Foxe's Book of Martyrs-- Part  Five

Chamberlain. My lord, let me ask him one question. What kind of presence in the 
sacrament, when it is duly administered according to Christ's ordinance, do you 
allow? Phil. If any come worthily to receive, then do I confess the presence of 
Christ wholly to be with all the fruits of his passion, unto the said worthy receiver, 
by the Spirit of God, and that Christ is thereby joined to him, and he to Christ. 
Bon. My lords, take no heed of him, for he goeth about to deceive you. His similitude 
that he bringeth in of baptism, is nothing like to the sacrament of the altar. 
For if I should say to Sir John Bridg- es, being with me at supper, and having 
a fat capon, "Take, eat, this is a capon," although he eat not thereof, is it 
not a capon still? And likewise of a piece of beef, or of a cup of wine, if I 
say, "Drink, this is a cup of wine," is it not so, even when he drinketh not thereof? 
Phil. My lord, your similitudes are too gross for so high mysteries as we have 
in hand. Like must be compared to like, and spiritual things with spiritual, and 
not spiritual things with corporeal things. The sacraments are to be considered 
according to the word which Christ spake of them, of which - "Take ye, and eat 
ye," be some of the chief concur- rent to the makeing of the same, without which 
there can be no sacra- ments. And, therefore, the sacrament of the body and blood 
of Christ is called communion. Bon. My lords, I am sorry I have troubled you so 
long with this obstinate man, with whom we can do no good; I will trouble you 
no longer now. Thus endeth the sixth examination. The seventh took place on the 
chan- cellor of Lichfield, Dr. Chedsey, and master Dee, bachelor of divinity. 
Bon. Sirrah, come hither. How chance you came no sooner? Is it well done of you 
to make master chancellor and me to tarry for you this hour? By the faith of my 
body, half an hour before mass, and half an hour even at mass, looking for your 
coming! PAGE 896 Phil. My lord, it is well known to you that I am a prisoner, 
and that the doors be shut upon me, and I cannot come when I please; but as soon 
as the doors of my prison were open, I came immediately. Bon. We sent for thee 
to the intent that thou shouldst have come to mass. How say you, would you have 
come to mass or no, if the doors had been sooner opened? Phil. My lord, that is 
another manner of question, which I need not answer, because I was confined till 
now. Bon. Lo, master chancellor, I told you we should have a forward fellow of 
him; he will answer directly to nothing. I have had him before the spiritual lords 
and the temporal, thus he fareth still; yet he recoko- neth himself better learned 
than all the realm. Yea, before the temporal lords the other day, he was so foolish 
as to challenge the best: he would make himself learned, and is a very ignorant 
fool indeed. Phil. I reckon I answered your lordship before the lords plain enough; 
so that the lord chamberlain himself acknowledged that he was well answered. Bon. 
Why answerest thou not directly, whether thou wouldst have gone to mass or not 
if thou hadst come in time? Phil. Mine answer shall be thus, that if your lordship 
can prove your mass, whereunto you would have me to come, to be the true service 
of God, whereunto a christian ought to come, I will afterwards come with a good 
will. Bon. Look, I pray you; the king and queen, and all the nobility of the realm 
do come to mass, and yet he will not. By my faith, thou art too well handled; 
thou shalt be worse handled hereafter, I warrant thee. Phil. If to lie in a blind 
coal-house may be counted good handling, both without fire and candle, then may 
it be said I am well handled. Your lordship hath power to entreat my body as you 
list. Bon. Thou art a very ignorant fool. Master chancellor, in good faith I have 
handled him and his fellows with as much gentleness as they can desire. I did 
let their friends come unto them to relieve them. And wot you what? the other 
day they had gotten themselves up into the top of the leads, with a number of 
apprentices, gazing abroad as though they had been at liberty. But I will cut 
off your resort: and as for the apprentices, they were as good not to come to 
you, if I take them. Phil. My Lord, we have no such resort to us, as your lordship 
imagineth, and there come very few unto us. And of apprentices I know not one, 
neither have we any leads to walk on over our coal-house, that I know of: wherefore 
your lordship hath mistaken your mark. Bon. Nay, now you think because my lord 
chancellor is gone, that we will burn no more; yes, I warrant thee, I will dispatch 
you shortly, unless you recant. After much further discussion, my lord chancellor 
said to Dr. Chedsey, "Well, master doctor, you wee we can do no good in persuading 
of him. Let us minister the articles which my lord hath left us unto him. How 
say you, master Philpot, to these articles? Master Johnson, write his answers. 
Phil. Master chancellor, you have no authority to inquire of me my belief in such 
articles as you go about, for I am not of my lord of PAGE 897 London's diocese; 
and, to be brief with you, I will make no further answer herin than I have already 
to the bishop. "Why then," said my lord chancellor, "let us go our ways, and let 
his keeper take him away." Thus endeth the seventh part of this tragedy. The next 
day in the morning betimes, the bishop sent for master Philpot; and the day after, 
an hour before day, he sent for him again by the keeper. Philpot. I wonder what 
my lord meaneth, that he sendeth for me thus early. I fear he will use some violence 
towards me, wherefore I pray you make this answer, that if he did send for me 
by an order of law, I will come and answer; otherwise, since I am not of his diocese, 
neither is he mine ordinary, I will not come, unless I be voilently constrained. 
The keeper went away to the bishop, and returned with tow others, saying I must 
come, whether I would or no; and therewith one of them took me with force by the 
arm, and I was led up into the bishop's gallery. Bonner. What! thou wilt not come 
without thou be fetched and forced. Phil. I am brought indeed, my lord, by violence 
unto you, and your cruelty is such, that I am afraid to come before you; I would 
your lordship would gently proceed against me by the law. Bon. I am blamed by 
the lords the bishops, that I have not dispatched thee ere this; and am commanded 
to take a further order with thee; and in good faith if thou wilt not relent, 
I will make no further delay. Marry, if thou wilt yet be conformable, I will forgive 
thee all that is past, and thou shalt have no hurt for any thing that is already 
spoken or done. Phil. My lord, I have answered you already in this behalf, what 
I will do. Bon. Hadst thou not a pig brought thee the other day with a knife in 
it? Wherefore was it but to kill thyself? or, as it is told me, to kill me? But 
I fear thee not; I think I am able to tread thee under my feet do the best thou 
canst. Phil. My lord, I cannot deny but that there was a knife in the pig that 
was brought me. But who put it in, or for what purpose, I know not, unless it 
were because he that sent the meat, thought I was without a knife. But other things 
your lordship needeth not to fear; for I was never without a knife, since I came 
to prison. And touching your own person, you shall life long if you should life 
till I go about to kill you; and I confess, by violence your lordship is able 
to overcome me. Bon. I charge thee to answer to mine articles. Hold him a book. 
Thou shalt swear to answer truly to all such articles as I shall demand. Phil. 
I refuse to swear in these causes before your lordship, because you are not mine 
ordinary. Bon. I am thine ordinary, and here do pronounce by sentence peremptory, 
that I am thine ordinary, and that thou art of my diocese. And I make thee [taking 
one of his servants by the arm] to be my notary. And now hearken to my articles. 
PAGE 898 When he had read them, he monished me to make answer; and said to the 
keeper, "Fetch me his fellows, and I shall make them to be witnesses against him." 
In the meanwhile came in one of the sheriffs of London, whom the bishop placed 
by him, saying, "Master sheriff, I would you should understand how I do proceed 
against this man. You shall hear what articles this man doth maintain;" and so 
he read a rabblement of feigned articles: that I should deny baptism to be necessary 
to them that were born of Christian parents; that I denied fasting and prayer, 
and all other good deeds; and I maintained only bare faith to be suffi- cient 
to salvation, whatsoever a man did besides; and I maintained God to be the author 
of all sin and wickedness. Phil. Hah, my lord! have you nothing of truth to charge 
me withal, but you must be fain to imagine these blasphemous lies against me! 
You might as well have said I had killed your father. The Scriptures say, "God 
will destroy all men that speak lies." And is not your lordship ashamed to say, 
before this gentleman, (who is unknown to me,) that I maintain what you have rehearsed? 
which if I did I were well worthy to be counted a heretic, and to be burnt to 
ashes. Before I answer you I will first know you to be my ordinary, and that you 
may lawfully charge me with such things. Bon. Well, then, I will make thy fellows 
to be witnesses herein against thee: where are they? Come hither, sirs: you shall 
swear by the contents of that book, that you shall say the truth of all such articles 
as shall be demanded of you concerning this man here present, and take you heed 
of him that he doth not deceive you, as I am afraid he doth and strengtheneth 
you in your errors. Prisoners. My lord, we will not swear, except we know whereto; 
we can accuse him of no evil, we have been but a while acquainted with him. Phil. 
I wonder your lordship, knowing the law, will go about, contrary to the same, 
for your lordship doth take them to be heretics, and by the law a heretic cannot 
be a witness. Bon. Yes, one heretic against another may be well enough. And, master 
sheriff, I will make one of them to be witness against another. Prisoners. No, 
my lord. Bon. No, you will not? I will make you swear, whether you will or no. 
I ween they be Anabaptists, master sheriff: they think it not lawful to swear 
before a judge. Phil. We think it lawful to swear for a man judicially called, 
as we are not now, but in a blind corner. Bon. Why, then, seeing you will not 
swear against your fellow, you shall swear for yourselves; and I do here in the 
presence of the sheriff object the same articles unto you, as I have done unto 
him, and require you, under pain of excommunication, to answer particularly unto 
every one of them when you shall be examined, as you shall be soon, by my register 
and some of my chaplains. Prisoners. My lord, we will not accuse ourselves. If 
any man can lay any thing against us, we are here ready to answer thereto: otherwise 
we pray your lordship not to burthen us; for some of us are here before you, we 
know no just cause why. Here Bonner turning to master sheriff, said, "I will trouble 
you no longer with these forward men." And so he rose up, and was going away, 
talking with the sheriff; when Philpot said, "Master sheriff, I pray you record 
how my lord roceedeth against us in corners without all order of law, having no 
just cause to lay against us." PAGE 899 And after this we were all commanded to 
the stocks, in which we were confined the whole of the day, and only released 
at night by special and secret favour from the keeper. The Sunday after, the bishop 
came into the coal-house at night, with the keeper, and viewed the house, saying 
that he was never there before: whereby a man may guess how he kept God's commandment 
in visiting the prisoners. Between eight and nine he sent for me. Bon. Sir, I 
have great displeasure of the queen and council for keeping you so long, and letting 
you have so much liberty; and besides that, you strengthen the other prisoners 
in their errors, as I have laid wait for your doings, and am certified of you 
well enough: I will sequester you therefore from them, and you shall hurt them 
no more as you have done, and I will out of hand dispatch you as I am commanded 
unless you will be a conformable man. Phil. My lord, you have my body in your 
custody, you may transport it whither you please, I am content. And I wish you 
would make as quick expedition in my judgment, as you say; I long for it: and 
as for conformity, I am ready to yield to all truth, if any can bring better than 
I. Bon. Why, will you believe no man but yourself, whatsoever they say? Phil. 
My belief must not hang upon men's saying, without sure authority of God's word, 
which if they can shew me, I will be pliant to the same; otherwise I cannot go 
from my certain faith to that which is uncertain. Bon. Have you then the truth 
only? Are you the man of wisdom, and must it die with you? Phil. My lord, I will 
speak my mind freely unto you, and upon no malice that I bear to you, before God. 
You have not the truth, neither are you of the church of God; but you persecute 
both the truth and the true church of God, for which cause you cannot prosper 
long. You see God doth not prosper your doings according to your expectations: 
he hath of late shewed his just judgment against one of your greatest doers, who 
by report died miserably. I envy not the authority you are in. You that have learning, 
should know best how to rule. And seeing God hath restored you to your dignity 
and living again, use the same to God's glory, and to the setting forth of his 
true religion; otherwise it will not continue, do what you can. Bon. That good 
man was punished for such as thou art. Where is the keeper? Come, let him have 
him to the place that is provided for him. Go your way before: keep all men from 
him, and narrowly search him: also let two of your men watch him. PAGE 900 "I 
afterwards passed through St. Paul's up to Lollards' Tower, and after that turned 
along the west-side of St. Paul's through the wall, and passing through six or 
seven doors, came to my lodging through many straits; where I called to remembrance 
that strait is the way to heaven. And I was confined in a tower, right on the 
other side of Lollards' Tower, as high almost as the battlements of St. Paul's, 
eight feet in breadth, and thirteen in length, and almost over the prison where 
I was before, having a window opening towards the east, by which I could look 
over the tops of a great many houses, but saw no man passing into them. When I 
came to my place, the keeper took off my gown, searched me very narrowly, and 
took away a pen-case, ink-horn, girdle, and knife, but I had an inkling a little 
before I was called, of my removal, and thereu- pon made an errand to the stool, 
where I cast away many a friendly letter; but that which I had written of my last 
examination before, I thrust into my hose, thinking the next day to have made 
an end thereof, and with walking it was fallen down to my leg, which he by feeling 
soon found out, and asked what that was. I said, they were certain letters; and 
with that he was very busy to have them out. "Then he went away, and as he was 
going, one of them that came with him, said, that I did not deliver the writing 
I had in my hose, but two other letters I had in my hand before. 'No did?' quoth 
he, 'I will go search him better:' the which I hearing, conveyed my examination 
I had written into another place near my bed, and took all the letters I had in 
my purse, and was tearing them when he cam again; and as he came I threw the same 
out of the window, saying that I heard what he said." The eighth examination took 
place before the bishops of London and St. David's, master Mordant, and others, 
in the bishop's chapel. The ninth and tenth examinations were before Bonner and 
his chaplains. The elev- enth was on St. Andrew's day, before the bishops of London, 
Durham, Chichester, and Bath, Dr. Chedsey, the prolocutor, and several others. 
The twelfth took place, on the 4th of December, before the bishops of London, 
Worcester, and Bangor. The thirteenth took place the day after, before the archbishop 
of York, and divers other bishops. To relate the whole of these would be tedious 
repetition of points already discussed. We therefore proceed to his fourteenth 
and final examination. The bishop having sufficiently taken his pleasure with 
master Philpot in his private talks, and seeing his zealous, learned, and immutable 
con- stancy, thought it now high time to rid his hands of him; and therefore on 
the 13th, 14th, and 16th of December, sitting judicially in the consistory at 
Paul's, he caused him to be brought thither before him and others, as it seemeth 
more for order's sake than for any good affection to justice and right judgment. 
The bishop first speaking to master Philpot, said: Bon. Master Philpot, amongst 
other things that were laid and objected unto you, these three things ye were 
especially charged and burdened withal. The first is, that you being fallen from 
the unity of Christ's catholic church, do refuse and will not come to be reconciled 
thereunto. The second is, that you have blasphemously spoken against the sacrifice 
of the mass, calling it idolatry. And that you have spoken against the sacrament 
of the altar, denying the real presence of Christ's body and blood to be in the 
same. According to the will and pleasure of the synod legative, ye have been oft 
by me invited and required to go from your said errors and heresies, and to return 
to the unity of the catholic church, which if ye will now willingly do, ye shall 
be mercifully and gladly received, charitably used, and have all the favor I can 
show you. And now, to tell you truth, it is assigned and appointed me to give 
sentence against you, if you stand herein, and will not return. Where- fore, if 
ye so refuse, I do ask of you whether you have any cause that you can shew why 
I now should not give sentence against you. PAGE 901 To this Mr. Philpot answered, 
"Under protestation, not to go from my appeal that I have made, and also not to 
consent to you as my competent judge, I say, respecting your first objection concerning 
the catholic church, I neither was nor am out of the same. And as to the sacrifice 
of the mass, and the sacrament of the altar, I never spoke against the same. And 
as concerning the pleasure of the synod, I say that these twenty years I have 
been brought up in the faith of the true catholic church, which is contrary to 
your church, whereunto you would have me come: and in that time I have been many 
times sworn both in the reign of king Henry VIII, and of Edward his son, against 
the usurped power of the bishop of Rome, which oath I am bound in my conscience 
to keep, because I must perform unto the Lord my vow. But if you, or any of the 
synod, can by God's word persuade me that my oath was unlawful, and that I am 
bound by his law to come to your church, I will gladly yield unto you, otherwise 
not." Bonner, not able with all his learned doctors to accomplish this offered 
condition, had recourse as usual to promises and threats; to which Mr. Philpot 
answered - "You and others of your sort are hypocrites, and I wish all the world 
knew your hypocrisy, your tyranny, ignorance, and idolatry." On this the bishop 
for that time dismissed him, commanding that on Monday the 16th of the same month, 
he should again be brought there to have the definitive sentence of condemnation 
pronounced against him, if he then remained resolved. The day being come, Mr. 
Philpot was accordingly presented before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester, 
and Litchfield, when the former thus began. "My lords, my predecessor, when he 
went to give sentence against a heretic, used to make this prayer - Deus qui errantibus, 
ut in viam possint redire, justitiae veritatisque tuae lumen ostendis, da cunctis 
qui christiana professione censentur, et illa respuere quae huic inimica sint 
nomini, et ea quae sint apta sectari per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. This 
example I will follow. And so he repeated it with a loud voice in Latin. Then 
Mr. Philpot said, "I wish you would speak in Eng- lish, that all men might understand 
you: for St. Paul willeth that all things spoken in the congregation to edify, 
should be spoken in a tongue that all men might understand." Whereupon the bishop 
did read it in English: and when he came to these words, "To refuse those things 
which are foes to his name," Philpot said, "Then they all must turn away from 
you; for you are enemies to that name, (meaning Christ's name;) and God save us 
from such hypocrites as would have things in a tongue that men cannot understand. 
I am sorry to see you sit in the place that you now sit in, pretending to execute 
justice, and to do nothing less but deceive all men in this realm." And turning 
to the people, he said, "Oh! all you gentlemen, beware of these men, (the bishops,) 
and all their doings, contrary to the primitive church. I would know of you, my 
lord, by what authority you proceed against me?" Bon. Because I am bishop of London. 
PAGE 902 Phil. Well, then you are not my bishop, nor have I offended in your diocese: 
and, moreover, I have appealed from you, and therefore by your own law you ought 
not to proceed against me, especially being brought hither from another place 
by violence. Is it not enough, my lord, for you to worry your own sheep, but you 
must also meddle with those of other men? Then the bishop delivered two books 
to Mr. Philpot, one of the civil, and the other of the canon law, out of which 
he would have proved that he had authority to proceed against him as he did. Mr. 
Philpot perusing them, and seeing the small and slender proof that was there alleged, 
said to the bishop - "I perceive that your law and divinity is all one; for you 
have knowledge in neither of them; and I wish you knew your own ignorance: but 
you dance in a net, and think that no man doth see you." Hereupon they had much 
talk: Bonner said, "Philpot, as concerning your objections against my jurisdiction, 
you shall understand that both the civil and canon laws make against you: and 
as for your appeal, it is not allowed in this case: for it is concluded in the 
law, that there is no appeal from a judge executing the sentence of the law." 
Mr. Philpot, undaunted by this speech, replied, "My lord, it appeareth by your 
inter- pretation of the law, that you have no knowledge therein, and that you 
do not understand the law; for if you did, you would not bring in that passage. 
You profess Christ, and maintain antichrist; you profess the gospel, and maintain 
superstition, and you are able to charge me with nothing. You are foes to all 
truth, and all your doings are full of idolatry, saving the article of the Trinity. 
Whilst they were thus debating, there came thither Sir William Garret, then mayor 
of London, Sir Martin Bowes, and Thomas Leigh, then sheriff of the city, and sat 
down with the bishops in the consistory. No sooner were they seated than Bonner 
again addressed Mr. Philpot with the pray- er, and again repeated the charge against 
him; after which he addressed him in a formal exhortation, which he had no sooner 
ended than Mr. Philpot turned himself to the lord-mayor, and said - "I am glad, 
my lord, now to stand before that authority, that hath defended the gospel and 
the truth of God's word: but I am sorry to see that that authority, which representeth 
the king and queen's persons, should now be changed, and be at the command of 
antichrist; and I am glad that God hath given me power to stand here this day, 
to declare and defend my faith, which is founded on Christ. "As touching your 
first objection, I say, that I am of the catholic church, whereof I never was 
out, and that your church is the church of Rome, and so the Babylonian, and not 
the catholic church; of that church I am not. As touching your second objection, 
that I should speak against the sacrifice of the mass, I do say, that I have not 
spoken against the true sacrifice, but I have spoken against your private masses 
that you use in corners, which is blasphemy to the true sacrifice; for your daily 
sacrifice is reiterated blasphemy against Christ's death, and it is a lie of your 
own invention; and that abominable sacrifice which you set upon the altar, and 
use in your private masses, instead of the living sacrifice, is idolatry. And 
wherein you lay to my charge, that I deny the body and blood of Christ to be in 
the sacrament of the altar, I cannot tell what altar you mean, whether it be the 
altar of the cross, or the altar of stone: and if you call it the sacrament of 
the altar in respect of the altar of stone, then I deny your Christ, for it is 
a false one. PAGE 903 "And as touching your transubstantiation, I utterly deny 
it, for it was first brought in by a pope. As concerning your offer made from 
the synod, which is gathered together in antichrist's name; prove to me that you 
be of the catholic church, and I will follow you, and do as you would have me. 
But you are idolators, and traitors; for in your pulpits ye rail against good 
kings, as king Henry and king Edward his son, who have stood against the usurped 
power of the pope of Rome; against whom I have also taken an oath, which, if you 
can shew me by God's law that I have taken unjustly, I will then yield unto you: 
but I pray God turn the king and queen's heart from your church." Here the bishop 
of Coventry began, saying: In our true catholic church are the apostles, evangelists, 
and martyrs; but before Martin Luther there was no apostle, evangelist, or martyr 
or your church. Phil. Will you know the cause why? Christ did prophesy that in 
the latter days there should come false prophets and hypocrites, as you be. Cov. 
Your church of Geneva is that which Christ prophesied of. Phil. I allow the church 
of Geneva, and the doctrine of the same; for it is una, catholica, et apostolica, 
and doth follow the apostles' doctrine. And after this they had great conference 
together; but when Bonner saw that by learning they were not able to convince 
master Philpot, he brought forth a knife and a bladder full of powder, and turning 
himself unto the mayor, said: "My lord, this man had a roasted pig brought to 
him, and this knife was put secretly between the skin and flesh thereof. And also 
this powder under pretence that it was good and comfortable for him to eat and 
drink; which powder was only to make ink to write withal. For when his keeper 
perceived it, he took it and brought it unto me: which when I saw I thought it 
had been gunpowder, and thereupon put fire to it, but it would not burn. Then 
I took it for poison, and so gave it to a dog, but it was not so. I then took 
a little water, and made as good ink as ever I did write withal. Therefore, my 
lord, you may under- stand what a naughty fellow this is." Phil. Ah, my lord, 
have you nothing else to charge me withal, but these trifles, seeing I stand upon 
life and death? Doth the knife in the pig prove the church of Rome to be the catholic 
church? Doth the ink powder certify transubstantiation and purgatory? Then the 
bishop brought forth a certain instrument, containing articles and questions, 
agreed upon both in Oxford and Cambridge. Also he exhib- ited two books in print: 
the one was a catechism composed in king Edward's days, in the year 1552, the 
other concerning the report of the disputation in the convocation-house, mention 
whereof is above expressed. Moreover he brought forth two letters, and laid them 
to Mr. Philpot's charge: the one was addressed to him by a friend, complaining 
of the bishop's ill usage of a young man named Bartlet Green; the other was a 
consolatory letter from Lady Vane. Besides these, was produced a memorial drawn 
up by Mr. Philpot to the queen and parliament, stating the irregularity of his 
being brought to bishop Bonner, he not being of his diocese; also complaining 
of the severity of his treatment. These various documents having been read, the 
bishop demanded of him, if the book intitled - "The true report of the disputation," 
were of his pen- ning or not? To this Mr. Philpot answered in the affirmative. 
PAGE 904 The bishops growing weary, and not being able by any sufficient ground, 
either of God's word, or of the true ancient catholic fathers, to con- vince and 
overcome him, began with flattering speech to persuade him; promising, that if 
he would revoke his opinions, and return to their Romish and Babylonian church, 
he would not only be pardoned that which was past, but also they would, with all 
favour and cheerfulness of heart, receive him again as a true member thereof. 
But when Bonner found that it would take no effect, he demanded of Mr. Philpot, 
whether he had any just cause to allege why he should not condemn him as a heretic? 
In answer, he again disowned and denounced the papal church; and in the end the 
bishop, seeing his steadfastness in the truth, openly pronounced the sentence 
of condemnation against him. In the reading whereof, when he came to these words 
- "And you in obstinate, pernicious, and impenitent heretic," Mr. Philpot said 
- "I thank God that I am a heretic out of your cursed church; I am no heretic 
before God. But God bless you, and give you grace to repent your wicked doings; 
and let all men beware of your bloody church." Moreover, while Bonner was about 
the midst of the sentence, the bishop of Bath pulled him by the sleeve, and said, 
"My lord, my lord, know of him first whether he will recant or not." Then Bonner 
said, "O let him alone," and so read forth the sentence. And when he had ended, 
he deliv- ered him to the sheriffs; and so two officers brought him through the 
bishop's house into Paternoster-row, and there his servant met him, and when he 
saw him, he said, "Ah! dear master." Then Philpot said to his man, "Content thyself, 
I shall do well enough; for thou shalt see me again." The officers then thrust 
the servant away, and took the master to Newgate, where they delivered him to 
the keeper. Then his man strove to go in after him, and one of the officers said 
unto him, Hence, fellow, what wouldst thou have? And he said - "I would speak 
with my master." Mr. Philpot then turned about, and said to him - "Tomorrow thou 
shalt speak with me." When the under keeper understood it to be his servant, he 
gave him leave to go in with him. And Mr. Philpot and his man were turned into 
a little chamber on the right hand, and there remained a short time, when Alexan- 
der, the chief keeper, came unto him; who said - "Ah, hast thou not done well 
to bring thyself hither?" The martyr replied - "I must be content, for it is God's 
appointment; and I shall desire you to let me have your gentle favour, for you 
and I have been of old acquaintance." The keeper now attempted to change his views. 
"If you will recant," said he, "I will shew you any pleasure I can." Mr. Philpot 
answered - "I will never recant that which I have spoken, whilst I have my life, 
for it is most certain truth, and in witness hereof I will seal it with my blood." 
Then Alexander said, - "This is the saying of the whole pack of you heretics." 
Whereupon he commanded him to be set upon the block, and as many irons to be put 
upon his legs as he could bear! Well might it be said to the keeper - "Is this 
thy kindness to a friend?" PAGE 905 Then the clerk told Alexander in his ear, 
that Mr. Philpot had given his man money. Alexander asked what money had his master 
given him? he answered, none: upon which Alexander determined to search him and 
seize it. "Do with me as you like, and search me all you can," quoth his servant: 
"he hath given me a token or two to send to his friends, to his brothers and sisters. 
Then said Alexander unto Mr. Philpot, "Thou art a maintain- er of heretics, thy 
man should have gone to some of thine affinity, but he shall be known well enough." 
"Nay," said Mr. Philpot, "I do send it to my friends; there he is, let him make 
answer to it. But, good Mr. Alexander, be so much my friend, that these irons 
may be taken off." Alexander said, "Give me my fees, and I will take them off; 
if not, thou shalt wear them still." Then said Philpot, "Sir, what is your fee?" 
He said four pound was his fees. "Ah," said Philpot, "I have not so much; I am 
but a poor man, and have been long a prisoner." "What wilt thou give me then?" 
asked Alexander. "Sir," said he, "I will give you twenty shillings, and that I 
will send my man for; or else I will lay down my gown to gage. For the time is 
not long, I am sure, that I shall be with you: for the bishop said I should be 
soon dispatched." Then said the gaoler, "What is that to me?" And with that he 
departed from him, and commanded him to be had into limbo. Then one Witterence, 
steward of the house, took him on his back, and carried him down, his man knew 
not whither. Wherefore Mr. Philpot told his servant, to go to the sheriff, and 
shew him how he was used, and desire him to be good to him. So his servant went, 
and took another person with him. When they came to the sheriff, and shewed him 
how Mr. Philpot was treated in Newgate, he took his ring from off his finger, 
and delivered it to the person that came with Mr. Philpot's man, and bade him 
go unto Alexander, the keeper, and commanded him to take off his irons, and to 
handle him more gently, and to give his man again that which he had taken from 
him. They went to Alexander, and delivered their message from the sheriff. He 
took the ring and said - "Ah, I perceive that Mr. Sheriff is a bearer with him, 
and all such heretics as he is, therefore to-morrow I will shew it to his betters." 
He went however in to Mr. Philpot where he lay, and took off his irons, and gave 
him such things as he had before taken from his servant. On Tuesday, the 17th 
of December, while he was at supper, there came a messenger from the sheriffs, 
and bade Mr. Philpot make ready, for the next day he should suffer, and be burned 
at the stake. Mr. Philpot answered - "I am ready; God grant me strength, and a 
joyful resurrec- tion." And so he went into his chamber, and poured out his spirit 
unto the Lord God, giving him most hearty thanks, that he had made him worthy 
to suffer for his truth. In the morning the sheriffs came according to order, 
about eight o'clock, and calling for him, he most joyfully came down to them. 
And there his man met him, and said, "Dear master fare- well." His master answered, 
"Serve God, and he will help thee." And so he went with the sheriffs to the place 
of execution; and when he was entering into Smithfield, the way was foul, and 
two officers took him up to bear him to the stake. Then he said merrily, "What, 
will you make me a pope? I am content to go to my journey's end on foot." But 
on enter- ing into Smithfield, he kneeled down, and said, "I will pay my vows 
in thee, O Smithfield." PAGE 906 On arriving at the place of suffering, he kissed 
the stake, and said, "Shall I disdain to suffer at this stake, seeing my Redeemer 
did not refuse to suffer the most vile death upon the cross for me?" And then 
with as obedient heart he repeated the cvi. cvii. and cviii. Psalms: and when 
he had made an end of his prayers, he said to the officers, "What have you done 
for me?" And every one of them declared what they had done; and he gave to every 
one of them money. Then they bound him to the stake, and set fire unto that constant 
martyr, who on the 18th day of December, in the midst of the fiery flames, yielded 
his soul into the hands of Almighty God, and full like a lamb gave up his breath. 
