of 
Hereford, to Coverdale, to Latimer, to Cranmer, and many others. The copy of his 
letter to Mrs. Wilkinson here followeth: "If the gift of a pot of cold water shall 
not be in oblivion with God, how can God forget your manifold and bontiful gifts, 
when he shall say to you, 'I was in prison, and you visited me?' God grant us 
all to do and suffer, while we be here, as may be his will and pleasure. - Yours, 
Hugh Latimer." Touching the memorable acts and doings of this worthy man, among 
many others this is not to be neglected, what a bold enterprise he attempted in 
sending to king Henry a present, the manner whereof is this. There was then, and 
remaineth still, an ancient custom received from the old Romans, that upon New-year's 
day, every bishop with some handsome New- year's gift should gratify the king; 
and so they did, some with gold, some with silver, some with a purse full of money, 
and some one thing, some another. But master Latimer, being bishop of Worchester 
then, among the rest, presented a New Testament for his New-year's gift, with 
a napkin having this posy about it, "Fornicators et adulteros judicabit Dominus." 
And thus thou hast, gentle reader, a sketch of the life both of master Ridley 
and of master Latimer severally by themselves set forth and described, with their 
chief proceedings from time to time until this present month of October 1555: 
in the which month they were brought forth together to their final examination 
and execution. Wherefore as they were together joined both in one cause and martyrdom, 
we will, by the grace of Christ, so prosecute the rest that remaineth concerning 
their latter examination, degrading, and constant suffering. First, after the 
appearing of Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, before the pop's delegate, 
and the queen's commissioners, in St. Mary's church at Oxford, about the 12th 
of September, (whereof more shall be said, by God's grace, when we come to the 
death of the said archbishop;) shortly after, on the 28th of the said month, was 
sent down to Oxford another commission from cardinal Pole, legate a latere, to 
John White, bishop of Lincoln, to Dr. Brooks, bishop of Glouchester, and Dr. Holy- 
man, bishop of Bristol. The contents and virtue of which commission were, that 
the said bishops should have full power and authority to cite, examine, and judge 
master Latimer and Dr. Ridley, for divers and sundry erroneous opinions, which 
the said Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley did hold and maintain in open disputations 
had in Oxford, in the months of May, June, and July, in the year of our Lord 1554, 
as long before, in the time of perdition, and since. Which opinions, if they would 
now recant, giving and yielding themselves to the determination of PAGE 843 the 
universal and catholic church planted by Peter in the blessed see of Rome, that 
then the deputed judges, by the authority of their commis- sion, should have power 
to receive the penitent persons, and forthwith administer unto them the reconciliation 
of the holy father the pope. But if they would stoutly and stubbornly maintain 
their erroneous opinions, then the said lords by their commission should proceed 
in form of judg- ment, according to the law of heretics; that is, degrade them 
from their promotion and dignity of bishops, priests, and all other ecclesiastical 
orders, pronounce them as heretics, cut them off from the church, and deliver 
them up to receive the punishment due to such heresy and schism. Wherefore, the 
last of September, Nicholas Risley and Hugh Latimer were cited to appear before 
the said lords, in the divinity school at Oxford, at eight of the clock. At which 
time thither required the lords, placing themselves in the high seat made for 
public lectures and disputations, according to the usage of that school. And after 
the said lords were placed and set, the said Latimer and Ridley were sent for; 
and first appeared Dr. Ridley, and anon master Latimer. But because it seemed 
good severally to examine them, Latimer was kept back until master Ridley was 
thoroughly examined. Therefore, soon after the coming of Ridley into the school, 
the commission was published by an appointed notary, and openly read. Ridley at 
first stood bareheaded, but as soon as he had heard the cardinal named, and the 
pope's holiness, he put on his cap. Wherefore after the commission was published, 
the conference thus proceeded. Lincoln. Mr. Ridley, although neither I, nor yet 
my lords here, in respect of our own persons, look for cap or knee, yet because 
we bear and represent such persons as we do, that is, my lord cardinal's grace, 
legate a latere to the pope's holiness, as well in that he is of a noble parentage 
(here Dr. Ridley moved his cap with low obeisance) descending from the royal blood, 
as in that he is a man worthy to be reverenced with all humility, for his great 
knowledge and learning, noble virtues and godly life, it would have become you 
at this name to have uncovered your head. Wherefore except you will of your ownself 
take the pains to put your hand to your head, and at the nomination, as well of 
the said cardinal, as of the pop's holiness, uncover the same, you will cause 
us to oblige some man to pluck off your cap. Rid. Respecting what you said, my 
lord, that you of your own persons desire no cap or knee, but only require it 
in consideration of your representing the cardinal's grace, I would have you know, 
that I put on my cap at the naming of him, not for any contumacy that I bear towards 
your own persons, nor for any derogation of honour towards the lord cardinal. 
For I know him to be a man worthy of all humility, reverence, and honour, in that 
he came of the most regal blood, and in that he is a man endued with manifold 
graces of learning and virtue; and as touching these virtues and points, I, with 
all humility (here he put off his cap and bowed his knee) and obeisance, reverence, 
and honour his grace. But as he is a legate to the bishop of Rome (and therewith 
put on his cap) whose usurped supremacy and abused authority I utterly refuse 
and renounce, I may in no wise give obeisance or honour unto him, lest my so PAGE 
844 doing might be prejudicial to mine oath, and a derogation to the verity of 
God's words: therefore that I might not only by confession profess the truth, 
in not reverencing the renounced authority, contrary to God's word, but also in 
gesture, in behaviour, and all my doings, express the same, I have put on my cap, 
and for this consideration only, and not for any contumacy to your lordships, 
neither contempt of this worshipful audience, or derogation of honour due to the 
cardinal's grace. Lin. Mr. Ridley, you excuse yourself of that with which we pressed 
you not, in that you protest you keep on your cap, neither for any contumacy towards 
us, nor for any contempt of this audience; which although justly they may, yet 
in this case do not require any such obeisance of you; neither in derogation of 
any honour due to my lord cardinal for his regal decent (at which word Dr. Ridley 
moved his cap) and excellent qualities; for although in all the premises honour 
be due, yet in these respects we require none of you, but only in that my lord 
cardinal's grace is here in England, deputy of the pop's holiness, (at which word 
the lords and others put off their caps, and Dr. Ridley put on his) and therefore 
we say unto you the second time, that except you take the pains yourself, to put 
your hand to your head, and put off your cap, you shall put us to the pains to 
cause some man to take it from you, except you allege some infirmity and sickness, 
or other more reasonable cause, upon the consideration whereof we may do as we 
think good. Rid. The premises I said only for this end, that it might as well 
appear to your lordships, as to this worshipful audience, why and for what consideration 
I sued such kind of behaviour, in not humbling myself to your lordships with cap 
and knee: and as for my sickness, I thank my Lord God, that I am as well at east 
as I have been this long time; and therefore I do not pretend that which is not, 
but only this, that it might appear by this my behaviour, that I acknowledge in 
no point that usurped supremacy of Rome, and therefore contemn and utterly despise 
all authority coming from him. Then the bishop of Lincoln, after the third admonition, 
commanded one of the beadles to take his cap from his head. Dr. Ridley bowing 
his head to the officer, gently permitted him to take it away. After this the 
bishop of Lincoln, in a long oration, exhorted Ridley to recant, and submit himself 
to the universal faith of Christ, endeavouring to prove the right of supremacy 
in the church of Rome, charging him also, with having formerly been favourable 
to their doctrines and ceremonies. Ridley heard him patiently, and when he had 
concluded, desired his patience to suffer him to speak somewhat of the premises, 
lest the multitued of things might confound his memory; and having leave granted 
him, he thus spake: "I most heartily thank your lordship, as well for your gentleness, 
as for your good and favourable zeal in this learned exhortation, in which I have 
marked especially three points, by which you sought to persuade me to leave my 
doctrine and religion, (which I perfectly know to be grounded, not upon man's 
imaginations and decrees, but upon the infallible truth of Christ's gospel,) and 
to return to the Romish see. PAGE 845 Firs, the first point is this, that the 
see of Rome taking its beginning from Peter, upon whom you say Christ hath builded 
his church, hath in all ages lineally, from bishop to bishop, been brought to 
this time. Second, that even the holy fathers have in their writings confessed 
the same. Third, that I myself was of the same opinion, and altogether with you 
I did acknowledge the same. "First, as touching the saying of Christ, from whence 
your lordship gathereth the foundation of the church upon Peter, truly the place 
is not to be understood as you take it, as the circumstance of the place will 
declare. For after Christ had asked his disciples whom men judged him to be, and 
they answered, that some had said he was a prophet, some Elias, some one thing, 
some another; then he said, 'Whom say ye that I am?' Then Peter answered, ' I 
say that thou art Christ the Son of God.' To whom Christ answered, 'I say thou 
art Peter, and upon this stone I will build my church;' that is to say, Upon this 
stone, not meaning Peter himself, as though he would have constituted a mortal 
man, so frail and brittle a foundation of his stable and infallible church: but 
upon this rick-stone, that is, this confession of thine, that I am the Son of 
the living God, I will build my church. For this is the founda- tion and beginning 
of all christanity, with word, heart, and mind, to confess that Christ is the 
Son of God. Here we see upon what foundation Christ's church is built, not upon 
the frailty of man, but upon the stable and infallible word of God. "As touching 
the lineal descent of the bishops in the see of Rome, true it is, that the patriarchs 
of Rome in the apostles' time, and long after, were great maintainers of Christ's 
glory, in which, above all other countries and regions, there especially was preached 
the true gospel, the sacraments were most duly administered; and as, before Christ's 
coming, it was a city so valiant in prowess, and martial affairs, that all the 
world was in a manner subject to it; and after Christ's passion divers of the 
apostles there suffered persecution for the gospel's sake: so after that the emperors, 
their hearts being illuminated, received the gospel, and became christians, the 
gospel there, as well for the fame of the place, flourished most, whereby the 
bishops of that place were had in more reverence and honour, most esteemed in 
all councils and assemblies, not because they acknowledge them to be their head, 
but because the place was most reverenced and spoken of, for the great power and 
strength of the same. As now here in England, the bishop of Lincoln, in sessions 
and sittings, hath the pre-eminence of other bishops, not that he is the head 
and ruler of them; but for the dignity of the bishopric. Wherefore the doctors 
in their writings have spoken most reverently of this see of Rome, and in their 
writings preferred it; and this is the prerogative which your lordship did reherse 
the ancient doctors to give to the see of Rome. In the same manner I cannot nor 
dare but commend, reverence, and honour the see of Rome, so long as it continued 
in the promotion and setting forth of God's glory, and in due preaching of the 
gospel, as it did many years after Christ, But after that the bishops of that 
see, seeking their own pride, and not lenging to them the title of God's vicars, 
the dominion and supremacy over all the world, I cannot but with St. Gregory, 
a bishop of Rome also, confess that place is the very true Antichrist, whereof 
St. John speaketh by name of the whore of Babylon; and say, with Gregory, 'He 
that maketh himself a bishop over all the world, is worse than Antichrist.' PAGE 
846 "Whereas you say St. Augustine should seem not only to give such a prerogative, 
but also supremacy tot he see of Rome, in that he saith all the christian world 
is subject to the church of Rome, and therefore should give to that see a certain 
kind of subjection; I am sure that your lordship knoweth, that in Augustine's 
time there were four, Alexandria, Constantinople, Antioch, and Rome, which patriarchs 
had under them certain countries; as in England the archbishop of Canterbury hath 
under him certain bishoprics in England and Wales, to whom he may be said to be 
their patriarch. Also your lordship knoweth right well, that at the time Augustine 
wrote that book he was then bishop in Africa. Farther, you are not ignorant, that 
between Europe and Africa lieth the sea called the Mediterranean sea, so that 
all the countries in Europe to him which is in Africa, may be called countries 
beyond the sea. Hereof Augustine saith, 'All the christian countries beyond the 
seas and remote regions, are subject to the see of Rome.' If I should say all 
countries beyond the sea, I do except England, which to me now, being in England, 
is not beyond the sea. In this sense, Augustine saith, 'All the countries beyond 
the sea are subject to the see of Rome;' declaring thereby that Rome was one of 
the sees of the four patriarchs, and under it Europe. By what subjection I pray 
you? only for a pre-eminence; as we here in England say, that all the bishoprics 
are subject to the archbishoprics. "For this pre-eminence also the other doctors 
say, that Rome is the mother of churches, as the bishopric of Lincoln is mother 
to the bishopric of Lincoln, and they were once both one; and so is the archbishopric 
of Canterbury mother to the other bishoprics which are in her province. In like 
manner the archbishopric of York, is mother to the north bishoprics; and yet no 
man will say, that Lincoln, Canterbury, or York, is supreme head to the other 
bishoprics; neither then ought we to confess the see of Rome to be supreme head, 
because the doctors, in their writings, confess the see of Rome to be mother of 
churches. "Where you say, I was once of the same religion as you are of, the truth 
is, I cannot but confess the same. Yet so was St. Paul a persecutor of Christ. 
But in that you say, I was one of you not long ago, in that I, in doing my message 
to my lord of Winchester, should desire him to stand stout in that gross opinion 
of the supper of the Lord: in very deed I was sent, as your lordship said, from 
the council to my lord of Winchester, to exhort him also to receive the true confession 
of justification; and because he was very refectory, I said to him, 'What make 
you so great a matter herein? you see many anabaptists rise against the sacrament 
of the altar; I pray you, my lord, be diligent in confounding of them!' for at 
that time my lord of Winchester and I had to do with two anabaptists in Kent. 
In this sense I willed my lord to be stiff in the defence of the sacraments against 
the detestable errors of anabaptists, and not in the confirmation of that gross 
and carnal opinion now maintained. PAGE 847 "In like manner, respecting the sermon 
which I made at St. Paul's Cross, you shall understand, that there were at St. 
Paul's, and divers other places, fixed railing bills against the sacrament, terming 
it Jack of the Box, the Sacrament of the Halter, round Robin, with other unseemly 
terms; for which causes, to rebuke irreverent behaviour of certain evil- disposed 
persons, I preached as reverently of that matter as I might, declaring what estimation 
and reverence ought to be given to it, what danger ensued the mishandling thereof; 
affirming in that sacrament to be truly and verily the body and blood of Christ, 
effectually by grace and spirit; which words the unlearned understanding not, 
supposed that I had meant of the gross and carnal being which the Romish decrees 
set forth, that a body having life and motion should be indeed under the shapes 
of bread and wine." Lin. Well, Dr. Ridley, thus you wrest places to your own pleasure. 
I could bring many more places of the fathers for a confirmation of what I have 
advanced; but we came not hither to dispute with you, but only to take your answers 
to certain articles; and used this in the way of disputation, in which you interrupted 
me: wherefore I will return thither again. You must, first of all, consider that 
the church of Christ lieth not hid, but is a city on the mountain, and a candle 
in the candlestick. The church of Christ is catholic, and universally spread throughout 
the world. Wherefore, for God's love, be you not singular; acknowledge with all 
the realm the truth, it shall not be prejudicial to the crown; for their majesties 
the king and queen have renounced that usurped power taken of their predecessors, 
and justly have renounced it. I am sure you know there are two powers, the one 
declared by the sword, the other by the keys. The sword is given to kings and 
rulers of countries; the keys were delivered by Christ to Peter, and of him left 
to all the successors. Consider your state, remember your former degrees, spare 
your body; especially consider your soul, which Christ so dearly bought with his 
precious blood. Do not rashly cast away that which was precious in God's sight; 
enforce us not to do all that we may do, which is not only to publish you to be 
none of us, but to cut you off from the church. We do not, nor can we condemn 
you to die, (as most untruly hath been reported of us) but that is the office 
of the temporal judges; we only declare you to be not of the church, and then 
you must, according to the tenor of them, and pleasure of the rulers, abide their 
determination, so that we, after we have given you up to the temporal rulers, 
have no further to do with you. But I cannot help to hope and trust, Dr. Ridley, 
we shall not have occasion to do what we may. I trust you will suffer us to rest 
in that point of our commission, which we most heartily desire, that is, upon 
recantation and repentance to receive, to reconcile you, and again to join you 
to the unity of the church. Rod. My lord, I acknowledge an unspotted church of 
Christ, in which no man can err, without which no man can be saved, which is the 
congrega- tion of the faithful; neither do I bind the same to any one place as 
you said, but confess the same to be universal; and where Christ's sacra- ments 
are duly administered, his gospel truly preached and followed there doth Christ's 
church shine as a city upon a hill, and as a candle PAGE 848 in the candlestick: 
but rather it is such as you that would have the church of Christ bound to a place, 
who appoint the same to Rome, that there and no where else is the foundation of 
Christ's church. But I am fully persuaded that Christ's church is every where 
founded, in every place where his gospel is truly received, and effectually followed. 
And in that the church of God is in doubt, I use herein the counsel of Vincentius 
Lyrinensis, whom I am sure you will allow, who giving precepts how the catholic 
church may be in all schisms and heresies knows, writeth it this manner, "When 
one part is corrupted with then prefer the whole world before that one part; but 
if the greatest part be infected, then prefer antiquity." In like manner now, 
when I perceive the greatest part of christianity to be infected with the poison 
of the see of Rome, I repair to the usage of the primitive church, which I find 
quite contrary to the pope's decrees: as in that the priest receiveth alone, that 
it is made unlawful to the laity to receive in both kinds, and such like: wherefore 
it requireth, that I prefer the antiquity of the primitive church before the novelty 
of the Romish. Lin. Dr. Ridley, these faults which you charge the see of Rome 
withal, are indeed no faults. For first, it was never forbid the laity, but that 
they might, if they demanded, receive under both kinds. You know also, that Christ 
after his resurrection, at the time he went with his apostles to Galilee, opened 
himself by breaking of bread. - So that the church seemeth to have authority by 
the Holy Ghost, whom Christ said he would send after his ascension, which should 
teach the apostles all truth, to have power to alter such points of the scriptures, 
ever reserving the foundation. But we came not, as I said before, to reason the 
matter with you, but we have certain instructions ministered unto us, according 
to which we must proceed, proposing certain articles, unto which we require your 
answer directly, either denying or grating them, without further disputations, 
which articles you shall hear now; and tomorrow we will require and take your 
answers, and then according to the same proceed. If you require a copy of them, 
you shall have it, pen, ink, and paper; also such books as you shall demand, if 
they be to be gotten. The articles referred to were then jointly and severally 
ministered to Dr. Ridley and master Latimer, by the pope's deputy: they were these 
- "In the name of God, Amen. We John Lincoln, James Gloucester, and John Bristol, 
bishop: (1.) We do object to thee, Nicholas Ridley, and to thee, Hugh Latimer, 
jointly and severally; first, that thou Nicholas Ridley, in this high university 
of Oxford, anno 1554, in the months of April, May, June, and July, or in some 
one or more of them, hast affirmed and openly defended and maintained, and in 
many other times and places besides, that the true and natural body of Christ, 
after the consecration of the priest, is not really present in the sacrament of 
the altar. (2.) That in the said year and months aforesaid, thou hast publicly 
affirmed and defended, that in the sacrament of the altar remaineth still the 
substance of bread and wine. (3.) That in the said year and months thou hast openly 
affirmed and obstinately maintained, that in the mass is no propitiatory sacrifice 
for the quick and the dead. (4.) That in the year, place, and months aforesaid, 
these thy foresaid assertions solemnly have been condemned by the scholastical 
censure of this school, as heretical and contrary to the catholic faith, by the 
worshipful Dr. Weston, prolocutor then of the convocation house, as also by other 
learned men of both the universities. (5.) That all and singular the premises 
be true, notorious, famous, and openly known by public fame, as well to them near 
hand, as also to them far off." PAGE 849 All these articles I though good here 
to place together, that, as often as hereafter rehearsal shall be of any of them, 
the reader may have recourse hither, and so not trouble the story with several 
repetitions thereof. After these articles were read, the bishops took counsel 
together. At the last the bishop of Lincoln said, "These are the very same articles 
which you, in open disputation here in the university, did maintain and defend. 