Thus hast thou, gentle reader, the life and doings of this learned and worthy 
soldier of the Lord, John Philpot; with the greater part of his examinations, 
first penned and written with his own hand, being mar- velously preserved from 
the sight and hand of his enemies; who, by all manner of means, sought not only 
to stop him from all writing, but also to spoil and deprive him of that which 
he had written. For the which cause he was many times stripped and searched in 
the prison by his keeper: but yet so happily these his writings were conveyed 
and hid in places about him, or else his keeper's eyes so blinded, that, notwith- 
standing all this malicious purpose of the bishops, they are yet remain- ing and 
come to light. There are also numerous letters extant of this excellent man's; 
but the limits of our work will not admit their insertion. The chief are ad- dressed 
to the lady Vane, to his own sister, to his fellow-prisoner, to John Careless, 
to master Robert Harrington, and to certain godly breth- ren whose names do not 
appear. One addressed to a dear friend, prisoner with him at the same time in 
Newgate, and who afterwards died in the faith as this letter did persuade him, 
concludes with the following exhortation:- "I beseech thee, dear brother in the 
gospel, follow the steps of the glorious in the primitive church, and of such 
as at this day follow the same; decline from them neither to the right hand nor 
to the left. Then shall death, be it ever so bitter, be more sweet than this life: 
then shall Christ, with all the heavenly Jerusalem, triumphantly embrace your 
spirit with unspeakable gladness and exultation, who in this earth was content 
to join your spirit with their spirits, according as it is commanded by the word, 
that the spirit of the prophets should be subject to the prophets. One thing ask 
with David ere you depart, and require the same, that you may dwell with a full 
accord in his house, for there are glory and worship: and so with Simeon in the 
temple embracing Christ, depart in peace: to which peace Christ bring both you 
and me, and all our loving brethren that love God in the unity of faith, by such 
ways as shall please him, to his glory. Let the bitter passion of Christ, which 
he suffered for your sake, and the horrible torments which the godly martyrs of 
Christ have endured before us, and also the ines- timable reward of your life 
to come, which is hidden yet a little while from you with Christ, strengthen, 
comfort, and encourage you to the end of that glorious race which you are in, 
Amen. "Your yoke-fellow in captivity for the verity of Christ's gospel, to let 
us live and die with you in the unity of faith - JOHN PHILPOT." PAGE 907 SECTION 
BURNED AT CANTERBURY. THE catholic prelates of the pope's band, being as yet not 
satisfied with this their one year's murdering of the members of Christ's church, 
continued still this next year also in no less cruelty. Wherefore, as the first-fruits 
thereof, about the 27th of January, 1556, were burned in Smithfield these seven 
persons hereafter following, to wit: Thomas Whittle, priest; Bartlet Green, gentleman; 
John Tudson, artificer; John Went, artificer; Thomas Browne; Isabel Foster; and 
Joan Warne, alias Lashford. The articles exhibited against them, and their answers, 
are here briefly set forth:- (1.) That they believed that there is in earth a 
catholic church, in the which the faith and religion of Christ is truly professed. 
(2.) That there were seven sacraments, instituted and ordained by God, and by 
the consent of the holy church allowed and received. (3.) That they were in times 
past baptized in the faith of the said catholic church. (4.) That coming to the 
age of fourteen years, and so to the age of discretion, they did not depart from 
the said profession and faith. (5.) That, notwithstanding the premises, they had 
of late spoken against the mass, the sacrament of the altar, and the unity of 
the church, maligning the authority of the see of Rome. (6.) That they had refused, 
and did still refuse, to be reconciled to the said see of Rome. (7.) That they 
had refused to come to their parish church to hear mass, and to receive the said 
sacrament: but had openly said that in the sacrament of the altar there is not 
the very body and blood of our Saviour Christ; that the mass was idolatry and 
abomination; and that in the sacrament there was none other substance but only 
material bread and wine, which were tokens of Christ's body and blood. (8.) That 
being convented before certain judges, and being found obstinate, wilful, and 
heady, they were sent to be examined by the said Bonner. (9.) That all and singular 
the premises have been and be true and manifest, and that they were of the jurisdic- 
tion of Edmund bishop of London. To the first article they all agreed. To the 
second they said, they acknowledged but two sacraments - baptism and the supper 
of the Lord. The third they confessed to be true, that they were baptized in the 
faith of Christ. To the fourth they agreed: John Went, John Tudson, and Isabel 
Foster adding, that when they came to years of mature discretion they began to 
mislike the ministration of the sacrament of the altar, and the ceremonies of 
the church. Concerning the fifth, they answered the same to be true, according 
to the contents thereof: Thomas Whittle, Joan Lashford, and Bartlet Green adding, 
that they had not swerved from the catholic faith, but only from the church of 
Rome. The sixth they confessed to be true. To the seventh, they confessed the 
contents there- of to be true, giving the reason and cause of their so doing. 
Concerning the eighth, they granted the same to be so. And to the ninth, that 
as they believed the premises before by them confessed to be true, so they denied 
not the same to be manifest. - Having briefly expressed their articles and answers, 
it remaineth more fully to discourse the stories of the seven foresaid martyrs 
as follow. PAGE 908 Mention has been made, in Mr. Philpot's story, of a married 
priest, whom he found in bishop Bonner's coal house at his first going thither, 
in heaviness of mind and great sorrow, for recanting the doctrine which he had 
taught in king Edward's days. This was Thomas Whittle a curate of Essex. After 
he had been expelled from the place in Essex where he served, he went abroad, 
where he might, now here and there, as occasion offered, preach the gospel of 
Christ. At length being apprehended by one Edmund Alablaster, in hope of reward 
and promotion, which he miserably gaped after, he was brought first as prisoner 
before the bishop of Winchester, who was lately fallen sick of his disease, whereof 
not long after he died. But the apprehender for this proffered service was highly 
checked by the bishop, who asked if there were no man unto whom he might bring 
such rascals, but to him? The greedy cormorant being thus defeated of his desired 
prey, yet thinking to seek and to hunt further, carried his prisoner to the bishop 
of London, with whom what ill-usage this Whittle had, and how he was by the bishop 
beaten and buffetted about the face, by this his own narration, in a letter sent 
to his friend, mani- festly may appear. "Upon Thursday, the tenth of January, 
the bishop of London sent for me out of the porter's lodge, where I had been all 
night, lying on the earth, on a little low bed, where I had as painful a night 
of sickness as ever I endured. When I came before him, he talked with me upon 
many things of the sacrament so grossly, as is not worthy to be rehearsed. Amongst 
other things, he asked me, if I would have come to mass that morning if he had 
sent for me. I answered, that I would have come to him at his commandment, but 
to his mass I had small affection. At which answer he was sore displeased, and 
said, I should be fed with bread and water. And as I followed him through the 
great hall, he turned back, and beat me with his fist, first on the one cheek, 
and then on the other, and the sign of my beating did many days appear. And then 
he led me to a little salt-house, where I had neither straw nor bed, but lay two 
nights on a table, and slept soundly. "On the Friday after, I was brought to my 
lord, when he gave me many fair words, and said he would be good to me. And so 
he going to Fulham committed me to Dr. Harpsfield, that he and I that afternoon 
should commune together, and draw out certain articles, whereunto, if I would 
subscribe, I should be dismissed. But Dr. Harpsfield sent not for me till night, 
and then persuaded me very much to forsake my opinions. I answered, I held nothing 
but the truth, and therefore I could not so lightly turn therefrom. So I thought 
I should at that time have had no more ado: but he had made a certain bill, which 
the register pulled out of his bosom and read. The bill indeed was very easily 
made, and there- fore more dangerous; for the effect thereof was to detest all 
errors and heresies against the sacrament of the altar, and other sacraments, 
and to believe the faith of the catholic church, and live accordingly. PAGE 909 
"To this bill I did set my hand, being much desired and counselled so to do; and 
the flesh being always desirous to have liberty, I considered not thoroughly the 
inconvenience that might come therefrom: speedy respite I desired to have and 
very earnestly they desired me to sub- scribe. But when I had done so, I had little 
joy thereof; for by and by my mind and conscience told me by God's word that I 
had done evil, by such a slight means to shake off the sweet cross of Christ; 
and yet it was not my seeking, as God knoweth, but altogether came of them. Well, 
the night after I had subscribed I was sore grieved, and for sorrow of conscience 
could not sleep. For in the deliverance of my body out of bonds, which I might 
have had, I could find no joy nor comfort, but still was in my conscience tormented 
more and more, being assured, by God's Spirit and his word, that through evil 
counsel and advice, I had done amiss. And both with disquietude of mind, and with 
my other cruel handling, I was sick; lying upon the ground when the keeper came: 
and I desired him to pray Dr. Harpsfield to come to me, and he did so. "And when 
he came, and the register with him, I told him that I was not well at ease, but 
that I was grieved very much in my conscience and mind because I had subscribed. 
I said that my conscience had so accused me, through the just judgment of God 
and his word, that I felt hell in my conscience, and Satan ready to devour me; 
and therefore I prayed Mr. Harpsfield to let me have the bill again, for I would 
not stand to it. So he gently commanded it to be fetched, and gave it me and suffered 
me to put out my name, whereof I was right glad when I had so done, although death 
should follow. And hereby I had experience of God's providence and mercy towards 
me, who trieth his people, and suffereth them to fall, but not to be lost: for 
in the midst of this temptation and trouble, he gave me warning of my deed, and 
also delivered me; his name be praised for evermore, Amen. Neither devil nor evil 
man, life nor death can pluck any of Christ's sheep out of his hand. Of which 
flock of Christ's sheep I trust undoubtedly I am one, by means of his death and 
blood-shedding, and shall at the last day stand at his right hand, and receive 
with others his blessed benediction. And now being condemned to die, my conscience 
and mind, I praise God were quiet in Christ, and I by his grace was very willing 
and content to give over this body to the death, for the testimony of his truth 
and pure religion, against Anti- christ and all his false religion and doctrine. 
"By me, Thomas Whittle, minister." Upon the 14th day of January, Bonner, with 
other his fellow Bonnerlings, sitting in his consistory at the afternoon, first 
called forth Thomas Whittle, with whom he began in effect as followeth: "Because 
you be a priest, as I and other bishops here be, and did receive the order of 
priesthood after the right and form of the catholic church, ye shall not think 
but I will minister justice as well unto you as unto others." And then the said 
Bonner proceeded to rehearse the several charges against him, and afterward to 
unpriest him of all his priestly trinkets and clerkly habit. To make short, Whittle, 
strengthened with the grace of the Lord, stood strong and immovable in that he 
had affirmed. Wherefore the sentence being read, the next day following he was 
committed to the secular power; and so, in few days after, brought to the fire 
with the other six aforenamed, sealing up the testimony of his doctrine with his 
blood, as witness for the truth. PAGE 910 Next followeth in order to speak of 
Bartlet Green, who the next day after was likewise condemned. This Green was of 
a good house, and had such parents as favoured learning. After some entrance in 
inferior schools, he was sent to Oxford, where through his diligence he made great 
advances in his studies: but was, for a time, so far from feeling any interest 
in eternal things, that he was utterly averse to the sub- ject. At length, by 
attending the lectures of Peter Martyr, then reader of the divinity-lecture, his 
mind was struck with the importance of religion. Having once tasted of divine 
grace, it became unto him as the fountain of living water that our Saviour Christ 
spake of to the woman of Samaria. Insomuch that when he was called by his friends 
from the university, and was placed in the Temple at London, there to study the 
common laws of the realm, he still continued, with great earnestness, to read 
and search the scriptures. But such is the frailty of our corrupt nature without 
the special assis- tance of God's Holy Spirit, he sadly declined, through the 
continual accompanying of fellowship of such worldly youths as are commonly in 
that and the like places. He became by little and little a partner in their follies, 
as well in his apparel as also in banquetings, and other superfluous excesses; 
which he afterwards bewailed sorely, as appeareth by his own testimony left in 
a book belonging to Mr. Bartram Calthorp, one of his friends, written a little 
before his death. He there remarks, "Two things very much troubled me while I 
was in the Temple, pride and gluttony; which under the colour of glory and good-fellowship, 
drew me almost from God. Against both there is one remedy, by earnest prayer, 
and without ceasing. And forasmuch as vainglory is so subtle an adver- sary, that 
almost it woundeth deadly ere ever a man can perceive himself to be smitten, therefore 
we ought so much the rather by continual prayer to labour for humbleness of mind. 
Truly, gluttony beginneth under a charitable pretence of mutual love and society, 
and hath in it most uncharitableness. When we seek to refresh our bodies, that 
they may be more apt to serve God, and perform our duties toward our neighbours, 
then it stealeth in as a privy thief, and murdereth both body and soul, that now 
it is not apt to pray, or serve God, apt to study or labour for our neighbour. 
Let us therefore watch and be sober: for our adversary the devil walketh about 
like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour." Thus we see the fatherly kindness 
of our most gracious and merciful God, never suffereth his children so to fall, 
that they lie still in security of sin, but oftentimes quickeneth them up by such 
means as perhaps they think least of. For the better maintenance of himself in 
his studies and other affairs, Green had a large exhibition of his grandfather, 
Dr. Bartlet, who, during the time of his imprisonment, made him large offers of 
great livings, if he would recant and return to the church of Rome. But his persuasions 
took small effect in his faithful heart. He was a man beloved of all, and so he 
well deserved; for he was of a meek, humble, discreet, and gentle behaviour to 
all; injurious to none, bene- ficial to many, especially to those who were of 
the household of faith. The cause of Mr. Green's sufferings originated from a 
letter of his being intercepted. This letter was written to an exiled friend, 
who having PAGE 911 in a letter to the said Green, required to have the certainty 
of the report spread amongst them on the other side of the seas, that the queen 
was dead, he had answered simply, and as the truth then was, that she was not 
dead; with certain questions abroad in London. This letter, with others to divers 
of the godly exiles, by their friends in England, being delivered to a messenger 
to carry over, came, by the apprehension of the bearer, into the hands of the 
king and queen's council; who at their leisure perused the whole number of the 
letters, and amongst them espied that of Mr. Green, written to his friend, Christopher 
Goodman; in the contents whereof they found these words - "The queen is not dead." 
These words were only written as a simple answer. Howbeit they seemed very heinous 
words, yea treason they would have made them, if the law would have suffered. 
Which when they could not do, they then examined the writer upon his faith in 
religion, but upon what points it is certainly not known. It was clear, however, 
that his answers displeased them; for he was committed to prison, and after being 
confined for some time, was at length sent to bishop Bonner. Many other conferences 
and examinations they brought him to. But in the end, seeing his steadiness of 
faith to be such that neither their threa- tenings not their flattering promises 
could prevail against it, the bishop caused him, with the rest before mentioned, 
to be brought into the consistory of St. Paul's; where being set in his judgment 
seat, accompanied by Mr. Fecknam, then dean of the same church, and others his 
chaplains, after he had condemned the other six, he called for Bartlet Green, 
and again repeated the articles to him. After which Dr. Fecknam disputed with 
him upon the real presence of Christ in the sacrament, and other points. At length, 
impatient of longer delay, bishop Bonner de- manded if he would recant and return 
to his Romish mother; and on his answering in the negative, he pronounced the 
definitive sentence against him, and then committed him to the sheriffs of London, 
who sent him to Newgate. As he was going thither, there met him two gentlemen, 
particular friends, minding to comfort this their persecuted brother: but their 
hearts not being able to contain their sorrow, they wept. "Ah," said the martyr, 
"is this the comfort you are come to give me, in this my occa- sion of heaviness? 
Must I, who needed to have consolation ministered to me, become now a comforter 
to you?" And thus declaring his most quiet and peaceable mind and conscience, 
he cheerfully spake to them and others until he came to the prison door, into 
which he joyfully entered, and there remained always either in prayer, or else 
in some other godly meditations and exercises, unto the 27th day of January, when 
he, with his other above-mentioned brethren, went most cheerfully to the place 
of their torments, often repeating, as well by the way as also at the stake, these 
Latin verses following - Christe Deus, sine te spes est mihi nulla salutis:Te 
duce vera sequor, te duce falsa nego. PAGE 912 The third of this martyred company 
was Thomas Browne, a man of great firmness and courage. He was born in the parish 
of Histon, within the diocese of Elv, and came afterwards to London, where he 
dwelt in the parish of St. Bride's in Fleet-street. He was a married man aged 
thirty- seven, and his troubles first arose because he came not to his parish- 
church, for which neglect he was presented by the constable of the parish to bishop 
Bonner. Being brought to Fulham with the others to be examined, he was required 
to come into the chapel to hear mass, which he refusing to do, went into the warren, 
and there kneeled among the trees. For this he was greatly charged by the bishop 
as for a heinous matter, because he said it was done in despite and contempt of 
their mass. At length being produced to his last examination before the bishop, 
the 15th day of January, there to hear the definitive sentence against him, he 
was required, with many fair words and glossing promises, to revoke his doctrine. 
But he resisted with steadfast faith, and told the bishop he was a blood-thirsty 
man, saying: "You condemn me because I will not confess and believe the bread 
in the sacrament of the altar (as you call it) to be the body of Christ." After 
this Bonner read his sentence, and so committed him to the sheriffs to be burned 
the 27th of January. The same day and time was also produced John Tudson, with 
the rest of the company, unto the like condemnation. This John Tudson was born 
in Ipswich, and apprenticed to George Goodyear, of St. Mary Botolph, within the 
diocese of London. Being complained of to Sir Richard Cholmley and Dr. Storey, 
he was by them sent to Bonner, and was divers times before him in examination. 
On his last examination, when the bishop promised, on condition of his recanting, 
to forgive him all his offences, he demanded wherein he had offended. Then said 
the bishop, "In your an- swers." Tudson denied this and said, I have not therein 
offended; and you, my lord, pretend charity, but nothing thereof appeareth in 
your works. Thus after a few words, the bishop pronounced against him sen- tence 
of condemnation; which being read, the martyr was committed to the secular power, 
and so with much patience finished his life with his fellow-sufferers. John Went 
is the fifth individual of this class to whose life as well as death some reference 
should be made. He was born at Langham, in Essex, within the diocese of London, 
was of the age of twenty-seven, and was a shearman by occupation. He was first 
examined, as is partly mentioned before, by Dr. Storey, upon the sacrament of 
the altar; and because the poor man did not accord with him thoroughly in the 
real presence of the body and blood of Christ, Storey went him up to Bonner, who 
likewise, after various examinations upon the articles in the consistory, attempt- 
ed the like manner of persuasions with him as he did with the others, to recant 
and return. To whom, in very few words, Went answered again, he would not; but 
that by the leave of God, he would stand firm and con- stant in what he had said. 
Whereupon being condemned by the bishop's sentence, he was committed unto the 
sheriffs and so brought to his martyrdom, which he with no less constancy suffered 
to the end, with the rest of that blessed society. PAGE 912 The last two of these 
six martyrs were of the weaker sex; but were both strong in faith, giving glory 
unto God. Isabel Foster was born in Greys- tock, in the diocese of Carlisle, and 
was married to John Foster, cut- ler, of the parish of St. Bride's, in Fleet-street, 
being of the age of fifty-five years. She likewise, for not coming to church, 
was sent to bishop Bonner, who put her in prison, and examined her sundry times, 
but she would never be removed from the constant confession of Christ's gospel. 
At length coming unto her final examination before the bishop, she was tried again 
whether she would yet go from her former answers? Whereunto she gave this resolute 
answer; that she would not go from them, by God's grace. The bishop promising 
both life and liberty if she would associate herself in the unity of the catholic 
church, she said again, that she trusted she was never out of the catholic church; 
and so persisting in the same, continued constant till the sentence was pro- nounced, 
when she was committed, by command of the bishop, to the secu- lar power, and 
brought a few days after to the stake. Mention has already been made of one Elizabeth 
Warne, who with her husband John Warne, in the beginning of queen Mary's reign, 
was appre- hended in Bow Church-yard, for being there at a communion; and both 
suffered for the same, first the man in the month of May, then the wife in July 
after; and now the daughter, in the month of January, followed her parents in 
the same martyrdom. This Joan Lashford was the daughter of one Robert Lashford, 
cutler, and of the foresaid Elizabeth, who afterward was married to the said John 
Warne, upholsterer. Ministering to her mother and father-in-law in prison, suspected 
and known to be of the same doctrine and religion, she was sent to Bonner by Dr. 
Storey, and so committed to the Compter in the Poultry, where she remained five 
weeks; and from thence was had to Newgate, where she continued the space of certain 
months. After that, remaining prisoner in Bonner's custody, and being examined, 
her confession was, that for above a twelvemonth before she came not to the popish 
mass service in the church, neither would, either to receive the sacrament of 
the altar or to be confessed, because her conscience would not allow her so to 
do; protesting against the real presence of Christ's body and blood; and denying 
that auricular confession or abso- lution, after the popish sort, was necessary; 
but said, that these sacraments, confessions and absolutions, and the mass, with 
all their other superfluous sacraments, ceremonies, and divine service, as then 
used in this realm of England, were most vile, and contrary to Christ's word and 
institution; so that they were neither at the beginning, nor shall be at the latter 
end. This resolute maid, feeble in constitution and tender in age, yet strong 
by grace in her confession and faith, stood so firm that neither the promises 
nor threats of the bishops could move her; and on being exhorted by the bishop 
to return to the catholic unity of the church, she boldly said, "If you will leave 
off your abomi- nation, I will return, and otherwise I will not. Do as it pleaseth 
you, and I pray God that you may do that which may please him." Thus she, constantly 
persevering in the truth, was condemned and committed to the sheriffs, by whom 
she with the rest was brought to the stake, and there washed her soul in the blood 
of the Lamb, dying most constantly for his word and truth. And thus much concerning 
the life, story, and condemna- tion of these seven martyrs above specified. PAGE 
914 Shortly after, in the same month, followed another like fellowship of godly 
martyrs at Canterbury. John Lomas of Tenterden, was detected to be of that religion 
the papist call heresy, and cited to appear at Canter- bury, where he was examined 
of the first article, whether he believed the catholic church or not? he answered, 
that he believed so much as was contained in God's book, and no more. Then being 
assigned to appear again under the pain of the law the following Wednesday, which 
was the 17th day of January, he was examined whether he would be confessed by 
a priest or not; he said, that he found it not written that he should be confessed 
to any priest in God's book, neither would he be confessed, unless he were accused 
by some man of sin. Again, being examined whether he believed the body of Christ 
to be in the sacrament of the altar really under the forms of bread and wine after 
the consecration, he answered, that he believed no reality of Christ's body to 
be in the sacrament; neither found he it written, that he is there under form, 
but he believed so much as was written. Being then demanded whether he believed 
that there was a catholic church or no, and whether he would be content to be 
a member of the same, he answered, that he believed so much as was written in 
God's book, and other answer than this he refused to give. Whereupon the sentence 
was given and read against him on the 18th of January, and he was committed to 
the secular power, and after- wards constantly suffered for the conscience of 
a true faith, with the four women here following. Agnes Snoth comes next in this 
record, and first of the female majority of this company. She was a widow, of 
the parish of Smarden, and was likewise cited and accused for her faith. She was 
divers times examined, and being compelled to answer to such articles and interrogatories 
as should be administered unto her, she first denied to be confessed to a priest. 
And as touching the sacrament of the altar, she protested that if she or any other 
did receive the sacrament so as Christ and his apostles after him did deliver 
it, then she and they did receive it to their comfort: but as it is now used in 
the church, she said that no man could otherwise receive it than to his damnation, 
as she thought. After- wards sentence being read, she was committed to the sheriffs, 
and suf- fered with the rest, as a witness of Christ and of his truth, the 31st 
day of January. Against Anne Albright, likewise appearing before the judge and 
his colleagues, it was also objected concerning the same matter of confes- sion: 
whereunto she answered in these words, "that she would not be confessed of a priest;" 
and added moreover, speaking unto the priest, "You priests," said she, "are the 
children of perdition, and can do no good by your confession." She was condemned 
with the other four, and with them also suffered quietly, and with great comfort, 
for Christ's religion. In like manner Joan Sole, of the parish of Horton, was 
condemned of the same Pharisees and priests, for not allowing confession auricular, 
and for denying the real presence and substance of Christ to be in the sacrament: 
who, after their pharisaical sentence being promulgated, was brought to the stake 
with the other four, and sustained the like martyrdom. The fifth and last of this 
heavenly company of martyrs was Joan Catmer, of Hythe, wife of George Catmer, 
burned before. Being asked what she said to confession, she denied to be confessed. 
And the judge speaking of the sacrament of the altar, she affirmed that as then 
used it was a very idol. In this her confession remaining and persisting, she 
was by the like sentence cruelly of them condemned; and so suffered with the aforesaid, 
ratifying and confessing the true knowledge and doctrine of Christ Jesus our Saviour. 
estate of Thomas Cranmer, late archbishop of Canterbury, it is first to be noted 
and considered that the same Thomas Cranmer, coming of an ancient parentage, from 
the conquest to be deduct- ed, was born in a village called Aslacton, in Nottinghamshire. 
Being from his infancy kept at school, and brought up not without much good civility, 
he came in process of time unto the university of Cambridge; and there prospering 
in right good knowledge amongst the better sort of students, was chosen fellow 
of Jesus college in Cambridge. It was at that time, when all good authors and 
fine writers being neglected, filthy barbarousness was embraced in all schools 
and universities. The names and numbers of liberal arts did only remain, the arts 
themselves were clean lost; and divinity was fallen into the state, that being 
laden with articles and distinctions, it served rather for the gain of a few than 
for the edification of many. At length the tongues and other good learning began, 
by little and little, to spring up again, and the books of Faber and Erasmus began 
to be much occupied and had in good estimation, with a number of good authors 
besides: in whom the said Cranmer took no small pleasure. At length, when Martin 
Luther was risen up, the more bright and happy days of God's knowledge did waken 
men's minds to truth; at which time, he being about thirty years old, gave his 
whole mind to discuss matters of religion. So Cranmer, being master of arts, and 
fellow of Jesus college, it chanced that he married a gentleman's daughter, by 
which he lost his fellowship, and became a reader in Buckingham college. In order 
that he might with the more diligence apply himself to his office of reading, 
he placed his wife at an inn, in Cambridge, the mistress of which was a relation 
of hers. On account of his frequent visits he was much noticed by some popish 
merchants: on this arose the slanderous noise and report against him, after he 
was preferred to the archbishopric of Canterbury. He continued reader in Buckingham 
college till his wife died in child birth. After this the masters and fellows 
of Jesus college, desirous of their old companion, for his eminent learning, chose 
him again fellow of the same college. Remaining at his study, he became in a few 
years reader of the divinity lecture, and in such estimation was he held by the 
whole university, that when doctor of divinity, he was commonly appointed to examine 
such as yearly proceed in commencement, either bachelors or doctors, and by whose 
approbation the whole university licensed them to proceed unto their degree, or 
by whose non-approbation the university retained them until they were better furnished 
with knowledge and qualified for advancement. PAGE 916 Dr. Cranmer, ever favouring 
the knowledge of the scripture, would not permit any to proceed in divinity, unless 
they were substantially versed in the history of the Bible: by which certain friars 
and other religious persons, who were principally brought up in the study of school-authors, 
without regard to the authority of the scriptures, were commonly reject- ed by 
him, so that he was greatly hated; yet it came to pass in the end, that many of 
them, thus compelled to study the scriptures, became after- wards very learned; 
insomuch, that when they became doctors of divinity, they could not too much extol 
Cranmer's goodness towards them, who for a time had put them back, to initiate 
them in better knowledge. His merit soon spreading abroad, he was much solicited 
by Dr. Capon, to be one of the fellows in the foundation of Cardinal Wolsey's 
college in Oxford, which he refused, not without danger of offending. While he 
continued in Cambridge, the important cause of Henry's divorce with the lady Kather- 
ine came into question; which being many ways, for the space of two or three years 
amongst the canonists, civilians, and other learned men, diversely disputed and 
debated, it came to pass that Dr. Cranmer, on account of the plague being in Cambridge, 
resorted to Waltham-Abbey, to the house of Mr. Cressey, whose wife was his relation, 
and whose two sons he brought with him from Cambridge, they being his pupils. 
During this summer, cardinals Campeius and Wolsey, being in commission from the 
pope, to hear and determine the great cause in controversy between the king and 
queen, delayed until the month of August in hearing the cause debated. When August 
was come, the cardinals little caring to proceed to give sentence, took occasion 
to finish their commission, and to determine no further therein, pretending that 
it was not permitted by the laws to keep courts of ecclesiastical matters in harvest 
time. This sudden interruption so much enraged the king, that taking it as a mock 
at the cardinals' hands, he commanded the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dispatch 
immediately to Rome cardinal Campeius: and in haste removed himself to Waltham 
for a night or two, while his household removed to Greenwich: by which means it 
happened that the harbingers, Dr. Stephen Gardiner, secretary, and Dr. Foxe, almoner, 
came to lodge in the house of Mr. Cressey, where Dr. Cranmer resided. When supper-time 
came, the three doctors met together; Gardiner and Foxe were very much surprised 
at Cranmer being there. He declared the cause, namely, because the plague was 
in Cambridge: and as they were old acquaintance, the secre- tary and the almoner 
very well entertained Dr. Cranmer, intending to learn his opinion concerning the 
great business they had in hand. And as this occasion served, while they were 
at supper, they conferred with Dr. Cranmer concerning the king's cause, requesting 
him to give his opinion of it. Cranmer answered, That he could say little to the 
matter, as he had not studied not looked for it. Notwithstanding, in his opinion 
they made more ado in prosecuting the ecclesiastical law than needed. It were 
better, he thought, that the question - Whether a man may marry his brother's 
wife, or no? were discussed by the divines, and by the author- ity of the word 
of God, whereby the conscience of the prince might be better satisfied and quieted, 
than thus from year to year, by unneces- sary delays, to prolong the time, leaving 
the very truth of the matter unsettled. There was but one truth in it, which the 
scripture will soon make manifest, being by learned men well handled, and that 
may be as well done in England in the universities here, as at Rome, or elsewhere 
in any foreign nation, the authority whereof will soon compel any judge to come 
to definitive sentence: and therefore as he took it, they might that way have 
made an end of the matter long since. When Dr. Cranmer had thus ended his tale, 
the other two liked well his device and wished they had proceeded so before, and 
thereupon conceived some matter of council to instruct the king with, who was 
then thinking to send to Rome again for a new commission. PAGE 917 Now the next 
day, when the king removed to Greenwich, recollecting in himself, how he had been 
used by the cardinals, in thus deferring his cause, his mind was very uneasy, 
and desirous to see an end of this long and tedious suit, he called unto him the 
two principal managers of his cause, Gardiner and Foxe, who related their conference 
with Dr. Cranmer, and told the king the plan he had suggested for a more speedy 
termina- tion of the affair. The king accordingly sent for Dr. Cranmer, approved 
and adopted his scheme, received him into favour, and advanced him, on the death 
of archbishop Warham, to the see of Canterbury, anno 1530. Although the said Cranmer 
was now exalted to so great dignity and ho- nour, still was he compassed about 
by mighty enemies, and by many crafty trains impugned; yet, through God's mighty 
providence working in the king's heart to favour him, he rubbed out all king Henry's 
time; and under the government and protection of his son king Edward (to whom 
Cranmer was godfather) his state was rather more advanced. Afterward, this king 
Edward falling sick, and perceiving that his death was at hand, and knowing that 
his sister Mary was wholly wedded unto popish religion, bequeathed the succession 
of the realm to the lady Jane Grey, by consent of all his council and lawyers. 
When all the nobles of the realm, states and judges, had subscribed to this testament, 
they sent for the archbishop, and required that he also would subscribe. Cranmer 
refused at the first; but after that he had spake with the king, and when they 
all agreed that by law of the realm it might be so, with much ado he subscribed. 
Well, not long after this king Edward died, A.D. 1553, being almost sixteen years 
of age, to the great sorrow but greater calamity of the whole realm. At the oppression 
of the good lord Cromwell, in king Henry's time, it was fully determined that 
Cranmer also should be committed to prison; but he privily obtaining speech of 
the king, there upon his knees de- clared his innocence in the matter of which 
he was accused; and the king delivered him his signet, saying, "Go thy ways! if 
thou deceive me, I will never trust thy bald pate again while I live." And thus 
he escaped that present danger. Here also may be noted the saying which is con- 
stantly affirmed of divers persons, that the said archbishop, with the lord Wriothesley, 
saved the life of queen Mary, the king being deter- mined to have off her head 
for certain causes of stubbornness; whereupon the king afterward said that Cranmer 
made intercession for her, which would his destruction, and would trouble them 
all. PAGE 918 After king Edward's decease immediately it was commanded that the 
lady Jane should be proclaimed queen; but Mary, hearing of the death of her brother, 
was established in the possession of the realm by the assis- tance of the commons 
as ye heard before. This queen Mary, coming to London, caused the duke of Northumberland 
and the duke of Suffolk to be executed, and likewise the lady Jane, together with 
her husband. The rest of the nobles, paying fines, were forgiven, the archbishop 
of Canterbury only excepted; for as yet the old grudge against Cranmer, for the 
divorcement of her mother, remained hid in the bottom of her heart; and besides 
she remembered the state of religion changed, the cause whereof was imputed to 
him. Not long after Cranmer was condemned of treason, and committed to the Tower; 
and when the queen could not honestly deny him his pardon, seeing all the rest 
were discharged, she released to him his action of treason, and accused him only 
of heresy. Thus stood the cause of Cranmer, till at length it was determined by 
the queen and the council that he should be removed from the Tower to Oxford, 
there to dispute with the doctors and divines, to whom word was sent privily to 
prepare themselves. After these said disputations were finished in Oxford, between 
the doctors of both universities, and the three worthy bishops, Cranmer, Ridley, 
and Latimer, ye heard then how sentence condemnatory was ministered against them 
by Dr. Weston and others of the university; whereby they were judged to be heretics, 
and so committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. But forasmuch as the sentence 
given against them was void in law, (for, at that time, the authority of the pope 
was not yet received into the land,) therefore was a new commission sent from 
Rome, and a new process framed for the conviction of these reverend and learned 
men aforesaid. At the coming down of the said commissioners, which was upon Thursday 
the 12th of September, 1555, there was erected a solemn scaffold in the east end 
of the church of St. Mary, over against the high altar, with cloth of state very 
richly and sumptuously adorned, for bishop Brooks was pope's legate, apparelled 
in pontificalibus, representing the pope's person. On the right hand beneath him 
sat Dr. Martin, and on the left hand Dr. Storey, the king and queen's commissioners, 
which were both doctors of the civil law; and underneath them other doctors, scribes, 
and pharisees also, with the pope's collector, and a rabblement of such other 
like. And thus these bishops being placed in their pontificalibus, the bishop 
of Canterbury was sent for to come before them. He came forth of the prison to 
the church of St. Mary, set round with bills and glaves for fear he should start 
away, being clothed in a fair black gown, with his hood on both shoulders, such 
as doctors of divinity in the university use to wear, and in his hand a white 
staff. After he was come into the church, and did see them sit in their pontificalibus, 
he did not put off his cap to any of them, but stood still till that he was called. 
And anon one of the proctors for the pope, or else his doctor, called, "Thomas 
archbishop of Canterbury! appear here, and make answer to that shall be laid to 
thy charge; that is to say, for blasphemy, incontinen- cy, and heresy; and make 
answer here to the bishop of Gloucester, repre- senting the pope's person!" PAGE 
919 Upon this, Cranmer being brought more near unto the scaffold, where the foresaid 
bishop sat, he first well viewed the place of judgment, and spying where the king 
and queen's majesties' proctors were, putting off his cap, he (first humbly bowing 
his knee to the ground) made reverence to the one, and after to the other. That 
done, beholding the bishop in the face, he put on his bonnet again; making no 
manner of token of obedience towards him at all: whereat the bishop, being offended, 
said that it might beseem him right well, weighing the authority he did represent, 
to do his duty unto him. Whereunto Dr. Cranmer answered, that he had once taken 
a solemn oath, never to consent to the admitting of the bishop of Rome's authority 
into this realm of England again; that he had done it advisedly, and meant by 
God's grace to keep it; and there- fore would commit nothing either by sign or 
token which might argue his consent to the receiving of the same; and so he desired 
the said bishop to judge of him. He did it, he said, not for any contempt to his 
person, which he could have been content to have honoured as well as any of the 
others, if his commission had come from as good an authority as theirs. When, 
after many means used, they perceived that the archbishop would not move his bonnet, 
the bishop of Gloucester proceeded with studied eloquence and painted art in his 
oration; and after he had finished, Dr. Martin took the matter in hand. After 
that Dr. Martin had ended his oration, the archbishop said, "My lord, I do not 
acknowledge this session of yours, nor yet you, my mis- lawful judge; neither 
would I have appeared this day before you, but that I was brought hither as a 
prisoner. And therefore I openly here renounce you as my judge, protesting that 
my meaning is not to make any answer, as in a lawful judgment, (for then would 
I be silent,) but only for that I am bound in conscience to answer every man of 
that hope which I have in Jesus Christ, by the counsel of St. Peter; and lest 
by my silence many of those who are weak, here present, might be offended. And 
so I desire that my answers may be accepted as extra judicialia." When he had 
ended his protestation he said, "Shall I then make answer?" To whom Dr. Martin 
answered, "As you think good; no man shall let you." And here the archbishop, 
kneeling down on both knees towards the west, said first the Lord's Prayer; then 
rising up, he reciteth the articles of the creed; which done he entereth on his 
profession of faith. Toward the close of the session, Dr. Martin demanded of Dr. 
Cranmer, who was supreme head of the church of England? "Marry," quoth my lord 
of Canterbury, "Christ is head of this member, as he is of the whole body of the 
universal church." "Why," quoth Dr. Martin, "you made king Henry the eighth supreme 
head of the church." "Yea," said the archbishop, "of all the people of England, 
as well ecclesiastical as temporal." "And not of the church?" said Martin. "No," 
said he; "for Christ only is the head of his church, and of the faith and religion 
of the same. The king is head and governor of his people, which are the visible 
church." "What," quoth Martin, "you never durst tell the king so." "Yes, that 
I durst," quoth he; "and in the publication of his style, wherein he was named 
supreme head of the church, there was never other thing meant." A number of other 
fond and foolish objections were made, with repetition whereof I thought not to 
trouble the reader. After that they had received his answers to all their objections, 
they cited him to appear at Rome within fourscore days, to make there his personal 
answers; which he said, if the king and queen would send him, he would be content 
to do. And so thence he was carried to prison again, where he continually remained, 
notwithstanding that he was commanded to appear at Rome. Furthermore, though the 
said archbishop was detained in strait prison, so that he could not appear, (as 
was notorious both in England and also in the Romish court,) yet in the end of 
the said four- score days was that worthy martyr decreed "contumax," that is, 
sturdily, frowardly, and wilfully absent, and in pain of the same his absence 
condemned and put to death. PAGE 920 And as touching the said executory letters 
of the pope sent to the king and queen, by virtue of that commission, the bishop 
of Ely, and Bonner bishop of London, were assigned by the king and queen to proceed 
in the execution thereof upon the 14th day of February. These two coming to Oxford 
upon St. Valentine's day, as the pope's delegates with a new commission from Rome, 
by the virtue thereof commanded the archbishop aforesaid to come before them, 
in the choir of Christ's church, before the high altar; where they sitting (according 
to their manner) in their pontificalibus, first began to read their commission, 
the which came from the pope, "plenitudine potestatis;" supplying all manner of 
defects in law or process committed in dealing with the archbishop, and giving 
them full authority to proceed to deprivation and degradation of him, and so upon 
excommunication to deliver him up to the secular power, "omni appellatione remota." 
When the commission was read they proceeded thereupon to his degradation; and 
when they would have taken his crosi- er-staff out of his hand, he held it fast, 
and refused to deliver the same; and withal, imitating the example of Martin Luther, 
pulled an appeal out of his left sleeve, which he there and then delivered unto 
them, saying, "I appeal to the next general council; and herein I have comprehended 
my cause and form of it, which I desire to be admitted;" and prayed divers of 
the standers by, by name to be witnesses, and especially master Curtop. This appeal 
being put up to Thirleby the bishop of Ely, he said, "My lord, our commission 
is to proceed against you, 'omni appellatione remota,' and therefore we cannot 
admit it. But," he added, "if it may be admitted, it shall," and so received it 
of him. Then began he to per- suade earnestly with the archbishop to consider 
his state, promising to become a suitor to the king and queen for him. Afterward, 
they proceeded with his degradations; and whilst they were thus doing Cranmer 
said, "All this needed not; I had myself done with this gear long ago." Last of 
all they stripped him out of his gown into his jacket, and put upon him a poor 
yeoman-beadle's gown, full bare and nearly worn, a townsman's cap on his head, 
and so delivered him to the secular power. While the archbishop was thus remaining 
in durance, (whom they had kept now in prison almost three years,) the doctors 
and divines of Oxford busied themselves all that ever they could, to have him 
recant, essaying by all crafty practices and allurements they might devise how 
to bring their purpose to pass, specially Henry Sydal and John de Villa Garcia. 
First, they set forth how acceptable it would be both to the king and queen, and 
especially how gainful to him, and for his soul's health. They added how the council 
and noble men bare him good will; and put him in hope that he should not only 
have his life, but also be restored to his ancient dignity, saying, it was but 
a small matter and so easy that they required him to do, only that he would subscribe 
to a few words with his own hands; which, if he did, there should be nothing in 
the whole realm that the queen would not easily grant him, whether he would have 
riches or dignity; or else if he had rather live a private life in quiet rest, 
in whatsoever place he listed, without all public ministry, PAGE 921 only that 
he would set his name in two words to a little leaf of paper. But if he refused 
there was no hope of health and pardon, for the queen was so purposed that she 
would have Cranmer a catholic, or else no Cranmer at all. Moreover, they exhorted 
him that he would look to his wealth, his estimation and quietness, saying that 
he was not so old but that many years yet remained in this his so lusty age; and 
if he would not do it in respect of the queen, yet he should do it for respect 
of his life, and not suffer that other men should be more careful for his health 
than he was himself. Finally, if the desire of life did nothing move him, yet 
he should remember that to die is grievous in all ages, and especially in these 
his years and flower of dignity it were more grievous; but to die in the fire 
and such torments is most grievous of all. With these and like provocations, these 
fair flatterers ceased not to solicit and urge to their side; whose force his 
manly constancy did a great while resist. But at last, when they made no end of 
calling and crying upon him, the archbishop being overcome, whether their importuni- 
ty, or by his own imbecility, or of what mind I cannot tell, at length gave his 
hand, though it was against his conscience. But so it pleaseth God, that so great 
virtues in this archbishop should not be had in too much admiration of us without 
some blemish, or else that the falsehood of the popish generation by this means 
might be made more evident, of else to minish the confidence of our own strength, 
that in him should appear an example of man's weak imbecility. This recantation 
was soon caused by the doctors and prelates to be imprinted, and set abroad in 
all men's hands. All this while Cranmer was in uncertain assurance of his life, 
although the same was faithfully promised to him by the doctors; but after that 
they had their purpose, the rest they committed to all adventure, as became men 
of that religion to do. The queen received his recantation very gladly, but of 
her pur- pose to put him to death she would nothing relent. And now was Cranmer's 
cause in a miserable taking, who neither inwardly had any quietness in his own 
conscience, nor yet outwardly any help in his adversaries. In the meantime, while 
these things were adoing in the prison among the doctors, the queen taking secret 
counsel how to dispatch Cranmer out of the way, appointed Dr. Cole, and secretly 
gave him in commandment, that against the 21st of March he should prepare a funeral 
sermon for Cran- mer's burning. Soon after, the lord Williams of Thame, and the 
lord Chandos, sir Thomas Bridges, and sir John Brown were sent for, with other 
worshipful men and justices, and commanded in the queen's name to be at Oxford 
at the same day, with their servants and retinue, lest Cranmer's death should 
raise there any tumult. Cole the doctor, having this lesson given him before, 
and charged by her commandment, returned to Oxford ready to play his part; who, 
two days before the execution, came into the prison to Cranmer, to try whether 
he abode in the catholic faith wherein before he had left him. To whom, when Cranmer 
had answered, that by God's grace he would daily be more confirmed in the catholic 
faith; Cole, departing for that time, the next day repaired to the archbishop 
again, giving no signification as yet of his death that was prepared. In the morning 
appointed for his execution, the said Cole, coming to him, asked him if he had 
any money; to whom when Cranmer answered that he had none, he delivered him fifteen 
crowns to give to the poor to whom he would; and so exhorting him so much as he 
could to constancy in faith, departed thence about his business. PAGE 922 By this 
partly, and other like arguments, Cranmer began more and more to surmise what 
they went about. Then there came to him the Spanish friar, John de Villa Garcia, 
witness of his recantation, bringing a paper with articles which Cranmer should 
openly profess in his recantation before the people. But the archbishop, thinking 
that the time was at hand in which he could no longer dissemble the profession 
of his faith with Christ's people, put secretly into his bosom his prayer with 
his exhor- tation, which he minded to recite to the people, before he should make 
the last profession of his faith, fearing lest, if they had heard the confession 
of his faith first, they would not afterward have suffered him to exhort the people. 
Soon after, about nine of the o'clock, the lord Williams, sir Thomas Bridges, 
sir John Brown, and the other justices, with certain other noblemen that were 
sent of the queen's council, came to Oxford with a great train of waiting men. 
Also of the multitude on every side (as is wont in such a matter) was made a great 
concourse, and greater expecta- tion. Cranmer at length cometh from the prison 
of Bocardo into St. Mary's church, (the chief church in the university,) with 
the mayor and aldermen, walking between two friars. There was a stage set over 
against the pulpit, where Cranmer had his standing, waiting until Cole made him 
ready to his sermon. He that was late archbishop, metropolitan, and primate of 
all England, and the king's privy councillor, being now in bare and ragged gown, 
and ill-favouredly clothed, with an old square cap, exposed to the contempt of 
all men, did admonish men not only of his own calamity, but also of their state 
and fortune. In this habit, when he had stood a good space upon the stage, turning 
to a pillar near adjoining thereunto, he lifted up his hands to heaven, and prayed 
unto God once or twice, till at the length Dr. Cole coming into the pulpit began 
his sermon. Proceeding a little from the beginning, he took occa- sion by and 
by to turn his tale to Cranmer, and with many hot words reproved him, that once 
he, being indued with the favour and feeling of wholesome and catholic doctrines, 
fell into the contrary opinion of pernicious error. All this meantime, with the 
greatest grief, Cranmer stood hearing his sermon: one while lifting up his hands 
and eyes unto heaven, and then again for shame letting them down to the earth, 
while the tears gushed from his eyes. Great commiseration and pity moved all men's 
hearts, that beheld so heavy a countenance, and such abundance of tears in an 
old man of so reverend dignity. Cole having ended his sermon, he called back the 
people that were ready to depart. "Brethren," said he, "lest any man should doubt 
of this man's earnest conversion and repentance, you shall hear him speak before 
you; and therefore I pray you, Mr. Cranmer, to perform that now which you promised 
not long ago; namely, that you would openly express the true and undoubted profession 
of your faith, that you may take away all suspicion from men and that all men 
may understand that you are a catholic indeed." PAGE 923 To this Cranmer, rising 
up and uncovering his head, replied thus: "I will do it, and that with a good 
will. Good people, my dearly beloved brethren in Christ, I beseech you most heartily 
to pray for me to Al- mighty God, that he will forgive me all my sins and offences, 
which are without number, and great above measure. But yet one thing grieveth 
my conscience more than all the rest, whereof, God willing, I intend to speak 
more hereafter. But how great and how many soever my sins be, I beseech you to 
pray to God of his mercy to pardon and forgive them all." And here kneeling down 
he said the following prayer. "O Father of heaven, O Son of God, Redeemer of the 
world, O Holy Ghost, three persons and one God, have mercy upon me, most wretched 
caitiff and miserable sinner. I have offended both against heaven and earth, more 
than my tongue can express. Whither then may I go, or whither shall I flee; to 
heaven I may be ashamed to lift up mine eyes, and in earth I find no place of 
refuge or succour. To thee, therefore, O Lord, do I run; to thee do I humble myself. 
O Lord my God, my sins be great, but yet have mercy upon me for thy great mercy. 
The great mystery that God became man was not wrought for little or few offences. 
Thou didst not give thy Son, O heavenly Father, unto death for small sins only, 
but for all the greatest sins of the world, so that the sinner return to thee 
with his whole heart, as I do at this present. Wherefore have mercy on me, O God, 
whose property is always to have mercy; have mercy upon me, O Lord, for thy great 
mercy. I crave nothing for mine own merits, but for thy name's sake, that it may 
be allowed thereby, and for thy dear Son Jesus Christ's sake. And now, therefore, 
our Father of heaven, hallowed be thy name," etc. Rising he said - "Every man, 
good people, desireth at the time of his death to give some good exhortation, 
that others may remember the same before their death, and be the better thereby: 
so I beseech God grant me grace that I may speak something at this my departing, 
whereby God may be glorified, and you edified. It is a heavy cause to see that 
so many folk so much dote upon the love of this false world, and be so careful 
for it, that of the love of God, or the world to come, they seem to care very 
little or nothing. Therefore this shall be my first exhortation, that you set 
not your minds overmuch upon this deceitful world, but upon God, and upon the 
world to come, and to learn to know what this lesson meaneth which St. John teacheth, 
that the love of this world is hatred against God. "Next unto God, you obey your 
king and queen willingly and gladly with- out murmuring or grudging; not for fear 
of them only, but much more for the fear of God; knowing that they be God's ministers, 
appointed by God to rule and govern you: and, therefore, whosoever resisteth them, 
re- sisteth the ordinance of God. Then I further entreat that you love altogether 
like brethren and sisters. For, alas! pity it is to see what contention and hatred 
one christian man beareth to another, not taking each other as brother and sister, 
but rather as strangers and mortal enemies. But I pray you learn and bear well 
away this one lesson, to do good unto all men, as much as in you lieth, and to 
hurt no man, no more than you would hurt your own natural loving brother or sister. 
For this you may be sure of, that whosoever hateth any person, and goeth about 
maliciously to hinder or hurt him, surely, and without all doubt, God is not with 
that man, although he think himself ever so much in God's favour. PAGE 924 "I 
exhort them that have great substance and riches of this world, that they will 
well consider and weigh three sayings of the scripture: one is of our Saviour 
himself, who saith, 'It is hard for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven.' 
A sore saying, and yet spoken by him who knoweth the truth. Another is of St. 
John, whose saying is this - He that hath the substance of this world, and seeth 
his brother in necessi- ty, and shutteth up his mercy from him, how can he say 
that he loveth God?' One more saying I wish you to remember is of St. James, who 
speak- eth to the covetous rich man, after this manner - 'Weep you and howl for 
the misery that shall come upon you: your riches do rot, your clothes be moth-eaten, 
your gold and silver doth canker and rust, and their rust shall bear witness against 
you, and consume you like fire; you gather a hoard or treasure of God's indignation 
against the last day.' Let them that be rich ponder well these three sentences: 
for if they ever had occasion to shew their charity, they have it now at this 
present, the poor people being so many, and victuals so dear. "And now forasmuch 
as I am come to the end of my life, whereupon hangeth all my life past, and all 
my life to come, either to live with my Master Christ for ever in joy, or else 
to be in pain for ever with wicked devils in hell, and I see before mine eyes 
presently either heaven ready to receive me, or else hell ready to swallow me 
up: I shall therefore declare unto you my very faith how I believe, without any 
colour of dissimulation; for now is no time to dissemble, whatsoever I have said 
or written in times past." He then recited the creed, and added - "I believe every 
article of the catholic faith, every word and sentence taught by our Saviour Christ, 
his apostles and prophets, in the New and Old Testament. "And now I come to the 
great thing which so much troubleth my con- science, more than any thing that 
ever I did or said in my whole life, and that is the setting abroad of a writing 
contrary to the truth; which now I here renounce and refuse, as things written 
with my hand contrary to the truth which I thought in my heart, and written for 
fear of death, and to save my life if it might be; and that is, all such bills 
and papers which I have written or signed with my hand since my degradation, wherein 
I have written many things untrue. And forasmuch as my hand hath offended, writing 
contrary to my heart, therefore my hand shall first be punished; for when I come 
to the fire, it shall be first burned. As for the pope, I refuse him, as Christ's 
enemy and antichrist, with all his false doctrine. As for the sacrament, I believe 
as I have taught in my book against the bishop of Winchester, which my book teacheth 
so true a doctrine of the sacrament, that it shall stand at the last day before 
the judgment of God, where the papistical doctrine contrary thereto shall be ashamed 
to shew her face." PAGE 925 Here the standers-by were all astonished and amazed, 
and looked upon one another, whose expectation he had so notably deceived. Some 
began to admonish him of his recantation, and to accuse him of falsehood. Brief- 
ly, it was a world to see the doctors beguiled of so great a hope; for they looked 
for a glorious victory by this man's retractation. As soon as they heard these 
things they began to rage, fret, and fume: and so much the more, because they 
could not revenge their grief; for they could no longer threaten or hurt him. 
For the most miserable man in the world can die but once; whereas of necessity 
he must needs die that day. And so when they could do nothing else to him, yet 
lest they should say nothing, they ceased not to object unto him his falsehood 
and dissimula- tion. To this he replied - "Ah, my masters, do not you take it 
so. Always since I lived hitherto, I have been a hater of falsehood, and a lover 
of simplicity, and never before this time have I dissembled." In saying this he 
wept bitterly. And when he began to speak more of the sacrament and of the papacy, 
some of them began to cry out and bawl, especially Cole, who cried out, "Stop 
the heretic's mouth and take him away!" Then Cranmer being pulled down from the 
stage, was led to the fire, accompanied by those friars, vexing, troubling, and 
threatening him most cruelly. "What madness," say they, "has brought thee again 
into this error, by which thou will draw innumerable souls with thee into hell?" 
To whom he answered nothing, but directed all his talk to the people, saving that 
to one troubling him in the way he spake, and exhorted him to get home to his 
study, and apply to his book diligently; saying, if he did earnestly call upon 
God, by reading more, he should get knowl- edge. But the other, raging and foaming 
was almost out of his wits, always having this in his mouth, Non fecisti? Didst 
thou it not? When he came to the place where the holy bishops and martyrs of God, 
Latimer and Ridley, were burnt before him for a confession of the truth, kneeling 
down he prayed to God; and not long tarrying in his prayers, putting off his garments 
to his shirt, he prepared himself to death. His shirt was made long, down to his 
feet, which were bare; likewise his head, when both his caps were off, was so 
bare that one hair could not be seen upon it. His beard was so long and thick, 
that it covered his face, and his reverend countenance moved the hearts both of 
his friends and enemies. Then the Spanish friars, John and Richard, began to exhort 
him, and play their parts with him afresh; but Cranmer, with steadfast purpose, 
abiding in the profession of his doctrine, gave his hand to certain old men and 
others that stood by, bidding them farewell. When he had thought to have done 
so likewise to Mr. Ely, the latter drew back his hand and refused, saying, it 
was not lawful to salute heretics, and especially such an one as falsely returned 
to the opinions he had for- sworn. And if he had known before that he would have 
done so, he would never have used his company so familiarly, and chid those serjeants 
and citizens who had not refused to give him their hands. This Mr. Ely was a student 
in divinity, and had been lately made a priest, being then one of the fellows 
in Brazen-nose college. PAGE 926 Then was an iron chain tied about Cranmer, whom 
when they perceived to be more steadfast than that he could be moved from his 
sentence, they commanded the fire to be set unto him. And when the wood was kindled 
and the fire began to burn near him, stretching out his arm, he put his right 
hand into the flame, which he held so steadfast and unmovable, (saving that once 
with the same hand he wiped his face,) that all men might see his hand burned 
before his body was touched. His body did so abide the burning of the flame with 
such constancy and steadfastness, that standing always in one place without moving 
his body, he seemed to move no more than the stake to which he was bound; his 
eyes were lifted up into heaven, and oftentimes he repeated "his unworthy right 
hand," so long as his voice would suffer him; and using often the words of Ste- 
phen, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit," in the greatness of the flames he gave 
up the ghost, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. And this was the end of this 
learned archbishop, whom, lest by evil subscribing he should have perished, by 
well recanting God preserved; and lest he should have lived longer with shame 
and reproof, it pleased God rather to take him away, to the glory of his name 
and profit of his church. So good was the Lord to his church, in fortifying the 
same with the blood and testimony of such a martyr; and so good also to the man 
with this cross of tribulation, to purge his offences in this world, not only 
of his recantation, but also of his standing against John Lambert and master Allen, 
or if there were any other with whose burning and blood his hands had been before 
anything polluted. Thus have you the story of the life and death of this reverend 
archbishop and martyr of God, and also of divers other the learned sort of Christ's 
martyrs burned in queen Mary's time, of whom Cranmer was the last, being burned 
about the very middle time of the reign of that queen, and almost the very middle 
man of all the martyrs which were burned in all her reign besides. Divers books, 
treatises, and letters the said Thomas Cranmer wrote, both in prison and out of 
prison, the which we have no space here to insert, saving an extract from a letter 
to queen Mary, which here followeth: "I learned by Dr. Martin, that on the day 
of your majesty's coronation, you took an oath of obedience to the pope of Rome, 
and at the same time you took another oath to this realm, to maintain the laws, 
liberties, and customs of the same. And if your majesty did make an oath to the 
pope, I think it was according to the other oaths which he useth to administer 
to princes; which is, to be obedient to him, to defend his person, to maintain 
his authority, honour, laws, lands, and privileges. And if it be so, then I beseech 
your majesty to look upon your oath made to the crown and realm, and to compare 
and weigh the two oaths together, to see how they do agree, and then do as your 
majesty's conscience shall direct you: for I am surely persuaded, that willingly 
your majesty will not offend, nor do against your conscience for any thing. "But 
I fear there are contradictions in your oaths, and that those who should have 
informed your grace thoroughly, did not their duties there- in. And if your majesty 
ponder the two oaths diligently, I think you shall perceive you were deceived; 
and then your highness may use the matter as God shall put in your heart. Furthermore, 
I am kept here from the company of learned men, from books, from counsel, from 
pen and ink, except at this time, to write unto your majesty, which were all neces- 
sary for a man in my case. Wherefore I beseech your majesty that I may have such 
of these as my stand with your majesty's pleasure. And as for my appearance at 
Rome, if your majesty will give me leave, I will appear there. And I trust that 
God shall put in my mouth to defend his truth there as well as here. But I refer 
it wholly to your majesty's pleasure." PAGE 927 SECTION XV. CONTINUATION OF FAITHFUL 
ABOUT the same time that archbishop Cranmer was burned at Oxford, suf- fered likewise 
in Ipswich, Agnes the wife of Robert Potten, and Joan wife of Michael Trunchfield, 
a shoemaker. Their opinion was that in the sacrament was the memorial only of 
Christ's death and passion. For this they were burned. In whose suffering their 
constancy worthily was to be wondered at, who, being so simple women, so manfully 
stood to the con- fession and testimony of God's word and verity; insomuch that 
when they had prepared themselves ready to the fire, with comfortable words of 
the Scripture they earnestly required the people to credit and to lay hold on 
the word of God, and not upon man's devices and inventions. Albeit both of them 
did so joyfully suffer, as it was marvelled at of those that knew them, and did 
behold their end. The Lord grant we may do the like. Amen. After these two women 
of Ipswich succeeded three men, which were burnt the same month in one fire at 
Salisbury. Their names were John Spicer, freemason; William Coberley, tailor; 
John Maundrel, husbandman. These three on a certain Sunday agreed together to 
go to their parish church called Keevil, where the said Maundrel and the other 
two, seeing the parishioners in the procession to follow and worship the idol 
there carried, advertised them to leave the same, and return to the living God. 
After this the vicar came into the pulpit, who there being about to read his bead-roll, 
and to pray for the souls in purgatory, the said John Maundrel cried, "That was 
the pope's pinfold," the other two af- firming the same. After which words, by 
commandment of the priest, they were had to the stocks, where they remained till 
their service was done. They were then brought before a justice; and so the next 
day carried to Salisbury, and presented before bishop Capon, W. Geffrey being 
chancel- lor of the diocese; by whom they were imprisoned, and oftentimes exam- 
ined of their faith in their houses, but seldom openly. At their last examination 
in the parish church of Fisherton Anger, the chancellor read their condemnation, 
and so delivered them to the sher- iff; and the next day after, being the 24th 
of March 1556, they were carried out of the common gaol to a place betwixt Salisbury 
and Wilton, where were two posts set for them to be burnt at. Coming to the place, 
they kneeled down, and made their prayers secretly together; and then being disclothed 
to their shirts, John Maundrel spake with a loud voice, "Not for all Salisbury!" 
which words men judged to be an answer to the sheriff, which offered him the queen's 
pardon if he would recant. And after that, in like manner spake John Spicer, saying: 
"This is the joyfullest day that ever I saw." Thus they most constantly gave their 
bodies to the fire and their souls to the Lord, for the testimony of his truth. 
PAGE 928 About the 23rd day of April, 1556, were burned in Smithfield in one fire, 
these six constant martyrs of Christ, suffering for the profession of the gospel, 
namely, Robert Drakes, minister; William Tyms, curate; Richard Spurge, shearman; 
Thomas Spurge, fuller; John Cavel, weaver; and George Ambrose, fuller. These were 
all inhabitants of Essex, and so of the diocese of London, and were sent up, some 
by the lord Rich, and some by others, at different times, to Gardiner, bishop 
of Winchester, then lord chancellor of England, about the 22nd day of March, 1555; 
who, after a short examination, sent them, some unto the King's-bench, and others 
unto the Marshalsea; where they remained almost the whole year, until the death 
of the bishop, and had during that time nothing said unto them. Whereupon, after 
that Dr. Heath, archbishop of York, was chosen to the office of lord chancellor, 
four of these persecuted breth- ren, weary of their long imprisonment, made their 
supplication to Dr. Heath, requiring his aid for their deliverance. Accordingly 
they were examined, first by Sir Richard Reed, an officer in the court of chan- 
cery, and afterwards brought before Bonner. Robert Drakes was parson of Thundersley, 
in Essex, and had there re- mained for three years. He was first made deacon by 
Dr. Taylor, of Hadley, at the command of Dr. Cranmer. And within one year after, 
he was, by the archbishop and Dr. Ridley, admitted minister of God's holy word 
and sacraments, and was presented to the benefice of Thundersley. On his coming 
to the bishop of Winchester, he was by him demanded wheth- er he could conform 
himself like a subject to the laws of this realm then in force. To whom he said 
he would abide all laws that stood with the laws of God; thereupon he was committed 
to prison, where he and the rest above named did remain ever since. William Tyms, 
curate of Hockley in Essex, was brought into his troubles by justice Tyrrel, in 
whose woods he had preached twice, by whom he was sent to London to the bishop, 
and from him to the bishop of Winchester, and so from him to the King's Bench. 
On the 21st of March the said William Tyms and Thomas Drakes, with the other four, 
were brought before bishop Bonner, who inquired of them their faith upon the sacrament 
of the altar. To whom they answered, that the body of Christ was not in the sacrament 
of the altar really and corporally, after the words of conse- cration by the priest: 
of which opinion they had been long time. About the 28th of the same month they 
were again brought before Bonner; when, on adhering to the articles objected against 
them, they were condemned, committed to the custody of the sheriffs of London, 
and sealed their faith with the shedding of their blood the 14th day of April. 
PAGE 929 John Harpole, of Rochester, and Joan Beach, a widow of Tunbridge, suf- 
fered martyrdom at this time; having been condemned by Maurice, bishop of Rochester. 