What say you unto the first? I pray you answer affirmatively, or negatively." 
Rid. Why, my lord, I supposed that you would have given me until to-morrow, that 
upon good advice I might bring a determinate answer. Lin. Yea, master Ridley, 
I mean not that your answers now shall be prejudicial to your answers tomorrow. 
I will take your answers at this time, and yet notwithstanding it shall be lawful 
for you to add, diminish, alter, and change these answers tomorrow what you will. 
Rid. Seeing you appoint me a time to answer tomorrow, and yet would take mine 
answers out of hand, I require the notaries to take and write my protestation, 
that in no point I acknowledge your authority, or admit you to be my judges, in 
that point that you are authorized from the pope. Therefore, whatsoever I shall 
say or do, I protest I neither say nor do it willingly, thereby to admit the authority 
of the pope: and if your lordship will give me leave, I will show the cause which 
move me thereunto. Lin. No, we have instructions to the contrary. We may not suffer 
you. Rid. I will be short: I pray you suffer me to speak but three words. Lin. 
Tomorrow you shall speak forty. The time is far past; therefore we require your 
answer determinately. What say you to the first article? Rid. I answer, that in 
the sacrament is the very true and natural body and blood of Christ even that 
which was born of the Virgin Mary, which ascended into heaven, which sitteth on 
the right hand of God the Father, which shall come from thence to judge the quick 
and the dead, only we differ in modo, in the way and manner of being: we confess 
all one thing to be in the sacrament, and dissent in the manner of being there. 
I, being fully by God's word persuaded, confess Christ's natural body to be in 
the sacrament indeed by spirit and grace, because that whosoever receiveth worthily 
that bread and wine, receiveth effectuously Christ's body, and drinketh his blood, 
(that is, he is made effectually partaker of his passion;) and you make a grosser 
kind of being, enclosing a natural, a lively, and a moving body, under the shape 
or form of bread and wine. Now, this difference considered, to the question thus 
I answer, that in the sacrament of the altar is the natural body and blood of 
Christ vere et realiter, indeed and really, for spiritually, by grace and efficacy; 
for so every worthy receiver receiveth the very true body of Christ. But, if you 
mean really and indeed, so as to include a lively and a movable body under the 
forms of bread and wine, then, in that sense, is not Christ's body in the sacrament. 
This answer taken, the bishop of Lincoln proposed the second article. Rid. In 
the sacrament is a certain change, in that, that bread, which was before common 
bread, is now made a lively presentation of Christ's body. Notwithstanding this 
sacramental mutation, the true substance and nature of bread and wine remaineth: 
with the which the body is in like sort nourished, as the soul is by grace and 
Spirit with the body of Christ. PAGE 850 Then the notaries penned that he answered 
affirmatively to the second article; and the bishop recited the third, and required 
a direct answer. Rid. Christ, as St. Paul writeth, made one perfect sacrifice 
for the sins of the whole world, neither can any man reiterate that sacrifice 
of his, and yet is the communion and acceptable sacrifice to God of praise and 
thanksgiving. But to say that thereby sins are taken away (which wholly and perfectly 
was done by Christ's passion, of the which the communion is only a memory) that 
is a great derogation of the merits of Christ's passion; for the sacrament was 
instituted, that we, receiving it, and thereby recognising and remembering his 
passion, should be partakers of the merits of the same. For otherwise doth this 
sacrament take upon it the office of Christ's passion, whereby it might follow 
that Christ died in vain. The notaries penned this his answer to be affirmatively. 
And then the bishop of Lincoln recited the forth article; to the which Ridley 
answered, that in some part it was true, and in some part false: true, in that 
those his assertions were condemned as heresies, although unjustly: false, in 
that it was said they were condemned sicentia scholastica, in that the disputations 
were in such sort ordered, that it was far from any school act. This answer penned 
of the notaries, the bishop of Lincoln rehearsed the fifth article. To the which 
Ridley answered, that the premises were in such sort true, as in these his answers 
he had declared. Whether that all men spake evil of them he knew not, in that 
he came not much abroad. This answer also written, the bishop said: "Tomorrow 
you shall appear before us in St. Mary's church; and because we cannot well agree 
upon your answer to the first article, you may, if it please you, write your answer." 
Now master Latimer, being also brought to the divinity school, there tarried till 
they called him; and after that Ridley was committed to the mayor, the bishop 
of Lincoln commanded the bailiffs to bring him in, who eftsoons as he was placed 
said to the lords: "My lords, if I appear again, I pray you not to send for me 
until you be ready: for I am an old man, and it is great hurt to mine old age 
to tarry so long gazing upon the cold walls." Then said the bishop of Lincoln, 
"Master Latimer, I am sorry you are brought so soon, although it is the bailiff's 
fault, and not mine: but it shall be amended." Then Latimer bowed his knee down 
to the ground, holding his hat in his hand, having a kerchief on his head, and 
upon it a night-cap or two, and a great cap, (such as townsmen use, with two broad 
flaps to button under the chin,) wearing an old thread- bare Bristol frieze-gown 
girded to his body with a penny leather girdle, at the which hanged by a string 
of leather his Testament, and his spectacles without case, depending about his 
neck upon his breast. After this the bishop of Lincoln began a long oration, in 
the which, as he has by Dr. Ridley, he declared their commission, charged him 
which his errors; spake of the unity and infallibility of their church, entreated 
him back to the same, and if stubbornly perverse, threatened him with the consequences. 
After the bishop had somewhat paused, Latimer lifted up his head, (for before 
he leaned on his elbow;) and asking whether his lordship had done, said, "Then 
will you give me leave to speak a word or two?" Lin. Yea, so you use a modest 
kind of talk, without railing or taunts. PAGE 851 Lat. I beseech your lordship, 
license me to sit down. Lin. At your pleasure, Mr. Latimer, take as much ease 
as you will. Lat. Your lordship gently exhorted me in many words to come to the 
unity of the church. I confess, my lord, a catholic church, spread throughout 
all the world, in which on man may err, without which unity of the church no man 
can be saved; but I know perfectly by God's word, that this church is in all the 
world, and hath not its foundation in Rome only, as you say; and me thought your 
lordship brought a piace out of the scriptures to confirm the same, that there 
was a jurisdiction given to Peter, in that Christ bade him govern his people. 
Indeed, my lord, St. Peter did his office well and truly, in that he was bid to 
govern; but since, the bishops of Rome have taken a new kind of government. Indeed 
they ought to govern, but how, my lord? not as they will themselves; but this 
government must be hedged and ditched in. They must rule, only according to the 
word of God. But the bishops of Rome have turned the rule according to the word 
of God into the rule according to their own pleasures, and as it pleaseth them 
best; as there is a book set forth which hath divers points in it, and, amongst 
others, this point is one, which your lordship went about to prove; and the argument 
which he bringeth forth for the proof of that matter is taken out of Deuteronomy, 
where it is said, "If there ariseth any controversy among the people, the priests 
of the order of Levi shall decide the matter according to the law of God, so it 
must be taken." This book, perceiving this authority to be given to the priests 
of the old law, taketh occasion to prove the same to be given to the bishops and 
others the clergy of the new law: but, in proving this matter, whereas it was 
said there, as the priests of the order of Levi should determine the matter "according 
to God's law," that "according to God's law" is left out, and only is recited, 
as the priests of the order of Levi shall decide the matter so it ought to be 
taken of the people; a large authority I assure you. What gelding of Scripture 
is this? What clipping of God's coin? This is much like the "ruling" which your 
lordship talked of. Nay, nay, my lords, we may not give such authority to the 
clergy, to rule all things as they will. Let them keep them- selves within their 
commission. I trust, my lord, I do not rail yet. Lin. No, master Latimer, your 
talk is more like taunting than railing; but in that I have not read nor know 
the book, I can say nothing therein. Lat. The book is open to be read, my lord; 
it is by one who is bishop of Gloucester, whom I never knew, neither did see to 
my knowledge. With that the people laughed, because the bishop of Gloucester sat 
there in commission. Then the bishop stood up, and said it was his book. Lat. 
Was it yours, my lord? Indeed I knew not your lordship, neither ever did I see 
you before, nor yet now, through the brightness of the sun shining betwixt you 
and me. (Then the audience laughed again.) Why, my masters, this is no laughing 
matter: I answer upon life and death. The bishop of Lincoln commanded silence, 
and then said, "Master Latimer, if you had kept yourself within your bounds, if 
you had not used such scoffs and taunts, this had not been done." After this Gloucester 
said, in excusing this book, "Hereby every man may see what learning you have." 
PAGE 852 Lat. Lo, you look for learning at my hands who have gone so long to the 
school of oblivion, making the bare walls my library, keeping me so long in prison 
without book, or pen and ink; and now you let me loose to come and answer to articles. 
You deal with me as though two were appointed to fight for life and death, and 
over night the one through friends and favour, is cherished, and hath good counsel 
given him how to encounter with his enemy. The other, for envy or lack of friends, 
all the whole night is set in the stocks. In the morning when they shall meet, 
the one is in strength and lusty; the other is stiff in his limbs, and almost 
dead for feebleness. Think you, that to run through this man with a spear is not 
a goodly victory? Glou. I went not about to recite any places of scripture in 
that place of my book; for then if I had not recited faithfully, you might have 
had just occasion of reprehension: but I only in that place formed an argument 
a majore, in this sense; that if in the old law the priests had power to decide 
matters of controversy, much more then ought the authority to be given to the 
clergy in the new law: and I pray you, in this point what availeth their rehearsal, 
according to the law of God? Lat. Yes, my lord, very much. For I acknowledge authority 
to be given to the spiritualty to decide matters of religion; and as my lord said 
even now, to rule; but they must do it according to the word and law of God, and 
not after their own wills, imaginations, and fantasies. Then Lincoln said they 
came not to dispute, but to take his answers; and so began to propose to master 
Latimer the same articles as proposed to Ridley, requiring his answer to the first. 
Then Latimer, making his protestation that notwithstanding his answers it should 
not be taken that thereby he would acknowledge any authority of the bishop of 
Rome, saying that he was their majesties' subject, and not the pope's, neither 
could serve two masters at one time; required the notaries to take his protestation, 
that whatsoever he should say or do, it should not be taken as though he did thereby 
agree to any authority that came from the bishop of Rome. Lin. Your protestation 
shall be so taken; and I require you to answer briefly, affirmatively or negatively, 
to the first article. Lat. I do not deny, my lord, that in the sacrament by spirit 
and grace is the very body and blood of Christ; because that every man by receiving 
bodily that bread and wine, spiritually receiveth the body and blood of Christ, 
and is made partaker thereby of the merits of Christ's passion: but I deny that 
the body and blood of Christ is in such manner in the sacrament as you would have 
it. Lin. Then you answer affirmatively; and what say you, Mr. Latimer to the second 
article? Lat. There is, my lord, a change in the bread and wine, and such a change 
as no power, but the omnipotency of God can make, in that that which before was 
bread, should now have the dignity to exhibit Christ's body; and yet the bread 
is still bread, and the wine still wine; for the change is not in the nature, 
but the dignity, because now that which was common bread hath the dignity to exhibit 
Christ's body: for whereas it was common bread, it is now no more common bread, 
neither ought it to be so taken, but as holy bread sanctified by God's word. Lin. 
Lo, Mr. Latimer, see what steadfastness is in your doctrine. That which you abhorred 
and despised most, you now most establish: for whereas you most railed at holy 
bread, you now made your commuion holy bread. Is not this your answer, that the 
substance of bread and wine remaineth after the words of consecration? PAGE 853 
Lat. Yes, verily, it must needs be so. For Christ himself calleth it bread; St. 
Paul calleth it bread; the doctors confess the same; the nature of a sacrament 
confirmeth the same; and I call it holy bread: not in that I make no difference 
between your holy bread and this, but for the holy office which it beareth, that 
is, to be a figure of Christ's body, and not only a bare figure but effectually 
to represent the same. Lin. What say you to the third question? Lat. Christ made 
one perfect sacrifice for all the whole world, neither can any man offer him again, 
neither can the priest offer up Christ again for the sins of man, which he took 
away by offering himself once for all upon the cross: neither is there any propitiation 
for our sins saving his cross only. Lin. What say you to the fourth? Do you not 
hear me? Lat. Yes, but I do not understand what you mean thereby. Lin. Marry, 
only this, that these your assertions were condemned by Dr. Weston as heresies; 
is it not so, master Latimer? Lat. Yes, I think they were condemned. But how unjustly, 
he that shall be Judge of all knoweth. So the notaries took his answer to this 
article to be affirmatively, as they did also to the other three before recited. 
Lin. What say you, master Latimer, to the fifth article? Lat. I know not what 
you mean by these terms. I am no lawyer; I wish you would propose the matter plainly. 
Lin. In that we proceed according to the law, we must use their terms also. The 
meaning only is this, that thee your assertions are notorious, evil spoken of, 
and yet common and frequent in the months of the people. Lat. I cannot tell how 
much, nor what men talk of them. I come not so much among them, for I have been 
secluded a long time. What men report of them I know not, and care not. Lin. Mr. 
Latimer, we mean not that these your answers shall be prejudicial to you. Tomorrow 
you shall appear before us again, and then it shall be lawful for you to alter 
and change what you will. We give you respite till then, trusting that after you 
have pondered well all things against that time, you will not be ashamed to confess 
the truth. Lat. Now, my lord, I pray you give me license in three words to declare 
the causes why I refused the authority of the pope. Lin. Nay, Mr. Latimer, tomorrow 
you shall have license to speak forty words. Lt. Nay, my lords, I beseech you 
to do with me now as it shall please your lordships. I require no respite, for 
I am at a point; you shall give me respite in vain: therefore I pray you let me 
not trouble you tomorrow. Lin. Yes, for we trust God will work with you against 
to-morrow. There is no remedy, you must needs appear again to-morrow at eight 
o'clock in St. Mary's church. And forthwith the bishop charged the mayor with 
master Latimer, and dismissed him: he then brake up their sessions for that day, 
at one o'clock. The next day (the first of October) the said lords repaired to 
St. Mary's; and after they were set in a high throne, then appeared PAGE 854 Ridley, 
who was set at a framed table a good space from the bishop's feet, and the place 
was encompassed about in a quadrate form, partly for gentlemen who repaired thither, 
and for the heads of the university to sit, and partly to keep off the press of 
the audience: for the whole body, as well of the university as of the town, came 
to see the end of these two persons. After Dr. Ridley's appearance, and the silence 
of the audience, the bishop of Lincoln commenced speaking. Lin. Mr. Ridley, yesterday 
we took your answers to certain articles, which we then proposed unto you: but 
because we could not be thoroughly satisfied with your answer then to the first 
article, neither could the notaries take any determinate answer of you, we granted 
you license to bring your answer in writing, and thereupon command the mayor that 
you should have pen, paper, and ink, yea, any books also that you would require, 
if they were to be god: we licensed you then also to alter your former answers 
this day at your pleasure: therefore we are now come hither, to see if you are 
in the same mind now, that you were yesterday, or contrary, contented to revoke 
your former assertions, and in all points consent to submit yourself to the determination 
of the universal church; and I for my part most earnestly exhort you, not because 
my conscience pricketh me, as you said yesterday, but because I see you a rotten 
member, and in the way of perdition. Now, Dr. Ridley, what say you to the first 
article? If you have brought your answer in writing, we will receive it: but if 
you have written any other matter, we will not receive it. Then Ridley took a 
sheet of paper out of his bosom, and began to read that he had written: but Lincoln 
ordered the beadle to take it from him. Rid. Why, my lord, will you require my 
answer, and not suffer me to publish it? I beseech you, let the audience bear 
witness in this matter. Lin. Well, Dr. Ridley, we will first see what you have 
written, and then if we shall think it good to be read, you shall have it published; 
but, except you will deliver it first, we will take none at all from you. With 
that, master Ridley, seeing no remedy, delivered it to an officer, who immediately 
delivered it to the bishop of Lincoln; who, after he had secretly communicated 
it to the other two bishops, declared the sense, but would not read it as it was 
written, saying, that it contained words of blasphemy; therefore he would not 
fill the ears of the audience therewithal, and so abuse their patience. Notwithstanding, 
Ridley desired very instantly to have it published; saying that, except a line 
or two, there was nothing contained but the ancient doctors' sayings, for the 
confirmation of his assertions. After the said bishops had secretly perused the 
whole, then the bishop of Lincoln said, "In the first part, master Ridley, is 
nothing contained but your protestation, that you would not have these your answers 
to to be taken as though you seemed thereby to consent to the authority or jurisdiction 
of the pope's holiness." Rid. No, my lord: pray read it out, that the audience 
may hear it. This the bishop of Lincoln would in no wise grant; but recited the 
first article, and required Ridley's answer to it. Then Ridley said his answer 
was there in writing, and desired it might be published: but the bishop would 
not read the whole, but here and there a piece of it. And when he had read what 
he pleased, he recited the second article, and required an answer. Dr. Ridley 
again referred him to his answer in writing exhibited now, and also before at 
the time of disputation: and like answers were taken to all the rest of the articles. 
The bishop of Gloucester then addressed him thus. PAGE 855 "If you would once 
empty your stomach, captivate your senses, subdue your reason, and, together with 
us, consider what a feeble ground of your religion you have, I do not doubt but 
you might easily be brought to acknowledge one church with us, to confess one 
faith with us, and to believe one religion with us. For what a weak and feeble 
stay in religion is this, I pray you? Latimer leaneth to Cranmer, Cranmer to Ridley, 
and Ridley to the singularity of his own wit: so that if you overthrow the singularity 
of Ridley's wit, then must needs the religion of Cranmer and Latimer fall also. 