John Hullier, a clergyman educated in Eton school, from whence he went to King's 
college, in Cambridge suffered also under doctor Thirleby, bishop of Ely, and 
his chancellor, for the sincere preaching of the gospel. By certain letters which 
he left behind, it appeareth that he was zealous in the doctrine of truth, which 
every true christian ought to embrace. His martyrdom was on the second day of 
April, 1556. Six faithful brethren also suffered for their confession at Colchester, 
on the 28th of the same month. Their names were, Christopher Lyster, of Dagenham, 
husbandman; John Mace, of Colchester, apothecary; John Spencer, of Colchester, 
weaver; Simon Joyne, sawyer; Richard Nichols, of Colchester, weaver; John Hammond, 
of Colchester, tanner. Hugh Laverock, a lame old man, of the parish of Barking, 
and John Ap- price, a blind man, were burned at Stratford-le-Bow the 15th day 
of May. Being had before Bonner, in the consistory of Paul's, the 9th day of the 
same month, the bishop asked Apprice what he would say. To whom he answered, "Your 
doctrine that ye set forth and teach is so agreeable with the world, and embraced 
of the same, that it cannot be agreeable with the scripture of God. And ye are 
not of the catholic church; for ye make laws to kill men, and make the queen your 
hangman." At which words, the bishop being very loth to delay their condemnation, 
commanded that they should be brought after him to Fulham, whither he before dinner 
did go; and there in the afternoon, after his solemn manner, in the open church, 
he pronounced the definitive sentence against them. At their death, Hugh Laverock, 
after he was chained, cast away his crutch; and comforting John Apprice, his fellow-martyr, 
said to him, "Be of good comfort, my brother, for my lord of London is our good 
physician. He will heal us both shortly; thee of thy blindness, and me of my lameness." 
And so patiently these two saints of God together suffered. The next day after 
were brought to the fire three women, with whom also was adjoined another. The 
names of these were: Katherine Hut of Bocking, widow; Joan Horns of Billericay, 
maid; Elizabeth Thackvel of Great Burstead, maid, Margaret Ellis of Billericay, 
maid; who, with divers others, were persecuted and sent up to Bonner by sir John 
Mordaunt and Edmund Tyrrel, esquire, justices of peace. Katherine Hut, being required 
of the sacrament to say her mind, openly protested, saying, "I deny it to be God; 
because it is a dumb God, and made with men's hands." They all persisting in the 
like constancy were condemned of Bonner to the fire; but as touching Margaret 
Ellis, before the time of her burning came, she was prevented by death in Newgate 
prison. The other three were had to Smithfield, and there gave their bodies to 
the tormentors and their spirits to God, for whose glory they were willing to 
suffer. Ye heard a little before of two men, the one blind, and the other lame. 
And here is not to be forgotten another as godly a couple, which suf- fered for 
the same cause at Gloucester: of the which two, the one was a blind boy, named 
Thomas Drowry, and the other a bricklayer, named Thomas Croker. Concerning the 
blind boy, how long he was in prison, and in what year he suffered, I am not certain. 
Of this, credible intelligence I have received by the testimony of the registrar 
then of Gloucester, that the said blind boy at his last examination was brought 
by the officers before Dr. Williams, then chancellor, sitting judicially with 
the said registrar in the consistory in the church of Gloucester. The chancellor 
having ministered unto the boy such articles as were accustomed in such cases, 
asked him - "Dost thou not believe, that after the words of consecration spoken 
by the priest, there remaineth the very real body of Christ in the sacrament of 
the altar?" To whom the blind boy answered, "No, that I do not." Chan. Then thou 
art a heretic, and shalt be burned. But who hath taught thee this heresy? Drowry. 
You, master chancellor; even in yonder place, [pointing with his hand towards 
the pulpit, standing upon the north side of the church:] when you preached there 
[naming the day] a sermon to all men, as well as to me, upon the sacrament. You 
said, the sacrament was to be received spiritually by faith, and not carnally 
and really, as the papist have heretofore taught. PAGE 930 Chan. Then do as I 
have done, and thou shalt live as I do, and escape burning. Drowry. Though you 
can so easily dispense with yourself, and mock with God, the world, and your own 
conscience, yet will I not so do. I will not recant. Chan. Then the Lord have 
mercy upon thee, for I will read the condemna- tion sentence against thee. Drowry. 
God's will be fulfilled. The registrar being herewith somewhat moved, stood up, 
and said to the chancellor: "Fie for shame, man! will you read the sentence against 
him, and condemn yourself? Away, away, and substitute some other to give sentence 
and judgment." To whom the chancellor replied, "No, registrar, I will obey the 
law, and give sentence myself, according to mine office." And so he read the sentence 
condemnatory against the boy, (with an unhappy tongue, and a more unhappy conscience,) 
delivering him over to the secular power; who on the 15th of May brought the blind 
boy to the place of execution, at Gloucester; together with Thomas Croker, condemned 
also for the like testimony of the truth, where both, in one fire, most constantly 
and joyfully yielded their souls to the hands of the Lord Jesus. After the death 
of these above rehearsed, were three men burnt at Bec- cles in Suffolk, in one 
fire, about the 21st of May, anno 1556, whose names are here specified: Thomas 
Spicer of Winston, labourer; John Denny, and Edmund Poole. They were condemned 
by Dr. Dunning, committed to the secular power, and the next day after were burnt 
together. Wher- eupon it is thought, that the writ was not yet come down, nor 
could be, the lord chancellor bishop Heath being the same time at London. By the 
procurement of sir John Tyrrel and others of his colleagues, many persons were 
driven from their homes in Suffolk. Among whom was Mrs. Twaites, a lady of upwards 
of 60 years of age. The following June, about the 6th of the month, four martyrs 
suffered together at Lewes; their names were Thomas Harland, John Oswald, Thomas 
Avington and Thomas Reed, who had all suffered a long imprisonment in the King's-Bench. 
Soon after, in the same town, were burned Thomas Whood, minister, and Thomas Milles, 
for resisting the erroneous doctrine of the church of Rome. And in a few days 
William Adderhall, minister, died in the prison of the King's-Bench, and was buried 
in the prison-yard: also John Clement, wheelwright, who was buried upon the dunghill. 
There was also about that time a young man, a merchant's servant, who for the 
like godliness suffered cruel persecution from the papist, and was burnt at Leicester. 
And not long after the death of this youth, there were burned in one fire at Stratford 
le Bow, by London, eleven men and two women! These were named, Henry Adlington, 
Laurence Parnam, Henry Wye, William Hally- wel, Thomas Bowyer, George Searles, 
Edmund Hurst, Lyon Cawch, Ralph Jackson, John Derifall, John Routh, Elizabeth 
Pepper, Agnes George. Unto these Dr. Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, in form 
of law, ministered the same articles that were pronounced unto Thomas Whittle 
and his companions, mentioned before. PAGE 931 When these thirteen were condemned, 
and the day had arrived on which they should suffer, which was the 27th of June, 
1556, they were carried from Newgate in London, to Stratford, and there divided 
into two classes and placed in two several chambers. Afterwards the sheriff, who 
there attended upon them, came to the one part, and told them that the other had 
recanted, that their lives would therefore be saved, exhorting them to do the 
like, and not to cast themselves away. Unto whom they an- swered, that their faith 
was not built upon man, but on Christ cruci- fied. Then the sheriff perceiving 
no good to be done with them, went to the other part, and said the like to them, 
that they with whom they had been before, had recanted, and should therefore not 
suffer death, coun- selling them to the like, and not wilfully to kill themselves, 
but be wise. Unto whom they also answered as their brethren had done before, that 
their faith was not built on man, but on Christ and his word. He then led them 
to the place where they should suffer, and being there altogether, they most earnestly 
prayed unto the Lord, and then joyfully went to the stake and kissed it, and embraced 
it very heartily. The eleven men were tied to three stakes, and the two women 
loose in the middle without any stake, and thus they were all burnt in one fire. 
About the same time were burned in one fire, at Bury in Suffolk, Roger Bernard, 
Adam Foster, and Robert Lawson. In an early part of July died in the King's Bench, 
where he had suffered a long imprisonment, Mr. John Careless, of Coventry, a weaver. 
He was a young man, had a wife and a young family. He left behind him several 
letters, which discovered a considerable knowledge of scripture and great firmness 
and piety. About July 16 suffered Julius Palmer, John Gwin, and Thomas Askin. 
Palmer was a young man of respectable family, his father having been mayor of 
Coventry, at which town Julius was born. He had been placed at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, where he had made unusual progress in his studies, and was remarked for 
the sharpness of his wit and for his powers of disputation. During the reign of 
Edward, he was a zealous advocate for the Romish church, and for the contumacy 
he shewed to the protestant teachers, and his hostile disposition towards them, 
he was expelled the college. Soon after the accession of Mary, however, he was 
restored to his living, when, happening to read with attention Calvin's Institutes, 
he was convinced of the truth, renounced the errors of popery, openly avowed the 
protestant doctrines, and consequently became a subject of persecution. In his 
distress he applied to his mother for aid; but he got nothing but curses from 
her for his heresy, as she termed it, telling him, that she would give him nothing 
but fagots to burn him with. In return for this, the follower of Christ blessed 
her and departed. He was seized at Reading in his bed, having been betrayed by 
a confidant in whom he had related his story. He was soon brought to trial before 
Dr. Jeffrey, who acted for the bishop of Suram, and the sheriff of the county. 
After two examinations, the said Dr. Jeffrey proceeded to read the popish sentence 
of his cruel condemnation; and so was he delivered to the charge of the secular 
power, and was burnt the same day in the afternoon, together with the other two. 
PAGE 932 Within an hour before they went to the place of execution, Palmer, in 
the presence of many people, comforted his fellows with these words: "Brethren," 
saith he, "be of good cheer in the Lord, and faint not. Remember the words of 
our Saviour Christ, where he saith, 'happy are you when men revile you and persecute 
you for righteousness' sake. Rejoice and be glad, for great is your reward in 
heaven. Fear not them that kill the body, and be not able to touch the soul. God 
is faithful, and will not suffer us to be tempted further than we shall be able 
to bear it.' We shall not end our lives in the fire, but make a change for the 
better life. Yea, for coals, we shall receive pearls: for God's Holy Spirit certifieth 
our spirit, that he hath even now prepared for us a sweet supper in heaven, for 
his sake who suffered for us." When they were come to the place appointed for 
their suffering, they all three fell to the ground, and Palmer, with an audible 
voice, pronounced the 31st psalm, while the other two made their prayers secretly 
to Almighty God. And as Palmer began to rise, there came behind him two popish 
priests, exhorting him to recant and save his soul. Palmer an- swered and said 
- "Away, away, tempt me no longer! Away, I say, from me all you that work iniquity; 
for the Lord hath heard the voice of my tears!" And so forthwith they put off 
their raiment, and went to the stake and kissed it. And when they were bound to 
the post, Palmer said, "Good people, pray for us, that we may persevere to the 
end. And for Christ's sake beware of popish teachers, for they deceive you." As 
he spake this, a servant of one of the bailiffs threw a fagot at his face, that 
the blood gushed out in divers places: for the which fact the sheriff reviled 
him, calling him cruel tormentor, and with his walking- staff break his head, 
that the blood likewise ran about his ears. When the fire was kindled, and began 
to take hold upon their bodies, they lifted up their hands towards heaven, and 
quietly and cheerily, as though they had felt no smart, they cried - "Lord Jesus, 
strengthen us; Lord Jesus, assist us; Lord Jesus, receive our souls!" And so they 
continued without any struggling, holding up their hands, and knocking their hearts, 
and calling upon Jesus until they had ended their mortal lives. Among other things 
this is also to be noted, that after their three heads, by force of the raging 
and devouring flames of fire, were fallen together in a lump or cluster, which 
was marvellous to behold, and that they all were judged already to have given 
up the ghost, suddenly Palm- er, as a man waked out of sleep, moved his tongue 
and jaws, and was heard to pronounce this word "Jesus!" So, being resolved into 
ashes, he yielded to God as joyful a soul (confirmed with the sweet promises of 
Christ) as any one that ever was called beside to suffer for his blessed name. 
God grant us all to be moved with the like spirit, working in our hearts constantly 
to stand in confession of Christ's holy gospel, to the end. Amen. Amongst all 
and singular histories touched in this book before, as there be many pitiful, 
divers lamentable, some horrible and tragical; so is there none almost either 
in cruelty to be compared, or so far off from all compassion and sense of humanity, 
as this merciless fact of the papist, done in the Isle of Guernsey upon three 
women and an infant, whose names were Katherine Cawches, the mother; Guillemine 
Gilbert, the daughter; Perotine Massey, the other daughter; and an infant, the 
son of Perotine. PAGE 933 The circumstances whereupon did rise this tragical cruelty 
were these? In a town in Guernsey, called St. Peter's Port, was a naughty woman 
named Vincent Gosset, who on the 17th of May, anno 1556, went at night to the 
house of one Nicholas le Conronney; and there taking the key of the house (lying 
under the door) entered into a chamber toward the street, and took away a silver 
cup out of a cupboard. Immediately after, (whether by counsel or what occasion 
else I have not to say,) she brought the said cup to Perotine Massey, who, suspecting 
the same to be stolen, answered that she would not take it: yet nevertheless having 
knowledge of the owner thereof, to the end she should not carry it to another, 
gave her sixpence, minding herself to restore the cup to whom it did appertain. 
The said Perotine giving knowledge to Conronney of the trespass, he attached the 
said Vincent Gosset; who, being apprehended and examined, immediately confessed 
the fact, desiring to have one sent with her with sixpence to fetch again the 
goblet, where it was; and so she did. The next day the king's officers assembled 
the justices there to inquire further, as well upon that fact of Vincent Gosset, 
as upon other griefs and things there. So that after the declaration made by the 
officers and constable before the justices, for that the said constable did report 
to have found a certain vessel of pewter in the house of the foresaid Perotine 
Massey (who then dwelt with her mother and sister) which did bear no mark, and 
especially a pewter dish whereof the name was scraped out; their bodies upon the 
same were attached and put in prison, and their movable goods taken by inventory. 
The cause being debated on the 5th of June following, they were found not guilty 
of that they were charged with, but to have lived always as honest women among 
their neighbours; saving only that to the commandments of holy church they had 
not been obedient, etc. Upon this trial and verdict it was in fine adjudged, first, 
that the said Vincent Gosset, being attainted of felony and condemned for the 
same, should be whipped, and after, her ear being nailed to the pillory, should 
so be banished out of the isle without further punishment. And as touching the 
other three women, the mother with her two daughters, for their not coming to 
the church they were returned prisoners again into the castle the 1st of July. 
The bailiff, the lieutenants, and the jurats, thinking the matter not to pertain 
to them but to the clergy, forthwith wrote to the dean and to the curates of the 
said isle; whereupon, a few days after, the said women were examined apart severally 
by the foresaid dean and curates, and returned again into prison. On the 14th 
day of the said month of July was delivered before the justice, under the seal 
of the dean and under the signs of the curates, a certain act and sentence, the 
sum whereof was, that Katherine Cawches and her two daughters were found heretics, 
and such they reputed them, and have delivered them to jus- tice, to do execution 
according to the sentence. When this was done, commandment was given to fetch 
the said women from the castle, to hear the sentence against them. After this 
was pronounced, the said women did appeal unto the king and queen, and their honourable 
council, saying, that against reason and right they were condemned, and for that 
cause they made their appeal; notwithstanding they could not be heard, but were 
delivered by the bailiffs to the officers, to see the execution done on them according 
to the sentence. PAGE 934 The time arriving when these three innocents should 
suffer, in the place where they should consummate their martyrdom were three stakes 
set up. At the middle post was the mother, the eldest daughter on the right hand, 
the youngest on the other. They were first strangled, but the rope brake before 
they were dead, and so the poor women fell into the fire. Perotine, who was then 
great with child, did fall on her side, where happened a rueful sight, not only 
to the eyes of all that there stood, but also to the ears of all true-hearted 
Christians that shall read this history. For as the belly of the woman burst asunder 
by the vehemency of the flame, the infant, being a fair man-child, fell into the 
fire, and eftsoons being taken out of the fire by one W. House, was laid upon 
the grass. Then was the child had to the provost, and from him to the bail- iff, 
who gave censure, that it should be carried back again, and cast into the fire, 
where it was burnt with the silly mother, grandmother, and aunt, very pitiful 
to behold. And so the infant baptised in his own blood, to fill up the number 
of God's innocent saints, was both born and died a martyr, leaving behind to the 
world, which it never saw, a spec- tacle wherein the whole world may see the Herodian 
cruelty of this graceless generation of popish tormentors, ad perpetuam rei infamiam. 
Now forsomuch as this story percase, for the horrible stangeness of the fact, 
will be hardly believed by some, but rather be thought to be forged, or else more 
amplified than truth sill bear out, therefore, to discharge my credit herein, 
I have not only foretold a little before, how I received this story by the faithful 
relation both of the French and English, of them which were there present witnesses 
and lookers on, but also have hereto annexed the true supplication of the inhabitants 
of Guernsey, and of the brother of Katherine Cawches, complaining to Queen Elizabeth 
and her commissioners, concerning the horribleness of the act. The petition, after 
stating the cruelty of the case, solicits the resto- ration of the property of 
the martyrs, which had been confiscated, to him, as the rightful heir. This being 
presented to the queen's commis- sioners, in the year 1562, such order therein 
was taken, that the matter being returned again down to the said country, further 
to be examined, the dean, who had been instrumental in the tragical event, was 
committed to prison, and dispossessed of all his livings. So that, in conclusion, 
both he and all other partakers of that bloody murder, whether of con- science, 
or for fear of the law, were driven to acknowledge their tres- pass, and to submit 
themselves to the queen's mercy. As the rage of this persecution spared neither 
man, woman, nor child, wife nor maid, lame, blind, nor cripple; so neither was 
there any condi- tion or quality respected of any person; but whosoever he were 
that held not as they did on the pope, and sacrament of the altar, were he learned 
or unlearned, wise or simple, all went to the fire. Thomas Moor, a simple poor 
creature and innocent soul, was apprehended for saying that his Maker was in heaven, 
and not in the pix. Coming before his ordinary, he was first asked, whether he 
did not believe his Maker there to be, (pointing to the high altar:) which he 
denied. Then asked the bishop, "How dost thou believe?" The young man answered 
again, As his creed did teach him. To whom the bishop said, "And what is yonder 
that thou seest above the altar?" He answering said, "Forsooth I cannot tell what 
you would have me to see. I see there fine clothes, with golden tassels, and other 
gay gear hanging about the pix: what is within I cannot see." "Why, dost thou 
not believe," said the bishop, "Christ to be there, flesh, blood, and bone?" "No, 
that I do not," said he. Whereupon the bishop read the sentence in St. Margaret's 
church in Leicester; in which town he suffered a joyful and glorious martyrdom 
about the 26th of June 1556. PAGE 935 Thomas Dungate, John Foreman, and Mother 
Tree, suffered at Grinstead in Sussex, patiently abiding what the furious rage 
of man could work against them, on the 18th of July, in the year aforesaid. On 
the 1st day of August suffered likewise at Derby a certain poor honest godly woman, 
being blind from her birth, and unmarried, about the age of twenty-two, named 
Joan Waste, of the parish of All-hallows. This poor woman had by her labour gotten 
and saved so much money as bought her a New Testament; and though she was unlearned, 
and by reason of her blindness unable to read, yet for the great desire she had 
to understand the holy Scriptures, she acquainted herself chiefly with one John 
Hurt, a sober grave man of the age of three score and ten years, who did for his 
exercise daily read unto her some one chapter of the New Testament. Not long after, 
through the fatal death of blessed king Edward, followed the woeful ruin of religion; 
and this poor blind woman, continuing in a constant conscience, was soon called 
before Ralph Banes, bishop of the diocese, and others, when sentence was pronounced 
against her. On the day that she should suffer, she was first led into the parish 
church of All-Saints, where Dr. Draicot declared unto the people that she was 
condemned for denying the blessed sacrament of the altar; and said that as her 
body should be presently consumed with material fire, so her soul should be burnt 
in hell with everlasting fire, saying it was not lawful to pray for her. Afterwards, 
this poor blind creature was carried to a place called Windmill-pit, where she 
cried upon Christ to have mercy upon her while life served. About the beginning 
of September, a certain godly, devout person, and zealous of the Lord's glory, 
born in Wiltshire, named Edward Sharpe, of the age of forty or thereabouts, was 
condemned at Bristol to the like martyrdom; in whose death, as in the death of 
all his other saints, the Lord be glorified and thanked for his great grace of 
constancy. Next after Edward Sharpe, followed four which suffered at Mayfield 
in Sussex, the 24th of September; namely, John Hart, Thomas Ravensdale, a shoemaker, 
and a currier; which said four, being at the place where they should suffer, after 
they had made their prayer, and were at the stake ready to abide the force of 
the fire, they constantly and joyfully yielded their lives for the testimony of 
the glorious gospel of Jesus Christ. The day after the martyrdom of these foresaid 
at Mayfield, a young man, a carpenter, whose name we have not, was put to death 
for the like testimony at Bristol. And not long after the death of this young 
man, were two more godly martyrs consumed by fire at Wootton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire; 
namely, one John Horn and a woman. They died in a constant faith: so gloriously 
did the Lord work in them, that death unto them was life, and life with a blotted 
conscience was death. PAGE 936 When I had finished the story of the Guernsey martyrs, 
and also had passed the burning of the poor blind woman at Derby, I well hoped 
I should have found no more such stories of unmerciful cruelty; but now I find 
another showed against a woman in child-bed, as far from all chari- ty and humanity 
as hath been any other story rehearsed. At Wootton-under-Edge, near Bristol, was 
dwelling one William Dangerfield, who by Joan Dangerfield his wife had nine children, 
and she now lying in child-bed of the tenth. This William, after he had been abroad 
a certain space for fear of persecution, hearing that his wife was brought to 
bed, repaired home to visit her, as natural duty required, and to see his children, 
she being now delivered four days. His return was no sooner known to some of his 
unkind and uncharitable neighbours, but they, incensed with the spirit of papistry, 
eftsoons beset the house, and there took the said William Dangerfield and carried 
him to prison; and so at length he was brought to the bishop, being then Brooks, 
in whose cruel handling he remained so long that his legs almost were fretted 
off with the irons. After the apprehension of the husband, the wife likewise was 
taken, with her young-born child, being but fourteen days old, and carried into 
the common jail; where both she and her poor innocent found so small charity amongst 
the catholic men, that she never could come to any fire, but was driven to warm 
the clothes she should put about the child in her bosom. While they lay thus enclosed 
in several prisons, the bishop began with the husband, falsely persuading him 
that his wife had recanted, and asking him wherefore he should more stand in his 
own conceit than she; and so subtilely drew out a form of recantation, wherewith 
he deceived the simple soul: whereunto after that he had once granted that he 
would consent, they suffered him to go to his wife. Then they with melting hearts 
opening their minds one to another, when he saw his wife not released, he declared 
unto her the whole matter, how falsely he was circumvented by the subtle flatterings 
of the bishop, bearing him in hand that certainly she had recanted: "And thus 
deceiving me," said he, "brought this unto me;" and so plucked out of his bosom 
the copy of the recantation, whereunto he had granted his promise. At sight whereof 
the wife's heart clave asunder, saying, "Alack! thus long have we continued one, 
and hath Satan so prevailed to cause you to break your first vow made to Christ 
in baptism?" And so they parted, with what hearts the Lord knoweth. Then began 
the said William to bewail his promise, and to make his prayer to Almighty God, 
desiring that he might not live; and so departed toward his house, where by the 
way (as it is affirmed) he took his death, and shortly after departed, according 
to his prayer. Joan his wife still continued in prison, with her tender babe so 
long as her milk served; till at length the child, starved for cold and famine, 
was sent away when past all remedy, and so shortly after died; and not long after 
the mother also followed. Besides, the old woman, mother of the husband, upwards 
of eighty years of age, being left in the house after their apprehension, for 
lack of comfort perished also. John Kurde, a shoemaker, late of Syresham, in Northamptonshire, 
was imprisoned in Northampton castle for denying transubstantiation. The sentence 
was pronounced against him by the archdeacon of Northampton, in the church of 
All Saints; and in September he was led without the north gate, and in the stone-pits 
was burnt. In October died three godly confessors in the castle of Chinchester. 
In November were fifteen inno- cent martyrs together in Canterbury castle, of 
which number five were famished in strait prison, and the other then afterwards 
return into England, having some- what withdrawn his mind from other affairs of 
the realm, and having in all points established the Romish religion, began to 
have an eye to the university of Cambridge, which place among others specially 
seemed to need reformation. To perform this charge were chosen Cuthbert Scot, 
not long before consecrated bishop of Chester; Nicholas Ormanet, an Italian, archpriest 
of the people of Bozolo, in Verona, professed in both the laws, and bearing the 
name of the pope's datary; Thomas Watson, bishop of Lincoln; John Christopherson, 
bishop of Chichester; and Henry Cole, provost of the college of Eton. These persons 
thus appointed sent their letters, with the cardinal's citation, before to Dr. 
Andrew Perne, vice- chancellor then of Cambridge, with the other commissioners 
associate, commanding him to warn all the graduates of the university, in their 
name, to be in readiness against the 11th day of January, betwixt eight and ten 
of the clock, in the church of St. Mary the Virgin; willing him especially to 
be there himself in presence, and also to set forward all the residue, to whose 
charge it belonged, that they should search out all statutes, books, privileges, 
and monuments appertaining to the university, or to any of the colleges, or finally 
to any of themselves; and these to present before them at the day appointed, and 
every man to appear there personally. After this, upon the 24th of December, the 
vice-chancellor with the heads of the houses, meeting together in the schools, 
it was there concluded that the visitors' charges should be borne by the university 
and colleges, (which then cost the university a hundred pounds thick,) and also 
that no master of any college should suffer any of the fellows, scholars, or ministers 
to go forth of the town, but to return before the visitation. The inquisitors 
arrived at Cambridge on the 9th of January; and the day after they interdicted 
the two churches, namely, St. Mary's, where Bucer, and St. Michael's, where Paulus 
Phagius lay buried. On the 11th, being the day appointed, the vice-chancellor 
of the university, with the masters and presidents of the colleges, and all the 
graduates of every house, were commanded to appear before the said commissioners. 
They assembled in great number to Trinity college, having the university cross 
borne before them; and in the Gatehouse a form was set and covered with cushions, 
and carpet on the ground, for the visitors. Master John Stokes, common orator 
of the university, one of the popish superstition, (for none but such, in those 
days, might be promoted to any worship,) made an oration in the name of all the 
rest; and when he had ended, the bishop of Chester answered thereto. PAGE 938 
These things being finished, they were brought processionaliter to King's college, 
by all the graduates of the university, where was sung a mass of the Holy Ghost 
with great solemnity, nothing wanting in the behalf that might make to the setting 
forth of the same. From thence they attended all upon the legates to St. Mary's 
church, which we de- clared before to have been interdicted; in the which place, 
forsomuch as it was suspended, although no mass might be sung, yet there was a 
sermon made in open audience by master Peacock in the Latin tongue, preaching 
against heresies and heretics, as Bilney, Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley, etc. The which 
being ended, they proceeded eftsoons to the visitation, where first Dr. Harvy 
did, in the cardinal's name, exhibit the commission to the bishop of Chester, 
with a few words in Latin. Which being accepted, and by master clerk openly read 
to the end, then the vice-chancellor with an oration did exhibit the certificate 
under his seal of office, with the cardinal's citation annexed, containing every 
man's name in the university and colleges, with the officers and all the masters 
of houses. After the formal solemnity of these things thus accomplished, all the 
masters of the houses only being cited, every man for awhile departed home to 
his own house, with commandment to be at the common schools of the said university 
at one of the clock the same day. The next day being the 12th of January, they 
resorted to the King's college to make inquisition, either because the same was 
chief and sovereign of all the residue, or else because that that house had been 
counted, time out of mind, never to be without a heretic (as they termed them) 
or twain: and at that present time, albeit many of late had with- drawn themselves 
from thence, yet they judged there were some remaining still. The order and manner 
how they would be entertained of every college, when they should come to make 
inquisition, they themselves appointed, which was in this sort. They commanded 
the master of every house, to- gether with the residue, as well fellows as scholars, 
appareled in priest-like garments, (which they call habits,) to meet them at the 
uttermost gate of their house towards the town: the master himself to be dressed 
in like apparel as the priest when he harnesseth himself to mass; saving that 
he should put on uppermost his habit, as the rest did. The order of their going 
they appointed to be in this wise: the master of the house to go foremost; next 
unto him, every man in his order as he was of degree, seniority, or of years. 
Before the master should be carried a cross and holy water to sprinkle the commissioners 
withal; and then, after that, the said commissioners to be censed. And so after 
this meeting and mumbling of a few devotions, they determined with this pomp and 
solemnity to be brought to the chapel. Three days long lasted the inquisition 
there. This was now the third day of their coming, and it was thought that the 
case of Bucer and Phagius was delayed longer than needed. The vice-chancellor 
and the masters of the colleges assembled at the common schools, where every man 
gave his verdict what he thought meet to be done in this matter of Bucer. After 
much debating, they agreed altogether in this determination: that foras- much 
as Martin Bucer, while he lived, had not only sowed pernicious and erroneous doctrine 
among them, but also himself had been a sectary and famous heretic, erring from 
the catholic church, and giving others occasion to fall from the same likewise, 
a supplication should be made to the lords commissioners, in the name of the whole 
university, that his dead carcase might forthwith be digged up, (for so it was 
needful to be done,) to the intent that inquisition might be made as touching 
his doctrine, etc. They gave the same verdict, by common assent, upon Pha- gius 
also. The day after, the vice-chancellor, Andrew Perne, waited upon the commissioners, 
according to the appointment, about seven of the clock in the morning. He had 
scarce declared the cause of his coming, but he had not only obtained his suit, 
but also even at the very same time received the sentence of condemnation, for 
taking up of Bucer and Phagius, fair copied out by Ormanet the datary himself, 
which was soon after signed with the common seal of the university. PAGE 939 This 
condemnation being openly read, then Dr. Perne desired to send out process to 
cite Bucer and Phagius to appear, or any others that would take upon them to plead 
their cause, and to stand to the order of the court against the next Monday. The 
commissioners condescended to his request, and the next day process was out to 
cite the offenders. This citation Vincent of Naolly, their common notary, having 
first read it over before certain witnesses appointed for the same purpose, caused 
to be fixed up in places convenient, to wit, upon St. Mary's church-door, the 
door of the common schools, and the cross in the market-stead. In this was specified, 
that whosoever would maintain Bucer and Phagius, or stand in defence of their 
doctrine, should, at the eighteenth day of the same month, stand forth before 
the lord commissioners in St. Mary's church, and there every man should be sufficiently 
heard what he could say. When the day came, and that neither Bucer nor Phagius 
would appear at their call in the court, not that any put forth himself to defend 
them, the commissioners put off the judgment day unto the 26th of the same month. 
Upon this day the vice-chancellor was sent for to their lodging, with whom they 
agreed concerning the order of publishing the sentence. And because there should 
want no solemnity in the matter, they commanded him further to warn the mayor 
of the town to be there at the day appointed with all his burgesses. On the day 
aforesaid all met together in St. Mary's church, where, after reciting the process, 
Dr. Scot, one of the inquisitors, made a long oration; after which he read the 
sentence condemning Bucer and Phagius of heresy. He then commanded their bodies 
to be digged out of their graves, and being degraded from holy orders, delivered 
them to the secular power; for it was not lawful for such innocent persons as 
they were, abhorring from all bloodshed, and detesting all desire of murder, to 
put any man to death! Upon the 6th day of February, their dead bodies were borne 
into the market-place, (Bucer in the chest that he was buried, and Phagius in 
a new,) with a great train of people following them. This place was pre- pared 
before, and a great post was set fast in the ground to bind the carcases to, and 
a great heap of wood was laid ready to burn them with- al. The chests were set 
up on end, with the dead bodies in them, and fastened on both sides with stakes, 
and bound to the post with a long iron chain as if they had been alive. Fire being 
forthwith put to, as soon as it began to flame round about, a great sort of books 
that were condemned with them were cast into the same. In the mean time that they 
were roasting in the fire, Watson went into the pulpit in St. Mary's church, and 
there, before his audience, railed upon their doctrine, as wicked and erroneous, 
saying that it was the ground of all mischief that had happened of a long time 
in the common- weal. Many things he slanderously and falsely alleged against Bucer, 
whose doctrine either he would not understand, or else he was minded to slander. 
And yet he was not ignorant that Bucer taught none other things than the very 
same whereunto he and Scot, in the reign of king Edward the sixth, had subscribed 
to with their own hands. PAGE 940 The next day following, the aforesaid Scot, 
bishop of Chester, with much ceremonial solemnity, reconciled the two churches 
of St. Mary and St. Michael, which we declared to have been interdicted before. 
After this they bestowed a few days in punishing and amercing such as they thought 
had deserved it. Some they suspended from giving voices either to their own preferment 
or that of any other; some they forbade to have the charge of pupils; others they 
chastised wrongfully without any desert, punishing contrary to all right and reason; 
and last of all they set forth certain statutes by the which they would have the 
university hereafter ordered. The commissioners were now ready to go their ways; 
and the university, coveting to show some token of courtesy to them for so great 
benefits, dignified Ormanet and Cole with the degree of doctorship, for all the 
residue had received that order before. Thus, at length, were sent away these 
peacemakers, that came to pacify strifes and quarrels, who, through provoking 
every man to accuse one another, left such gaps and breaches in men's hearts at 
their departure, that to this day they could never be closed nor joined together 
again! Having thus considered the doings of these iniquisitors at Cambridge, we 
will proceed to discourse of the despiteful handling of Peter Martyr's wife at 
Oxford. For because the one university should not mock the other, like cruelty 
was also declared upon the dead body of the said Peter Martyr's wife, an honest, 
grave, and sober matron, while she lived, and of poor people a great helper, who 
departed this life in the year of our Lord 1552. Brooks, bishop of Gloucester, 
Nicholas Ormanet, datary, Robert Morewen, president of Corpus-Christi college, 
Cole and Wright, doctors of the civil law, came thither as the cardinal's visi- 
tors; and, among other things, had in commission to take up this good woman again 
out of her grave, and to consume her carcase with fire, not doubting but that 
she was of the same religion that her husband had professed before. To be short, 
after these visitors had sped the business they came for, they gat them to the 
cardinal again, certifying him that, upon due inquisition made, they could learn 
nothing upon which by the law they might burn her. Notwithstanding the cardinal, 
a good while after, wrote to Marshal, the dean of Frideswide's, that he should 
dig her up, and lay her out of Christian burial, because she was interred nigh 
unto St. Frideswide's relics, sometime had in great reverence in that college. 
Dr. Marshal, like a pretty man, calling his spades and mattocks together in the 
evening, caused her to be taken up and buried in a dunghill. Howbeit, when it 
pleased God under good queen Elizabeth to give quiet- ness to his church, Dr. 
Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund Grin- dal, bishop of London, Richard 
Goodrick, with divers others, her majes- ty's high commissioners in matters of 
religion, willed certain of that college to take her out of that unclean and dishonest 
place where she lay, and solemnly, in the face of the whole town, to bury her 
again in a more decent and honest monument. Wherefore master James Calfield, then 
sub-dean of the college, diligently provided that from Marshal's dunghill she 
was restored and translated to her proper place again, yea, and withal coupled 
her with Frideswide's bones, that in case any cardin- al will be so mad hereafter 
to remove this woman's bones again, it shall be hard for them to discern the bones 
of her from the other. PAGE 941 Moreover, the commissioners under the good queen 
Elizabeth, having also received commission to make reformation of religion in 
the university of Cambridge and other parts of the realm, decreed that the aforesaid 
Bucer and Phagius should be set in their places again. For the performance whereof 
they addressed their letters to the vice-chancellor and the graduates of the university, 
when by the verdict and open consent of the whole university they were fully restored, 
and all acts done against them and their doctrine repealed and disannulled, about 
the twenty- second day of July, in the year of our Lord 1560. In January 1557, 
ten godly and Christian martyrs were committed unto the fire, and there consumed 
to ashes, by Thornton, suffragan of Dover, and Nicholas Harpsfield, archdeacon 
of the said province. Their names were John Philpot, Matthew Bradbridge, and Nicholas 
Final, of Tenterden; William Waterer and Thomas Stephens, of Biddenden; Stephen 
Kempe or Norgate; William Hay of Hythe; Thomas Hudson of Selling; William Lowick 
of Cranbrooke; William Prowting of Thornham. Of these, six were burned at Canterbury, 
about the 15th of January; two at Ashford the day follow- ing; and other two at 
Wye, about the same month. On the 8th of the next month following, which was February, 
came out another bloody commission from the king and queen, to kindly up the fire 
of persecution, as though it were not hot enough already. After this commission 
was given out at London, the new inquisitors, especially some of them, began to 
ruffle, and to take upon them not a little; so that all quarters were full of 
persecution. And prisons almost full of prisoners, namely, in the diocese of Canterbury, 
whereof (by leave of Christ) we will say more anon. In the mean time, about the 
town of Colchester, the wind of persecution began fiercely to rise; insomuch that 
three-and-twenty together, fifteen men and eight women, were apprehended at one 
clap, of the which one escaped. The other twenty-two were driven like a flock 
of Christian lambs to London, with two or three leaders with them at most, ready 
to give their skins to be plucked off for the gospel's sake. When they entered 
into the towns their keepers called them into array, to go two and two together, 
having a band or line going between them, they holding the same in their hands, 
having another cord every one about his arm, as though they were tied. And so 
were they carried up to London, the people by the way praying to God for them, 
to give them strength. Notwithstand- ing the bishops, afraid belike of the numbers 
to put so many at once to death sought means to deliver them; and so they did, 
drawing out a very easy submission for them, or rather suffering them to draw 
it out them- selves: notwithstanding divers of them afterward were taken again 
and suffered as hereafter ye shall hear (God willing) declared. PAGE 942 In this 
story of persecuted martyrs, next in order follow five others burned at London, 
in Smithfield, on the 12th of April. Their names were, Thomas Loseby, Henry Ramsey, 
Thomas Thirtel, Margaret Hide, and Agnes Stanley; who being, some by the lord 
Riche, some by other justices of peace, and constables (their own neighbors) at 
the first accused, and apprehended for not coming to their parish churches, were 
in the end sent unto Bonner, bishop of London; and, by his commandment, the 27th 
day of January were examined before Dr. Darbyshire, then chancellor to the said 
bishop. In their answers they confessed there was one true and catholic church, 
whereof they steadfastly believed, and thought the church of Rome to be no part 
or member thereof; so in the same church they believed there were but two sacraments, 
that is to say, baptism and the supper of the Lord. After this, the 1st day of 
April, they were again convented before the bishop in his palace at London, where 
little appeareth to be done, except it were to know whether they would stand to 
their answers, and whether they would recant or no. But when they refused to recant 
and deny the received and infallible truth, the bishop caused them to be brought 
into the open consistory, the 3rd day of the same month of April, where, first 
understanding by them their immutable constancy and steadfastness, he pronounced 
the sentence of condemnation against them, and charged the sheriff of London with 
them; who being thereunto com- manded, the 12th day of the same month, brought 
them into Smithfield, where altogether in one fire most joyfully and constantly 
they ended their temporal lives, receiving there-for the life eternal. After these, 
moreover, in the month of May, followed three others that suffered in St. George's-fields 
in Southwark: William Morant, Stephen Gratwick, with one King. Among other histories 
of the persecuted and condemned saints of God, I find the condemnation of none 
more strange nor unlawful than of this Stephen Gratwick: who first was condemned 
by the bishops of Winchester and Rochester, which were not his ordinaries. Secondly, 
when he did appeal from those incompetent judges to his right ordinary, his appeal 
could not be admitted. Thirdly, when they had no other shift to colour their inordinate 
proceedings withal, they suborned one of the priests to come in for a counterfeit 
and false ordinary, and sit upon him. Fourthly, being openly convinced and overturned 
in his own arguments, yet the said bishop of Winchester, Dr. White, neither would 
yield to the force of truth, nor suffer any of the audience assistant once to 
say, God strengthen him. Fifthly, as they brought in a false ordinary to sit upon 
him, so they pretended false articles against him which were no part of his examinations, 
but of their devising, to have his blood. Sixthly and lastly, having no other 
ground nor just matters against him, but only for saying these words, "That which 
I said, I have said," they read the sentence against him. I showed a little before, 
how after the universal proclamation was sent and set forth by the king and queen 
in the month of February last, the storm of persecution began in all places to 
rise, but yet in no place more than in the country and diocese of Canterbury, 
especially by reason of Richard Thornton suffragan of Dover, and Harpsfield archdeacon 
of Canterbury, who of their own nature were so furious and fiery against the harmless 
flock of Christ, that there was no need of any proclamation to stir up the coals 
of their burning cruelty, by reason whereof many a godly saint lyeth slain under 
the altar, as in divers places of this book appear. PAGE 943 On the 18th of June 
were seven Christian and true faithful martyrs of Christ burned at Maidstone, 
whose names here follow: Joan Bradbridge of Staplehurst; Walter Appleby of Maidstone; 
Petronil, his wife; Edmund Allin of Fritterden, and Katherine, his wife; John 
Manning's wife, of Maidstone; and Elizabeth, a blind maiden. As concerning the 
general articles commonly objected to them in the public consistory, and the order 
of their condemnation, it differeth not much from the usual manner expressed before, 
neither did their answers in effect much differ from the others that suffered 
under the same ordinary, in the foresaid diocese of Canterbury. On the 19th of 
the said month of June, four women and three men were burnt together at Canterbury: 
namely, John Fishcock, Nicholas White, Nicholas Pardue, Barbara Final, widow; 
Bradbridge's widow, who was thought to be with child; Wilson's wife, and Benden's 
wife. The latter was accused of her own husband, and kept in prison nine weeks 
upon bread and water, lying upon a little short straw between a pair of stocks 
and a stone wall, during all which time she never changed her apparel, whereby 
she became at the last a most piteous and loathsome creature to behold. Being 
brought to the place where they should suffer for the Lord's cause, they undressed 
themselves joyfully to the fire; and being ready thereto, they all (like the communion 
of saints) kneeled down and made their humble prayers unto the Lord, with such 
zeal and affection as even the enemies of the cross of Christ could not but like 
it. When they had made invocation together, they rose and went to the stake, where, 
being compassed with horrible flames of fire, they yielded their souls and lives 
gloriously into the hand of the Lord, unto whose eternity the Son of God bring 
us all. Amen. Matthew Plaise, a weaver, of the same county of Kent, and a faithful 
Christian, was apprehended and imprisoned likewise for the testimony of a good 
conscience, in the castle of Canterbury. He was brought to exami- nation before 
the bishop of Dover, and Harpsfield the archdeacon; but what became of him after, 
whether he died in prison, or was executed, or delivered, I have as yet no certain 
knowledge. In the town of Lewes were ten faithful servants of God put in one fire 
the 22nd day of June, whose names follow: Richard Woodman; George Ste- vens; W. 
Mainard; Alexander Hosman, his servant; Thomasin a Wood, Mai- nard's maid; Margery 
Moris; James Moris, her son; Dennis Burgis; Ash- don's wife; and Grove's wife. 
Of the which number, Richard Woodman was the first. He was by his occupation an 
iron-maker, in the parish of Warbleton, Sussex, in the diocese of Chichester, 
about the age of thirty years. The occasion of his first apprehension was this: 
There was a man named Fairebanke, who sometime had been a married priest, and 
served the cure of Warbleton, where he had often persuaded the people not to credit 
any other doctrine but that which he preached in king Edward's days. But in the 
beginning of queen Mary's reign, this Fairebanke preached con- trary to that which 
he had before taught. Whereupon Richard Woodman, hearing him so to preach contrary 
to himself, admonished him of his inconstancy, how beforetime he had taught them 
one thing, and now anoth- er, and desired him to teach them the truth. For the 
which words he was apprehended, and brought before master John Ashbornham, master 
Tonston, master Culpepper, and master Roberts, justices of peace in the county 
of Sussex, and by them committed to the King's Bench, where he continued from 
June, the space almost of a year and a half; and from thence was transferred by 
Dr. Storey into Bonner's coal-house, where he remained a month before he came 
to examination. PAGE 944 At length, the same day when master Philpot was burned, 
which was the 18th of December, he with four other prisoners was set at liberty 
by Bonner himself. Notwithstanding, shortly after he was sought for again, and 
at last found out and taken by means of his father, brother, and certain other 
friends, and so was sent up again to London to bishop Bonner, where he remained 
in the coal-house for the space of eight weeks. He was there six times examined, 
and twenty-six times before, so that his examinations were in all thirty-two, 
from his first apprehen- sion to his condemnation. With Woodman also were burnt 
the nine others; of which number the eight last were apprehended (as is said) 
either the same day or the second or third day before, and so with the said Woodman 
and Stevens were together committed to the fire; in the which space no writ could 
come down from London to the justices for their burning. Wherefore what is to 
be said to such justices, or what reckoning they will make to God and to the laws 
of this realm, I refer that to them that have to do in the matter. After these 
ten above-named, about the same time and month, one Ambrose died in Maidstone 
prison, who else should have been burnt in the like cause and quarrel as the others 
were. In the registers of Gilbert, bishop of Bath and Wells, I find a certifi- 
cate made to king Philip and queen Mary, of one Richard Lush, there condemned 
and given to the secular power to be burnt for the cause of heresy; and also a 
certificate directed by the bishop aforesaid to the king and queen, whereby we 
have apparently to understand that the said Richard Lush, thus condemned by bishop 
Bourne, was there burnt and executed, unless peradventure in the mean season he 
died, or was made away in the prison, whereof I have no certainty to express. 
In the month of July next ensued the martyrdom of Simon Miller, of Lynn, and Elizabeth 
Cooper, of Norwich. They were condemned by the bishop or Norwich and his chancellor, 
about the 13th day of July. Being at the stake to be burnt, when the fire came 
unto the good woman she a little shrank thereat, crying, "Hah!" which, when the 
said Simon heard, he willed her to be strong and of good cheer; "for, good sister," 
said he, "we shall have a joyful and sweet supper:" whereat she being as it seemed 
thereby strengthened, stood as still and as quiet as one most glad to finish that 
good work which before most happily she had begun. So, in fine, she ended her 
life with her companion joyfully, committing her soul into the hands of Almighty 
God. PAGE 945 Mention was made a little before of twenty-two which were sent up 
pris- oners together from Colchester to London, the which through a gentle submission 
put unto them were afterwards released and delivered. In the number of these was 
one William Mount of Much-Bentley, in Essex, hus- bandman, with Alice his wife, 
and Rose Allin, maid, the daughter of the said Alice Mount; which coming home 
again to their house refrained themselves from the unsavoury service of the popish 
church, and fre- quented the company of good men and women, which gave themselves 
dili- gently to reading, invocating and calling upon the name of God through Christ; 
whereby they so fretted the wicked priest of the town, called sir Thomas Tye, 
and others like unto him, that casting their heads together, they made a pestilent 
supplication to the lord Darcy, in the name of the whole parish, praying his lordship 
to award a warrant for the said William Mount, his wife, and Rose her daughter. 
When Judasly this wicked priest had thus wrought his malice against the people 
of God, within awhile after the storms began to arise against these poor persecuted, 
William Mount and his company, whereby they were enforced to hide themselves. 
At last, on the 7th day of March, being the first Sunday in Lent, by two of the 
clock in the morning, one master Edmund Tyrrel (who came of the house of those 
Tyrrels who murdered king Edward the fifth and his brother) took with him the 
bailiff of the hundred, called William Simuel, dwelling in Colchester, and the 
town constables of Much-Bentley, with divers others a great number; and besetting 
the house of the said William Mount round about, called to them at length to open 
the door: which being done, master Tyrrel with certain of his company went into 
the chamber where the husband and wife lay, willing them to rise; "for," said 
he, "you must go with us to Colchester castle." Mother Mount hearing that, being 
very sick, desired that her daughter might first fetch her some drink. Then Tyrrel 
gave her leave, and bade her go. So the daughter, Rose Allin, took a stone pot 
in one hand, and a candle in the other, and went to draw drink for her mother; 
and as she came back again through the house, Tyrrel met her, and willed her to 
give her father and mother good counsel, and advertise them to be better catholic 
people. Rose. Sir, they have a better instructor than I; for the Holy Ghost doth 
teach them, I hope, which I trust will not suffer them to err. Tyrrel. Why, art 
thou still in that mind, thou naughty housewife? Marry, it is time to look upon 
such heretics indeed. Rose. Sir, with that which you call heresy do I worship 
my Lord God; I tell you truth. Tyrrel. Then I perceive you will burn, gossip, 
with the rest, for com- pany's sake. Rose. No, sir, not for company's sake, but 
for my Christ's sake, if so I be compelled; and I hope in his mercies if he call 
me to it, he will enable me to bear it. So Tyrell, turning to his company, said, 
"Sirs, this gossip will burn: do you not think it?" "Marry, sir," quoth one, "prove 
her, and you shall see what she will do by and by." Then that cruel Tyrrel, taking 
the candle from her, held her wrist, and the burning candle under her hand, burning 
crosswise over the back thereof so long till the very sinews cracked asunder, 
as witnessed by William Candler, then dwelling in Much- Bentley, who was there 
present and saw it. In which time of his tyranny, he said often to her, "Why, 
whore! wilt thou not cry? Thou young whore! wilt thou not cry?" Unto which she 
always answered, that she had no cause, she thanked God, but rather to rejoice. 
He had (she said) more cause to weep than she, if he considered the matter well. 
In the end, when the sinews (as I said) brake, that all the house heard them, 
he then thrust her from him violently, and said, "Ah! strong whore; thou shameless 
beast! thou beastly whore!" etc., with such like vile words. But she, quietly 
suffering his rage for the time, at the last said, "Sir, have ye done what ye 
will do?" And he said, "Yea; and if thou think it be not well, then mend it." 
"Mend it!" said Rose; "nay, the Lord mend you, and give you repentance, if it 
be his will. And now if you think it good, begin at the feet and burn to the head 
also: for he that set you a work shall pay you your wages one day, I warrant you." 
And so she went and carried her mother drink, as she was commanded. PAGE 946 With 
the said William Mount and his family was joined also in the same prison at Colchester 
another faithful brother, named John Johnson, of Thorpe, in Essex, labourer. Other 
six prisoners lay in Mote-hall, in the said town of Colchester, whose names were 
William Bongeor, glazier; Thomas Benold, tallow chandler; William Purcas, fuller; 
Agnes Silver- side; Helen Ewring, wife of John Ewring, miller, who was one of 
the twenty-two prisoners mentioned before sent up in bands from Colchester to 
London. All these poor condemned lambs were delivered into the hands of the secular 
power; and on the 2nd day or August, 1557, betwixt six and seven of the clock 
in the morning, the last-named six were brought from More-hall unto a plat of 
ground hard by the town-wall of Colchester. All things being prepared for their 
martyrdom, these con- stant martyrs kneeled down and made their humble prayers 
to God; and when they had ended they rose and made them ready to the fire. When 
they were nailed at their stakes, and the fire about them, they clapped their 
hands for joy in the fire, that the standers-by, which were, by estima- tion, 
thousands, cried generally almost, "The Lord strengthen them; the Lord comfort 
them; the Lord pour his mercies upon them!" Thus yielded they up their souls and 
bodies into the Lord's hands, for the true testimony of his truth. The Lord grant 
we may imitate the same in the like quarrel (if he so vouch us worthy) for his 
mercy's sake. Amen. In like manner the said day in the afternoon, were brought 
forth into the castle-yard, to a place appointed, William Mount, John Johnson, 
Alice Mount, and Rose Allin aforesaid: which godly constant persons, after they 
had made their prayers, and were joyfully tied to the stakes, calling upon the 
name of God, and exhorting the people earnestly to flee from idolatry, suffered 
their martyrdom with such triumph and joy that the people did no less shout thereat 
to see it than at the others that were burnt the same day in the morning. At the 
taking of William Mount and his family, the said Tyrrel searched the house for 
more company, and at last found one John Thurston and Margaret his wife there 
also, whom they carried with the rest to Colchester castle immediately. This John 
Thurston afterward, about the month of May, died in the said castle, a constant 
confessor of Jesus Christ. Among other martyrs of singular virtue and constancy, 
one George Eagles deserveth not the least admiration, but is so much the more 
to be com- mended, for that he, having little learning or none, most manfully 
served and fought under the banner of Christ's church. For he, wandering abroad 
into divers and far countries where he could find any of his brethren, did there 
most earnestly encourage and comfort them, now tarrying in this town, and sometime 
abiding in that, certain months together, as occasion served, lodging sometimes 
in the country, and sometimes, for PAGE 947 fear, living in fields and woods. 
Oftentimes he did lie abroad in the night without covert, spending the most part 
thereof in devout and earnest prayer. His diet was so above measure spare and 
slender, that for three years he used for the most to drink nothing but very water; 
and after, when he perceived that his body, by God's providence, proved well enough 
with this diet, he thought best to mure himself therewithal against all necessities. 
Now when the said Eagles had profited Christ's church in this sort, by going about 
and preaching the gospel a year or two, and especially in Colchester and the quarters 
thereabout, a grievous edict was proclaimed in the queen's name throughout four 
shires, Essex, Suffolk, Kent, and Norfolk, promising the party that took him twenty 
pounds for his pains, doubtless a worthy hire to entice any Jew to treachery. 
At length it came to pass that this George, being seen by chance at Colchester 
upon Mary Magdalen's day, at which time they kept a fair in the town, should have 
forthwith been delivered to his adversaries, if he perceiving the same (as God 
would have it) had not conveyed himself away as fast as he could, a great multitude 
pursuing after, and seeking diligently for him. He first hid himself in a grove, 
and from thence stole into a cornfield, and so lay secretly couched that all his 
pursuers, saving one, past hope of taking him, were ready to depart their way. 
This one, having more subtlety and wicked craft in his head, climbed up into a 
high tree, there to view and espy if he might see Eagles anywhere stir or move. 
The poor man, thinking all sure enough by reason that he heard no noise abroad, 
rose up on his knees, and lifting up his hands, prayed unto God. And whether it 
were for that his head was above the corn, or because his voice was heard, the 
lurker, perceiving his desired prey that he hunted after, forthwith came down, 
and suddenly laying hands on him, brought him as prisoner to Colchester. This 
George Eagles, not without great lamentation of divers good men, and great lack 
unto the church of God, (of which to his power he was a worthy instrument,) was 
committed to prison there; and from thence, within four days after, conveyed to 
Chelmsford, where he abode all that night in devout prayer, and would not sleep, 
neither would eat or drink but bread and water. The next day he was carried to 
London to the bishop or the council, and there remained a certain time; and then 
was brought down to Chelmsford to the sessions, and there was indicted and accused 
of treason, because he had assembled companies together, contrary to the law and 
statutes of the realm in that case provided. For so it was ordained a little before 
to avoid sedition, that if men should flock secretly together above the number 
of six, they should be attached of treason: which strait law was the casting away 
of the good duke of Somerset before mentioned. His indictment did run much after 
this fash- ion: "George Eagles, thou art indicted for that thou didst such a day 
make thy prayer, that God should turn queen Mary's heart, or else take her away." 
He denied that he prayed that God should take her away, but he confessed he prayed 
that God would turn her heart in his prayer. Well, notwithstanding he was condemned 
for a traitor, although the meaning thereof was for religion. PAGE 948 This thing 
done, he was carried to the new inn, called the sign of the Crown, in Chelmsford. 
In process of time, he was laid upon a sledge, with a hurdle on it, and drawn 
to the place of execution, being fast bound, having in his hand a Psalm-book, 
of the which he read very de- voutly all the way with a loud voice, till he came 
there. With him were cast certain thieves also the day before; and now when they 
were brought out to be executed with him, there happened a thing that did much 
set forth and declare the innocency and godliness of this man. For being led between 
two thieves to the place where he should suffer, when as he exhorted both them 
and all others to stand steadfastly to the truth, one of these turned the counsel 
he gave into a jesting matter, and made but a flout of it. "Why should we doubt 
to obtain heaven," saith he, "foras- much as this holy man shall go before us, 
as captain and leader unto us in the way? We shall flee thither straight, as soon 
as he hath once made us the entry." In this George Eagles and that other did greatly 
reprove him; who, on the other side gave good heed to George's exhortation, earnestly 
bewailing his own wickedness, and calling on Christ for mercy. But the more that 
the first was bid to be still, and to leave off his scoffing, the more perverse 
he did continue in his foolishness and his wicked behaviour. At length he came 
to the gallows where they should be hanged; but George was carried to another 
place there-by, to suffer. Between the two, it was the godlier's chance to go 
the foremost, who being upon the ladder, after he had exhorted the people to beware 
and to take heed to themselves, how they did transgress the commandments of God, 
and then had committed his soul into God's hands, he ended his life after a godly 
and quiet manner. The mocker's turn cometh next, which would have said likewise 
somewhat, but his tongue did fumble and faulter in his head, that he was not able 
to speak a word. Then did the under- sheriff bid him say the Lord's prayer, which 
he could not say neither, but stutteringly, as a man would say, one word to-day, 
and another to- morrow. Then did one begin to say it, and so bade him say after. 
Such as were there, and saw it, were very much astonished, especially those that 
did behold the just punishment of God against him that had mocked so earnest a 
matter. George Eagles in the meanwhile, after he had hanged a small time, having 
a great check with the halter, immediately one of the bailiffs cut the halter 
asunder, and he fell to the ground being still alive, although much amazed with 
the check he had off the ladder. Then one William Swallow of Chelmsford, a bailiff, 
did draw him to the sled that he was drawn thither on, and laid his neck thereon, 
and with a cleaver (such as is occupied in many men's kitchens, and blunt) did 
hackle off his head, and sometimes hit his neck and sometimes his chin, and did 
foully mangle him, and so opened him. Notwithstanding this blessed martyr of Christ 
abode steadfast and constant in the very midst of his torments, till such time 
as his tormentor William Swallow did pluck the heart out of his body. The body 
being divided in four parts, and his bowels burnt, was brought to the foresaid 
Swallow's door, and there laid upon the fish-stalls before his door, till they 
made ready a horse to carry his quarters, one to Colchester, and the rest to Harwich, 
Chelmsford, and St. Osyth's. His head was set up at Chelmsford on the market-cross, 
on a long pole, and there stood till the wind did blow it down; and lying certain 
days in the street tumbled about, one caused it to be buried in the churchyard 
in the night. PAGE 949 About this time suffered at Norwich a godly man and a constant 
martyr of Christ, called Richard Crashfield. He was examined and condemned by 
the chancellor Dunning, and brought to the stake the 5th of August. About the 
same time and month, one named Frier, with a woman accompanying him, who was the 
sister of George Eagles, in the like cause of righteousness suffered the like 
martyrdom by the unrighteous papists. Mistress Joyce Lewes, a gentlewoman born, 
and delicately brought up in the pleasures of the world, was married first to 
one called Appleby, and afterward to Thomas Lewes of Manchester. In the beginning 
of queen Mary's time she went to the church, and heard mass as the others; but 
when she heard of the burning of that most godly and learned martyr, Laurence 
Saunders, who suffered in Coventry, she began to take more heed to the matter, 
and inquired earnestly of such as she knew feared God the cause of his death. 
When she perceived it was because he refused to receive the mass, she began to 
be troubled in conscience, and waxed very unquiet; and because her house was even 
hard by master John Glover's, of whom mention was made before, she did oftentimes 
resort to him, and desire him to tell her the faults that were in the mass, and 
other things that at that time were urged as necessary to salvation. At a time 
when she was compelled by the furiousness of her husband to come to the church, 
when the holy water was cast, she turned her back towards it, and showed herself 
to be displeased with their blasphemous holy water, injurious to the blood of 
Christ; whereupon she was accused before the bishop for the despising of their 
sacramentals. Immediately a citation was sent for her to her husband's house, 
to appear before the bishop incontinently. The sumner that brought the citation 
delivered it to her husband, who perceiving what it was, was moved with anger, 
willing the sumner to take the citation with him again, or else he would make 
him to eat it. The sumner refused to take it again, and in the end Lewes compelled 
him to eat the citation indeed, by setting a dagger to his heart; and when he 
had eaten it he caused him to drink to it, and so sent him away. But immediately 
after the said Lewes with his wife were commanded to appear before the bishop, 
where he by and by submitted, and desiring the bishop to be good to him, excused 
himself after the best fashion he could. Whereupon the bishop was cont- ent to 
receive his submission, with condition that his wife should submit herself also. 
But she stoutly told the bishop that by refusing of the holy water she had neither 
offended God not any part of his laws. The bishop gave her one month's respite, 
binding her husband in a hundred pounds to bring her again unto him at the month's 
end: and so were they both let go. When they came to their own house, the said 
mistress Joyce Lewes gave herself to most diligent prayer, resorting continually 
to the above- named John Glover, who did most diligently instruct her with God's 
word, willing her in any case not to meddle in that matter in respect of vain- 
glory, or to get her a name, showing her the great danger she was like to cast 
herself in, if she should meddle in God's matters otherwise than Christ doth teach. 
When the month was almost expired, her husband was advertised by the said John 
Glover and others not to carry her to the bishop, but to seek some ways to save 
her, or if the worst should come to be content to forfeit so much money, rather 
than to cast his own wife into the fire. He answered he would not lose or forfeit 
anything for her sake; and so he carried her to the bishop, where she was examined, 
and found more stout than she was before. After examination, she was sent to such 
a stinking prison, that a certain maid which was appointed to keep her company 
did swoon in the same prison. PAGE 950 Being thus kept in prison, oftentimes examined, 
and ever found stout, at the length she was brought in judgment, and pronounced 
a heretic worthy to be burnt. When the bishop reasoned with her, why she could 
not come to the mass, and receive the sacraments and sacramentals of the Holy 
Ghost: she answered, "Because I find not these things in God's word, which you 
so urge and magnify as things most needful for men's salva- tion. If these things 
were in the same word of God commanded, I would with all my heart receive, esteem, 
and believe them." The bishop an- swered, "If thou wilt believe no more than is 
in the Scriptures, con- cerning matters of religion, thou art in a damnable case." 
At which words she was wonderfully amazed, and being moved by the Spirit of God, 
told the bishop that his words were ungodly and wicked. After her condemnation 
she continued a whole twelvemonth in prison, because she was committed to the 
sheriff that was of late chosen, who could not be compelled to put her to death 
in his time, as he affirmed: for the which thing, after her death, he was sore 
troubled, and in danger of his life. When the time drew near, the writ being brought 
down from London, she desired certain of her friends to come to her, with whom 
she consulted how she might behave herself that her death might be more glorious 
to the name of God, comfortable to his people, and discom- fortable unto the enemies 
of God. "As for death," said she, "I do not greatly pass. When I behold the amiable 
countenance of Christ, my dear Saviour, the uglisome face of death doth not greatly 
trouble me." In the which time also she reasoned most comfortably out of God's 
word, of God's election and reprobation. In the evening before the day of her 
suffering, two of the priests of Lichfield came to the under-sheriff's house where 
she lay, and sent word to her that they were come to hear her confession: for 
they would be sorry she should die without. She sent them word again, she had 
made her confession to Christ her Saviour, at whose hands she was sure to have 
forgiveness of her sins. As concerning the cause for the which she should die, 
she had no cause to confess that, but rather to give unto God most humble praise; 
and as concerning that absolution that they were able to give unto her, being 
authorized by the pope, she did defy the same even from the bottom of her heart. 