You remember well, Dr. Ridley, that the prophet speaketh most truly, saying - 
'Woe be to them which are singular and wise in their own conceits.' "But you will 
say here, it is true that the prophet saith; but how know you that I am wise in 
mine own conceit? Yes, Dr. Ridley, you refuse the determination of the catholic 
church; you must needs be singular and wise in your own conceit, for you bring 
scripture for the proof of your assertions, and we also bring scripture: you understand 
them in one sense, and we in another. How will you know the truth herein? If you 
stand to your own interpretation, then you are singular in your own conceit: but 
if you say you will follow the minds of the doctors and ancient fathers, likely 
you understand them in one meaning, and we take them in another: how then will 
you know the truth herein? If you stand to your own judgment, then are you singular 
in your own conceit - then cannot you avoid the woe which the prophet speaketh 
of. "Wherefore if you have no stay but the catholic church in matters of controversy, 
except you will rest upon the singularity and wisdom of your own brain,if the 
prophet most truly saith, 'Woe, woe be to them that are wise in their own conceit:' 
then for God's love, Dr. Ridley, stand not singular, be not you wise in your own 
conceit, please not yourself overmuch. How were the Arians, the Manichees, Eutychians, 
with other heretics suppressed and convinced? By reasoning and disputations? No, 
truly, the Arians had no more places of Scripture for confirming their heresy 
than the catholics for the defence of the truth. How, then, were they convinced? 
Only by the determination of the church. And indeed, except we do constitute the 
church our foundation, stay, and judge, we can have no end of controversies, no 
end of disputations. For in that we all bring scriptures and doctors for the proof 
of our assertions, who should be judge of this our controversy? If we ourselves 
be singular and wise in our own conceits, then cannot we avoid the woe that the 
prophet speaketh of." To this oration of the bishop of Gloucester, by which he 
endeavoured to persuade Dr. Ridley to turn and forsake his religion, the latter 
an- swered, That he said most truly with the prophet, "Woe be to him that is wise 
in his own conceit:" but that he acknowledged no such singularity, nor knew any 
cause why he should attribute so much to himself. And whereas he said that archbishop 
Cranmer leaned to him, that was most PAGE 856 untrue, in that he was but a young 
scholar in comparison of Dr. Cranmer; for when he was but a novice, Mr. Cranmer 
was then a doctor; so that he confessed he might have been his schoolmaster for 
many years. He would have spoke more, but the bishop of Gloucester interrupted 
him, saying: "Why, Dr. Ridley, it is your own confession, for Mr. Latimer, at 
the time of his disputation, confessed his learning to lie in Dr. Cranmer's books, 
and Dr. Cranmer also said that it was your doing." The bishop of Lincoln likewise 
with many words, and holding his cap in his hand, desired him to turn. But Dr. 
Ridley made a determinate answer - That he was fully persuaded the religion which 
he defended was ground- ed upon God's word, and therefore without great offence 
towards God, great peril and damage of his soul, he could not forsake his God; 
but desired the bishop to perform his grant, in that his lordship said the day 
before, that he should have license to shew his cause, why he could not with a 
safe conscience admit the authority of the pope. But the bishop of Lincoln said, 
that whereas then he had demanded license to speak three words, he was contented 
then that he should speak forty, and that grant he would perform. Then Dr. Weston, 
who sat by, stepped forth and said, "Why, my lord, he hath spoken four hundred 
already." Dr. Ridley confessed he had, but they were not of his perscribed number, 
neither of that matter. The bishop of Lincoln bade him take his license: but he 
should speak but forty, and he would tell them upon his fingers. And so before 
Ridley had ended half a sentence, the doctors said that his number was out: and 
with that he was put to silence. Lin. You will not suffer us to stay in that point 
of our commission which we most desired: for indeed (I take God to witness) I 
am sorry for you. Rid. I believe it, my lord, for one day it will be burdenous 
to your soul. Lin. Nay, not so, master Ridley, but because I am sorry to see such 
stubbornness in you, that by no means you may be persuaded to acknowl- edge your 
errors, and receive the truth. But seeing it is so, because you will not suffer 
us to persist in the first, we must of necessity proceed to the other part of 
our commission. Therefore I pray you hearken to what I say. And forthwith he did 
read the sentence of condemnation, which was written in a long process. The effect 
of it was as this: "That forasmuch as the said Nicholas Ridley did affirm, maintain, 
and stubbornly defend certain opinions, assertions, and heresies, contrary to 
the word of God and the received faith of the church, as in denying the true and 
natural body of Christ, and his natural blood to be in the sacrament of the altar; 
secondarily, in affirming the substance of bread and wine to remain after the 
words of consecration; thirdly, in denying the mass to be a lively sacrifice of 
the church for the quick and the dead, and by no means would be induced and brought 
from these his heresies: they therefore (the said John of Lincoln, James of Gloucester, 
John of Bristol) did judge and condemn the said Nicholas Ridley as a heretic, 
and so adjudged him presently both by word and also in deed, to be degraded from 
the degree of a bishop, from priesthood, and all ecclesiastical order; declaring, 
moreover, the said Nicholas Ridley to be no member of the church: and therefore 
committed him to the secular powers, of them to receive due punishment; and further 
excommunication him by the great excommunication." PAGE 857 This sentence being 
published by the bishop of Lincoln, Ridley was committed to the mayor, and Latimer 
was sent for; who so soon as he appeared laid his hat, which was an old felt, 
under his elbows, and spake immediately to the commissioners, saying: Lat. My 
lords, I beseech you to set a better order her at your entrance: for I am an old 
man, and have a very evil back, so that the press of the multitude doth me much 
harm. Lin. I am sorry for your hurt: at your going, we will see to better order. 
With that Latimer thanked his lordship, making a very low courtesy. After this 
the bishop of Lincoln began on this manner: Lin. Although yesterday, after we 
had taken your answers to those articles which we proposed, we might have justly 
proceeded to judgment against you, especially in that you required the same; yet 
having a good hope of your returning, desiring not your destruction, but rather 
that you would recant, revoke your errors, and turn to the catholic church, deferred 
farther process till this day; and now according to the appointment we have called 
you before us, to hear whether you are content to revoke your heretical assertions, 
and submit yourself to the determination of the church, as we most heartily desire, 
and for my part as I did yesterday, do most earnestly exhort you, or to know whether 
you persevere still the man that you were, for which we would be sorry. On this 
Latimer spoke, "Your lordship doth often repeat the catholic church, as though 
I should deny the same. No, my lord, I confess there is a catholic church, to 
the determination of which I will stand; but not the church which you call catholic, 
which ought rather to be termed diabolic. And whereas you join together the Romish 
and catholic church, stay there, I pray you. For it is one thing to say the Romish 
church, and another thing to say catholic church. I must use here in this mine 
answer the counsel of Cyprian, who when cited before certain bishops, who gave 
him leave to take deliberation and counsel, to try and examine his opinion, answered 
them thus, 'In adhering to, and persevering in the truth there must no counsel 
or deliberation be taken.' And again, being demanded of them sitting in judgment, 
which was most like to be of the church of Christ, whether he who was persecuted, 
or they who did persec- ute? 'Christ,' said he, 'hath foreshewed, that he that 
doth follow him, must take up his cross. Christ gave knowledge that his disciples 
should have persecution and trouble. ' How think you then, my lords, is it likely 
that the see of Rome, which hath been a continual persecutor, is rather the church, 
or that small flock which hath continually been persecuted by it, even to death? 
Also 'the flock of Christ hath been but few in comparison of the residue, and 
ever in subjection:' which he proved, beginning at Noah's time, even to the apostles." 
Lin. Your cause and St. Cyprian's is clean contrary: for he suffered for Christ's 
sake and the gospel. You are in trouble for your errors and false assertions, 
contrary to God's word and the received truth of the church. Lat. Yes verily, 
my cause is as good as St. Cyprian's; for his was for the word of God, and so 
is mine. PAGE 858 Lin. Also at the beginning and foundation of he church, it could 
not be but that the apostles should suffer great persecution. Further, before 
Christ's coming, continually there were few which truly served God; but after 
his coming began the time of grace. Then began the church to increase, and was 
continually augmented, until it came unto this perfection, and now hath justly 
that jurisdiction which the unchristian princes before by tyranny did resist: 
there is a diverse consideration of the state of the church now in the time of 
grace, and before Christ's coming. But Mr. Latimer, although we had instructions 
given us determinately to take your answer to such articles as we should propose, 
without any reasoning or disputations, yet we hoping by talk somewhat to prevail 
with you, appointed you to appear before us in the divinity school, a place for 
disputations. And whereas then notwithstanding you had license to speak your mind, 
and were answered to every matter, yet you could not be brought from your errors; 
we thinking that from that time you would with good conversation ponder your state, 
gave you a respite until this time, and now have called you again in this place, 
by your answers to learn whether you are the same man as before? Therefore we 
ill propose unto you the same articles which we did then, and require of you a 
determinate answer, without further reasoning. Lat. Always my protestation saved 
that, by these mine answers it should not be thought that I did condescend and 
agree to your lordships' authority, in that you are legaced by the pope, so that 
thereby I might seem to consent to his jurisdiction: To the first article I answer 
as I did yesterday, that in the sacrament the worthy receive the very body of 
Christ, and drink his blood by the Spirit and grace. But after a corporeal being, 
which the Romish church prescribeth, Christ's body and blood is not in the sacrament 
under the forms of bread and wine. The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively. 
For the second article he referred himself to his answers made before. After this 
the bishop of Lincoln recited the third article, and required a determinate answer. 
Lat. Christ made one oblation and sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, and 
that a perfect sacrifice; neither needeth there to be any other, nor can there 
be any other, propitiatory sacrifice. The notaries took his answer to be affirmatively. 
In like manner did he answer to the other articles, not varying from his answers 
made the day before. After his answers were penned of the notaries, and the bishop 
of Lincoln had exhorted him in like sort to recant, as he did master Ridley, and 
revoke his errors and false assertions, and Latimer had answered that he neither 
could nor would deny his master Christ and his verity, the bishop of Lincoln desired 
him to hearken to him: and then master Latimer, hearkening for some new matter 
and other talk, the bishop of Lincoln read his condemnation; after the publication 
of which the said three bishops brake up there sessions, and dismissed the audience. 
Latimer required the bishop of Lincoln to perform his promise in saying, the day 
before, that he should have license briefly to declare the cause why he refused 
the pope's authority. But he bishop said that now he could not hear him, neither 
ought to talk with him. Then Latimer asked him, whether it were not lawful for 
him to appeal from this his judgment. And the bishop asked him again to whom he 
would appeal. "To the next general council," quoth Latimer, "which shall be truly 
called in God's name." With that appellation the bishop was cont- PAGE 859 ent; 
but he said it would be a long season before such a convocation as he meant would 
be called. Then the bishop committed master Latimer to the mayor, saying, "Now 
he is your prisoner, master mayor." And because the press of the people was not 
yet diminished, each man looking for further process, the bishop of Lincoln commanded 
avoidance, and desired Latimer to tarry till the press were diminished, lest he 
should take hurt at his egression as he did at his entrance. And so continued 
bishop Ridley and master Latimer in durance till the 16th day of the said month 
of October. In the mean season upon the 15th day of the same month in the morning, 
Dr. Brooks, bishop of Gloucester, and the vice-chancellor of Oxford, Dr. Marshal, 
with divers others of the chief and heads of the same university, and many others 
accompanying them, came unto master Irish's house, then mayor of Oxford, where 
Dr. Ridley, late bishop of London, was close prisoner. And when the bishop of 
Gloucester came into the chamber where the said Dr. Ridley did lie, he told him 
for what purpose their coming was unto him, saying, that ye once again the queen's 
majesty did offer unto him, by them, her gracious mercy, if that he would receive 
the same, and come home again to the faith which he was baptized in, and revoke 
his erroneous doctrine that he of late had taught abroad to the destruction of 
many. And further said, that if he would not recant, and become one of the catholic 
church with them, then they must needs (against their wills) proceed according 
to the law, which they would be very loth to do, if they might otherwise. "But," 
saith he, "we have been oftentimes with you, and have requested that you would 
recant this your fantastical and devilish opinion, which hitherto you have not, 
although you might in so doing win many, and do much good. Therefore, good master 
Ridley, consider with yourself the danger that shall ensue both of body and soul, 
if you so wilfully cast yourself away in refusing mercy offered unto you at this 
time." "My lord," quoth Dr. Ridley, "you know my mind fully herein; and as for 
the doctrine which I have taught, my conscience assureth me that it was sound, 
and according to God's word, (to his glory be it spoken;) the which doctrine, 
the Lord God being my helper, I will maintain so long as my tongue shall wag, 
and breath is within my body, and in confirmation thereof seal the same with my 
blood." Brooks. Well, you were best, master Ridley, not to do so, but to become 
one of the church with us: for you know this well enough, that whosoever is out 
of the catholic church cannot be saved. Therefore I say once again, that while 
you have time and mercy offered you, receive it and confess with us the pope's 
holiness to be the chief head of the same church. Ridley. I marvel that you will 
trouble me with any such vain and foolish talk. You know my mind concerning the 
usurped authority of that Romish antichrist. As I confessed openly in the schools, 
so do I now, that both by my behaviour and talk I do no obedience at all unto 
the bishop of Rome, nor to his usurped authority, and that for good and godly 
considerations. And here Dr. Ridley would have reasoned with the said Brooks of 
the bishop of Rome's authority, but could not be suffered; and yet he spake so 
earnestly against the pope therein, that the bishop told him if he would not hold 
his peace he should be compelled against his will. "And seeing," saith he, "that 
you will not receive the queen's mercy, now offered unto you, but stubbornly refuse 
the same, we must, against our wills, proceed according to our commission to degrading, 
taking from you the dignity of priesthood. For we take you for no bishop, and 
therefore we will the sooner have done with you. So, committing you to the secular 
power, you know what doth follow." PAGE 860 Ridley. Do with me as it shall please 
God to suffer you, I am well content to abide the same with all my heart. Brooks. 
Put off your cap, master Ridley, and put on this surplice. Ridley. Not I, truly. 
Brooks. But you must. Ridley. I will not. Brooks. You must make no more ado, but 
put this surplice upon you. Ridley. Truly if it come upon me, it shall be against 
my will. Brooks. Will you not do it upon you? Ridley. No, that I will not. Brooks. 
It shall be put upon you by one or other. Ridley. Do therein as it shall please 
you, I am well contented with that, and more than that: "the servant is not above 
his Master." If they dealt so cruelly with our Saviour Christ, as the Scripture 
saith, and he suffered the same patiently, how much more doth it become us his 
servants! And in saying of these words, they put upon the said Dr. Ridley the 
surplice, with all the trinkets appertaining to the mass. And as they were putting 
on the same, Dr. Ridley did vehemently inveigh against the Romish bishop, and 
all that foolish apparel, calling him antichrist, and the apparel foolish and 
abominable, yea, too fond for a vice in a play, insomuch that bishop Brooks was 
exceeding angry, and said, "Well, you were best to hold your peace, lest your 
mouth be stopped. At which words one Edridge, the reader then of the Greek lecture, 
standing by, said to Dr. Brooks, "Sir, the law is he should be gagged; therefore 
let him by gagged." At which words Dr. Ridley, looking earnestly upon him that 
so said, shook his head at him, but made no answer. When they came to that place 
where Dr. Ridley should hold the chalice and the wafer cake, called the singing-bread, 
they bade him hold the same in his hands. And Dr. Ridley said, "They shall not 
come in my hands; for, if they do, they shall fall to the ground for all me." 
Then there was one appointed to hold them in his hand, while bishop Brooks read 
a certain thing in Latin, touching the degradation of spiritual persons according 
to the pope's law. Afterward they put a book in his hand, and withal read another 
thing in Latin, the effect whereof was: "We do take from you the office of preaching 
the gospel," etc. At which words Dr. Ridley gave a great sigh, looking up towards 
heaven, saying - "O Lord God, forgive them this their wickedness!" When all this 
their abominable and ridiculous degradation was ended very solemnly, Dr. Ridley 
said unto Dr. Brooks, "Have you done? If you have done, then give me leave to 
talk with you a little concerning these matters." Brooks answered, "Master Ridley, 
we may not talk with you; you be out of church; and our law is, that we may not 
talk with any that be out of the church." Then master Ridley said - "Seeing that 
you will not suffer me to talk, neither will vouchsafe to hear me, what remedy 
but patience? I refer my cause to my heavenly Father, who will reform PAGE 861 
things that be amiss, when it shall please him." At which words they would have 
been gone, but Ridley said, "My lord, I would wish that you would vouchsafe to 
read over and peruse a little book of Bertram's doings, concerning the sacrament. 
I promise you, you shall find much good learning therein, if you will read the 
same with an indifferent judgment." Dr. Brooks made no answer, but was going away. 
Then said Dr. Ridley, "Oh, I perceive that you cannot away with this manner of 
talk. Well! in boots not, I will say no more, I will speak of worldly affairs. 
I pray you therefore, my lord, hear me, and be a mean to the queen's majesty, 
in the behalf of a great many poor men, and especially for my poor sister and 
her husband which standeth there. They had a poor living granted unto them by 
me, whiles I was in these of London, and the same is taken away from them by him 
that now occupieth the same room, without all law or conscience. Here I have a 
supplication to her majesty in their behalfs. You shall hear the same read, so 
shall you perceive the matter the better." Then he read the same; and when he 
came to the place in the supplication that touched his sister by name, then he 
wept; so that for a little space he could not speak for weeping. After that he 
had left off weeping, he said, "This is nature that moveth me, but I have now 
done;" and with that read out the rest and delivered the same to his brother, 
commanding him to put it up to the queen's majesty, and to sue, not only for himself, 
but also for such as had any leases or grants by him, and were put from the same 
by Dr. Bonner, then bishop of London. Whereunto Brooks said, "Indeed, master Ridley, 
your request in this supplication is very lawful and honest: therefore I must 
needs in conscience speak to the queen's majesty for them." Ridley. I pray you, 
for God's sake, do so. Brooks. I think your request will be granted, except one 
thing let it, and that is, I fear, because you do not allow the queen's proceedings, 
but obstinately withstand the same, that it will hardly be granted. Ridley. What 
remedy? I can do no more but speak and write. I trust I have discharged my conscience 
therein; and God's will be done. Brooks. I will do what lieth in me. This degradation 
being past, and all things finished, Dr. Brooks called the bailiffs, delivering 
to them master Ridley with this charge, to keep him safely from any man speaking 
with him,a nd that he should be brought to the place of execution when they were 
commanded. Then Ridley, in praising God, burst out with these words, "God, I thank 
thee, and to thy praise be it spoken, there is none of you all able to lay to 
my charge any open or notorious crime: for if you could, it should surely be laid 
in my lap, I see very well." Whereunto Brooks said, he played the part of a proud 
Pharisee, exalting and praising himself. But master Ridley said, "No, no, no; 
as I have said before, to God's glory be it spoken. I confess myself to be a miserable 
wretched sinner, and have great need of God's help and mercy, and do daily call 
and cry for the same: therefore, I pray you, have no such opinion of me." Then 
they departed; and in going away, a certain warden of a college, of whose name 
I am not very sure, bade Dr. Ridley repent him, and forsake that erroneous opinion. 
Whereunto Ridley said, "Sir, repent you, for you are out of the truth. And I pray 
God (if it be his blessed will) have mercy upon you, and PAGE 862 grand you the 
understanding of his word." Then the warden, being in a passion thereat, said, 
"I trust that I shall never be of your devilish opinion, either yet to be in that 
place whither you shall go: thou art the most obstinate and wilful man that I 
ever heard talk since I was born." On the night before he suffered, his beard 
was washed and his legs; and as he sat at supper, at the house of Mr. Irish, his 
keeper, he invited his hostess, and the rest at the table, to his marriage: for, 
said he, tomorrow I must be married, and so shewed himself to be as merry as ever 
he had been before. And wishing his sister at his marriage, he asked his brother 
sitting at he table, whether she could find in her heart to be there or no. He 
answered, "Yea, with all her heart." At which word, he said he was glad to hear 
of her so much therein. At this talk Mrs. Irish wept. But Dr. Ridley comforted 
her, saying, "O Mrs. Irish, you love me not, I see well enough; for in that you 
weep, it doth appear you will not be at my marriage, neither are content therewith. 
Indeed you are not so much my friend as I thought you had been. But quiet yourself, 
though my breakfast shall be somewhat sharp and painful, yet I am sure my supper 
will be more pleasant and sweet." When they arose from the table, his brother 
offered to stay all night with him. But he said, "No, no, that you shall not. 
For I intend, God willing, to go to bed, and to sleep as quietly to night as ever 
I did." On this his brother departed, exhorting him to be of good cheer, and to 
take his cross quietly, for his reward was great in heaven. Upon the north side 
of the town, in the ditch over against Ballio college, the place of execution 
was appointed: and for fear of any tumult that might arise, to let the burning 
of them, the lord Williams was commanded, by the queen's letters,a nd the householders 
of the city, to be there assistant, sufficiently appointed. And when everything 
was in readiness, the prisoners were brought forth by the mayor and bailiffs. 
Master Ridley had a fair black gown furred, and faced with foins, such as he was 
wont to wear, being bishop, and a tippet of velvet furred likewise about his neck, 
a velvet night-cap upon his head, and a corner cap upon the same, going in a pair 
of slippers to the stake, and going between the mayor and an alderman, ect. After 
him came master Latimer, in a poor Bristol frieze frock all worn, with his buttoned 
cap, and a kerchief on his head, all ready to the fire, a new long shroud hanging 
over his hose down to the feet: which at the first sight stirred men's hearts 
to rue upon them, beholding on the one side the honour they sometime had, and 
on the other the calamity whereunto they were fallen. PAGE 863 Dr. Ridley, as 
he passed toward Bocardo, looked up where Dr. Cranmer did lie, hoping to have 
seen him at the glass window, and to have spoken to him. But then Cranmer was 
busy with friar Soto and his fellows, disputing together, so that he could not 
see him, through that occasion. Then Ridley looking back, espied master Latimer 
coming after, unto whom he said, "Oh, be ye there?" "Yea," said Latimer, "have 
after as fast as I can follow. So he, following a pretty way off, at length they 
came both to the stake, the one after the other where first Dr. Ridley entering 
the place, marvellous earnestly holding up both his hands, looked towards heaven. 
Then shortly after espying Latimer, with a wonderous cheerful look he ran to him, 
embraced, and kissed him; and, as they that stood near reported, comforted him, 
saying, "Be of good heart, brother, for God will either assuage the fury of the 
flame, or else strengthen us to abide it." With that went he to the stake, kneeled 
down by it, kissed it, and effectually prayed; and behind him master Latimer kneeled, 
as earnestly calling upon God as he. After they arose, the one talked with the 
other a little while, till they which were appointed to see the execution removed 
themselves out of the sun. What they said I can learn of no man. Then Dr. Smith 
(of whose recantation in king Edward's time ye have heard) began his sermon to 
them upon this text of St. Paul, in 1 Cor. xiii., "If I yield my body to the fire 
to be burned, and have not charity, I shall gain nothing thereby." Wherein he 
alleged, that the goodness of the cause, and not the order of death, maketh the 
holiness of the person: which he confirmed by the examples of Judas, and of a 
woman in Oxford who of late hanged herself, for that they and such like as he 
recited, might then be adjudged righteous, which desperately separated their lives 
from their bodies, as he feared that those men that stood before him would do. 
But he cried still tot he people to beware of them, for they were heretics and 
died out of the church. He ended with a very short exhortation to them to recant 
and come home again tot he church, and save their lives and souls, which else 
were condemned. His sermon scarcely lasted a quarter of an hour. Dr. Ridley said 
to master Latimer, "Will you begin to answer the sermon, or shall I?" Latimer 
said, "Begin you first, I pray you," "I will," said Ridley. Then, the wicked sermon 
being ended, they both kneeled down upon their knees towards my lord Williams 
of Thame, the vice-chancellor of Oxford, and divers other commissioners appointed 
for that purpose, who sat upon a form thereby, unto whom master Ridley said, "I 
beseech you, my lord, even for Christ's sake, that I may speak but two or three 
words." And whilst my lord bent his head to the mayor and vice- chancellor, to 
know (as it appeared) whether he might give him leave to speak, the bailiffs and 
Dr. Marshal, vice-chancellor, ran hastily unto him, and with their hands stopped 
his mouth, and said, "Master Ridley, if you will revoke your erroneous opinions, 
and recant the same, you shall not only have liberty so to do, but also the benefit 
of a subject; that is, have your life." "Not otherwise?" asked Ridley. "No," quoth 
Dr. Marshal. "Therefore if you will not so do, then there is no remedy but you 
must suffer for your deserts." "Well," quoth Ridley, "so long as the breath is 
in my body, I will never deny my Lord Christ, and his known truth. God's will 
be done in me!" And with that he rose up, and said with a loud voice, "Well, then, 
I commit our cause to Almighty God which shall differently judge all." To whose 
saying master Latimer added his old posy - "Well! there is nothing hid but it 
shall be opened." And he said he could answer Smith well enough, if he might be 
suffered. PAGE 864 Incontinently they were commanded to make them ready, which 
they with all meekness obeyed. Dr. Ridley took his gown and his tippet, and gave 
to his brother-in-law, master Shipside, who all his time of imprison- ment, although 
he might not be suffered to come to him, lay there at his own charges to provide 
him necessaries, which from time to time he sent him by the serjeant that kept 
him. Some other of his apparel he also gave away; other the bailiffs took. He 
gave away besides, divers other small things to gentlemen standing by, and divers 
of them pitifully weeping, as to sir Henry Lee he gave a new groat; and to divers 
of my lord Williams's gentlemen, some napkins, some nutmegs, and rases of ginger; 
his dial, and such other things as he had about him, to every one that stood next 
him. Some plucked the points off his hose, and happy was he who could get the 
least trifle of him. Master Latimer gave nothing, but very quietly suffered his 
keeper to pull off his hose, and his other array, which was very simple; and being 
stripped to his shroud, he seemed as comely a person to them that were there present 
as one could well see. Then master Ridley, standing as yet in his truss, said 
to his brother, "It were best for me to go in my truss still." "No," quoth his 
brother, "it will put you to more pain: and the truss will do a poor man good." 
Whereunto Ridley said, "Be it, in the name of God:" and so unlaced himself. Then, 
being in his shirt, he stood upon the foresaid stone, and held up his hand and 
said, "O heavenly Father, I give unto thee most hearty thanks, for that thou hast 
called me to be a professor of thee, even unto death. I beseech thee, Lord God, 
take mercy upon this realm of England, and deliver the same from all her enemies." 
Then the smith took a chain of iron, and brought the same about both their middles: 
and as he was knocking in a staple, Dr. Ridley took the chain in his hand, and 
shaked the same, for it did gird in his belly, and looking aside to the smith 
said, "Good fellow, knock it in hard, for the flesh will have its course." Then 
the smith's brother did bring him a bag of gunpowder, and would have tied the 
same about his neck. Dr. Ridley asked what it was; and on being told it was gunpowder, 
he said, "I will take it to be sent of God. And have you any for my brother?" 
meaning Latimer. "Yea, sir, that I have," said the man. "Ten give it unto him 
betime," said Ridley, "lest ye come too late." So the man carried of the same 
gunpowder unto master Latimer. In the mean time Dr. Ridley spake unto my lord 
Williams, and said, "My lord, I must be a suitor unto your lordship in the behalf 
of divers poor men, and specially in the cause of my poor sister: I have made 
a suppli- cation to the queen in their behalfs. I beseech your lordship, for Christ's 
sake, to be a mean to her grace for them. My brother here hath the supplication, 
and will resort to your lordship to certify you here- of. There is nothing in 
all the world troubleth my conscience, I praise God, this only excepted. Whilst 
I was in the see of London, divers poor men took leases of me, and agreed with 
me for the same. Now I hear that the bishop who occupieth the same room will not 
allow my grants unto them made: but, contrary to all law and conscience, hath 
taken from them their livings, and will not suffer them to enjoy the same. I beseech 
you, my lord, be a mean for them: you shall do a good deed, and God will reward 
you." PAGE 865 Then they brought a lighted fagot, and laid the same down at Ridley's 
feet; upon which Latimer said, "Be of good comfort, master Ridley, and play the 
man. We shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust 
shall never be put out." And so the fire being given unto them, when Dr. Ridley 
saw the fire flaming up towards him, he cried with a wonderful loud voice, "In 
manus tuas, Domine, commendy spiritum meum? Domine recipe spiritum meum." And 
after repeated this latter part often in English, "Lord, Lord, receive my spirit!" 
Master Latimer cried as vehemently, on the other side, "O Father of heaven, receive 
my soul!" who received the flame as it were embracing it. After that he had stroked 
his face with his hands, and as it were bathed them a little in the fire, he soon 
died (as it appeareth) with very little pain or none. And thus much concerning 
the end of this old and blessed servant of God, master Latimer, for whose laborious 
travails, fruitful life, and constant death, the whole realm hath cause to give 
great thanks to Almighty God. But Dr. Ridley, by reason of the evil making of 
the fire unto him, because the fagots were laid about the gorse, and overhigh 
built, the fire burned first beneath, being kept down by the wood: which when 
he felt he desired them, for Christ's sake, to let the fire come unto him. Which 
when his brother-in-law heard, but not well understood, intending to rid him out 
of his pain, (for the which cause he gave attendance,) as one in such sorrow not 
well advised what he did, heaped fagots upon him, so that he clean covered him, 
which made the fire more vehement beneath, that it burned all his nether parts 
before it once touched the upper; and that made him leap up and down under the 
fagots, and often desire them to let the fire come to him, saying, "I cannot burn." 
Which indeed appeared well: for, after his legs were consumed by reason of his 
struggling through the pain, (whereof he had no release, but only his contentation 
in God,) he showed that side towards us clean, shirt and all untouched with flame. 
Yet in all this torment he forgot not to call upon God, still having his mouth. 
"Lord have mercy upon me," intermin- gling he cry, "let the fire come unto me, 
I cannot burn!" In which pangs he laboured till one of the standers by with his 
bill pulled the fagots off above; and where he saw the fire flame up, he wrestled 
himself unto that side. And when the flame touched the gunpowder, he was seen 
to stir no more, but burned on the other side, falling down at master Latimer's 
feet. In beholding of which horrible sight hundreds were moved to tears, and signs 
of sorrow there were on every side. Some took it grievously to see their deaths, 
whose lives they held full dear. Some pitied their persons, who thought their 
souls had no need thereof. But the sorrow of his brother moved many men, whose 
attempt to put a speedy end to his sufferings had so miserably prolonged them. 
But whoso considered their preferments in time past, the places of honour that 
they some time occupied in this commonwealth, the favour they were in with their 
princes, and the opinion of learning they had in the university where they studied, 
could not choose but sorrow with tears, to see so great dignity, honour, and estimation, 
so necessary members sometimes accounted, so many godly virtues, the study of 
so many years, such excellent learning, to be put into the fire, and consumed 
in one moment. Well! dead they are, and the reward of this world they have already. 
What reward remaineth for them in heaven, the day of the Lord's glory, when he 
cometh with his saints, shall shortly, I trust, declare. PAGE 866 Albeit the same 
Nicholas Ridley (a man so reverenced for his learning and knowledge in the Scriptures 
that even his very enemies report well of him) wrote divers treatises, letters, 
and exhortations, containing fruitful admonition and wholesome doctrines, much 
of which we here pass over for want of space; as long farewell to all his true 
and faithful friends in God, concluding with a sharp reproof unto the papists, 
and specially to the higher house of Parliament, of which he says, "As you have 
banqueted and lain by the whore in the fornication of her whorish dispensations, 
pardons, idolatry, and such like abominations; so shall ye drink with her, except 
ye repent betimes, of the cup of the Lord's indignation and everlasting wrath, 
which is prepared for the beast, his false prophets, and all their partakers. 
For he that is partner with them in their plagues, and in the latter day shall 
be thrown with them into the burning lake. Thus fare ye well, my lords all. I 
pray God give you understanding of his blessed will and pleasure, and make you 
to believe and embrace the truth. Amen." Another farewell of Bishop Ridley to 
the prisoners in Christ's gospel's cause, and to all them which for the same cause 
are exiled and banished out from their own country, choosing rather to leave all 
worldly commodity than their master Christ:- "Farewell, my dearly beloved brethren 
in Christ, both you my fellow- prisoners, and you also that be exiled and banished 
out of your country, because you will rather forsake all worldly advantages, than 
the gospel of Christ. Farewell all you together in Christ: for you know that the 
trial of your faith bringeth forth patience, and patience shall make us perfect, 
whole, and sound on every side, and such, after trial, ye know shall receive the 
crown of life, according to the promise of the Lord made to his dearly beloved; 
let us therefore be patient unto the coming of the Lord. As the husbandman abideth 
patiently the former and latter rain for the increase of his crop, so let us be 
patient, and pluck up our hearts, for the coming of the Lord approacheth apace. 
Let us, my dear brethren, take example of patience in tribulation of the prophets, 
who likewise spake God's word truly in his name. Let Job be to us and example 
of patience, and the end which the Lord suffered, which is full of mercy and pity. 
"We know, my brethren, by God's word, that our faith is much more precious than 
any corruptible gold, and yet that is tried by the fire: even so our faith is 
therefore tried likewise in tribulations, that it may be found when the Lord shall 
appear, laudable, glorious, and honourable. For if we for Christ's cause do suffer, 
that is grateful before god; for thereunto are we called, that is our state and 
vocation, wherewith let us be content. Christ, we know, suffered for us afflictions, 
leaving us an example that we should follow his footsteps; for he committed no 
sin, neither was there any guile found in his mouth: when he was railed upon, 
and reviled, he railed not again: when he was evil intreated, he did not threaten, 
but committed the punishment there- of to him that judgeth aright. PAGE 867 "Let 
us ever have in fresh remembrance those wonderful comfortable sentences spoken 
by the mouth of our Saviour Christ - 'Blessed are they which suffer persecution 
for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye when 
men revile you, persecute you, and speak evil against you for my sake: rejoice 
and be glad, for great is your reward in heaven; for so did they persecute the 
prophets that were before you.' Christ, our master, hath told us beforehand, that 
the brother should put the brother to death, and the father the son, and the children 
should rise against their parents and kill them, and that Christ's true apostles 
should be hated of all men for his name's sake; but he that abideth patiently 
unto the end shall be saved. Let us then endure in all troubles patiently, after 
the example of our master Christ, and be contented therewith, for he suffered, 
being our Master and Lord: how doth it not then become us to suffer! for the disciple 
is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord. It may suffice the disciple 
to be as his master, and the servant to be as his lord. If they have called the 
Father of the family, the Master of the household, Beelzebub, how much more shall 
they call them so of his household? Fear them not (saith our Saviour) for all 
hidden things shall be made plain; there is now nothing secret, but it shall be 
shewed in light. Of Christ's words let us neither be ashamed nor afraid to speak; 
for so Christ commandeth us, saying - 'What I tell you privily, speak openly abroad, 
and what I tell you in your ear, preach upon the house top. And fear not them 
which kill the body, for the soul they cannot kill; but fear him which can cast 
both body and souls into hell-fire.' "Know ye that our heavenly Father hath ever 
a gracious eye, and respect toward you, and a fatherly providence for you, so 
that without his knowledge and permission nothing can do you harm. Let us therefore 
cast all our care upon him, he shall provide that which shall be best for us. 
For if of two small sparrows, which both are sold for a mite, one of them lighteth 
not on the ground without your Father, and all the hairs of our head are numbered, 
fear not them (saith our master Christ) for you are more worth than many small 
sparrows. And let us not shrink to confess me before men, him shall I confess 
before my Father which is in heaven: but whosoever shall deny me, him shall I 
likewise deny before my Father which is in heaven.' Christ came not to give us 
here a carnal amity, and a worldly peace, or to knit his unto the world in ease 
and peace, but rather to separate and divide from the world, and to join them 
unto himself: in whose cause we must, if we will be his, forsake father and mother, 
and stick unto him. If we forsake him or shrink from him for trouble or death 
sake, which he calleth his cross, he will none of us, we cannot be his. If for 
his cause we shall lose our temporal lives here, we shall find them again, and 
enjoy them for evermore: but if, in this cause, we will not be contented to leave 
nor lose them here, then shall we lose them so, that we shall never find them 
again, but in everlasting death. What though our troubles here are painful for 
the time, and the sting of death bitter and unpleasant; yet we know that they 
shall not last, in comparison of eternity, no not the twinkling of any eye, and 
that they patiently taken in Christ's cause, shall procure and get us unmeasureable 
heaps of heavenly glory, unto which these temporal pains of death and troubles 
compared, are not to be esteemed, but to be rejoiced upon. 'Wonder not' - saith 
St. Peter - 'as though it were any strange matter that ye are tried by the fire,' 
he meaneth of tribulation, 'which thing is done to prove you; nay, rather in that 
ye are partners of Christ's afflictions rejoice, that in his glorious revelation 
ye may rejoice with merry hearts. If ye suffer rebukes in Christ's name, happy 
are ye, for the glory and Spirit of God resteth upon you. Of them God is reviled 
and dishonoured, but of you he is glorified.' PAGE 868 "Let no man be ashamed 
of that which he suffereth as a christian, and in Christ's cause: for now is the 
time that judgment and correction must begin at the house of God: and if it begin 
at us, what shall be the end of those which believe not the gospel? And if the 
righteous shall hardly be saved, the wicked and the sinner, where shall they appear? 