The which thing when the priests heard, they said to the sheriff, "Well, to-morrow 
her stoutness will be proved and tried: for although perhaps she hath now some 
friends that whisper her in her ears, to-morrow we will see who dare be so hardy 
as to come near her." And so they went their ways with anger, that their confession 
and absolution was nought set by. PAGE 951 The next morning she was brought through 
the town to the place of execu- tion, with a number of bill-men, a great multitude 
of people being present, led by two of her friends, Michael Reniger and Augustine 
Bernh- er. And because the place was far off, and the throng of the people great, 
one of her friends sent a messenger to the sheriff's house for some drink; and 
after she had prayed three several times, in the which prayer she desired God 
most instantly to abolish the idolatrous mass, and to deliver this realm from 
papistry, she took the cup into her hands, saying, "I drink to all them that unfeignedly 
love the gospel of Jesus Christ, and wish for the abolishment of papistry." When 
she had drank, they that were her friends drank also. After that a great number, 
specially the women of the town, did drink with her; which afterward were put 
to open penance in the church by the cruel papists, for drink- ing with her. When 
she was tied to the stake with the chain, she showed such a cheer- fulness that 
it passed man's reason, being so well coloured in her face, and being so patient, 
that the most part of them that had honest hearts did lament, and even with tears 
bewail the tyranny of the papists. When the fire was set upon her, she neither 
struggled not stirred, but only lifted up her hands towards heaven, being dead 
very speedily: for the under-sheriff, at the request of her friends, had provided 
such stuff by the which she was suddenly despatched out of this miserable world. 
In searching out the certain number of the faithful martyrs of God that suffered 
within the time and reign of queen Mary, I find that about the 17th day of September 
were burned at Islington, nigh unto London, these four constant professors of 
Christ - Ralph Allerton, James Austoo, Margery Austoo, his wife, and Richard Roth. 
They were condemned by the cruel Bonner, delivered unto the sheriff, and most 
joyfully ended their lives in one fire at Islington, as before is declared. A 
little before, gentle reader, was mention made of ten that suffered martyrdom 
at Colchester; at which time there were two other also, one called Margaret Thurston, 
and the other Agnes Bongeor, that should have suffered with them, being condemned 
at the same time, and for the like cause. On the morning that the four were taken 
from the castle, Margaret Thurston went aside to pray. And whilst she was praying 
came in the gaoler and his company, and took the other prisoners and left her 
alone. Shortly after she was removed out of the castle, and put into the town- 
prison, where she continued until Friday sevennight after her company were burnt. 
That day, not two hours before her death, she was brought to the castle again, 
where she declared thus much to one Joan Cook. The other, Agnes Bongeor, who should 
have suffered with the six that went out of Mote-hall, was kept back at that time 
because her name was wrong written within the writ. The morning that the said 
six were called out to go to their martyrdom, she also was called with them by 
name of Agnes Bower. Wherefore the bailiffs, understanding her to be wrong named 
within the writ, commanded her to prison again, and so from Mote-hall that day 
sent her to the castle, where she remained until her death. When these foresaid 
good women were brought to the place in Colchester, where they should suffer, 
the 17th day of September, they fell down upon both their knees, and made their 
humble prayers unto the Lord: which thing being done, they rose and went to the 
stake joyfully, and were immediately thereto chained; and after the fire had compassed 
them about, they with great joy and glorious triumph gave up their souls, spirits, 
and lives into the hands of the Lord: under whose government and protection, for 
Christ's, sake we beseech him to grant us his holy defence and help for evermore. 
Amen! PAGE 952 In the month of September this present year, or (as some report) 
in the year past, suffered the blessed martyr John Noyes. He was condemned at 
Norwich, and from thence sent to Eye-prison; and upon the 21st day of September, 
about midnight, was brought from Eye to Laxfield to be burnt. On the next day 
morning he was brought to the stake, where were ready against his coming, master 
justice Thurston, master Waller, then being under-sheriff, and master Thomas Lovel, 
high constable; the which com- manded men to make ready all things meet for that 
sinful purpose. Now the fire in most places of the street was put out, saving 
a smoke was espied by the said Lovel proceeding out from the top of a chimney, 
to the which house the sheriff and his man went, and brake open the door, and 
thereby got fire, and brought the same to the place of execution. When John Noyes 
came to the place, he kneeled down and said the 50th Psalm, with other prayers; 
and then they, making haste, bound him to the stake. And being bound, Noyes said, 
"Fear not them that can kill the body, but fear Him that can kill both body and 
soul, and cast it into everlasting fire." When he saw his sister weeping, he bade 
her that she should not weep for him, but weep for her sins; and when one brought 
a fagot and set it against him, he took it up and kissed it, and said, "Blessed 
be the time that ever I was born to come to this." Then he delivered his Psalter 
to the under-sheriff, desiring him to be good to his wife and children, and to 
deliver to her that same book. After that he said to the people, "They say they 
can make God of a piece of bread; believe them not! Good people, bear witness 
that I do believe to be saved by the merits and passion of Jesus Christ, and not 
by mine own deeds." And so the fire was kindled, and burnt about him. Then he 
said, "Lord have mercy upon me! Christ have mercy upon me! Son of David have mercy 
upon me!" And so he yielded up his life; and when his body was burnt, they made 
a pit to bury the coals and ashes, and amongst the same they found one of his 
feet that was unburnt, whole up to the ankle, with the hose on; and that they 
buried with the rest. About the 23rd day of the said month of September, next 
after the above- mentioned, suffered at Norwich, Cicely Ormes, wife of Edmund 
Ormes, worsted-weaver, dwelling in St. Laurence's parish in Norwich. She was taken 
at the death of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper above-mentioned, in a place 
called the Lollards'-pit without Bishop's-gate, at Norwich, for that she said 
she would pledge them of the same cup that they drank on. For so saying she was 
sent to the chancellor, who asked her what she said unto the sacrament of Christ's 
body; and she said, that she did believe it was the sacrament of the body of Christ. 
"Yea," said the chancellor, "but what is that that the priest holdeth over his 
head?" She said, "It is bread: and if you make it any better, it is worse." At 
which words the chancellor sent her to the bishop's prison, with many threatening 
and hot words, as a man being in a great chafe. PAGE 953 The 23rd of July she 
was called before the chancellor again, who sat in judgment with master Bridges 
and others. The chancellor offered her, if she would go to the church and keep 
her tongue, she should be at liber- ty, and believe as she would. But she told 
him she would not consent to his wicked desire therein, do with her what he would: 
and soon after he read the bloody sentence of condemnation against her; and so 
delivered her to the secular power of the sheriffs, who immediately carried her 
to the Guild-hall in Norwich, where she remained until her death. She was burnt 
the 23rd day of September, between seven and eight of the clock in the morning, 
the two sheriffs and about two hundred people being present. When she came to 
the stake, which was the same that Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper were burnt 
at, she kneeled down and made her prayers to God: that being done, she rose up 
and said, "Good people! I believe in God the Father, God the Son, and God the 
Holy Ghost, three persons and one God. This do I not, not will I recant: but I 
recant utterly from the bottom of my heart the doings of the pope of Rome, and 
all his popish priests and shavelings. I utterly refuse and never will have to 
do with them again, by God's grace. And good people! I would you should not think 
of me that I believe to be saved in that I offer myself here unto death for the 
Lord's cause, but I believe to be saved by the death and passion of Christ; and 
this my death is and shall be a witness of my faith unto you all here present. 
Good people! as many of you as believe as I believe, pray for me." Then she laid 
her hand on the stake and said, "Welcome the sweet cross of Christ!" and so gave 
herself to be bound thereto. After the tormentors had kindled the fire to her, 
she said, "My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit rejoiceth in God my Saviour." 
And in so saying she set her hands together right against her breast, casting 
her eyes and head upward; and so stood heaving up her hands by little and little, 
till the very sinews of her arm did break asunder, and then they fell. But she 
yielded her life unto the Lord as quietly as if she had been in a slumber, or 
as one feeling no pain; so wonderfully did the Lord work with her: his name therefore 
be praised for evermore. Amen! What a place was there almost in all the realm 
where the pope's min- isters did not bestir them, murdering some or other, as 
in the Acts of this Ecclesiastical History may appear? In the diocese of Chichester, 
although we have little to report thereof, for lack of certain relation and records 
of that country, yet divers there were condemned and mar- tyred for the true testimony 
of righteousness, within the compass of queen Mary's reign, in the number of whom 
were these:- John Foreman, of East Grinstead; John Warner, of Bourne; Christian 
Grover, of Lewes; Thomas Athoth, priest; Thomas Avington, of Ardingly; Dennis 
Burgis, of Buxted; Thomas Ravensdale, of Rye; John Milles, of Hellingley; Nicholas 
Holden, of Withyam; John Hart, of Withyam; Margery Morice, of Heath- field; Anne 
Try, of East Grinstead; John Oseward, of Woodmancott; Thomas Harland, of Woodmancott; 
James Morice, of Heathfield; Thomas Dougate, of East Grinstead; John Ashedon, 
of Cattesfield. The greatest doers against these godly and true faithful martyrs, 
and setters upon their condemna- tion, were these: Christopherson, bishop of Chichester; 
Robert Tailor, bachelor of law, his deputy; Thomas Paccard, civilian; Anthony 
Clarke; Albane Longdale, bachelor of divinity, etc. PAGE 954 Thomas Spurdance, 
one of queen Mary's servants, was taken by two of his fellow-servants, named John 
Haman and George Looson, both dwelling in Coddenham, in Suffolk, who carried him 
to one master Gosnall, in the same town, and by him he was sent to Bury, where 
he remained in prison. He was afterwards burnt in the month of November, being 
condemned by the bishop of Norwich. Not long after the martyrdom of the two good 
women at Colchester above- named, were three faithful witnesses of the Lord's 
testament tormented and put to death in Smithfield, at London, the 18th of November, 
whose names were John Hallingdale, William Sparrow, and Richard Gibson. They were 
condemned by Bonner and his chancellor, and committed to the secu- lar power. 
Being brought to the stake, after their prayer made, they were bound thereunto 
with chains, and wood set unto them; and, after wood, fire; in the which being 
compassed about, and the fiery flames consuming their flesh, at the last they 
yielded gloriously and joyfully their souls and lives into the holy hands of the 
Lord, to whose tuition and government I commend thee, good reader. In this furious 
time of persecution were also burned these two constant and faithful martyrs of 
Christ, John Rough, a minister, and Margaret Mearing. This Rough was born in Scotland, 
and at the age of seventeen did profess himself into the order of Black Friars 
at Stirling. Here he remained sixteen years, when he was dispensed of his habit 
and order at the suit of the lord Hamilton, governor of Scotland, who wished him 
to serve as his chaplain. He continued in his service one whole year, during which 
time it pleased God to open his eyes, and to give him some knowledge of his truth; 
and thereupon was by the said governor sent to preach in the freedom of Ayr, where 
he continued four years. After the death of the cardinal of Scotland he was appointed 
to abide at St. Andrew's, and there had assigned unto him a yearly pension of 
twenty pounds from king Henry the eighth. Howbeit, at last, weighing with himself 
his own danger, and also abhorring the idolatry and superstition of his country, 
and hearing of the freedom of the gospel in England, he soon after came unto Carlisle, 
and from thence unto the duke of Somer- set, then lord protector; and by his assignment 
had appointed unto him out of the king's treasury twenty pounds of yearly stipend, 
being sent as a preacher to serve at Carlisle, Berwick, and Newcastle, where he 
took a country-woman of his to wife. From hence he was called by the archbishop 
of York unto a benefice nigh, in the town of Hull, where he continued until the 
death of that blessed and good king Edward the sixth. In the beginning of the 
reign of queen Mary, (perceiving the alteration of religion, and the persecution 
that would thereupon arise, and feeling his own weakness,) he fled with his wife 
into Friesland, where he la- boured for his living, knitting of caps, hose, and 
such like things, till about the end of October last before his death. At which 
time, lacking yarn and other necessary provision for his occupation, he came over 
again unto England, here to provide for the same. He arrived in London on the 
10th day of November, where he joined himself unto the holy congregation of God's 
children; and afterwards, being elected their minister, continued in that godly 
fellowship, teaching and confirming them in the truth of the gospel of Christ. 
But in the end, on the 12th day of December, he, with Cutbert Symson and others, 
through the crafty and traitorous suggestion of a dissembling brother, was apprehended 
by the vice-chamberlain of the queen's house, at the Saracen's Head in Islington. 
Rough and Symson were carried before the council, who charged them to have assembled 
together to celebrate the communion or supper of the Lord; and therefore, after 
sundry examinations and answers, they sent the said Rough unto Newgate; but his 
examinations they sent unto the bishop of London, with a letter signed with their 
hands. PAGE 955 Bonner, minding to make quick dispatch; did within three days 
after the receipt of the letter send for this Rough out of Newgate, and in his 
palace at London ministered unto him twelve articles which were chiefly objected 
against the martyrs and saints of God. After his answers to these he was dismissed; 
and the next day, being the 19th of December, he was again brought before the 
said bishop and others; who, when they perceived his constantness, determined 
the next day after to bring him openly into the consistory, there to adjudge and 
condemn him as a here- tic. He was degraded by Bonner, and his body committed 
to the secular power, who carried him unto Newgate. It is before declared, that 
in the company of John Rough was burnt one Margaret Mearing, (being one of the 
congregation of which he was chief pastor.) At her last examination, when Bonner 
demanded if she would stand to her answers, she said, "I will stand to them unto 
the death; for the very angels of heaven do laugh you to scorn, to see your abomi- 
nation that you use in your church." After the which words, the bishop pronounced 
the sentence of condemnation against her; and then delivering her unto the sheriffs, 
she was, with the forenamed John Rough, carried unto Newgate; from whence they 
were both together led unto Smithfield the 22nd day of December, and there most 
joyfully gave their lives for the profession of Christ's gospel. Next after the 
martyrdom of master Rough, minister of the congregation above-mentioned, succeeded 
in like martyrdom the deacon also of that godly company, named Cutbert Symson. 
This Symson was a man of a faithful and zealous heart to Christ and his true flock, 
insomuch that he never ceased labouring and studying most earnestly to preserve 
them without corruption of the popish religion, and to keep them together without 
peril or danger of persecution. The pains, travail, zeal, patience, and fidelity 
of this man, in caring and providing for this congregation, as it is not lightly 
to be expressed, so is it wonderful to behold the providence of the Lord by vision, 
concerning the troubles of this faith- ful minister and godly deacon, as in this 
here following may appear:- PAGE 956 The Friday at night before master Rough, 
minister of the congregation, (of whom mention is made before) was taken, being 
in his bed, he dreamed that he saw two of the guard leading Cutbert Symson, deacon 
of the said congregation; and that he had the book about him, wherein were written 
the names of all them which were of the congregation. Whereupon being sore troubled, 
he awaked, and called his wife, saying, "Kate, strike a light, for I am much troubled 
with my brother Cutbert this night." When she had so done, he gave himself to 
read in his book awhile, and then feeling sleep to come upon him, he put out the 
candle, and so gave himself again to rest. Being asleep, he dreamed the like dream 
again; and awaking therewith, he said, "O Kate! my brother Cutbert is gone." So 
they lighted a candle again, and rose. And as the said master Rough was making 
him ready to go to Cutbert, to see how he did, in the mean time the said Cutbert 
came in with the book containing the names and accounts of the congregation: whom 
when master Rough had seen he said, "Brother Cutbert, ye are welcome; for I have 
been sore troubled with you this night;" and so told him his dream. After he had 
so done, he willed him to lay the book away from him, and to carry it no more 
about him. Unto which Cutbert answered, he would not so do: for dreams, he said, 
were but fantasies, and not to be credited. Then master Rough straitly charged 
him, in the name of the Lord, to do it. Whereupon the said Cutbert took such notes 
out of the book, as he had willed him to do, and immediately left the book with 
master Rough's wife. The next day follow- ing, in the night, the said master Rough 
had another dream in his sleep concerning his own trouble; the matter whereof 
was this. He thought in his dream, that he was carried himself forcibly to the 
bishop, and that the bishop plucked off his beard, and cast it into the fire, 
saying these words, "Now I may say that I have had a piece of a heretic burned 
in my house?" and so accordingly it came to pass. To return to Cutbert again, 
it remaineth to story also of his pains and sufferings upon the rack, and otherwise, 
as he wrote it with his own hand in a letter to certain of his friends:- "A true 
report how I was used in the Tower of London, being sent thither by the council, 
the 13th day of December. - On the Thursday after I was called into the warehouse, 
before the constable of the Tower and the recorder of London, master Cholmley: 
they commanded me to tell whom I did will to come to the English service. I answered, 
I would declare nothing. Whereupon I was set in a rack of iron, the space of three 
hours as I judged. Then they asked me if I would tell them. I answered as before. 
Then was I loosed, and carried to my lodging again. On the Sunday after I was 
brought into the same place again before the lieuten- ant and the recorder of 
London, and they examined me. As before I had said, I answered. Then the lieutenant 
did swear by God I should tell. Then did they bind my two fore-fingers together, 
and put a small arrow betwixt them, and drew it through so fast that the blood 
followed, and the arrow brake. Then they racked me twice. Then was I carried to 
my lodging again; and ten days after the lieutenant asked me, if I would not confess 
that which before they had asked me. I said, I had said as much as I would. Then, 
five weeks after, he sent me unto the high pri- est, where I was greatly assaulted, 
and at whose hand I received the pope's curse, for bearing witness of the resurrection 
of Jesus Christ. - And thus I commend you unto God, and to the word of his grace, 
with all them that unfeignedly call upon the name of Jesus, desiring God of his 
endless mercy, through the merits of his dear Son Jesus Christ, to bring us all 
to his everlasting kingdom, Amen. I praise God for his great mercy showed upon 
us. Sing 'Hosanna unto the highest,' with me Cutbert Symson. God forgive me my 
sins! I ask all the world forgiveness, and I do forgive all the world; and thus 
I leave this world, in hope of a joyful resurrection." PAGE 957 With Cutbert likewise 
was apprehended and also suffered Hugh Foxe and John Devenish; who being brought 
to their examinations with the said Cutbert, before Bonner, the 19th day of March, 
had articles and inter- rogatories to them ministered by the said officer, albeit 
not all at one time. For first to the said Cutbert several articles were propounded; 
then other articles in general were ministered to them altogether; and after their 
answers given, the bishop calling them all together objected to them other positions 
and articles. These three above-named persons, being condemned, suffered in Smithfield 
about the 28th day of March, 1558, in whose perfect constancy the same Lord in 
whose cause and quar- rel they suffered, (Giver of grace and Governor of all things,) 
be exalted for ever. Amen. We find in all ages from the beginning, that Satan 
hath not ceased at all times to molest the church of Christ with one affliction 
or other, to the trial of their faith; but yet never at any time so apparently 
as when the Lord hath permitted him power over the bodies of his saints: as in 
these latter days of queen Mary, we have felt, heard, and seen prac- tised upon 
God's people. Among whom we find recorded one William Nichol, an honest poor man, 
who was apprehended by the champions of the pope, for speaking certain words against 
the cruel kingdom of Antichrist, and the 9th day of April, anno 1558, was butcherly 
burnt and tormented at Haverford-west in Wales, where he ended his life in a most 
blessed and happy state, and gloriously gave his soul into the hands of the Lord. 
Immediately after William Nichol succeeded in that honourable and glori- ous vocation 
of martyrdom, three constant godly men at Norwich, who were cruelly and tyrannically 
put to death for the true testimony of Jesus Christ, the 19th day of May, whose 
names be these: William Seaman, Thomas Carman, and Thomas Hudson. The said Seaman 
was a husbandman of the age of twenty-six years, dwelling in Mendlesham, in Suffolk, 
who was sundry times sought for by the commandment of sir John Tyrrel, and at 
last he himself in the night searched his house and other places for him; notwithstanding 
he somewhat missed of his purpose, God be thanked. Then he gave charge to two 
of his servants to seek for him; who, having no officer, went in the evening to 
his house, where he being at home, they took him and carried him to their master. 
When he came, Tyrrel asked him why he would not go to mass, and receive the sacrament, 
and so to worship it? Unto which William Seaman answered, denying it to be a sacrament, 
but said it was an idol, and therefore would not receive it. After which words 
spoken, sir John Tyrell shortly sent him to Norwich, to Dr. Hopton, then bishop; 
and there, after conference and examination had with him, the bishop read his 
bloody sentence of condemnation against him; and afterward delivered him to the 
secular power, who kept him unto the day of martyrdom. This Seaman left behind 
him a wife and three children very young, who was also persecuted out of the said 
town of Mendlesham, because that she would not go to hear mass; and all her goods 
and corn seized and taken away by master Christopher Coles's officers, he being 
lord of the said town. Thomas Carman, (who, as is said, pledged Richard Crashfield 
at his burning, and thereupon was apprehended,) being prisoner in Norwich, was 
about one time with the rest, examined and brought before the said bishop, who 
answered no less in his Master's cause than the other, and therefore had the like 
reward, being delivered to the secular power, who kept him with the other until 
the day of slaughter. PAGE 958 Thomas Hudson was of Aylsham in Norfolk, by occupation 
a glover, a very honest poor man, having a wife and three children. He bare so 
good will to the gospel, that, in the days of king Edward the sixth, he learned 
to read English of Anthony and Thomas Norgate of the same town, wherein he greatly 
profited about the time of alteration of religion. For when queen Mary came to 
reign, and had changed the service in the church - putting in for wheat draft 
and darnel, and for good preaching blas- phemous crying out against truth and 
godliness - he absented himself from his house, and went into Suffolk a long time, 
travelling from one place to another as occasion offered. At the last he returned 
back again to Norfolk, to his house at Aylsham, to comfort his wife and children, 
being heavy and troubled with his absence. Now when he came home, and perceived 
his continuance there would be dangerous, he and his wife devised to make him 
a place among his fagots to hide himself in, where he remained all the day, reading 
and praying continually, for the space of half a year; and his wife, like an honest 
woman being careful for him, used herself faithfully and diligently towards him. 
In the mean time came the vicar of the town, named Berry, (who was one of the 
bishop's commissaries, a very evil man,) and in- quired of his wife for her husband: 
unto whom she answered, as not knowing where he was. Then the said Berry rated 
her, and threatened to burn her, for that she would not bewray her husband. After 
that, when Hudson understood it, he waxed every day more zealous, and continually 
read and sang psalms to the wonder of many, the people openly resorting to him, 
to hear his exhortations and vehement prayers. At the last he walked abroad for 
certain days in the town, crying out continually against the mass and all their 
trumpery; and in the end coming home he sat him down upon his knees, having his 
book by him, reading and singing psalms continually without ceasing for three 
days and three nights together, refusing meat and other talk. Then one John Crouch, 
his next neighbour, went to the constables in the night to certify them thereof; 
for Berry commanded openly to watch him: and the constables, understanding the 
same, went cruelly to catch him in the break of the day, the 22nd of April, 1558. 
When Hudson saw them come in, he said, "Now mine hour is come. Welcome friends, 
welcome! You be they that shall lead me to life in Christ. I thank God there-for, 
and the Lord enable me thereto for his mercy's sake." For his desire was, and 
ever he prayed, (if it were the Lord's will,) that he might suffer for the gospel 
of Christ. Then they took him, and led him to Berry the commissary, who among 
other matters asked him, "Dost thou not believe in the sacrament of the altar? 
What is it?" "It is worms' meat," quoth Hudson? "my belief is Christ crucified." 
"Doth thou not believe the mass to put away sins?" "No, God forbid! it is a patched 
monster, and a disguised puppet; more longer a piecing than ever was Solomon's 
temple." At which words Berry stamped, fumed, and showed himself as a madman, 
and said, "Well, thou villain, thou! I will write to the bishop, my good lord: 
and, trust unto it, thou shalt be handled according to thy de- serts." Then he 
asked the said Hudson whether he would recant or no; unto which he said, "The 
Lord forbid! I had rather die many deaths than do so." PAGE 959 Then, after long 
talk, the said Berry, seeing it booted not to persuade with him, took his pen 
and ink, and wrote letters to the bishop thereof, and sent this Hudson to Norwich, 
bound like a thief, which was eight miles from thence, who with joy and singing 
cheer went thither as merry as ever he was at any time before. In prison he was 
a month, where he did continually read and invocate the name of God. These three 
Chris- tians and constant martyrs, after they were condemned the 19th day of May, 
were carried out of prison to the place where they should suffer, which was without 
Bishop's-gate at Norwich, called Lollards'-pit; and being all there they made 
their humble petitions unto the Lord. That being done, they rose and went to the 
stake; and standing all there with their chains about them, immediately this said 
Thomas Hudson cometh forth from them under the chain, to the great wonder of many; 
whereby divers feared and greatly doubted of him. For some thought he would have 
recanted; others judged rather that he went to ask further day, and to desire 
conference; and some thought he came forth to ask some of his parents' blessing. 
So some thought one thing, and some another: but his two companions at the stake 
cried out to comfort him what they could, exhorting him in the bowels of Christ 
to be of good cheer, etc. But this sweet Hudson felt more in his heart and conscience 
than they could conceive in him: for, alas, good soul! he was compassed (God knoweth) 
with great dolour and grief of mind, not for his death, but for lack of feeling 
of his Christ: and therefore, being very careful, he humbly fell down upon his 
knees, and prayed vehemently and earnestly unto the Lord, who at the last (according 
to his old mercies) sent him comfort; and then rose he with great joy, as a man 
new changed even from death to life, and said: "Now, I thank God, I am strong, 
and pass not what man can do unto me." So, going to the stake to his fellows again, 
in the end they all suffered most joyfully, constantly, and manfully the death 
together, and were consumed in fire, to the terror of the wicked, the comfort 
of God's children, and the magnifying of the Lord's name, to whom be praise for 
ever. After this, the foresaid commissary Berry made great stir about others which 
were suspected within the said town of Aylsham, and caused two hundred to creep 
to the cross at Pentecost, besides other punishments which they sustained. On 
the Sunday after queen Mary was dead, being the 19th of November, 1558, the said 
Berry went to church; and in going from church homeward after evensong, he fell 
down suddenly with a heavy groan, and never stirred after, neither showed any 
one token of repent- ance. The Lord grant we may observe his judgments! About 
this time, or somewhat before, was one Joan Seaman, mother to the foresaid William 
Seaman, being of the age of threescore and six years, persecuted of the said sir 
John Tyrrel also out of the town of Men- dlesham, because she would not go to 
mass, and receive against her conscience; which good old woman being from her 
house, was glad sometimes to lie in bushes, groves, and fields, and sometime in 
her neighbour's house. Her husband being at home, about the age of eighty years, 
fell sick; and she hearing thereof, with speed returned home, not regarding her 
life, but considering her duty; and showed her diligence to her husband most faithfully, 
until God took him away by death. Then by God's providence she fell sick also, 
and departed this life within her own house shortly after. And when Symonds the 
commissary heard of it, dwelling thereby, he commanded that she should be buried 
in no Christian burial, (as they call it,) wherethrough her friends were compelled 
to lay her in a pit, under a moat's side. PAGE 960 In the town of Wetheringset 
by Mendlesham, aforesaid, a very honest woman called mother Benet, a widow, was 
persecuted out of the same town because she would not go to mass; but, at the 
last, she returned home again secretly, and there departed this life joyfully. 
But sir John Tyrrel and master Symonds would not let her be buried in the church- 
yard: so was she laid in a grave by the highway side. Thou hast heard, good reader, 
of the forenamed three that were burned at Norwich, whose blood quenched not the 
persecuting thirst of the papists: for immediately after, even the 26th of the 
same month, was seen the like murder at Colchester in Essex, of two good men and 
a woman, lying there in prison appointed ready to the slaughter, whose names were 
William Harris, Richard Day, and Christian George. These three good souls were 
brought unto the stake the day appointed, and there fervently and joyfully made 
their prayers unto the Lord. At the last, being set- tled in their places, and 
chained unto their posts, with the fire flam- ing fiercely round about them, they 
triumphantly praised God within the same, and offered up their bodies a lively 
sacrifice unto his holy Majesty; in whose habitation they have now their everlasting 
taberna- cles: his name therefore be praised for evermore. Amen. The said Christian 
George's husband had another wife burnt before, whose name was Agnes George, which 
suffered, as you have heard, with the thirteen at Stratford-le-Bow. And, after 
the death of the said Chris- tian, he married an honest godly woman again; and 
so they both (I mean the said Richard George and his last wife) in the end were 
taken also, and laid in prison, where they remained till the death of queen Mary; 
and at last were delivered by our most gracious sovereign lady queen Elizabeth, 
whom the Lord grant long to reign among us, for his mercies' sake. Amen. In the 
month of June, 1558, came out a certain proclamation, short but sharp, from the 
king and queen, against wholesome and godly books, which, under the false title 
of heresy and sedition, there in the said proclamation were wrongfully condemned. 