Wherefore they which are afflicted according to the will of God, let them lay 
down and commit their souls to him by well doing, as to a trusty and faithful 
Maker. This, as I said, may not seem strange to us, for we know that all the whole 
fraternity of Christ's congregation in this world is served with the like, and 
by the same is made perfect. For the fervent love that the apostles had unto their 
master Christ, and for the great advantages and increase of all godliness which 
they felt by their faith to insure of afflictions in Christ's cause, and also 
for the heaps of heavenly joys which the same do get unto the godly, which shall 
endure in heaven for evermore; for these causes the apostles did joy of their 
afflictions, and rejoiced in that they were had and accounted worthy to suffer 
contumelies and rebukes for Christ's name. And St. Paul, as he glorieth in the 
grace and favour of God, whereunto he was brought and stood in by faith; so he 
rejoiced in his afflictions for the heavenly and spiritual profits which he numbered 
to rise upon them: yea, he was so far in love with what the carnal man loathed 
so much, that is, with Christ's cross, that he judged himself to know nothing 
else but Christ crucified: he will glory, he saith, in nothing else but in Christ's 
cross, yea, and he blesseth all those as the only true Israelites, with peace 
and mercy, which walk after that rule, and after no other. "O Lord, what a wonderful 
spirit was that which made St. Paul, in set- ting forth of himself against the 
vanity of Satan's false apostles, and in his claim there, that he, in Christ's 
cause, did excel and surpass them all! What wonderful spirit was that, I say, 
that made him to reckon up all his troubles, his labours, his beatings, his whippings 
and scourgings, his shipwrecks, his dangers and perils by water and by land, his 
famine, hunger, nakedness, and cold, with many more, and the daily care of all 
the congregations of Christ, among whom every man's pain did pierce his heart, 
and every man's grief was grievous unto him! O Lord, is this Paul's primacy whereof 
he though so much good that he did excel others? Is not this Paul's saying unto 
Timothy his own scholar? and doth it not pertain to whosoever will be Christ's 
true soldiers? Bear thou, saith he, affliction, like a true soldier of Jesus Christ. 
This is true; if we die with Christ, we shall live with him; if we suffer with 
him, we shall reign with him; if we deny him, he shall deny us; if we be faithless, 
he remaineth faithful, he cannot deny himself. This, PAGE 869 Paul would have 
known to every body; for there is no other way to heaven but Christ and his way; 
and all that will live godly in Christ, shall suffer persecution. By this way 
went to heaven the patriarchs, the prophets, Christ our master, his apostles, 
his martyrs, and all the godly since the beginning. And as it hath bee of old, 
that he which was born after the flesh, persecuted him who was born after the 
Spirit, for so it was in Isaac's time, so said St. Paul, it was in his time also. 
And whether it be so now or no, let the spiritual man, the self-same man I mean, 
that is endued with the Spirit of Almighty God, let him be judge. Of the cross 
of the patriarchs, as ye may read in their stories, if ye read the book of Genesis, 
ye shall perceive. Of others St. Paul in a few words comprehendeth much matter, 
speaking in a generality of the wonderful afflictions, death, and torments which 
the men of God in God's cause, and for the truth's sake, willingly and gladly 
did suffer. After much particular rehersal of many, he saith - "Others were racked 
and despised, and would not be delivered, that they might obtain a better resurrection. 
Others were tried with mockings and scourgings, and moreover with bonds and imprisonments; 
they were stoned, hewn asunder, tempted, slain upon the edge of the sword; some 
wandered to and fro in sheep skins, in goat skins, forsaken, oppressed, afflicted, 
such godly men as the world was unworthy of, wandering in wildernesses, in mountains, 
in caves, and in dens, and caves of the earth, destitute, afflicted and tormented." 
And yet they abide for us the servants of God, and for those their brethren which 
are to be slain as they were for the word of God's sake, that none be shut out, 
but that we may all go together to meet our master Christ in the air at his coming, 
and so be in bliss with him in body and soul for evermore. "Therefore seeing we 
have so much occasion to suffer, and to take afflictions for Christ's name's sake 
patiently, so many advantages thereby, so weighty causes, so many good examples, 
so great necessity, so sure promises of eternal life and heavenly joys of him 
that cannot lie: let us throw away whatever might hinder us, all burden of sin, 
and all kind of carnality, and patiently and constantly let us run the race that 
is set before us, ever having our eyes upon Jesus Christ, the author and perfecter 
of our faith, 'who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, not 
minding the shame and ignominy thereof, and is set now at the right hand of the 
throne of God. Consider this, that he suffered such strife of sinners against 
himself, that ye should not give over nor faint in your minds. As yet we have 
not withstood unto death fighting against sin.' Let us never forget, dear brethren, 
for Christ's sake, that fatherly exhortation of the wise man that speaketh unto 
us, as unto his children, the godly wisdom of God, saying thus - 'My son, despise 
not the correction of the Lord, nor fall from him when thou art rebuked of him;for 
whom the Lord loveth, him doth he correct, and scourgeth every child whom he receiveth. 
What child is he whom the father doth not chasten? If ye be free from chastisement, 
whereof all are partakers, then are ye bastards and no children. Seeing then, 
when as we not we much more be subject unto our spiritual Father that we might 
life? And they for a little time have taught us after their own mind but this 
Father teacheth us to our own advantage, to give unto us his holiness. All chastisement 
for the present time appeareth not pleasant, but painful; but afterwards it rendereth 
the fruit of righteousness on them which are exercised in it. Wherefore let us 
be of good cheer, good brethren, and let us pluck up our feeble members that were 
fallen or begun to faint, heart, hands, knees, and all the rest, and let us walk 
upright and straight, that no limping nor halting bring us out of the way. Let 
us not look upon the things that be present, but with the eyes of our faith let 
us steadfastly behold the things that be everlasting in heaven, and so choose 
rather in respect of that which is to come, with the chosen members of Christ 
to bear Christ's cross, than for this short life-time to enjoy all the riches, 
honours, and pleasures of the broad world. Why should we Christians fear death? 
Can death deprive us of Christ which is all our comfort, our joy and our life? 
Nay forsooth. But contrary, death shall deliver us from this mortal body, which 
loadeth and beareth down the spirit, that it cannot so well perceive heavenly 
things; in which so long as we dwell, we are absent from God. PAGE 870 "Wherefore 
understand our state in that we be Christians, that if our mortal body, which 
is our earthly house, were destroyed, we have a building, a house not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens, therefore we are of good cheer, and know that when 
we are in the body, we are absent from God; for we walk by faith and not by sight. 
Nevertheless we are bold, and had rather be absent from the body, and present 
with God. Wherefore we strive, whether we be present at home, or absent abroad, 
that we may always please him: and who that hath true faith in our Saviour Christ, 
whereby he knoweth somewhat truly what Christ our Saviour is, that he is the eternal 
Son of God, life, light, the wisdom of the Father, all goodness, all righteousness, 
and whatsoever is good that heart can desire, yea infinite plenty of all these, 
above what man's heart can either conceive or think; and also that he is given 
us of the Father, and made of God to be our wisdom, our righteousness, our holiness, 
and our redemption: who then is he that believeth this indeed, that would not 
gladly be with his master Christ? Paul for this knowledge coveted to have been 
loosed from the body, and to have been with Christ, for he counted it much better 
for himself, and had rather be loosed than to live. Therefore the words of Christ 
to the thief on the cross, who asked of him mercy, were full of comfort and solace 
- 'This day thou shalt be with me in paradise.' To die in the defence of Christ's 
gospel, it is our bounden duty to Christ, and also to our neighbour. To Christ, 
because he died for us, and rose again that he might be Lord over all. And seeing 
he died for us, we also should hazard, yea give our life for our brethren, and 
this kind of giving and losing, is getting and winning indeed: for he that giveth 
or loseth his life thus, getteth and winneth it for evermore. Blessed are they 
therefore that die in the Lord, and if they die in the Lord's cause, they are 
most happy of all. Let us not then fear death, which can do us no harm, otherwise 
than for a moment to make the flesh to smart: but that our faith, which is fastened 
and fixed upon the word of God, telleth us that we shall be anon after death in 
peace, in the hands of God, in joy, in solace, and that from death we shall go 
straight unto life. For St. John saith, He that liveth, and PAGE 871 believeth 
in me, shall never die. And in another place, He shall depart from death unto 
life. And therefore this death of the christian is not to be called death, but 
rather a gate or entrance into everlasting life. Therefore Paul calleth it but 
a dissolution and change, and both Peter and Paul, a putting off this tabernacle 
or dwelling house: meaning thereby the mortal body, as wherein the soul or spirit 
doth dwell here in this world for a small time. Yea, this my death may be called, 
to the christian, an end of al miseries. For so long as we live here, we must 
pass through many tribulations before we can enter into the kingdom of heaven. 
And now, after that death hath shot his bolt, all the christian man's enemies 
have done what they can; after that they have no more to do. What could hurt or 
harm poor Lazarus that lay at the rich man's gate? his former penury and poverty? 
his misery, beggary, and horrible wounds and sickness? No; as soon as death had 
struck him with his dart, so soon came the angels, and carried him straight up 
into Abraham's bosom. What lost he by death, who from misery and pain is conducted, 
by the ministry of angels, to a place of joy and felicity? "Farewell, dear brethren, 
farewell; let us comfort our hearts in all troubles, and in death, with God's 
word, for heaven and earth shall perish, but the word of the Lord endureth for 
ever. Farewell Jesus Christ's dearly beloved spouse, here wandering in this world 
in a strange land, encompassed about with deadly enemies, who seek thy destruction. 
Farewell, farewell to you, O ye the whole universal congregation of the chosen 
of God here living upon earth, the true church militant of Christ, the true mystical 
body of Christ, the very household and family of God and the sacred temple of 
the Holy Ghost, farewell. Farewell, O thou little flock of the high heavenly pastors 
of Christ, for to you it hath pleased the heavenly Father to give an everlasting 
and eternal kingdom. Farewell thou spiritual house of God, thou holy and royal 
priesthood, thou chosen generation, thou holy nation, thou won spouse. Farewell, 
farewell." The next month after the burning of Ridley and Latimer, which was the 
month of November, Stephen Gardiner, bishop and chancellor, a man hated of God 
and all good men, ended his wretched life. He was born in the town of Bury in 
Suffolk, and brought up most part of his youth in Cambridge: his wit, capacity, 
memory, and other endowments of nature were not to be complained of, if he had 
well used and rightly applied the same. He profited not a little in such studies 
as he gave his head unto; as in civil law, languages, and such other like, especially 
in those arts and faculties which had the prospect of dignity and prefer- ment. 
But to those gifts were joined great vices, which not so much followed him as 
overtook him, not so much burdened him as made him burdenous to the whole realm. 
He was of a proud stomach and high-minded; in wit, crafty and subtle; towards 
his superiors, flattering and fair spoken; to his inferiors, fierce; against his 
equals, stout and envious, as appeared between the good lord Cromwell and him 
in the reign of king Henry. Upon his estimation and fame he stood too much, more 
than was meet for a man of his coat and calling, whose profession was to be crucified 
unto the world. PAGE 872 As touching divinity, he was so variable, wavering with 
time, that no constant censure can be given what to make of him. If his doings 
and writings were according to his conscience, no man can rightly say whether 
he was a right protestant or a papist; and if he wrote otherwise than he thought, 
then was he a double dissembler before God and man. For first in the beginning 
of Anne Boleyn's time, who was so forward or busy in the matter of the king's 
divorce as Stephen Gardiner, who was first sent to Rome, and then to the emperor 
with Edward Foxe, as chief agent in the behalf of lady Anne? by whom also he was 
preferred to the bisho- pric of Winchester. Again, at the abolishing of the pope, 
who so ready to swear or so vehement to write against he pope as he, as not only 
by his sermons but also by his book "De Obedientia" may appear? in which book, 
lest any should think him drawn thereunto otherwise than by his own consent, he 
plainly declareth how not rashly nor upon a sudden, but in a long deliberation 
and advertisement in himself about the matter, he at length uttered his judgment. 
And moreover so he uttered his judgments in writing against the usurped supremacy 
of the pope, that coming to Louvain afterward he was there accounted as excommunicate 
and schismatic, insomuch that he was not permitted in their church to say mass, 
and in their public sermons they openly cried out against him. And thus long continued 
he firm and forward, so that who but Winchester during all the time of queen Anne? 
After her fall, by little and little he was carried away, till at length the emulation 
of Cromwell's estate, and especially for his so much favouring of Bonner, whom 
Winchester at that time could in no case abide, made him an utter enemy against 
the said Cromwell and also his religion. Again, in king Edward's days, he began 
a little to rebate from certain points of popery, and somewhat to smell of the 
gospel, as appears by his sermon before the king, and also by his subscribing 
to certain articles. This was a half turn of Stephen Gardiner from popery again 
to the gospel, and no doubt he would have further turned had not the unlucky decay 
of the duke of Somerset clean turned him away from true divinity to plain popery, 
wherein he continued a cruel persecutor to his dying day. And thus much concerning 
the trade and profession of Stephen Gardiner. Touching the death of the foresaid 
Stephen Gardiner, and the manner thereof, I would they which were present thereat 
would testify unto us what they saw; notwithstanding I though not to overpass 
a certain hear- say openly reported in the house of a worthy citizen bearing yet 
office in this city: "The same day, when bishop Ridley and master Latimer suffered 
at Oxford, there came into the house of Stephen Gardiner the duke of Norfolk, 
with his secretary, master Munday. The duke there waiting and tarrying for his 
dinner, the bishop being not yet disposed to dine, deferred the time to three 
or four of the clock at afternoon. At length, about four of the clock cometh his 
servant, posting in all possible speed from Oxford, bringing intelligence to the 
bishop what he had heard and seen; of whom the said bishop diligently inquiring 
the truth of the matter, and hearing by his man that fire was most certainly set 
unto them, cometh out rejoicing to the duke - 'Now,' saith he, 'let us go to dinner:' 
whereupon they being set down, meat immediately was brought, and the bishop began 
merrily to eat. But what followed? The bloody tyrant had not eaten a few bits, 
but the sudden stroke of God's terrible hand fell upon him in such sort as immediately 
he was taken from table,a nd so brought to his bed; where he continued the space 
of fifteen days in intolerable anguish and torments: a spectacle worthy to be 
noted and beholden of all such bloody burning persecutors." PAGE 873 I could name 
the man who, being then present, and a great doer about the said Winchester, reported 
to us concerning the said bishop, that when Dr. Day, bishop of Chichester, came 
to him, and began to comfort him with the words of God's promise, and with the 
free justification in the blood of Christ our Saviour, repeating the Scriptures 
to him, Winchester cried out, "What, my lord, will you open that gap now? Then 
farewell altogether. To me, and such others in my case, you may speak it; but 
open this window to the people, then farewell altogether!" Having given this brief 
sketch of Gardiner's story, leaving him to his Judge, we shall return, (by the 
grace and leave of the Lord,) as the course of these doleful days shall lead us, 
to prosecute the residue of Christ's martyrs. The political and ecclesiastical 
state of the realm at this period has been summed up by a former editor of this 
work in the following compre- hensive and judicious manner. "The parliament was 
now assembled, and it appeared that the nation was much turned in their affections. 
It was proposed to give the queen a subsidy. This was the first aid that the queen 
had asked, though she was now in the third year of her reign; and what was now 
desired, was no more than what she might have exacted at her first coming to the 
crown; and since she had forgiven so much at her coronation, it seemed unreasonable 
to deny it now: yet great opposition was made to it. Many said, she was impoverishing 
the crown, and giving away the abbey lands, and therefore she ought to be supplied 
by the clergy, and not turn to the laity: but it was answered, that the convo- 
cation had given her 6s. in the pound, but that would not serve her present occasions; 
so the debate grew high; but to prevent further heats, the queen sent a message, 
declaring that she would accept the subsidy, upon which it was granted. The queen 
sent for the speaker of the house of commons, and told him she could not with 
a good conscience exact the first-fruits of the clergy, since they were given 
to her father to support his unlawful dignity, of being the supreme head of the 
church: she also thought that all tithes, and impropriations were the patrimony 
of the church, and therefore was resolved to resign such of them as were in her 
hands. The former part passed easily in the house, but great opposition was made 
to the latter part of her motion: for it was looked on as a step to the taking 
all the impropriations out of the hands of the laity: upon a division of the house, 
one hundred and twenty-six were against it, and one hundred and ninety-three were 
for it; so it was carried by sixty-seven voices. An bill was put in against the 
duchess of Suffolk, and several others that favoured the reforma- tion, and had 
gone beyond sea that they might freely enjoy their consciences; requiring them 
to return, under severe penalties: the lords passed it, but the commons threw 
it out: for they began now to repent of the severe laws they had already consented 
to, and resolved to add no more. They also rejected another bill, for incapacitating 
some to be PAGE 874 justices of peace who were complained on for their remissness 
in prose- cuting heretics. An act was put in for debarring one Bennet Smith, who 
had hired some assassins to commit a most detestable murder, from the benefit 
of the clergy; which, by the course of the common law, would have saved him. This 
was an invention of the priests, that if any who was capable of entering into 
orders, and had not been twice married, or had not married a widow, could read, 
and vow to take orders, he was to be saved in many criminal cases. And it was 
looked on as part of the ecclesiastical immunity; which made divers of the bishops 
oppose this act; yet it passed, through four of them and five temporal lords pro- 
tested against it. There was such a heat in the house of commons in this parliament, 
that Sir Anthony Kingston called one day for the keys of the house; but for this 
temerity, in the dissolution of parliament, he was sent to the Tower: he was, 
however, soon after set at liberty; but next year he and six others were accused 
of a design of robbing the exchequ- er. Sir Anthony died before he was brought 
up to London; the other six were executed; but the evidence against them does 
not appear on record. Cardinal Pole, about this time, called a convocation, having 
first procured a licence from the queen, empowering them both to meet and to make 
such canons as they should think fit. This was done to preserve the prerogatives 
of the crown, and to secure the clergy, that they might not be afterwards brought 
under a praemunire. In it several decrees were proposed by Pole, and assented 
to by the clergy: For observing the feast of the reconcilation made with Rome, 
with great solemnity. For condemn- ing all heretical books, and receiving that 
exposition of the faith which pope Eugenius sent from the council of Florence 
to the Armenians. For the decent administration of the sacraments, and the putting 
down the yearly feasts in the dedications of churches. For requiring all bishops 
and priests to lay aside secular cares, and to give themselves wholly to the pastoral 
charge: and all pluralists to resign all their benefices except one, within two 
months, otherwise to forfeit all. For bishops to preach often, and to provide 
good preachers for their dioces- es, to go over them as their visitors. For the 
pomp and luxury of the tables, servants, and families of the bishops to cease, 
and the money to be laid out on works of charity. For orders to be granted only 
after strict examination. For personal partiality in bestowing benefices no longer 
to prevail. For the abolition of simony. For schools to be connected with every 
cathedral, chargeable on its revenues - and for some other inferior purposes. 
In these, the politic temper of cardinal Pole may well be discerned. He though 
the people were more wrought on by the scandals they saw in the clergy, than by 
the arguments which they heard from the reformers; and therefore reckoned that 
if pluralities and non-residences, and the other abuses of churchmen, could have 
been removed, and if he could have brought the bishops to life better, and labour 
mere, to be stricter in giving orders, and more impartial in conferring benefices, 
and if he could have established seminaries in cathedrals, heresy might have been 
driven out of the nation by gentler means that racks and fires. In one thing, 
however, he shewed the meanness of his spirit, namely that though PAGE 875 he 
himself condemned cruel proceedings against heretics, yet he both gave commissions 
to other bishops and archdeacons to try them, and suffered a great deal of cruelty 
to be exercised in his own diocese: but he had not courage enough to resist pope 
Paul IV., who thought of no other way for bearing down heresy, than that of setting 
up courts of inquisition every where. He had imprisoned cardinal Marone, Pole's 
great friend, upon suspicion of heresy; and would very probably have used himself 
so, if he had got him at Rome. About this time the Jesuits were beginning to grow 
considerably; they were restrained, besides their other vows, by an absolute obedience 
to the see of Rome: and set themselves every where to open free-schools, for the 
education of youth,a nd to bear down heresy. They were excused from the hours 
of the quire, and were consequently looked on as a mongrel order, between the 
regulars and the seculars. They proposed to cardinal Pole, that since the queen 
was restoring the abbey-lands, it would be to little purpose to give them again 
to the Benedictine order, which was not rather a clog than a help to the church: 
and therefore they desired that houses might be assigned to them, for maintaining 
schools and seminaries; and they did not doubt but they should quickly drive out 
heresy and recover the church-lands. Cardinal Pole would not listen to this, for 
which the Jesuits much censured him. It is not certain whether he foresaw that 
disorder which they were likely to bring into the church, and that corruption 
of morals that hath since emanated from their schools. SECTION XII. THE MARTYRDOM 
PHILPOT. NEXT after the death of the two most worthy champions and standard bearers 
of Christ's army, Dr. Nicholas Ridley and master Hugh Latimer, followed three 
other stout and bold soldiers; that is to say, John Webb, gentleman, George Roper, 
and Gregory Parke. John Webbe was brought before the bishop of Dover and Nicholas 
Harpsfield, or some other deputed in their room, on the 16th of September, and 
there had propound- ed unto him such articles as were commonly ministered by Bonner 
to those of his jurisdiction. And being willed for that present to depart, and 
to deliberate with himself upon the matter against the next time of his appearance, 
he made answer that he would no otherwise say, by God's grace, than he had already 
said, which was this: "As touching the sacra- ment of Christ's body," said he, 
"I do believe it to be left unto his church (with thanks giving) in commemoration 
of his death and passion, until his coming again. So that it is left in remembrance 
of his body; and not by the words of consecration to be made his body really, 
substantially, and the same body that was born of the Virgin Mary - I utterly 
deny that." PAGE 876 After this, the 3rd day of October, the said John Webbe, 
and George Roper, and Gregory Parke, were brought all three together before the 
said judges; who there and then agreeing, and steadfastly allowing the former 
answer made before by master Webbe, were, by the bloody prelates, adjudged heretics; 
and, therefore, about the same month (or else in the latter end of November) they 
were together brought out of prison to the place of martyrdom; repeating certain 
psalms in their way. Arriving at the stake, and there fastened with a chain, they 
were burnt altogether in one fire at Canterbury, most patiently enduring their 
torments, and accounting themselves happy and blessed of the Lord that they were 
made worthy to suffer for his sake. The 13th of December, 1555, in the Lollards' 
Tower, died William Wiseman, a clothworker of London, where he was in prison and 
bonds for the gospel and word of God. How and whereupon he deceased it is not 
fully certain. Some thought that either through famine or ill handling of some 
murdering papists he was made away; but the truth could not be ascertained. After 
his death the papists cast him out into the fields, as was their usual custom 
to such of the protestants as expired under their hands, commanding that no man 
should bury him. Notwithstanding their merciless commands, some good Tobits there 
were who buried him in the evening, as commonly they did all the rest thrown out 
in like manner, whom they were wont privily by night to cover; while many times 
the archers were in the field standing by, and singing psalms together at their 
burial. In the same month deceased also James Gore in the prison at Colchester, 
laid there in bonds for the right and truth of God's word. Next followeth the 
constant martyrdom of master John Philpot, whose troubles have been, in part, 
related in the commencement of the reign of Mary. He was of a family highly respectable, 
his father being a knight, and was born in Hampshire. He was brought up at New 
College, Oxford, where he studied civil law and other branches of liberal education, 
particularly that of languages, and became a great proficient in the Hebrew. He 
was witty, courageous and zealous; ever careful to adorn his doctrine by his practice, 
and his learning is fully evinced by what he has left on record. Desirous of travelling 
he went over to Italy and places thereabouts, and coming upon a time from Venice 
to Padua, he was in danger, through a Franciscan friar's accompanying him in his 
journey, who, coming to Padua, sought to accuse him of heresy. At length return- 
ing into England, as the time permitted more boldness unto him in the days of 
king Edward, he had several conflicts with bishop Gardiner in the city of Winchester. 
'After that, having an advowson from the bishop, he was made archdeacon of Winchester, 
under Dr. Poinet, who then succeeded Gardiner in that bishopric, and here he continued 
during the reign of king Edward, to the great profit of those parts thereabouts. 
When that pious prince was taken away, and Mary succeeded, her study was wholly 
bent to alter the state of religion in England: and first, she caused a convocation 
of the prelated and learned men to be assembled for the accomplishment of her 
desire. In this convocation Mr. Philpot, according to his degree, with a few others, 
sustained the cause of the gospel against the adversary, for which, notwithstanding 
the liberty the house had promised before, he was called to account before the 
chancellor, then being his ordinary, by whom he was first examined, although that 
examination came not to hand. From thence again he was removed to bishop Bonner, 
and other commission- ers, with whom he had divers conflicts, as may appear by 
an abstract of his examinations. PAGE 877 The first examination took place before 
the queen's commissioners, master Cholmley, master Roper, and Dr. Storey, and 
one of the Scribes of the Arches, at Newgate-Sessions' Hall, Oct. 2, 1555, which 
he thus relates: Dr. Storey, before I was called into an inner parlour, where 
they sat, came out into the hall where I was, to view me among others that were 
there; and passing by me said, "Ha! master Philpot;" and in returning stayed against 
me, beholding me, and saying that I was well fed indeed. Philpot. If I be fat, 
and in good liking, master doctor, it is no marvel, since I have been stalled 
up in prison this twelve months and a half, in a close corner. I am come to know 
wherefore you have sent for me. Storey. We hear thou art a suspected person, and 
of heretical opinions. Phil. I have been in prison thus long, only upon the occasion 
of dispu- tation made in the convocation - house, and upon suspicion of setting 
forth the report thereof. Storey. If thou wilt revoke the same, thou shalt be 
set at liberty, and do well; or else thou shalt be committed to the bishop of 
London. Phil. I have already answered in this behalf to mine ordinary. Storey. 
If thou answerest thus when thou comest before us anon, thou shalt hear more of 
our minds. And when that he went into the parlour, and I within a little while 
after was called in, when Storey said to the scribe, "This man was archdeacon 
of Winchester, of Dr. Poinet's presentment." Phil. I was archdeacon indeed, but 
none of his presentment; but by virtue of a former advowson, given by my lord 
chancellor than now is. Storey. You may be assured that my lord chancellor would 
not make any such as he is archdeacon. Roper. Come hither to me, Mr. Philpot. 
We hear that you are out of the catholic church, and have been a disturber of 
the same; out of which whoso is, he cannot be the child of salvation. Wherefore 
if you will come into the same, you shall be received and find favour. Phil. I 
am come before your worshipful masterships at your appointment, understanding 
that you are magistrates authorised by the queen's majesty, whom I own and will 
do my due obedience unto the uttermost. Wherefore I desire to know what cause 
I have offended in, for which I am now called before you. And if I cannot be charged 
with any particular matter done contrary to the laws of this realm, I desire of 
you that I may have the benefit of a subject, and be delivered out of my wrongful 
imprisonment, where I have lain a year and a half, without any calling to answer 
before now, and my living taken from me without law. Roper. Though we ave no particular 
matter to charge you withal yet we may, by our commission and by the law, drive 
you to answer to the suspicion of a slander going on you: and besides this, we 
have statutes to charge you herein withal. Phil. If I have offended any statute, 
charge me therewithal; and if I have incurred the penalty thereof, punish me accordingly. 
And because you are magistrates and executors of the queen's laws, by force whereof 
you now sit, I desire that if I be not found a transgressor of any of them, I 
may not be burthened with more than I have done. PAGE 878 Cholm. If the justice 
do suspect a felon, he may examine him upon sus- picion thereof, and commit him 
to prison though there be no fault done. Storey. I perceive whereabout this man 
goeth: he is plain in Cardmaker's case, for he made the same allegations. But 
they will not serve thee; for thou art a heretic, and holdest against the blessed 
mass: how sayest thou to that? Thou deniest it, but I will prove thee a heretic. 
Whosoever hath held against the blessed mass is a heretic: but thou hast held 
against the same, therefore thou art a heretic. Phil. That which I spake, and 
which you are able to charge me withal, was in the convocation, where, by the 
queen's will and her whole council, liberty was given to every man of the house 
to utter his conscience, and to speak his mind freely of such question in religion 
as there were propounded by the prolocutor; for which now I thought not to be 
molested and imprisoned as I have been, neither now to be compelled by you to 
answer for the same. Storey. Thou shalt go to Lollards' Tower, and be handled 
there like a heretic as thou art, and answer to the same that thou there didst 
speak, and be judged by the bishop of London. Phil. Sir, you know by the law, 
that I may have "Exceptionem fori;" and it is against all equity that I should 
be twice vexed for one cause, and that by such as by the law have nothing to do 
with me. Roper. You cannot deny but that you spoke against the mass in the convocation-house. 
Storey. Dost thou deny that which thou spakest there, or no? Phil. I cannot deny 
that I have spoken there, and if by the law you may put me to death for it, I 
am here ready to suffer whatsoever I shall be judged unto. Cholm. Play the wise 
gentleman and be comformable; and be not stubborn in your opinion, neither cast 
yourself away. I will be glad to do you good. Phil. I desire you, sir, with the 
rest here, that I be not charged further at your hands that the law chargeth me,m 
for what I have done, since there was no law directly against that wherewith I 
am now charged. And you, Mr. Doctor, I trust, will shew me some friendship. Storey. 
I tell thee, if thou wouldst be a good catholic I will spend my gown to do thee 
good; but I will be no friend to a heretic, as thou art, but will spend both my 
gown and my coat, but I will burn thee. How sayest thou to the sacrament of the 
altar? and since thou wilt not revoke that thou hast done, thou shalt be had into 
Lollards' Tower. Phil. Sir, since you will needs shew me this extremity, and charge 
me with my conscience, I desire to see your commission, whether you have this 
authority so to do. Storey. Shall we let every vile person see our commission? 
Let him lie in the Lollards' Tower; for I will sweep the King's-Bench, and all 
other prisons also, of these heresies. Phil. You have power to transfer my body 
from place to place at your pleasure; but you have no power over my soul. And 
I pass not whither you commit me, for I cannot be worse entreated than I am. Roper. 
Be content to be ruled, and show yourself a catholic man. PAGE 879 Phil. Sir, 
if I should speak otherwise than my conscience is, I should but dissemble with 
you: and why be you so earnest to have me shew myself a dissembler both to God 
and you, which I cannot do? If I do stand in anything against that, wherein any 
man is able to burthen me with one jot of the scripture, I shall be content to 
be counted no catholic man, or a heretic, as you please. With that Storey rose 
up, saying, "Who shall be judge, I pray you? This man is like his fellow Woodman, 
which the other day would have nothing else but Scripture." And this is the beginning 
of this tragedy. On the 24th of October, Philpot was again brought before the 
same commissioners, the which second examination is also condensed from his own 
narrative. At his coming, an acquaintance said to him, "God have mercy on you, 
for you are already condemned in this world; for Dr. Storey said that my lord 
chancellor had commanded to do you away." Philpot again desired to see their commission, 
which the scribe thereupon exhibited to Roper, and was about to open the same, 
when Dr. Cook, now added to their number, exclaimed, "No, what will ye do? he 
shall not see it!" Phil. Then you do me wrong, to call me and vex me, not shewing 
your authority in this behalf. Cook. If we do you wrong, complain of us: and in 
the mean time thou shalt lie in the Lollards' Tower. Phil. Sir, I am a poor gentleman; 
therefore I trust that you will not commit me to so vile a place, being no heinous 
trespasser. Cook. A heretic is no gentleman: for he is a gentleman that hath gentle 
conditions. Phil. The offence cannot take away the state of a gentleman as long 
as he liveth, although he were a traitor: but I mean not to boast of my gentlemanship; 
but I will put it under my foot, since you do no more esteem it. Storey. A gentleman, 
said he? he is a vile heretic knave: for a heretic is no gentleman. Let the keeper 
of the Lollards' Tower come in, and have him away. Phil. Sir, if I were a dog, 
you could not appoint me a worse nor more vile place: but I must be content with 
whatsoever injury you do offer me. God give you a more merciful heart; you are 
very cruel upon one that hath never offended you. I pray you, Mr. Cholmley, shew 
me some friendship that I may not be carried to so vile a place. Mr. Philpot proceeds 
with his narrative. "After this, I with four others was brought to the keeper's 
house in Paternoster-row, where we supped, and after supper I was called up to 
a chamber by a servant of the arch- deacon of London, and that in his master's 
name, who offered me a bed for that night. I thanked him, and said, That it would 
be a grief to me to lie one night well, and the next night worse: wherefore I 
would begin as I was likely to continue, to take such part as my fellows do. And 
with that we were brought through Paternoster-row to my lord of London's coal-house; 
unto which was joined a little dark house, with a great pair of stocks, both for 
hand and foot; and there we found a minister of Essex, a married priest, a man 
of godly zeal, with one other poor man. The minister at my coming desired to speak 
with me, telling me that he greatly lamented his infirmity, for that through extremity 
of imprison- PAGE 880 ment he had been constrained by writing to yield to the 
bishop of London: whereupon he had been set at liberty, and afterward felt such 
a hell in his conscience, that he could scarce refrain destroying himself, and 
never could be at quiet until he went to the bishop's register, desiring to see 
his bill again; which as soon as he had received, he tore it in pieces, after 
which he was joyful as any man. When my lord of London understood this, he sent 
for him, and fell upon him like a lion, and buffeted him, so that he made his 
face black and blue; and plucked away a great piece of his beard. "The second 
night of my imprisonment in this den, the bishop sent Mr. Johnson, his register, 
to me with a mess of meat, a good pot of drink, and some bread, saying that he 
had no knowledge before of my being here, for which he was sorry: therefore he 
had sent me and my fellows that meat, not knowing whether I would receive the 
same. I thanked God for his lordship's charity, that it pleased him to remember 
in all others; and that I would not refuse his beneficence, and there with took 
the same unto my brethren. "The register said - 'My lord would know the cause 
of your being sent hither, and wondereth that he should be troubled with prisoners 
that are not of his own diocese.' On this I declared unto him the whole cause. 
After which he said, that my lord's will was, I should have any friend- ship I 
would desire, and so departed. In a little time one of my lord's gentlemen came 
for me; and brought me into his presence, where he sat at a table with three or 
four of his chaplains waiting upon him, and his register. He said freely - 'Mr. 
Philpot, you are welcome; give me your hand. I am sorry for your trouble, and 
promise you that till within these two hours, I knew not of your being here. I 
pray you tell me the cause: for I promise you I know nothing thereof as yet, and 
marvel that other men will trouble me with their matters; but I must be obedient 
to my betters, and I fear men speak otherwise of me than I deserve.' I told him, 
that it was for the disputation in the convocation-house, for which I was against 
all right molested." Bon. I marvel that you should be troubled for that, if there 
was no other cause. But peradventure you have maintained the same since, and some 
of your friends of late have asked, whether you do stand to the same, and you 
have said, yea; and for this you might be committed to prison. Phil. If it shall 
please your lordship I am burdened no otherwise than I have told you, by the commissioners 
who sent me hither, because I would not recant the same. Bon. A man may speak 
in the parliament-house, though it be a place of free speech, so as he may be 
imprisoned for it, as in case he speak words of high-treason against the king 
or queen; and so it might be that you spake otherwise than it became you of the 
church of Christ. Phil. I spake nothing which was out of the articles which were 
called in question, and agreed upon to be disputed by the whole house, and by 
permission of the queen and council. Bon. Why, may we dispute of our faith? - 
I think not, by the law. PAGE 881 Phil. Indeed by the civil law I know it is not 
lawful, but by God's law we may reason thereof. For St. Peter saith - "Be ye ready 
to render account unto all men of the hope which is in you." Bon. Indeed, St. 
Peter saith so. Why then, I ask of you, what your judgment is of the sacrament 
of the altar? Phil. My lord, St. Ambrose saith, that the disputation of faith 
ought to be in the congregation, in the hearing of the people, and that I am not 
bound to render account thereof to every man privately, unless it be to edify. 
But now I cannot shew you my mind, but I must run upon the pikes in danger of 
my life for it. Wherefore, as the said doctor said unto Valentinian the emperor, 
so say I to your lordship:- "Take away the law, and I will reason with you." And 
yet if I come in open judgment, where I am bound by the law to answer, I trust 
I shall utter my conscience as freely as any that hath come before you. Bon. I 
perceive you are learned, I would have such as you about me. But you must come 
and be of the church, for there is but one church. Phil. God forbid I should be 
out of the church, I am sure I am within the same: for I know as I am taught by 
the scripture, that there is but one catholic church, one dove, one spouse, and 
one beloved congregation, out of which there is no salvation. Bon. How is it then 
that you go out of the same, and walk not with us? Phil. My lord, I am sure I 
am within the bounds of the church whereupon she is builded, which is the word 
of God. Bon. You are not now of the same faith promised for you in your baptism. 