In a back close in a field by Islington, were gathered together a compa- ny of 
innocent persons, to the number of forty men and women. As they were sitting together 
at prayer, and virtuously occupied in the medita- tion of God's holy word, first 
cometh a certain man to them unknown, who looking over unto them, stayed and saluted 
them, saying, that they looked like men that meant no hurt. Then one of the company 
asked the man if he could tell whose close that was, and whether they might be 
so bold to sit there. He answered yes, because they seemed to be such persons 
as intended no harm; and so departed. Within a quarter of an hour after, came 
the constable of Islington, named King, with six or seven more, one with a bow, 
another with a bill, and the rest with weapons. The constable, and one with him, 
went before to view them; and going a little forward, and returning back again, 
ordered them to deliv- er their books. They understanding that he was a constable, 
refused not so to do. Then came up the rest of the gang, who bade them stand and 
not depart. They answered again, they would be obedient and go whithersoever they 
would have them. They accordingly carried them before Sir Roger Cholmley. But 
some of the women had escaped; for they were carried in such a manner as it was 
not difficult for them to escape that would. In PAGE 961 fine, they were carried 
to sir Roger Cholmley were twenty-seven; which sir Roger Cholmley and the recorder 
taking their names in a bill, and calling them one by one, so many as answered 
to their names he sent to Newgate, which were twenty-two. These were in the said 
prison seven weeks before they were examined, to whom word was sent by Alexander 
the keeper, that if they would hear mass, they should be delivered. Of these foresaid 
two-and-twenty were burnt thirteen: in Smithfield seven, at Brentford six. Two 
died in prison in Whitsun week; and the other seven escaped with their lives, 
although not without much trouble, (one of them, named Hinshawe, being scourged 
by Bonner himself, so long as the fat-paunched bishop could endure with breath;) 
yet, as God would, with- out burning. The first seven were brought to examination 
before Bonner in his con- sistory on the 14th of June, to make answer to such 
articles and inter- rogatories as by the said bishop should be ministered unto 
them. The names of these seven were, Henry Pond, Reinald Eastland, Robert Southam, 
Matthew Ricarby, John Floyd, John Holiday, and Roger Holland. After the articles 
were ministered unto them, and they had again given their answers, they were assigned 
by the bishop to appear before him on the 17th day of June. Being there present 
as they were commanded, the arti- cles were again recited, and they all declared 
they would stand to their answers made to the same. Whereupon the bishop dissevering 
them apart one from another, proceeded with them severally, first beginning with 
Reinald Eastland, who there declared that he had been uncharitably handled and 
talked withal since his first imprisonment. Then being required to reconcile himself 
again to the catholic faith, and go from his opinions, he said that he knew nothing 
why he should recant; and therefore would not conform himself. And so the sentence 
was read against him, and he given to the secular power. After him was called 
in John Holiday, who likewise being advertised to renounce his heresies, (as they 
called them,) and to return to the unity of their church, said, that he was no 
heretic, nor did hold any heresy, neither any opinion contrary to the catholic 
faith, and so would offer himself to be judged therein. Whereupon he likewise 
persisting in the same, the sentence was pronounced against him, condemning him 
to be burnt. Next to him was condemned, with the like sentence, Henry Pond, because 
he would not submit to the Romish church, saying to Bonner, that he had done or 
spoken nothing whereof he was or would be sorry; but that he did hold the truth 
of God, and no heresy, etc. After whom next followed John Floyd, who likewise 
denied to be of the pope's church, and said his mind of the Latin service, that 
the prayers made to saints are idolatry, and that the service in Latin is profitable 
to none, but only to such as understand the Latin. Moreover, being charged by 
Bonner of heresy, and saying, that whatsoever he and such others now-a-days do, 
all is heresy; for this he was condemned with the same butcherly sentence. PAGE 
962 Then Robert Southam, after him Matthew Ricarby, and last of all Roger Holland, 
were severally produced. This Roger Holland with his fellows (as ye heard) standing 
to their answers, and refusing to acknowledge the doctrine of the Romish church, 
were altogether condemned, the sentence being read against them; and so all seven, 
by secular magistrates being sent away to Newgate the 17th of June, not long after, 
about the 27th day of the said month, were had to Smithfield, and there ended 
their lives in the glorious cause of Christ's gospel. The day they suffered, a 
proclamation was made that none should be so bold to speak or talk any word unto 
them, or receive anything of them, or to touch them upon pain of imprisonment, 
without either bail or mainprize; with divers other cruel threatening words, contained 
in the same proclamation. Notwith- standing the people cried out, desiring God 
to strengthen them; and they likewise still prayed for the people, and the restoring 
of his word. Not long after the death of the forenamed, were the six other faithful 
witnesses of the Lord's true testament martyred at Brentford, seven miles from 
London, the 14th day of July, in this same year 1558. Their names were Robert 
Mills, Stephen Cotton, Robert Dynes, Stephen Wight, John Slade, and William Pikas 
or Pikes. These six had their articles ministered unto them by Thomas Darbyshire, 
Bonner's chancellor, at sundry times; and though they were several times examined, 
yet had they all one manner of articles administered unto them, yea and the selfsame 
that were ministered unto the other seven aforesaid. In the end, the chancellor 
commanded them to appear before him again the 11th of July after, in the said 
place at Paul's. Where when they came, he required of them whether they would 
turn from their opinions to mother holy church; and if not, that then whether 
there were any cause to the contrary, but that he might proceed with the sentence 
of condemnation. Whereunto they all answered, that they would not go from the 
truth, nor relent from any part of the same while they lived. Then he charged 
them to appear before him again the next day in the afternoon to hear the definitive 
sentence read against them, according to the ecclesiastical laws then in force. 
At which time, he sitting in judgment talking with these godly and virtuous men, 
at last came into the said place sir Edward Hastings and sir Thomas Cornwallis, 
knights, two of queen Mary's officers of her house; and being there, they sat 
them down over against the chancellor, in whose presence the said chan- cellor 
condemned those good poor lambs, and delivered them over to the secular power, 
who received and carried them to prison immediately, and there kept them in safety 
till the day of their death. In the mean time this naughty chancellor slept not, 
I warrant you, but that day in which they were condemned, he made certificate 
into the lord chancellor's office, from whence the next day after was sent a writ 
to burn them at Brentford aforesaid, which accordingly was accomplished in the 
same place, the said 14th day of July; whereunto they being brought, made their 
humble prayers unto the Lord Jesus, undressed themselves, went joyfully to the 
stake, (whereunto they were bound,) and the fire flaming about them, they yielded 
their souls, bodies, and lives into the hands of the omnipotent Lord, for whose 
cause they did suffer, and to whose protection I commend thee, gentle reader. 
Amen. PAGE 963 Among these six was one William Pikes, (as ye have heard,) who 
sometime dwelt in Ipswich in Suffolk, by his occupation a tanner, a very honest 
godly man, and of a virtuous disposition, a good keeper of hospitality, and beneficial 
to the persecuted in queen Mary's days. This said William Pikes, in the third 
year of queen Mary's reign, a little after Midsum- mer, being then at liberty, 
went into his garden, and took with him a Bible of Rogers's translation, where 
he, sitting with his face towards the south, reading on the said Bible, suddenly 
fell down upon his book, between eleven and twelve o'clock of the day, four drops 
of fresh blood, and he knew not from whence it came. Then he, seeing the same, 
was sore astonished, and could by no means learn (as I said) from whence it should 
fall: and wiping out one of the drops with his finger, he called his wife and 
said, "In the virtue of God, wife, what meaneth this? will the Lord have four 
sacrifices? I see well enough the Lord will have blood: his will be done, and 
give me grace to abide the trial! Wife, let us pray," said he, "for I fear the 
day draweth nigh." Afterward, he daily looked to be apprehended of the papists; 
and it came to pass accordingly, as ye have heard. Thus much thought I good to 
write there- of, to stir up our dull senses in considering the Lord's works, and 
reverently to honour the same. His name there-for be praised for ever- more! Amen. 
After the story of these twenty-two taken at Islington, proceeding now, (the Lord 
willing,) we will prosecute likewise the taking and cruel handling of Richard 
Yeoman, minister; which Yeoman had been, before, Dr. Taylor's curate, a godly 
devout old man of seventy years, which had many years dwelt in Hadley, well seen 
in the Scriptures, and giving godly exhortations to the people. With him Dr. Taylor 
left his cure at his departure: but as soon as master Newall had gotten the benefice, 
he drove away good Yeoman, as is before said, and set in a popish curate to maintain 
and continue their Romish religion, which now they thought fully stablished. Then 
wandered he long time from place to place, moving and exhorting all men to stand 
faithfully by God's word, earnestly to give themselves unto prayer, with patience 
to bear the cross now laid upon them for their trial, with boldness to confess 
the truth before the adversaries, and with an undoubted hope to wait for the crown 
and reward of eternal felicity. But when he perceived his adversaries to lie in 
wait for him, he went into Kent, and with a little packet of laces, pins, and 
points, and such like things, he travelled from village to village, selling such 
things; and by that poor shift got himself some- what to the sustaining of himself, 
his wife, and children. At the last, a justice of Kent, called master Moyle, took 
poor Yeoman, and set him in the stocks a day and a night; but having no evident 
matter to charge him with, he let him go again. So came he again to Hadley, and 
tarried with his poor wife, who kept him secretly in a chamber of the town-house, 
commonly called the Guildhall, more than a year; all the which time the good old 
father abode in a chamber, locked up all the day, and spent his time in devout 
prayer, and reading the Scriptures, and in carding of wool, which his wife did 
spin. His wife also did go and beg bread and meat for herself and her children, 
and by such poor means sustained they themselves. Thus the saints of God sus- 
tained hunger and misery, while the prophets of Baal lived in jollity, and were 
costly pampered at Jezebel's table. PAGE 964 At the last parson Newall (I know 
not by what means) perceived that Richard Yeoman was so kept by his poor wife, 
and, taking with him the bailiff's deputies and servants, came in the night-time, 
and brake up five doors upon Yeoman, whom he found in a bed with his poor wife 
and children: whom when he had so found, he irefully cried, saying, "I thought 
I should find a harlot and a whore together." And he would have plucked the clothes 
off from them; but Yeoman held fast the clothes, and said unto his wife, "Wife, 
arise, and put on thy clothes." And unto the parson he said, "Nay parson, no harlot, 
nor whore, but a married man and his wife, according unto God's ordinance; and 
blessed be God for lawful matrimony. I thank God for this great grace, and I defy 
the pope and all his popery." Then led they Richard Yeoman unto the cage, and 
set him in the stocks until it was day. There was then also in the cage an old 
man named John Dale, who had sitten there three or four days, because when the 
said parson Newall with his curate executed the Romish service in the church, 
he spake openly unto him, and said, "O miserable and blind guides, will ye ever 
be blind leaders of the blind? will ye never amend? will ye never see the truth 
of God's word? will neither God's threats nor promises enter into your hearts? 
will the blood of martyrs nothing mollify your stony stomach? O indurate, hard-hearted, 
perverse, and crooked generation! O damnable sort, whom nothing can do good unto!" 
These and like words he spake in ferventness of spirit against the superstitious 
religion of Rome. Wherefore, parson Newall caused him forthwith to be attached, 
and set in the stocks in the cage. So was he there kept till sir Henry Doyle, 
a justice, came to Hadley. Now when poor Yeoman was taken, the parson called earnestly 
upon sir Henry Doyle to send them both to prison. Sir Henry Doyle earnestly laboured 
and entreated the parson, to consider the age of the men, and their poor estate: 
they were persons of no reputation, nor preachers; wherefore he would desire him 
to let them be punished a day or two, and so to let them go - at the least John 
Dale, who was no priest; and therefore, seeing he had so long sitten in the cage, 
he thought it punishment enough for this time. When the parson heard this, he 
was exceeding mad, and in a great rage called them pestilent heretics, unfit to 
live in the commonwealth of Christians. "Wherefore I beseech you, sir," quoth 
he, "according to your office, defend holy church, and help to suppress these 
sects of heresies, which are false to God, and thus boldly set themselves, to 
the evil example of others, against the queen's gracious proceedings." Sir Henry 
Doyle, seeing he could do no good in the matter, and fearing also his peril, if 
he should too much meddle in this matter, made out the writ, and caused the constables 
to carry them forth to Bury gaol. For now were all the justices, were they never 
so mighty, afraid of every shaven crown, and stood in as much awe of them as Pilate 
did stand in fear of Annas and Caiaphas, and of the Pharisaical brood, which cried, 
"Crucify him, Crucify him! If thou let him go, thou art not Caesar's friend." 
Wherefore, whatsoever their consciences were, yet, if they would escape danger, 
they must needs be the popish bishops' slaves and vassals. So they took Richard 
Yeoman and John Dale, pinioned; and bound them like thieves, set them on horseback, 
and bound their legs under the horses' bellies, and so carried them to the gaol 
at Bury, where they were tied in irons; and for that they continually rebuked 
popery, they were thrown into the lowest dungeon, where John Dale, through sickness 
of the prison, and evil keeping, died in prison, whose body, when he was dead, 
was thrown out and buried in the fields. He was a man of forty-six years of age, 
a weaver by his occupation, well learned in the holy Scriptures, faithful and 
honest in all his conversation, steadfast in confession of the true doctrine of 
Christ set forth in king Edward's time; for the which he joyfully suf- fered prison 
and chains, and from this worldly dungeon he departed in Christ to eternal glory, 
and the blessed paradise of everlasting felicity. PAGE 965 After that John Dale 
was dead, Richard Yeoman was removed to Norwich prison, where, after strait and 
evil keeping, he was examined of his faith and religion. Then he boldly and constantly 
confessed himself to be of the faith and confession that was set forth by the 
late king of blessed memory, holy king Edward the sixth; and from that he would 
in no wise vary. Being required to submit himself to the holy father the pope, 
"I defy him," quoth he, "and all his detestable abominations: I will in no wise 
have to do with him, not anything that appertaineth to him." The chief articles 
objected to him, were his marriage and the mass-sacri- fice. Wherefore when he 
continued steadfast in confession of the truth, he was condemned, degraded, and 
not only burnt, but most cruelly tor- mented in the fire. So ended he his poor 
and miserable life, and entered into the blessed bosom of Abraham, enjoying with 
Lazarus the comfortable quietness that God hath prepared for his elect saints. 
There was also in Hadley a young man, named John Alcock, which came to Hadley 
seeking work, for he was a shearman by his occupation. This young man after the 
martyrdom of Dr. Taylor, and taking of Richard Yeoman, used first in the church 
of Hadley to read the service in English, as partly is above touched. At length, 
after the coming of parson Newall, he, being in Hadley church upon a Sunday, when 
the parson came by with procession, would not once move his cap, nor show any 
sign of reverence, but stood behind the font. Newall, perceiving this, when he 
was almost out of the church door, ran back again, and caught him, and called 
for the constable. Then came Robert Rolfe, with whom this young man wrought, and 
asked, "Master parson! what hath he done, that ye are in such a rage with him?" 
"He is a heretic and a traitor," quoth the parson, "and despiseth the queen's 
proceedings. Wherefore I command you in the queen's name, move him to the stocks, 
and see he be forthcoming." "Well," quoth Rolfe, "he shall be forthcoming: proceed 
you in your business, and be quiet." "Have him to the stocks," quoth the parson. 
"I am constable," quoth Rolfe, "and may bail him, and will bail him; he shall 
not come in the stocks, but he shall be forthcoming." So went the good parson 
forth with his holy procession, and so to mass. At afternoon Rolfe said to this 
young man, "I am sorry for thee, for truly the parson will seek thy destruction, 
if thou take not good heed what thou answerest him." The young man answered, "Sir, 
I am sorry that it is my hap to be a trouble to you. As for myself, I am not sorry, 
but I do commit myself into God's hands, and I trust he will give me mouth and 
wisdom to answer according to right." "Well," quoth Rolfe, "yet beware of him; 
for he is malicious and a blood-sucker, and beareth an old hatred against me; 
and he will handle you the more cruelly, because of displeasure against me." "I 
fear not," quoth the young man. "He shall do no more to me than God will give 
him leave; and happy shall I be if God will call me to die for his truth's sake." 
PAGE 966 After this talk, they then went to the parson, who at the first asked 
him, "Fellow, what sayest thou to the sacrament of the altar?" "I say,"quoth he, 
"as ye use the matter, ye make a shameful idol of it; and ye are false idolatrous 
priests all the sort of you." "I told you," quoth the parson, "he was a stout 
heretic." So after long talk, the parson committed him to ward, and the next day 
rode he up to London, and carried the young man with him. And so came the young 
man no more again to Hadley; but, after long imprisonment in Newgate, where, after 
many examinations and troubles, for that he would not submit himself to ask forgiveness 
of the pope, and to be reconciled to the Romish religion, he was cast into the 
lower dungeon, where with evil keeping and sickness of the house, he died in prison. 
Thus died he a martyr for Christ's verity, which he heartily loved and constantly 
confessed, and received the garland of a well-foughten battle at the hand of the 
Lord. His body was cast out, and buried in a dunghill; for the papist would in 
all things be like themselves. Therefore would they not so much as suffer the 
dead bodies to have honest and convenient sepulture. Thomas Benbridge, a gentleman, 
single and unmarried, in the diocese of Winchester, although he might have lived 
a pleasant life in the posses- sions of this world, yet to follow Christ had rather 
enter into the strait gate of persecution, to the heavenly possession of life 
in the Lord's kingdom, than here to enjoy pleasures present, with unquietness 
of conscience. Wherefore manfully standing against the papist for the defence 
of the sincere doctrine of Christ's gospel, he spared not him- self to confirm 
the doctrine of the gospel. For the which cause he being apprehended for an adversary 
of the Romish religion, was forthwith had to examination before Dr. White, bishop 
of Winchester, where he sus- tained sundry conflicts for the truth against the 
said bishop and his colleagues. The articles being ministered unto him, and he 
continuing steadfast in his answers, the said bishop proceeded to his condemnation. 
After which he was brought to the place of martyrdom by the sheriff, sir Richard 
Pecksal; where he, standing at the stake, began to untie his points, and to prepare 
himself. Then he gave his gown to the keeper, being belike his fee. His jerkin 
was laid on with gold lace, fair and brave, which he gave to sir Richard Pecksal, 
the high sheriff. His cap of velvet he took off from his head, and threw it away. 
Then lifting his mind to the Lord, he made his prayers. That done, being now fastened 
to the stake, Dr. Seaton willed him to recant, and he should have his pardon. 
But when he saw it prevailed not to speak, the said dreaming and doltish doctor 
willed the people not to pray for him unless he would recant, no more than they 
would pray for a dog. PAGE 967 Master Benbridge, standing at the stake with his 
hands together in such manner as the priest holdeth his hands in his memento, 
the said Dr. Seaton came to him again, and exhorted him to recant: unto whom he 
said, "Away, Babylonian, away!" Then said one that stood by, "Sir, cut out his 
tongue;" and another, being a temporal man, railed on him worse than Dr. Seaton 
did a great deal, who, as is thought, was set on by some other. Then when they 
saw he would not yield, they bade the tormentors to set to fire; and yet he was 
nothing like covered with fagots. First, the fire took away a piece of his beard, 
whereat he nothing shrank at all. Then it came on the other side, and took his 
legs; and the nether stock- ings of his hose being leather, made the fire to pierce 
the sharper so that the intolerable heat thereof made him to cry, "I recant." 
And suddenly therewith he thrust the fire from him; and having two or three of 
his friends by, that wished his life, they stepped to the fire, and helped to 
take it from him also; who for their labour were sent to prison. The sheriff also 
of his own authority took him from the stake, and sent him to prison again, for 
the which he was sent unto the Fleet, and there lay a certain time. But before 
he was taken from the stake, the said Seaton wrote articles to have him to subscribe 
unto them, as touching the pope, the sacrament, and such other trash. But the 
said master Benbridge made much ado ere he would subscribe them, insomuch that 
Dr. Seaton willed them to set to fire again. Then with much pain and grief of 
heart he subscribed to them upon a man's back. That being done, he had his gown 
given him again, and so was led to prison. Being in prison he wrote a letter to 
Dr. Seaton, and recanted those words he spake at the stake, unto which he had 
subscribed; for he was grieved that ever he did subscribe unto them. Thereupon 
expressing his con- science, he was, the same day seven-night after, burnt indeed, 
where the vile tormentors did rather broil him than burn him. The Lord give his 
enemies repentance! In the last year of queen Mary's reign, Dr. Hopton being bishop 
of Norwich, and Dr. Spenser bearing the room of his chancellor, about St. James's 
tide, at St. Edmund's Bury were wrongfully put to death four Christian martyrs: 
to wit, John Cooke, a sawyer; Robert Milles, alias Plummer, shearman; Alexander 
Lane, wheelwright; and James Ashley. Master Noone, a justice in Suffolk, dwelling 
in Martlesham, hunting after good men to apprehend them, at the length had understanding 
of one Gouch of Woodbridge, and Driver's wife of Grundisburgh, to be at Grun- 
disburgh together, a little from his house; and immediately took his men with 
him, and went thither, and made diligent search for them, where the poor man and 
woman were compelled to step into an hay-golph, to hide themselves from their 
cruelty. At the last they came to search the hay for them, and by gauging thereof 
with pitchforks at the last found them: so they took them, and led them to Melton 
gaol, where they, remaining a time, at the length were carried to Bury, against 
the assizes at St. James's tide; and being there examined of matters of faith, 
did boldly stand to confess Christ crucified, defying the pope, with all his papis- 
tical trash. Among other things, Driver's wife likened queen Mary in her persecution 
to Jezebel; for which cause sir Clement Higham, being chief judge there, adjudged 
her ears immediately to be cut off, which was accomplished accordingly; and she 
joyfully yielded herself to the pun- ishment, and thought herself happy that she 
was counted worthy to suffer anything for the name of Christ. PAGE 968 After the 
assize at Bury, they were carried to Melton gaol again, where they remained a 
time. From thence they were carried to Ipswich; and there examined before Dr. 
Spenser, the chancellor of Norwich, chiefly of the sacrament and other ceremonies 
of the popish church. They were both condemned, committed to the secular power, 
and burnt at Ipswich the 4th day of November. Being come to the place where the 
stake was set, by seven of the clock in the morning, (notwithstanding they came 
the self- same morning from Melton gaol, which is six miles from Ipswich,) being 
in their prayers, and singing of psalms both of them together, sir Henry Dowell 
then being sheriff, was very much offended with them, and willed the bailiffs 
to bid them make an end of their prayers, (they kneeling upon a broom fagot.) 
Then one of the bailiffs commanded them to make an end, saying, "On, on, have 
done; make an end; nail them to the stake:" yet they continued in prayer. Then 
sir Henry sent one of his men, that they should make an end. Then Gouch stood 
up and said unto the sheriff, "I pray you, master sheriff, let us pray a little 
while, for we have but a little time to live here;" and the sheriff said, "Come 
off, have them to the fire!" Then the said Gouch and Alice Driver said, "Why, 
master sheriff and master bailiff, will you not suffer us to pray?" "Away," said 
sir Henry; "to the stake with them!" Gouch answered, "Take heed, master sheriff. 
If you forbid prayer, the vengeance of God hangeth over your heads." Then they 
being tied to the stake, and the iron chain being put about Alice Driver's neck, 
"Oh!" said she, "here is a goodly neckerchief; blessed be God for it." Then divers 
came and took them by the hand as they were bound, standing at the stake. The 
sheriff cried, "Lay hands on them, lay hands on them!" With that a great number 
ran to the stake; and the sheriff, seeing that, let them all alone, so that there 
was not one taken. Although our history hasteth apace (the Lord be praised) to 
the happy death of queen Mary, yet she died not so soon, but some there were burnt 
before, and more should have been burnt soon after then, if God's provi- dence 
had not prevented her with death. In the number of them which suffered in the 
same month when queen Mary died, were three that were burnt at Bury, whose names 
were Philip Humfrey, John David, and Henry David, his brother. Although in such 
an innumerable company of godly martyrs, which in sundry quarters of this realm 
were put to torments of fire in queen Mary's time, it be hard so exactly to recite 
every particular person that suffered, but that some escape us, either unknown 
or omitted; yet I cannot pass over a certain poor woman, the wife of one Prest, 
dwelling not far from Launceston, burnt under the said reign in the city of Exeter. 
She dwelt sometime about Cornwall, having a husband and children there much addicted 
to the superstitious sect of popery, who many times drove her to the church, to 
their idols and ceremonies, to shrift, to follow the cross in procession, to give 
thanks to God for restoring antichrist again in this realm, etc.; which, when 
her spirit could not longer abide to do, she departed from them, seeking her living 
by labour and spinning as well as she could, here and there for a time. At length 
she was brought home to her husband, where she was accused by her neigh- bours, 
and so brought to Exeter to be presented before the bishop and his clergy. The 
name of the bishop was Turberville: his chancellor (as I gather) was Blackstone. 
The chiefest matter whereupon she was charged and condemned was for the sacrament 
(which they call of the altar,) and for speaking against idols. Blackstone and 
others persuaded the bishop that she was a mazed crea- ture, and not in her perfect 
wit, (which is no new thing for the wisdom of God to appear foolishness to carnal 
men of this world;) and therefore they consulted together that she should have 
liberty. So the keeper of the bishop's prison had her home to his house, where 
she fell to spin- ning and carding, and did all other work as a servant in the 
said kee- per's house, and went about the city, when and whither she would, and 
divers had delight to talk with her. And ever she continued talking of the sacrament 
of the altar, which of all things they could least abide. Then was her husband 
sent for, but she refused to go home with him. PAGE 969 After that, divers of 
the priests had her in handling, persuading her to leave her wicked opinion about 
the sacrament of the altar, the natural body and blood of our Saviour Christ. 
But she made them answer, that it was nothing but very bread and wine, and that 
they might be ashamed to say that a piece of bread should be turned by a man into 
the natural body of Christ, which bread doth vinow [grow musty], and mice oftentimes 
do eat it, and it doth mould and is burned: "And," said she, "God's own body will 
not be so handled, nor kept in prison, or boxed, or aumbries. Let it be your God, 
it shall not be mine; for my Saviour sitteth on the right hand of God, and doth 
pray for me. And to make that sacramental or significative bread, instituted for 
a remembrance, the very body of Christ, and to worship it, it is very foolishness 
and devilish deceit." "Now truly," said they, "the devil hath deceived thee." 
"No," said she, "I trust the living God hath opened mine eyes, and caused me to 
under- stand the right use of the blessed sacrament, which the true church doth 
use, but the false church doth abuse." Much other talk there was between her and 
them, which here were two tedious to be expressed. In the mean time, during this 
her month's liberty granted to her by the bishop, it happened that she entering 
into St. Peter's church, beheld there a cunning Dutchman, how he made new noses 
to certain fine images which were disfigured in king Edward's time: "What a mad 
man art thou," said she, "to make them new noses, which within a few days shall 
all lose their heads." The Dutchman accused her, and laid it hard to her charge; 
and then was she sent for, and clapped fast; and after that time she had no more 
liberty. During the time of her imprisonment divers resorted to her, some sent 
of the bishop, some of their own voluntary will; and albeit she was of such simplicity, 
and without learning, yet you could declare no place of Scripture but she would 
tell you the chapter; yea, she would recite you the names of all the books in 
the Bible. At the last, when they perceived her to be past remedy, and had consumed 
all their threatenings, that neither by prisonment nor liberty, by menaces nor 
flattery, they could bring her to sing any other song, nor win her to their vanities 
and superstitious doings, then they cried out, "An Anabaptist, an Anabaptist!" 
Then, at a day, they brought her from the bishop's prison to the Guildhall; and 
after that delivered her to the temporal power, according to their custom, where 
she was by the gentlemen of the country exhorted yet to call for grace, and to 
leave her foul opinions. In fine, when they had played the part of the cat with 
the mouse, they at length condemned her, and delivered her over to the secular 
power. Then the indictment being given and read, which was, that she should go 
to the place whence she came, and from thence be led to the place of execution, 
then and there to be burned with flames till she should be consumed, she lifted 
up her voice, and thanked God, say- ing, "I thank thee, my Lord, my God; this 
day have I found that which I have long sought. But such outcries as there were 
again, and such mock- ings, were never seen upon a poor silly woman; all which 
she most pa- PAGE 970 tiently took. Then was she delivered to the sheriff; and 
innumerable people beholding her, she was led by the officers to the place of 
execu- tion, without the walls of Exeter, called Southernhay, where again these 
superstitious priests assaulted her; and she prayed them to have no more talk 
with her, but cried still, "God be merciful to me a sinner, God be merciful to 
me a sinner!" And so, while they were tying her to the stake, thus still she cried, 
and would give no answer to them; but with much patience took her cruel death, 
and was with the flames and fire consumed. Thus was the mortal life ended of as 
constant a woman in the faith of Christ as ever was upon earth; for whose constancy 
God be everlastingly praised. Amen. In writing of the blessed saints which suffered 
in the bloody days of queen Mary, I had almost overpassed the names and story 
of three godly martyrs, which with their blood gave testimony likewise to the 
gospel of Christ, being condemned and burnt in the town of Bristol: Richard Sharp, 
Thomas Benion, and Thomas Hale. First, Richard Sharp, weaver, of Bristol, was 
brought the 9th day of March, anno 1556, before master Dalby, chancellor of the 
town or city of Bristol; and, after examination, concerning the sacrament of the 
altar, was persuaded by the said Dalby and others to recant; and the 29th of the 
same month was enjoined to make his recantation before the parish- ioners in his 
parish church. Which when he had done, he felt in his conscience such a tormenting 
hell, that he was not able quietly to work in his occupation, but decayed and 
changed both in colour and liking of his body; who shortly after, upon Sunday, 
came into his parish church, called Temple, and after high mass, came to the choir-door, 
and said with a loud voice, "Neighbours! bear me record that yonder idol," and 
pointed to the altar, "is the greatest and most abominable that ever was; and 
I am sorry that ever I denied my Lord God." Then the constables were commanded 
to apprehend him; but none stepped forth, but suffered him to go out of the church. 
After, by night, he was apprehended and carried to Newgate; and shortly after 
he was brought before the lord chancellor, denying the sacrament of the altar 
to be the body and blood of Christ; and said, it was an idol; and therefore was 
condemned to be burnt, by the said Dalby. He was burnt the 7th of May, 1557; and 
died godly, patiently, and constantly, confessing the articles of our faith. The 
Thursday, in the night, before Easter, anno 1557, came one master David Herris, 
alderman, and John Stone, to the house of one Thomas Hale, a shoemaker of Bristol, 
and caused him to rise out of his bed, and brought him forth of his door. To whom 
the said Thomas Hale said, "You have sought my blood these two years, and now 
much good do you with it:" who, being committed to the watchman, was carried to 
Newgate the 24th of April, the year aforesaid, was brought before master Dalby 
the chancel- lor, committed by him to prison, and after by him condemned to be 
burnt, for saying the sacrament of the altar to be an idol. He was burned the 
7th of May with the foresaid Richard Sharp; and godly, patiently, and constantly 
embraced the fire with his arms. Richard Sharp and Thomas Hale were bound back 
to back. PAGE 971 Thomas Benion, a weaver, at the commandment of the commissioners, 
was brought by a constable the 13th day of August, anno 1557, before master Dalby, 
chancellor of Bristol, who committed him to prison for saying there was nothing 
but bread in the sacrament, as they used it. Where- fore, the 20th day of the 
said August, he was condemned to be burnt by the said Dalby, for denying five 
of their sacraments, and affirming two, that is, the sacrament of the body and 
blood of Christ, and the sacra- ment of baptism. He was burnt the 27th of the 
said month and year; and died godly, constantly, and patiently, with confessing 
the articles of our Christian faith. The last that suffered in queen Mary's time, 
were five at Canterbury, burnt about six days before the death of queen Mary, 
whose names follow hereunder written: John Corneford, of Wrotham; Christopher 
Brown, of Maidstone; John Herst, of Ashford; Alice Snoth; and Katherine Knight, 
otherwise called Katherine Tynley, an aged woman. These five (to close up the 
final rage of queen Mary's persecution,) for the testimony of that word for which 
so many had died before, gave up their lives meekly and patiently, suffering the 
violent malice of the papists; which pa- pists, although they then might have 
either well spared them, or else deferred their death, knowing of the sickness 
of queen Mary; yet such was the archdeacon of Canterbury the same time being at 
London, and understanding the danger of the queen, incontinently made all post-haste 
home to despatch these, whom, before then, he had in his cruel custody. The matter 
why they were judged to the fire was for confessing that an evil man doth not 
receive Christ's body, "Because no man hath the Son except it be given him of 
the Father." That it is idolatry to creep to the cross; and St. John forbidding 
it, saith, "Beware of images." For confessing that we should not pray to our Lady, 
and other saints, be- cause they be not omnipotent. For these and other such articles 
of Christian doctrine were these five condemned. Against whom when the sentence 
should be read, and they excommunicate, after the manner of the papist, John Corneford, 
stirred with a vehement spirit of the zeal of God, proceeding in a more true excommunication 
against the papist, in the name of them all, pronounced sentence against them 
in these words as follow: "In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the 
most mighty God, and by the power of his Holy Spirit, and the authority of his 
holy catholic and apostolic church, we do here give into the hands of Satan, to 
be destroyed, the bodies of all those blasphemers and heretics that do maintain 
any error against his most holy word, or do condemn his most holy truth for heresy, 
to the maintenance of any false church or feigned religion; so that by this thy 
just judgment, O most mighty God, against thy adversaries, thy true religion may 
be known to thy great glory and our comfort, and to the edifying of all our nation. 