Phil. Yes, I am; for I was baptized into the faith of Christ I now hold. Bon. 
How can that be? there is but one faith. Phil. I am assured of that by St. Paul, 
saying that there is but one God, one faith, and one baptism, of the which I am. 
Bon. You were twenty years ago of another faith than you are now. Phil. I was 
then of no faith, a neuter, a wicked liver, neither hot nor cold. Bon. Why, do 
you not think that we have now the true faith? Phil. I desire your lordship to 
hold me excused for answering at this time. I am sure that God's word thoroughly, 
with the primitive church, and all the ancient writers, do agree with this faith 
I am of. Bon. Well, I promise you I mean you no hurt. I will not therefore burthen 
you with your conscience now; I marvel that you are so merry in prison as you 
are, singing and rejoicing, as the prophet saith, joying in your naughtiness. 
Methinks you do not well herein; you should rather lament and be sorry. Phil. 
My lord, the mirth that we make is but in singing certain psalms, according as 
we are commanded by St. Paul, willing us to be merry in the Lord, singing together 
in hymns and psalms: and I trust your lordship cannot be displeased with that. 
We are, my lord, in a dark comfortless place, and therefore it behoveth us to 
be merry, lest, as Solomon saith, sorrowfulness eat up our heart. Bon. I will 
trouble you no farther now. If I can do you any good I shall be glad. God be with 
you, good Mr. Philpot, and good night. Take him to the cellar, and let him drink 
a cup of wine. The next examination was in the house of the archdeacon, and before 
the bishops of London, Bath, Worchester, and Gloucester. PAGE 882 Bon. Mr. Philpot, 
it hath pleased my lords to take pains here today, to dine with my poor archdeacon, 
and in the dinner-time it chanced us to have communication of you, and you were 
pitied here by many who knew you at New College in Oxford. And I also do pity 
your case, because you seem unto me by the talk I had with you the other night, 
to be learned: and therefore now I have sent for you to come before them, that 
it might not be said hereafter, that I had so many learned bishops at my house, 
and yet would not vouchsafe them to talk with you, and at my request they are 
content so to do. Now therefore utter your mind freely, and you shall with all 
favour be satisfied. I am sorry to see you lie in so evil a case as you may if 
you please. Bath. My lords here have not sent for you to fawn upon you, but for 
charity sake to exhort you to come into the right catholic church. Worces. Before 
he beginneth to speak, it is best that he call upon God for grace, and to pray 
that it might please God to open his heart, that he may conceive the truth. With 
that Philpot fell upon his knees before them, and prayed on this manner: "Almighty 
God, who art the giver of all wisdom and understand- ing, I beseech thee of thine 
infinite goodness and mercy in Jesus Christ, to give me (most vile sinner in thy 
sight? the spirit of wisdom to speak and make answer in thy cause, that it may 
be to the satisfac- tion of the hearers before whom I stand, and also to my better 
under- standing if I be deceived in any thing." Bon. Nay, my lord of Worchester, 
you did not well to exhort him to make any prayer. For this is the thing they 
have a singular pride in, that they can often make their vain prayers, in which 
they glory much. For in this point they are much like to certain arrant heretics, 
of whom Pliny maketh mention, that did daily sing praise unto God before dawning 
of the day. Phil. My lord, God make me all you here present such heretics as those 
were that sung those morning hymns: for they were right christians, with whom 
the tyrants of the world were offended. Bon. Say on, Mr. Philpot; my lords will 
gladly hear you. Phil. I have, my lords, been these twelve months and a half in 
prison without any just cause, and my living is taken from me without any lawful 
order, and now I am brought unjustly from my own territory and ordinary, into 
another man's jurisdiction, I know not why. Wherefore, if your lordships can burden 
me with any evil done, I stand here before you to purge me of the same. And if 
no such thing may be justly laid to my charge, I desire to be released of this 
wrongful trouble. Bon. There is none here that goeth about to trouble you, but 
to do you good, if we can. For I promise you, you were sent hither to me without 
my knowledge. Therefore speak your conscience without any fear. PAGE 883 Phil. 
My lords, it is not unknown to you, that the chief cause why you count me, and 
such as I am, for heretics, is because we be not at unity with your church. You 
say, that whatsoever is out of your church is damned: and we think verily on the 
other side, that if we depart from the true church, whereon we are grafted in 
God's word, we should stand in the state of damnation. Wherefore if your lordships 
can bring any better authority for your church than we can for ours, and prove 
by the scriptures that the church of Rome now is the true catholic church, as 
in all sermons, writings and arguments you uphold; and that all chris- tian persons 
ought to be ruled by the same, under pain of damnation, and that the same church 
hath authority to interpret the scriptures as it seemeth good to her, and that 
all men are bound to follow such interpre- tations only; I shall be as conformable 
to the same church as you may desire, which otherwise I dare not. To this I will 
stand and refer all other controversies wherein I now am against you, and will 
put my hand thereto, if you mistrust my word. Bon. I pray you, Mr. Philpot, what 
faith were you of twenty years ago? This man will have every year a new faith. 
Phil. My lord, to tell you plain, I think I was of no faith: for I was then a 
wicked liver, and knew not God then as I ought to do, God forgive me. I have declared 
to you on my conscience what I then was and judge of myself. And what is that 
to the purpose of the thing I desire to be satisfied of you? Cole. What will you 
say, if I can prove it was decreed by an universal council in Athanasius's time, 
that all the christian church should follows the determination of the church of 
Rome? But I do not now remember where. Phil. If you, master doctor, can show me 
the same granted to the see of Rome by the authority of Scripture, I will gladly 
hearken thereto. But I think you are not able: for Athanasius was president of 
the Nicene council, and there was no such thing decreed. I desire to see the proof 
thereof. Upon this master Harpsfield, the chancellor to the bishop of London, 
brought in a book of Ireneus, with certain leaves turned in, and laid it before 
the bishops to help them in their perplexity, if it might be; which after the 
bishops of Bath and Gloucester had read together, the latter gave me the book, 
and said - 'Take the book, Mr. Philpot, and look upon that place, and there you 
may see how the church of Rome is to be followed of all men.' On this I took the 
book and read the place, after which I said it made nothing against me, but against 
Arians and other heretics, against when Ireneus wrote. Worces. It is to be proved 
most manifestly by all ancient writers, that the see of Rome hath always followed 
the truth, and never was deceived until of late certain heretics had defaced the 
same. Phil. Let that be proved, and I have done. Worces. You are of such singularity 
and vain-glory you will not see it. Phil. Ha, my lords, is it now time, think 
you, for me to follow singu- larity or vain-glory, since it is now upon danger 
of my life and death not in the true faith. I shall die everlastingly: and again 
I know, if I yet I had rather perish by your hands, than perish eternally. And 
at this time I have lost all my goods of this world, and lie in a coal- house 
where a man would not lay a dog. Cole. Where are you able to prove that the church 
of Rome hath erred at any time? and by what history? Certain it is by Eusebius 
that the church was established at Rome by Peter and Paul, and that Peter was 
bishop twenty-five years at Rome. PAGE 884 Phil. I know well that Eusebius so 
writeth: but if we compare that which St. Paul writeth to the Galatians, the contrary 
will manifestly appear, that he was not half so long there. He lived not past 
maketh mention of his abiding at Jerusalem after Christ's death more than thirteen 
years. And further, I am able to prove, both by Eusebius and other historiogra- 
phers, that the church of Rome hath manifestly erred, and at this pres- ent doth 
err, because she agreeth not with that which they wrote. The primitive church 
did according to the gospel, and there needeth none other proof, but to compare 
the one with the other. Bon. I may compare this man to a certain one I read of 
who fell into a desperation, and went into a wood to hang himself, and when he 
came there, he went viewing of every tree, and could find none on which he might 
vouchsafe to hang himself. But I will not apply this as I might. I pray you, master 
doctor, go forth with him. Cole. My lord, there is one every side of me, some 
who are better able to answer him, and I love not to fall into disputation: for 
we now-a- days sustain shame and obloquy thereby of the people. I had rather shew 
my mind in writing. Phil. And I had rather you should do so than otherwise, for 
then a man may better judge of your words, than by argument, and I beseech you 
so to do. If I were a rich man, I durst wager a hundred pounds that you shall 
not be able to shew what you have said, to be decreed by a general council in 
Athanasius's time. This I am sure of, that it was concluded by a general council 
in Africa, many years after, that none of Africa should appeal to Rome: which 
decree I am sure they would not have made, if by the scriptures and by an universal 
council it had not have made, if by the scriptures and by an universal council 
it had been decreed, that all men should follow the determination of the church 
of Rome. You say that they afterwards revoked that error: but I pray you shew 
me where. I have hitherto heart nothing from you to my satisfaction, but bare 
words without any authority. Bon. What, I pray you, ought we to dispute with you 
of our faith? Justinian in the law hath a title, De fide Catholica, to the contrary. 
Phil. I am certain the civil law hath such a constitution; but our faith must 
not depend upon the civil law. For as St. Ambrose saith, faith must not depend 
upon the civil law. For as St. Ambrose saith, Now the law, but the gospel hath 
gathered the church together. Worces. Mr. Philpot, you have the spirit of pride 
wherewith you be led, which will not let you yield to the truth: leave it off 
for shame. Phil. Sir, I am sure I have the spirit of faith, by which I speak at 
this present; neither am I ashamed to stand to my faith. Glou. What, do you think 
yourself better learned than so many notable learned men as are here? Phil. Elias 
alone had the truth, when there were four hundred priests against him. Worces. 
Oh, you would be counted now for Elias! And yet I tell thee he was deceived: for 
he though there had been none good but himself; and yet he was deceived, for there 
were seven thousand besides him. Phil. Yea, but he was not deceived in doctrine, 
as the other four hundred were. Worces. Do you think the universal church may 
be deceived? PAGE 885 Phil. St. Paul to the Thessalonians prophesieth that there 
should come an universal departing from the faith in the latter days before the 
coming of Christ, saying, that "Christ shall not come, till there come a departing 
first." Cole. Yea, I pray you, how take you the departing there in St. Paul? It 
is not meant of faith, but of the departing from the empire: Phil. Marry indeed 
you, master doctor, put me in good remembrance of the meaning of St. Paul in that 
place, for "apostasia" is properly a departing from the faith, and thereof cometh 
"apostata," which properly signifieth one that departeth from his faith: and St. 
Paul in the same place after speaketh of the decay of the empire. Cole. "Apostasia" 
doth not only signify a departing from the faith, but also from the empire, as 
I am able to show. Phil. I never read it so taken; and when you shall be able 
to show it (as you say in words) I will believe it, and not before. Worces. I 
am sorry that you should be against the Christian world. Phil. The world commonly, 
and such as be called Christians; for the multitude have hated the truth, and 
been enemies to the same. Glou. Why, Mr. Philpot, do you think that the universal 
church hath erred, and that you only are in the truth? Phil. The church that you 
are of was never universal; for two parts of the world, which are Asia and Africa, 
never consented to the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, neither did they follow 
his decrees. It was said so by false report, after they of Asia and Africa were 
gone home, that in the Florentine council they did agree: but it was not so indeed, 
as the sequel of them all prove the contrary. Glou. I pray you, by whom will you 
be judged in matters of controversy which happen daily? Phil. By the word of God. 
For Christ saith in St. John, "The word that he spake, shall be judge in the latter 
day." Glou. What if you take the word one way, and I another way, who shall be 
judge then? Phil. The primitive church. I mean the doctors that wrote thereof. 
Glou. What if you take the doctors in one sense, and I in another: who shall be 
judge then? Phil. Then let that be taken which is most agreeable to God's word. 
Worces. It is a wonder who he standeth with a few against a multitude. Phil. We 
have almost as many as you: for we have Asia, Africa, Germany, Denmark, and a 
great part of France, and daily the number of the gospel doth increase: so that 
I am credibly informed that for this religion in the which I stand, and for the 
which I am like to die, a great multitude doth daily come out of France through 
persecution, that the cities of Germany be scarce able to receive them. And therefore 
your lordship may be sure the word of God will one day take place. Worces. They 
were well occupied to bring you such news, and you have been well kept to have 
such resort unto you. Thou art the arrogantest fellow, and stoutest fond fellow, 
that ever I knew. Phil. I pray your lordship to bear with my hasty speech: for 
it is part of my corrupt nature to speak somewhat hastily; but, for all that, 
I mean with humility to do my duty to your lordship. PAGE 886 Bon. Mr. Philpot, 
my lords will trouble you no further at this time, but you shall go whence you 
came, and have such favour as in the mean while I can shew you: and upon Wednesday 
next you shall be called upon again to be heard what you can say for the maintenance 
of your error. Phil. My lord, my desire is to be satisfied of you in that I required; 
and your lordship shall find me as I have said. Worces. God send you more grace. 
Phil. And increase the same in you, and open your eyes, that you may see to maintain 
his truth, and his true church. Then the bishops rose, and after consulting together, 
caused a writing to be made, in which I think my blood by them was bought and 
sold, and thereto they put their hands; after which I was carried to my coal-house 
again. Thus endeth the fourth part of this tragedy. The fifth examination of John 
Philpot was before the bishops of London, Rochester, Coventry, St. Asaph, and 
one other, Dr. Storey, Curtop, Dr. Saverson, Dr. Pendleton, with divers others, 
in my lord of London's palace. Bon. Master Philpot, come you hither. I have desired 
my lords here, and other learned men, to take some pains once again to do you 
good; and because I do mind to sit in judgment on you tomorrow, as I am commanded, 
yet I would you should have as much favour as I can shew you, if you will be anything 
conformable; therefore play the wise man, and be not singular in your own opinion, 
but be ruled by these learned men. Phil. My lord, in that you say you will sit 
on me in judgment tomorrow, I am glad thereof: for I was promised by them which 
sent me unto you, that I should have been judged the next day after: but promise 
hath not been kept with me, to my farther grief. I took for none other but death 
at your hands, and I am as ready to yield my life in Christ's cause, as you are 
to require it. St. Asaph. It is most evident that St. Peter did build the catholic 
church at Rome. And Christ said, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build 
my church." Moreover the succession of bishops in the see of Rome can be proved 
from time to time, as it can be of none other place so well, which is a manifest 
probation of the catholic church as divers doctors do write. Phil. That which 
you would have to be undoubted, is most uncertain and that by the authority which 
you allege of Christ, saying unto Peter, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I 
will build my church;" unless you can prove that rock to signify Rome, as you 
would now make me falsely believe. And although you could prove the successions 
of bishops from Peter, yet this is not sufficient to prove Rome the catholic church, 
unless you can prove the profession of Peter's faith, whereupon the catholic church 
is guilty, to have continued in his successors at Rome and at this present to 
remain. Bon. Are there any more churches than one catholic church? And I pray, 
tell me into what faith were you baptised? Phil. I acknowledge one holy catholic 
and apostolic church, whereof I am a member, and am of that catholic faith of 
Christ whereinto I was baptised. PAGE 887 Coventry. I pray, can you tell what 
this word catholic doth signify? Phil. Yes, I can, thank God. The catholic faith, 
or the catholic church, is not, as the people are taught, that which is most universal, 
or by most part of men received, whereby you infer our faith to hand upon the 
multitude; but I esteem the catholic church to be as St. Augustine defineth, "We 
judge the catholic faith, of that which hath been, is, and shall be." So that 
if you can be able to prove, that your faith and church hath been from the beginning 
taught, and is and shall be, then you may count yourselves catholic, otherwise 
not. Catholic is a Greek word, compounded of kata, which signifieth after, or 
according, and, a sum, or principal, or whole. So that catholic church, or catholic 
faith, is as much as to say, as the first, whole, sound, or cheifest faith. Bon. 
Doth St. Augustine say so as he allegeth it? or doth he mean as he taketh the 
same? How say you, Mr. Curtop? Curtop. Indeed my lord, St. Augustine hath such 
a saying, speaking against the Donatists, that the catholic faith ought to be 
esteemed of things in time past, and as they are practised according to the same, 
and ought to be through all ages, and not after a new manner, as the Donatists 
began to profess. Phil. You have said well, Mr. Curtop, and after the meaning 
of St. Augustine, and to confirm that which I have said for the signification 
of catholic. Cov. Let the book be seen, my lord. Bon. I pray you, my lord, be 
content, or in good faith I will break even off, and let all alone. Do you think 
that the catholic church (until within these few years, in which a few upon singularity 
have swerved from the same) hath ever been in error? Phil. I do not think that 
the catholic church can err in doctrine: but I require you to prove this church 
of Rome to be the catholic church. Cur. I can prove that Ireneus (which was within 
a hundred years after Christ) came to Victor, then bishop of Rome, to ask his 
advice about the excommunication of certain heretics, which he would not have 
done, if he had not taken him to be supreme head. Cove. Mark well this argument. 
How are you able to answer the same? Answer if you can. Phil. It is soon answered, 
my lord, for that is of no force; neither doth this fact of Ireneus make any more 
for the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, than mine hath done, who have been at 
Rome, as well as he, and might have spoken with the pope if I had list; and yet 
I would none in England did favour his supremacy more than I. St. Asaph. You are 
more to blame for that you favour the same no better, since all the catholic church 
have taken him to be the supreme head of the church, besides this good man Ireneus. 
Phil. It is not likely Ireneus so took him, or the primitive church: for I am 
able to shew seven general councils after Ireneu's time, wherein he was never 
taken for supreme head. Cov. This man will never be satisfied, say what we can. 
It is but folly to reason any more with him. PAGE 888 Phil. O, my lords, would 
you have me satisfied with nothing? Judge, I pray you, who hath better authority, 
he which bringeth the example of one man going to Rome, or I that by these many 
general councils am able to prove, that the pope was never so taken in many hundred 
years after Christ, as by Nicene, Ephesine, the first and second Chalcedon, Constan- 
tinoplitan, Carthaginese, Aquileia. Cov. Why will you not admit the church of 
Rome to be the catholic church? Wherein doth it dessent? Phil. It followeth not 
the primitive catholic church, neither agreeth with the same. It were too long 
to recite all, but two things I will name, supremacy and transubstantiation. Saverson. 
I wonder you will stand so steadfast in your error to your own destruction. Phil. 
I am sure we are in no error, by the promise of Christ made to the faithful once, 
which is, that he will give to his true church such a spirit of wisdom, that the 
adversaried thereof should never be able to resist. And by this I know we are 
of the truth, for that neither by reasoning, neither by writing, your synagogue 
of Rome is able to answer. Where is there one of you all that ever hath been able 
to answer any of the godly ministers of Germany? Which of you all, at this day, 
is able to answer Calvin's Institutions, who is minister of Geneva? Saver. A godly 
minister indeed, a receiver of cut-purses and runagate traitors! And of late, 
I can tell you, there is such contention fallen between him and his own sects, 
that he was obliged to fly the town about predestination. I tell you truth, for 
I came by Geneva here. Phil. I am sure you blaspheme him and that church where 
he is minister. It is your church's disputation, when you cannot answer men by 
learning, to oppress them with blasphemies and false reports. For in the matter 
of predestination he is in no other opinion than all the doctors of the church 
be, agreeing to the scriptures. Saver. Men are able to answer him if they will. 
And I pray which of you has answered bishop Fisher's book? Phil. Yes, Mr. Doctor, 
that book is answered, and answered again: you, if you like to seek what hath 
been written against him, may do so. Dr. Storey, you have done me great injury, 
and without law have straitly imprisoned me, more like a dog than a man. And besides 
this you have not kept promise with me, for you promised that I should be judged 
the next day after. Storey. I am come now to keep promise with thee. Was there 
ever such a fantastical man as this is? These heretics be worse than brute beasts; 
for they will upon a vain singularity take upon them to be wiser than all men, 
being indeed very fools, not able to maintain that which of an arrogant obstinacy 
they do stand in. Phil. I am content to abide your railing judgment of me now. 
Say what you will, I am content, for I am under your feet to be trodden on as 
you like. God forgive it you; yet I am no heretic. Neither you nor any other shall 
be able to prove that I hold one jot against the word of God otherwise than a 
christian man ought. Storey. The word of God, forsooth! It is but foly to reason 
with these heretics, for they are incurable and desperate. But yet I may reason 
with thee, not that I have any hope to win thee. Whom wilt thou appoint to judge 
of the word whereto thou standest? PAGE 889 Phil. Verily the word itself. Storey. 
Do you not see the ignorance of this beastly heretic? he willeth the word to be 
judged of the word. Can the word speak? Let us hear what wise authority thou canst 
bring in? Phil. It is the word of Christ in St. John, "The word which I have spoken, 
shall judge in the last day." If the word shall judge in the last day, how much 
more ought it to judge of our doings now? and I am sure I have my judge on my 
side, who will absolve and justify me in another world. Howsoever now it shall 
please you by authority unrighteously to judge of my and others, sure I am in 
another world to judge you. Storey. Well, sir, you are like to go after your fathers, 
Latimer the sophister, and Ridley, who hand nothing to allege for myself but that 
he learned his heresy of Cranmer. But I dispatched them; and I tell thee that 
there never yet hath been one burnt, but I have spoken with him, and have been 
a cause of his dispatch. Phil. You will have the more to answer for, Mr. Doctor, 
as you shall feel in another world, how much soever you now triumph. Storey. I 
tell thee I will never be confessed thereof. And because I cannot now tarry, I 
pray one of you tell my lord, that my coming was to signify to his lordship that 
he must out of hand put this heretic away. Phil. I thank you therefor with all 
my heart, and God forgive it you. Storey. What, dost thou thank me? If I had thee 
in my study half an hour, I think I should make thee sing another song. Phil. 
No, I stand upon too sure ground to be overcome by you now. And thus they departed 
all away from me, until I was left alone. After- wards with my keeper going to 
my coal-house, I met my lord of London, who spake unto me gently, saying, "Philpot, 
if there be any pleasure I may show you in my house, I pray you require it, and 
you shall have it." Phil. My lord, the pleasure that I will require of your lordship 
is to hasten my judgment which is committed unto you, and so to dispatch me forth 
of this miserable world, unto my eternal rest. And for all his fair speech I cannot 
attain hitherto, this fornight's space, neither fire nor candle, nor good lodging. 
But it is good for a man to be brought low in this world, and to be counted amongst 
the vilest, that he may in time of reward receive exaltation and glory. Therefore 
praised be God that hath humbled me, and given me grace to be content therewithal. 
The sixth examination of John Philpot took place on the 6th of November, before 
the lord Chamberlain, viscount Hereford, lords Rich, St. John, Windsor, and Chandos, 
sir John Bridges, lieutenant of the Tower, and two more, with the bishop of London 
and Dr. Chedsey. Before that I was called afore the lords, and whiles they were 
in sitting down, the bishop of London whispered in mine ear, willing me to use 
myself before the lords of the queen's council prudently. And after that the lords 
were set, he placed himself at the end of the table; where I kneeling down, the 
lords commanded me to stand up, and the bishop spake to me thus: PAGE 890 "Master 
Philpot, I have heretofore both privately myself, and openly before the lords 
of the clergy, more times than once, caused you to be conversed with, to reform 
you of your errors, but I have not yet found you so tractable as I could wish: 
wherefore now I have desired these honourable lords of the temporality, and of 
the queen's majesty's coun- cil, who have taken pains with me this day, I thank 
them for it, to hear you and what you can say, that they may be judges whether 
I have sought all means to do you good or not: and I dare be bold to say in their 
behalf, that if you shew yourself conformable to the queen's proceed- ings, you 
shall find as much favour for your deliverance as you can wish. I speak not this 
to fawn upon you, but to bring you home unto the church. Now let them hear what 
you have to say." Philpot. I thank God that I have this day such an honourable 
audience to declare my mind before. And I cannot but commend your lordship's equity 
in this behalf, which agreeth with the order of the primitive church; which was, 
if anybody had been suspected of heresy, as I am now, he should be called before 
the archbishop or bishop of the diocese where he was suspected, in the presence 
of others his fellow-bishops and learned elders, and in hearing of the laity: 
where, after the judgment of God's word declared, with the assent of other bishops 
and consent of the people, he was condemned to exile for a heretic, or absolved. 
The second point of that good order I have found at your lordship's hands already, 
in being called before you and your fellow bishops; and now I have the third sort 
of men, at whose hands I trust to find more righteousness in my cause than I have 
found with the clergy. God grant that I may have at last the judgment of God's 
word concerning the same." Bonner. Mr. Philpot, I pray you ere you go any further, 
tell my lords here plainly, whether you were by them or by my procurement committed 
to prison or not, and whether I have shewn you any cruelty since you have been 
committed to my prison. Phil. If it shall please your lordship to give me leave 
to declare forth my matter, I will touch that afterward. Lord Rich. Answer first 
of all to my lord's two questions, and than proceed to the matter. How say you? 
Where you imprisoned by my lord or not? Can you find any fault since with his 
cruel using of you? Phil. I cannot lay to my lord's charge the cause of my imprisonment, 
neither may I say that he hath used me cruelly; but rather for my part I may say, 
that I have found more gentleness at his hands than I did at my own ordinary's, 
for the time I have been within his prison, because he hath called me three or 
four times to mine answer, to which I was not called in a year and a half before. 
Rich. Well, now go to your matter. Phil. The matter is, that I am imprisoned for 
the disputations held by me in the convocation-house against the sacrament of 
the altar, which matter was not moved principally by me, but by the prolocutor, 
with the consent of the queen's majesty and of the whole house, and that house, 
being a member of the parliament-house, which ought to be a place of free speech 
for all men of the house, by the ancient and laudable custom of this realm. Wherefore 
I think myself to have sustained hitherto great injury for speaking my conscience 
freely in such a place as I might lawfully do it: and I desire your honourable 
lordships' judgment who are of the parliament, whether of right I ought to be 
impeached for the same, and sustain the loss of my living, and moreover of my 
life, as it is sought. PAGE 891 Rich. You are deceived herein, for the convocation-house 
is no part of the parliament-house. Phil. My lord, I have always understood the 
contrary by such as are more expert men in things of this realm than I: and again, 
the title of every act leadeth me to think otherwise, which allegeth the agreement 
of the spiritualty and temporalty assembled together. Rich. That is meant of the 
spiritual lords of the upper house. The convocation-house is called together by 
one writ of the summons of the parliament of an old custom: notwithstanding that 
house is no part of the parliament-house. Phil. My lords, I must be contented 
to abide your judgment in this behalf. Rich. We have told you the truth. And yet 
we would not that you should be troubled for anything that there was spoken, so 
that you having spoken amiss, do declare now that you are sorry for what you have 
said. Bon. My lords, he hath spoken there manifest heresy, yea, and there stoutly 
maintained the same against the blessed sacrament of the altar, and would not 
allow the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the same: yet, my lords, 
God forbid that I should endeavour to shew him extremity for so doing, in case 
he will repent and revoke his wicked sayings; and if in faith he will so do, with 
your lordships' consent, he shall be released by and by; if he will not, he shall 
have the extremity of the law, and that shortly. Chamberlain. My lord speaketh 
reasonably unto you. Take it whiles it is offered you. Rich. How say you, will 
you acknowledge in the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ such a presence 
as the word of God doth allow and teach me. Bon. A sacrament is the sign of a 
holy thing; so that there is both the sign, which is the accident (as the whiteness, 
roundness, and shape of bread,) and there is also the thing itself, as very Christ 
both God and man. But these heretics will have the sacrament to be but bare signs. 
How say you? declare unto my lords here whether you allow the thing itself in 
the sacrament, or no. Phil. I do confess that in the Lord's supper there are in 
due respects both the sign and the thing signified, when it is duly administered 
after the institution of Christ. If I have not plainly declared my judgment unto 
you, it is because I cannot speak without the danger of my life. Rich. There is 
none of us here who seek thy life, or mean to take any advantage of that thou 
shalt speak. PAGE 892 Phil. Although I mistrust not your lordships that be here 
of the tempo- ralty; yet here is one that sitteth against me that will lay it 
to my charge even to death. Notwithstanding, seeing you require me to declare 
my mind of the presence of Christ in the sacrament, that ye may perceive I am 
not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, neither do maintain any opinion without probable 
and sufficient authority of Scripture, I will show you frankly my mind, whatsoever 
shall ensue unto me therefore. There are two things principally, by which the 
clergy at this day deceive the whole realm; that is the sacrament of the body 
and blood of Christ, and the name of the catholic church: which they do both usurp, 
having indeed neither of them. And as touching their sacrament which they term 
of the altar, I say that it is not the sacrament of Christ neither in the same 
is there any manner of Christ's presence. Wherefore they deceive the queen, and 
you, the nobility of this realm, in making you to believe that to be a sacrament 
which is none, and cause you to commit manifest idolatry in worshipping that for 
God, which is no God. And in testimony of this to be true, besides manifest proof, 
which I am able to make, I will yield my life; which to do, if it were not upon 
sure ground, it were to my utter damnation. And where they take on them the name 
of the catholic church, they are nothing so, calling you from the true religion 
which was revealed and taught in king Edward's time, unto vain superstition. And 
this I will say for the trial hereof, that if they can prove themselves to be 
the catholic church, I will never be against their doings, but revoke all that 
I have said. And I shall desire you, my lords, to be a menas for me to the queen's 
majesty, that I may be brought to the just trial hereof. Yea, I will not refuse 
to stand against any ten of the best of them in this realm: and if they be able 
to prove otherwise than I have said, I will here promise to recant whatsoever 
I have said, and consent to them in all points. Rich. All heretics boast of the 
Spirit of God, and every one would have a church by himself; as Joan of Kent, 
and the Anabaptists. I had myself Joan of Kent a week in my house after the writ 
was out for her being burnt, where my lord of Canterbury and bishop Ridley resorted 
almost daily unto her: but she was so high in the Spirit that they could do nothing 
with her for all their learning. But she went wilfully into the fire, as you do 
now. Phil. As for Joan of Kent she was a vain woman - I knew her well, and a heretic 
indeed, well worthy to be burnt, because she stood against one of the manifest 
articles of our faith, contrary to the Scriptures. And such vain spirits be soon 
known from the true Spirit of God and his church, for the same abideth within 
the limits of God's word, and will not go out if it. Bon. I pray you, how will 
you join me these two scriptures together: "The Father is greater than I;" and, 
"I and the Father are one." Now show your cunning, and join these two scriptures 
by the word, if you can. Phil. Yes, that I can right well. For we must understand 
that in Christ there be two natures, the divinity and humanity; and in respect 
of his humanity it is spoken of Christ, "The Father is greater than I." But in 
respect of his deity, he said again, "The Father and I are one." I have sufficient 
scripture for the proof of that I have said. For the first, it is written of Christ 
in the Psalms, "Thou hast made him a little lesser than angels." And the second 
scripture itself declareth, that notwithstanding Christ did abase himself in our 
human nature, yet he is still one in deity with the Father. And this Paul to the 
Hebrews doth more at large set forth. Bon. How can that be, seeing St. Paul saith 
that "the letter killeth, but it is the spirit that giveth life?" PAGE 893 Phil. 
St. Paul meaneth not that the word of God written in itself killeth, which is 
the word of life, and faithful testimony of the Lord; but that the word is unprofitable, 
and killeth him that is void of the Spirit of God, although he be the wisest man 
of the world. And therefore Paul said that the gospel to some was a savour of 
life unto life, and to some other a savour of death unto death. Also an example 
hereof we have in John vi. of them who hearing the word of God without the Spirit 
were offended thereby: wherefore Christ said, "The flesh profiteth nothing; it 
is the Spirit that quickeneth." Bon. You see, my lords, that this man will have 
his own mind; and will wilfully cast himself away. I am sorry for him. Phil. The 
words that I have spoken are none of mine, but the gospel, whereon I ought to 
stand. And if you, my lord of London, can bring better authority for the faith 
you would draw me unto, than that which I stand upon, I will gladly hear the same, 
by you or by any other in this realm. Rich. What country man be you? Are you of 
the Philpots of Hampshire? Phil. Yea, my lord; I was sir P. Philpot's son of Hampshire. 
Rich. He is my near kinsman; wherefore I am the more sorry for him. Phil. I thank 
your lordship that it pleaseth you to challenge kindred of a poor prisoner. Rich. 
In faith I would go a hundred miles on my bare feet, to do you good. You said 
even now, that you would desire to maintain your belief before ten of the best 
in the realm. - I dare be bold to procure for you of the queen's majesty that 
you shall have ten learned men to reason with you, and twenty or forty of the 
nobility to hear, so you will promise to abide their judgment. How say you, will 
you promise here afore my lords, so to do? Phil. There are causes why I may not 
so do, unless I were sure they would judge according to the word of God. Rich. 
O, I perceive you will have no man judge but yourself, and think yourself wiser 
than all the learned men in this realm. Phil. My lord, I seek not to be mine own 
judge, but am willing to be judged by others, so that the order of judgment in 
matters of religion be kept as it was in the promitive church, which is, that 
God's will be his word was sought; and therefore both the spiritualty and temporalty 
were gathered together, and gave their consents and judgment, and such kind of 
judgment I will stand to. Rich. I marvel why you do deny the express words of 
Christ in the sacrament, saying, "This is my body:" and yet you will continue 
to say it is not his body. Is not God omnipotent? And is not he able as well by 
his omnipotence to make it his body, as he was to make man flesh of a piece of 
clay? Did not he say, "This is my body which shall be betrayed for you!" And was 
not his very body betrayed for us? Therefore it must needs be his body. Bon. My 
lord Rich, you have said wonderful well and learnedly. But you might have begun 
with him before also, in the sixth of John, where Christ promised to give his 
body in the sacrament of the altar, saying, "The bread which I will give is my 
flesh." How can you answer to that? PAGE 894 Phil. You may be soon answered: that 
saying of St. John is, that the humanity of Christ, which he took upon him for 
the redemption of man, is the bread of life whereby our souls and bodies are sustained 
to eternal life, of which the sacrament bread is a lifely representation, to all 
such as believe on this passion. And as Christ saith in the same sixth of John, 
"I am the bread that came down from Heaven;" but yet his is not material, neither 
natural bread: likewise the bread is his flesh, not natural or substantial, but 
by signification, and by grace in the sacrament. And now to my lord Rich's argument. 
I do not deny the express words of Christ in the sacrament, "This is my body:" 
but I deny that they are naturally and corporeally to be taken: they must be taken 
spiritually, according to the express declaration of Christ, saying that the words 
of the sacrament which the Capernaumites took carnally, as they falsely imagine, 
not weighing what interpretation Christ hath made in this behalf, neither following 
the institution of Christ, neither the use of the apostles and of the primitive 
church. Bon. What say you to the omnipotency of God? Is not he able to perform 
that which he spake, as my lord Rich hath very well said? I tell thee, that God 
by his omnipotency, may make himself to be this carpet if he will. Phil. As concerning 
the omnipotency of God, I say, that God is able to do whatsoever he willeth; but 
he willeth nothing that is not agreeable to his word; that is blasphemy which 
my lord of London hath spoken, that God may become a carpet. For, God cannot do 
that which is contrary to his nature, and it is contrary to the nature of God 
to be a carpet. A carpet is a creature; and God is the creator; and the creator 
cannot be the creature: wherefore, unless you can declare by the word, that Christ 
is otherwise present with us than spiritually and sacramentally by grace, as he 
hath taught us, you pretend the omnipotency of God in vain. Bon. Why, wilt thou 
not say that Christ is really present in the sacrament? Or do you deny it? Phil. 
I deny not that Christ is really present in the sacrament to the receiver thereof 
according to Christ's institution. I mean by really present, present indeed. Bon. 
Is God really present everywhere? Phil. He is so. The prophet Isaiah saith that 
God filleth all places: and Christ saith that wheresoever there be two or three 
gathered togeth- er in his name, there is he in the midst of them. Not his humanity, 
but the Deity, according to that you demanded. Rich. My lord of London, I pray 
you let Dr. Chedsey reason with him, and let us see how he can answer him, for 
I tell thee he is a learned man indeed, and one that I do credit before a great 
many of you, whose doctrine the queen's majesty and the whole realm doth well 
allow, therefore hear him. PAGE 895 Ched. You have of the scriptures the four 
evangelists for the probation of Christ's real presence to be in the sacrament 
after the words of consecration, with St. Paul to the Corinthians; which all say, 
"This is my body." They say not, as you would have me believe, this is not the 
body. But especially the 6th of John proveth this most manifestly, where Christ 
promised to give his body, which he performed in his last supper, as it appeareth 
by these words - "The bread which I will give is my flesh, which I will give for 
the life of the world." Phil. My lord Rich, with your leave I must needs interrupt 
him a little, because he speaketh open blasphemy against the death of Christ: 
for if that promise, brought in by St. John, was performed by Christ in his last 
supper, then he needed not to have died after he had given the sacrament. Windsor. 
There were never any that denied the words of Christ as you do. Did he not say, 
"This is my body?" Phil. My lord, I pray you be not deceived. We do not deny the 
words of Christ: but we say, these words are of none effect, being spoken other- 
wise than Christ did institute them in his last supper. For example: Christ biddeth 
the church to baptise in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 
If a priest say these words over the water, and there be no child to be baptised, 
these words only pro- nounced do not make baptism. And again, baptism is only 
baptism to such as be baptised, and to one other standing by.