Good Lord, so be it." These godly martyrs, in their prayers which they made before 
their martyrdom, desired God that their blood might be the last that should shed, 
and so it was. If bloody torments and cruel death of a poor innocent, suffering 
for no cause of his own, but in the truth of Christ and his religion, do make 
a martyr, no less deserveth the child of one John Fetty to be reputed in the catalogue, 
who in the house of bishop Bonner unmercifully was scourged to death, as by the 
sequel of this story here following may appear. PAGE 972 Amongst the persecuted 
for the gospel, and yet delivered by the inter- posing Providence of God, was 
John Fetty, a poor man dwelling in Clerkenwell. He was accused unto one Brokenbury, 
a parson of the same parish, by his own wife, because he would not come to the 
church, and be partaker of their idolatry; and therefore, through the said priest's 
procurement, he was apprehended. However, immediately upon his apprehen- sion, 
his wife, apparently by the just judgment of God, was stricken mad, which declared 
a dreadful example of the justice of God against such unnatural treachery. And 
although this example little moved the consciences of these men to cease their 
persecution, yet natural pity towards that ungrateful woman so wrought in their 
hearts, that for the preservation and support of her and her two children, they 
for the present let her husband alone, and would not carry him to prison, but 
suffered him to remain quietly in his house. During this time, forget- ting the 
unkind fact of his wife, he did yet so cherish and provide for her, that within 
the space of three weeks she had recovered some stay of her wit and sense. But 
such was the power of Satan in the malicious heart of the woman, that so soon 
as she had recovered her health she did again accuse her husband; whereupon he 
was the second time apprehended, and carried before Sir John Mordaunt, one of 
the queen's commissioners, and he upon examination sent him unto the Lollards' 
Tower; where he was put into the stocks. After Fetty had thus lain in prison for 
fifteen days, hanging in the stocks, sometimes by one leg and one arm, sometimes 
by the other, and sometimes by both, it happened that one of his children, a boy 
of the age of eight or nine years, came unto the bishop's house to speak with 
his father. At his coming thither, one of the bishop's chaplains met with him, 
and asked him what he would have. The child answered, that he came to see his 
father; the chaplain asked again who was his father. The boy then told him, and 
pointing towards Lollards' Tower, shewed him that his father was there in prison. 
"Why," said the priest, "thy father is a heretic!" The child being of a bold and 
quick spirit, answered, "My father is no heretic; for you have Balaam's mark!" 
On that the priest took the child by the hand, and carried him into the bishop's 
house, where amongst them they did most shamefully, and without pity, so whip 
and scourge this tender child, that he was in one gore of blood. They then caused 
Cluny, having his coat upon his arm, to carry the child in his shirt unto his 
father in prison. PAGE 973 On his coming to his father the child fell upon his 
knees and asked his blessing. The poor man, seeing him so cruelly arrayed, cried 
out for sorrow, and said, "Alas, who hath done this to thee?" The boy then explained; 
and while his father was condoling with him, Cluny violently plucked him out of 
his hands, and carried him back into the bishop's house, where they kept him three 
days after. At the three days end, Bonner (minding to make the matter whole, and 
somewhat to appease the poor man for this their horrible fact) determined to release 
him; and therefore caused him early in the morning to be brought out of Lollards' 
Tower into his bed-chamber. While this Fetty was there waiting, he espied hanging 
about the bishop's bed a great pair of black beads: whereupon he said, "My lord, 
I think the hangman is not far off; for the halter" (pointing to the beads) "is 
here already." At which words the bishop was in a marvellous rage. Then, immediately 
after, Fetty espied a little crucifix, and asked the bishop what it was; and he 
answered that it was Christ. "Was he handled so cruelly as he is here pictured?" 
quoth Fetty. "Yea, that he was," said the bishop. "And even so cruelly," replied 
the other, "will you handle such as come before you. For you are unto God's people 
as Caiaphas was unto Christ." The bishop being in a great fury, said, "Thou are 
a vile heretic; and I will burn thee, or else I will spend all that I have, unto 
my gown." "Nay, my lord," said Fetty, "ye were better to give it a poor body, 
that he may pray for you." But yet Bonner, bethinking in himself of the danger 
that the child was in by their whipping, and what peril might ensue thereupon, 
thought better to discharge him. Whereupon, after this and such like talk, the 
bishop at last willed him to go home, and carry his child with him; which he so 
did, and that with a heavy heart, to see his poor boy in such extreme pain and 
grief. But within fourteen days after, the child died, whether through this cruel 
scourging or other infirmity, I know not. But howsoever it was, the Lord yet used 
their cruel and detestable fact as a means of his providence for the delivery 
of this good poor man and faithful Christian: his name be ever praised there-for. 
Amen. Among those who were persecuted, and yet escaped and passed through the 
pikes, (being yet, as I hear say, alive,) was one Elizabeth Young, who, coming 
from Embden to England, brought with her divers books, and dis- persed them abroad 
in London: for the which she being at length espied and laid fast, was brought 
to examination thirteen times before the catholic inquisitors of heretical pravity. 
Her first examination was before one master Hussy, who examined her of many things: 
first, where she was born, who was her father and mother. Young. Sir, all this 
is but vain talk, and very superfluous. It is to fill my head with fantasies, 
that I should not be able to answer such things as I came for. You have not, I 
think, put me in prison to know who is my father and mother. But, I pray you, 
go to the matter I came hither for. Hussy. Wherefore wentest thou out of the realm? 
and when wast thou at mass? Young. To keep my conscience clean, I departed; and 
have not been at mass these three years. Hussy. Then wast thou not there three 
years before that? how old art thou? Young. No, Sir, nor yet three years before 
that: for if I were I had evil luck. I am forty years old and upwards. Hussy. 
Twenty of those years you went to mass: why not go now? PAGE 974 Young. Yea, and 
twenty more I may, and yet come home as wise as I went thither first, for I understand 
it not. My conscience will not suffer me: for I had rather all the world should 
accuse me than mine own con- science. Hussy. What if an insect stick upon thy 
skin, and bite thy flesh? thou must make a conscience in taking her off, is there 
not a conscience in it? Young. That is but a sorry argument to displace the scriptures, 
and especially in such a part as my salvation dependeth upon; for it is but an 
easy conscience that a man can make. Hussy. But why wilt thou now swear upon the 
evangelists before a judge? Young. Because I know not what a book-oath is. Then 
he began to teach her the book-oath. Young. Sir, I do not understand it, and therefore 
I will not learn it. "Thou wilt not understand it," said he; and with that he 
went his way. At her second examination before Dr. Martin, he said to her, "Thou 
rebel and traitorly whore, thou shalt be so racked and handled, that thou shalt 
be an example to all such traitorly whores and heretics; and thou shalt be made 
to swear by the holy evangelists, and confess to whom thou hast sold all and every 
one of these heretical books that thou hast sold: for we know what number thou 
hast sold and to whom; but thou shalt be made to confess it in spite of thy blood." 
Young. Here is my carcase: do with it what you will. And more than that you cannot 
have, master Martin: ye can have no more but my blood. Then said he, "Martin! 
Why callest thou me Martin?" Young. Sir, I know well enough: for I have been before 
you ere now. You delivered me once at Westminster. Martin. Were didst thou dwell 
then? Young. I dwelt in the Minories. Martin. I delivered thee and thy husband 
both; and I thought then, that thou wouldest have done otherwise than thou dost 
now. For if thou hadst been before any bishop in England, and said the words that 
thou didst before me, thou hadst fried a fagot: and though thou didst not burn 
then, thou art like to burn or hang now. Young. Sir, I promised you then, that 
I would never be fed with an unknown tongue, and no more will I yet. Martin. I 
shall feed thee well enough. Thou shalt be fed with that (I warrant thee) which 
shall be smally to thine ease. Young. Do what God shall suffer you to do: for 
more ye shall not. And then he arose, and so departed, and went to the keeper's 
house, and said to the wife, "Whom hast thou suffered to come to this vile traitor- 
ly whore and heretic, to speak with her?" Then said she, "As God receive my soul, 
here came neither man, woman, nor child to ask for her." Martin. If any man, woman, 
or child come to ask for her, I charge thee, in pain of death, that they be laid 
fast; and give her one day bread, and another day water. Young. If ye take away 
my meat, I trust God will take away my hunger. PAGE 975 And so he departed and 
said, "that was too good for her:" and then was she shut up under two locks in 
the Clink where she was before, unto the time of further examinations: for she 
was brought before the bishop, the dean, and the chancellor, and other commissioners, 
first and last, thirteen times. In her fifth examination before the bishop's chancellor, 
he asked her, "When thou receivest the sacrament of the altar, dost thou not believe 
that thou dost receive Christ's body?" Young. Sir, when I do receive the sacrament 
which Christ instituted the night before he was betrayed, and left to his disciples, 
I believe that spiritually and by faith I receive Christ. And of this sacrament, 
I know Christ himself to be the author, and none but he. And this same sacrament 
is an establishment to my conscience, and an augmenting to my faith. Chan. Why, 
did not Christ take bread, and give thanks, and brake it, and gave it to his disciples, 
saying - "Take, eat, this is my body that is given for you?" Did he give them 
his body, or no? Young. He also took the cup, and gave thanks to his Father, and 
gave it to his disciples, saying - "Drink ye all hereof: for this it the cup of 
the new Testament in my blood, which shall be shed for many." Now, I pray you, 
sir, let me ask you one question: Did he give the cup the name of his blood, or 
the wine that was in the cup? Chan. Dost thou think that thou hast a hedge-priest 
in hand? Young. No, sir, I take you not to be a hedge-priest; I take you for a 
doctor. Chan. So I think. Thou wilt take upon thee to teach me. Young. No, sir, 
but I let you know what I know; and by argument one shall know more. Christ said 
- "As oft as ye do this, do it in remem- brance of me;" but a remembrance is not 
of a thing present, but absent. Likewise St. Paul saith - "So oft as ye shall 
eat of this bread and drink of this cup, ye shall shew forth the Lord's death 
till he come;" then we must not look for him here, until his coming again at the 
latter day. Again, is not this article of our belief true - "He sitteth at the 
right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence he shall come to judge both 
the quick and the dead?" But if he come not before he come to judgment, how then 
is he present in your sacrament of the altar? Where- fore I believe that the human 
body of Christ occupieth no more than one place at once: for when he was here, 
he was not there. In this year, 1558, thirty-nine persons were brought to the 
stake: and the whole number burnt during the reign of Mary, amounted to two hundred 
and eighty-four; and near four hundred fell a sacrifice on these sad occasions, 
including those who died by imprisonment and famine. There were burnt, five bishops, 
twenty-one divines, eight gentlemen, eighty- four artificers, one hundred husbandmen, 
servants, and labourers, twen- ty-six wives, twenty widows, nine virgins, two 
boys, and two infants. Sixty-four more were persecuted for their religion, whereof 
seven were whipped, sixteen perished in prison, and twelve were buried in dunghills. 
It is to be observed, that the persecution raged most in Bonner's diocese (London) 
and in Kent. Several protestant books printed on the continent, were secretly 
conveyed to England; upon which a pro- clamation was issued, enacting, that any 
person who might receive such books, and did not instantly burn them, without 
either reading, or shewing them to any person, should be forthwith executed by 
hath been said and told touching the admirable working of God's present hand in 
defending and delivering any one person out of thraldom, never was there since 
the memory of our father any example wherein the Lord's mighty power hath more 
admirably and blessedly showed itself than in the miraculous custody and outscape 
of the lady Elizabeth, in the strait time of queen Mary her sister. The princess 
Elizabeth was born at Greenwich anno 1533, being the daughter of Henry the eighth 
and his queen Anne Boleyn. She was baptized in the Grey Friars' church at Green- 
wich, having to her godfather Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury. After 
that, she was committed to godly tutors and governors, under whom she increased 
in all manner of virtue and knowledge of learning. One of her schoolmasters reported 
of her to a friend, that he learned every day more of her than she of him: "I 
teach her words," quoth he, "and she me things. I think she is best inclined and 
disposed of any in all Europe." Likewise an Italian, which taught her his tongue, 
said once, that he found in her two qualities, which are never, lightly, yokefellows 
in one woman; which were, a singular wit, and a marvellous meek stomach. When 
Mary was first queen, before she was crowned, she would go no whither but would 
have the lady Elizabeth by the hand, and send for her to dinner and supper; but, 
after she was crowned, she never dined nor supped with her, but kept her aloof 
from her. After this it happened upon the rising of sir Thomas Wyat, that the 
lady Elizabeth, at that time lying in queen Mary's house at Ashridge, and the 
lord Courteney were charged with false suspicion. Whereupon the queen, whether 
for that surmise, or for what other cause I know not, the next day after sent 
to her three of her councillors; and howbeit she was then very sick, they willed 
her to prepare against the next morning, at nine of the clock, to go with them 
to London. On the next morrow, at the time prescribed, they had her forth as she 
was, very faint and feeble, and in such case that she was ready to swoon three 
or four times between them. Proceeding in her journey from Ashridge, all sick 
in the litter, she came to Redbourn, where she was guarded all night. From thence 
to St. Alban's, to Ralph Rowlet's house, where she tarried that night, both feeble 
in body and comfortless in mind. From that place they passed to master Dodde's 
house at Mimms, where also they remained that night: and so from thence she came 
to Highgate, where she, being very sick, tarried that night and the next day; 
during which time there came many pursuivants and messengers from the court, but 
for what purpose I cannot tell. From that place she was conveyed to the court, 
where by the way came to meet her many gen- tlemen, accompanying her highness, 
which were very sorry to see her in that case. But especially a great multitude 
of people by the way, flock- ing about her litter, lamented and bewailed greatly. 
PAGE 977 Now when she came to the court, her grace was straightways shut up, and 
kept as close prisoner a fortnight, seeing neither king nor queen, nor lord nor 
friend, all that time; but only the lord chamberlain, sir John Gage, and the vide-chamberlain, 
which were attendant unto the doors. The Friday before Palm Sunday, the bishop 
of Winchester, with nineteen other of the council, came unto her from the queen, 
and burdened her with Wyat's conspiracy, which she utterly denied, affirming that 
she was altogether guiltless therein. They, being not contented with this, charged 
her with business made by sir Peter Carew, and the rest of the gentlemen of the 
west country: which also she utterly denying, cleared her innocency therein. In 
conclusion, after long debating of matters, they declared unto her that it was 
the queen's will and pleasure that she should go unto the Tower, while the matter 
was further tried and examined. Whereat she, being aghast, said that she trusted 
the queen's majesty would be a more gracious lady unto her, and that her highness 
would not otherwise con- ceive of her but that she was a true woman: declaring 
furthermore to the lords, that she was innocent in all those matters wherein they 
had burdened her, and desired them therefore to be a further mean to the queen 
her sister, that she might not be committed to so notorious and doleful a place; 
protesting that she would request no favour at her hand if she should be proved 
to have consented unto any such kind of matter as they laid unto her charge. Whereunto 
the lords answered again, that there was no remedy, for that the queen's majesty 
was fully determined that she should go unto the Tower: wherewith the lords departed 
with their caps hanging over their eyes. Within the space of an hour or little 
more, came the lord treasurer, the bishop of Winchester, the lord steward, and 
the earl of Sussex, with the guard; who, warding the next chamber to her, secluded 
all her gentlemen and yeomen, ladies and gentlewoman; saving that for one gentleman-usher, 
three gentlewomen, and two grooms of her chamber, were appointed, in their rooms 
nree other men of the queen's, and three waiting-women to give attendance upon 
her, that none should have access unto her grace. Upon Saturday following, the 
earl of Sussex and one other lord of the council came and certified that forthwith 
she must go unto the Tower, the barge being prepared for her, and the tide now 
ready, which tarrieth for nobody. In heavy mood her grace requested the lords 
that she might tarry another tide, trusting that the next would be better and 
more comfortable; but one of them replied, that neither time nor tide was to be 
delayed. And when she requested that she might be suffered to write to the queen's 
majesty, he answered that he durst not permit that; adding, that in his judgment 
it would rather hurt than profit her grace in so doing. But the other lord, more 
courteous and favourable, (who was the earl of Sussex,) kneeling down, told her 
grace that she should have liberty to write, and, as he was a true man, he would 
deliver it to the queen's highness, and bring an answer of the same, whatsoever 
came thereof. Whereupon she wrote: albeit she could in no case be suffered to 
speak with the queen, to her great discomfort. And thus the time and tide passing 
away that season, they privily appointed all things ready that she should go the 
next tide, which fell about midnight; but for fear she should be taken by the 
way, they durst not. So they stayed till the next day, being Palm Sunday, when 
about nine of the clock these two returned again, declaring it was time for her 
grace to depart. She answered, "If there be no remedy, I must be contented;" willing 
the lords to go on before. Being come forth into the garden, she cast her eyes 
towards the window, thinking to have seen the queen, which she could not. In the 
mean time, commandment was given in all London, that every one should keep the 
church, and carry their palms; while in the mean season she might be conveyed, 
without all recourse of people, into the Tower. PAGE 978 After this she took her 
barge, with the two foresaid lords, three of the queen's gentlewomen, and three 
of her own, her gentleman-usher, and two of her grooms. At landing she first stayed, 
and denied to land at those stairs where all traitors and offenders customably 
used to land, neither well could she, unless she should go over her shoes. The 
lords were gone out of the boat before, and asked why she came not. One of the 
lords went back again to her, and brought word she would not come. Then said one 
of the lords, which shall be nameless, that she should not choose: and because 
it did then rain, he offered to her his cloak, which she, putting it back with 
her hand with a good dash, refused. So she coming out, having one foot upon the 
stair, said, "Here landeth as true a subject, being prisoner, as ever landed at 
these stairs; and before thee, O God! I speak it, having no other friends but 
thee alone." To whom the same lord answered again, that if it were so, it was 
the better for her. At her landing there was a great multitude of their servants 
and warders standing in their order. "What needed all this?" said she. "It is 
the use," said some, "so to be, when any prisoner comes thither." "And if it be," 
quoth she, "for my cause, I beseech you that they may be dismissed." Whereat the 
poor men kneeled down, and with one voice de- sired God to preserve her grace; 
who the next day were released of their cold coats. After this, passing a little 
further, she sat down upon a cold stone, and there rested herself. To whom the 
lieutenant then being said, "Madam, you were best to come out of the rain; for 
you sit un- wholesomely." She then replying, answered again, "It is better sitting 
here than in a worse place; for God knoweth, I know not whither you will bring 
me." With that her gentleman-usher wept: she demanding of him what he meant so 
uncomfortably to use her, seeing she took him to be her comforter, and not to 
dismay her; especially for that she knew her truth to be such, that no man should 
have cause to weep for her. But forth she went into the prison. The doors were 
locked and bolted upon her, which did not a little discomfort and dismay her grace: 
at what time she called to her gentlewoman for her book, desiring God not to suffer 
her to build her foundation upon the sands, but upon the rock, whereby all blasts 
of blustering weather should have no power against her. The doors being thus locked, 
and she close shut up, the lords had great conference how to keep ward and watch, 
every man declaring his own opinion in that behalf, agreeing straitly and circumspectly 
to keep her. PAGE 979 Then one of them, which was the lord of Sussex, swearing 
said, "My lords, let us take heed, and do no more than our commission will bear 
us out in, whatsoever shall happen hereafter. And further, let us consid- er that 
she was the king our master's daughter: and therefore let us use such dealing, 
that we may answer it hereafter, if it shall so happen: for just dealing," quoth 
he, "is always answerable." Whereunto the other lords agreed that it was well 
said of him, and thereupon departed. Being in the Tower, within two days commandment 
was, that she should have mass within her house. One master Young was then her 
chaplain, and because there were none of her men so well learned to help the priest 
to say mass, the mass stayed for that day. Within five days after, the bishop 
of Winchester, Stephen Gardiner with divers others of the council came unto her, 
and examined her of the talk that was at Ashridge, betwixt her and sir James Croft, 
concerning her removing from thence to Donnington-castle, requiring her to declare 
what she meant thereby. At the first she, being so suddenly asked, did not well 
remember any such house; but within awhile, well advising herself, she said, "Indeed, 
I do now remember that I have such a place, but I never lay in it in all my life. 
And as for any that hath moved me there- unto, I do not remember." Then to force 
the matter, they brought forth sir James Croft. The bishop of Winchester demanded 
of her, what she said to that man. She answered, that she had little to say to 
him, or to the rest that were then prison- ers in the Tower. "But my lords," quoth 
she, "you do examine every mean prisoner of me, wherein, methinks, you do me great 
injury. If they have done evil, and offended the queen's majesty, let them answer 
to it accordingly. I beseech you, my lords, join not me, in this sort, with any 
of these offenders. And as concerning my going unto Donnington- castle, I do remember 
that master Hobby and mine officers, and you sir James Croft, had such talk; but 
what is that to the purpose, my lords but that I may go to mine own houses at 
all times?" The lord of Arundel kneeling down, said, "Your grace saith true, and 
certainly we are very sorry that we have so troubled you about so vain matters." 
She then said, "My lords, you do sift me very narrowly: but well I am assured, 
you shall not do more to me than God hath appointed; and so God forgive you all." 
At their departure sir James Croft kneeled down, declaring that he was sorry to 
see the day in which he should be brought as a witness against her grace. "But 
I assure your grace," said he, "I have been marvellously tossed and examined touching 
your highness, which (the Lord knoweth) is very strange to me: for, I take God 
to record before all your honours, I do not know anything of that crime that you 
have laid to my charge, and will thereupon take my death, if I should be driven 
to so strict a trial." After this sort, having lien a whole month there in close 
prison, and being very evil at ease therewithal, she sent for the lord chamberlain, 
and the lord Chandos, to come and speak with her; who coming, she re- quested 
them that she might have liberty to walk in some place, for that she felt herself 
not well. To the which they answered, that they were right sorry that they could 
not satisfy her grace's request: for that they had commandment to the contrary, 
which they durst not in any wise break. Furthermore, she desired of them, if that 
could not be granted, that she might walk but into the queen's lodging. No, nor 
yet that (they answered) could by any means be obtained without a further suit 
to the queen and her council. "Well," said she, "my lords, if the matter be so 
hard, that they must be sued unto for so small a thing, and that friend- ship 
be so strict, God comfort me." And so they departed, she remaining in her old 
dungeon still, without any kind of comfort but only God. PAGE 980 The next day 
after the lord Chandos came again unto her grace, declaring unto her, that he 
had sued unto the council for further liberty. Some of them consented thereunto, 
divers others dissented, for that there were so many prisoners in the Tower. But, 
in conclusion, they did all agree that her grace might walk into those lodgings, 
so that he and the lord chamberlain, and three of the queen's gentlewomen did 
accompany her, the windows being shut, and she not suffered to look out at any 
of them: wherewith she contented herself, and gave him thanks for his good will 
in that behalf. Afterwards there was liberty granted to her grace to walk in a 
little garden, the doors and gates being shut up, which not- withstanding was 
as much discomfort unto her, as the walk in the garden was pleasant and acceptable. 
At which times of her walking there, the prisoners on that side straitly were 
commanded not to speak or look out at the windows into the garden, till her grace 
were gone out again, having, in consideration thereof, their keepers waiting upon 
them for that time. Thus her grace, with this small liberty, contented herself 
in God, to whom be praise there-for. The 5th day of May, the constable of the 
Tower was discharged of his office of the Tower, and one sir Henry Benifield placed 
in his room, a man unknown to her grace, and therefore the more feared; which 
so sudden mutation was unto her no little amaze. He brought with him a hundred 
soldiers, in blue coats, wherewith she was marvellously discomforted, and demanded 
of such as were about her, whether the lady Jane's scaffold were taken away or 
no; fearing, by reason of their coming, lest she should have played her part. 
To whom answer was made, that the scaffold was taken away, and that her grace 
needed not to doubt of any such tyranny; for God would not suffer any such treason 
against her person. Wherewith being contented, but not altogether satisfied, she 
asked who sir Henry Benifield was; and whether he was of that conscience, or no, 
that if her murdering were secretly committed to his charge he would see the execution 
thereof. She was answered, that they were ignorant what manner of man he was. 
Howbeit they persuaded her that God would not suffer such wickedness to proceed. 
"Well," quoth she, "God grant it be so. For thou, O God, canst mollify all such 
tyrannous hearts, and disap- point all such cruel purposes; and I beseech thee 
to hear me, thy crea- ture, which am thy servant and at thy commandment, trusting 
by thy grace ever so to remain." PAGE 981 In conclusion, on Trinity Sunday, being 
the 19th day of May, she was removed from the Tower, the lord treasurer being 
then there, for the lading of her carts, and discharging the place of the same; 
where sir Henry Benifield (being appointed her jailer) did receive her, with a 
company of rake-hells to guard her, besides the lord of Derby's band waiting in 
the country about, for the moonshine in the water. Unto whom at length came my 
lord of Tame, joined in commission with the said sir Henry, for the safe guiding 
of her to prison; and they together conveyed her grace to Woodstock, as hereafter 
followeth. The first day they conducted her to Richmond, where she continued all 
night, being re- strained of her own men, which were lodged in out-chambers, and 
sir Henry Benifield's soldiers appointed in their rooms to give attendance on 
her person. Whereat she being marvellously dismayed, thinking verily some secret 
mischief to be a-working towards her, called her gentleman- usher, and desired 
him with the rest of his company to pray for her: "For this night," quoth she, 
"I think to die." Wherewith he being stricken to the heart, said, "God forbid 
that any such wickedness should be pretended against your grace." So, comforting 
her as well as he could, at last he burst out into tears, and went from her down 
into the court, where were walking the lord of Tame, and sir Henry Benifield. 
Then he, coming to the lord of Tame, (who had proffered to him much friendship,) 
desired to speak with him a word or two; unto whom he familiarly said, he would 
with all his heart. Which when sir Henry, standing by, heard, he asked what the 
matter was. To whom the gentleman- usher answered, "No great matter, sir," said 
he, "but to speak with my lord a word or two." Then when the lord of Tame came 
to him, he spake on this wise: "My lord," quoth he, "you have been always my good 
lord, and so I beseech you to remain. The cause why I come to you at this time 
is, to desire your honour unfeignedly to declare unto me, whether any danger is 
meant towards my mistress this night, or no; that I and my poor fellows may take 
such part as shall please God to appoint: for certainly we will rather die, than 
she should secretly and innocently miscarry." "Marry," said the lord of Tame, 
"God forbid that any such wicked purpose should be wrought; and rather than it 
should be so, I with my men are ready to die at her foot also." And so (praised 
be God) they passed that doleful night, with no little heaviness of heart. Afterwards, 
passing over the water at Richmond, going towards Windsor, her grace espied certain 
of her poor servants standing on the other side, which were very desirous to see 
her. Whom when she beheld, turning to one of her men standing by, she said, "Yonder 
I see certain of my men: go to them and say these words from me, 'Tanquam ovis;'" 
that is, Like a sheep to the slaughter. So she passing forward to Windsor, was 
lodged there that night in the dean of Windsor's house, a place more meet indeed 
for a priest than a princess. And from thence her grace was guarded and brought 
the next night to master Dormer's house, where, much people standing by the way, 
some presented to her one gift, and some another, so that sir Henry was greatly 
moved therewith, and troubled the poor people very sore, for showing their loving 
hearts in such a manner, calling them rebels and traitors, with such vile words. 
Besides, as she passed through the villages, the townsmen rang the bells, as being 
joyful of her coming, thinking verily it had been otherwise than it was indeed, 
as the sequel proved after to the said poor men. For immediately the said sir 
Henry, hearing the same, sent his soldiers thither, who apprehended some of the 
ringers, setting them in the stocks, and other- wise uncourteously misusing other 
some, for their good wills. On the morrow, her grace, passing from master Dormer's, 
(where was, for the time of abode there, a strait watch kept,) came to the lord 
of Tame's house, where she lay all the night, being very princely enter- tained 
both of knights and ladies, gentlemen and gentlewomen. The next day she took her 
journey from Ricot to Woodstock, where she was en- closed, as before in the Tower 
of London, the soldiers guarding and warding both within and without the walls, 
every day to the number of sixty, and in the night, without the walls, forty, 
during the time of PAGE 982 her imprisonment there. At length she had gardens 
appointed for her walk, which was very comfortable to her grace. But always, when 
she did recreate herself therein, the doors were fast locked up, in as strict 
manner as they were in the Tower, being at the least five or six locks between 
her lodging and her walks; sir Henry himself keeping the keys, and trusting no 
man therewith. Whereupon she called him her jailer; and he, kneeling down, desired 
her grace not to call him so, for he was appointed there to be one of her officers. 
"From such officers," quoth she, "good Lord deliver me!" Hearing upon a time out 
of her garden at Woodstock a certain milkmaid singing pleasantly, she said lady 
Elizabeth wished herself to be a milkmaid as she was; saying, that her case was 
better, and life more merry than was hers, in that state as she was. After her 
grace had been there a time, she made suit to the council that she might be suffered 
to write to the queen; which at last was permit- ted. So sir Henry Benifield brought 
her pen, ink, and paper; and stand- ing by her while she wrote, (which he straitly 
observed,) always, she being weary, he would carry away her letters, and bring 
them again when she called for them. In the finishing thereof, he would have been 
mes- senger to the queen of the same; whose request her grace denied, saying, 
one of her own men should carry them; and that she would neither trust him not 
any of his therein. Then he answered again, saying, "None of them durst be so 
bold," he trowed, "to carry her letters, being in that case." "Yes," quoth she, 
"I am assured I have none so dishonest that would deny my request in that behalf, 
but will be willing to serve me now as before." "Well," said he, "my commission 
is to the contrary, and I may not so suffer it." Her grace, replying again, said, 
"You charge me very often with your commission; I pray God, you may justly answer 
the cruel dealing you use towards me." Then he, kneeling down, desired her grace 
to think and consider how he was a servant, and put in trust there by the queen 
to serve her majesty; protesting that if the case was hers, he would as willingly 
serve her grace, as now he did the queen's high- ness. For the which his answer 
her grace thanked him, desiring God that she might never have need of such servants 
as he was; declaring further to him, that his doings towards her were not good 
nor answerable; but more than all the friends he had would stand by. To whom sir 
Henry replied and said, that there was no remedy but his doings must be an- swered, 
and so they should, trusting to make good account thereof. The cause which moved 
her grace so to say, was for that he would not permit her letters to be carried 
four or five days after the writing thereof. But, in fine, he was content to send 
for her gentleman from the town of Woodstock, demanding of him whether he durst 
enterprise the carriage of her grace's letters to the queen, or no: and he answered, 
"Yea, sir, that I dare; and will with all my heart:" whereupon sir Henry, half 
against his stomach, took them unto him. Then about the 8th of June came down 
Dr. Owen and Dr. Wendy, sent by the queen to her grace, for that she was sickly; 
who, ministering to her, and letting her blood, tarried there and attended on 
her grace five or six days. Then she being well amended, they returned again to 
the court, making their good report to the queen and the council of her grace's 
PAGE 983 behaviour and humbleness towards the queen's highness; which her majesty 
hearing, took very thankfully: but the bishops thereat repined, looked black in 
the mouth, and told the queen, they marvelled that she submit- ted not herself 
to her majesty's mercy, considering that she had offend- ed her highness. About 
this time, her grace was requested by a secret friend, to submit herself to the 
queen's majesty, which would be very well taken, and to her great quiet and commodity. 
Unto whom she answered, that she would never submit herself to them, whom she 
never offended. "For," quoth she, "if I have offended and am guilty, I then crave 
no mercy, but the law; which I am certain," quoth she, "I should have had ere 
this, if it could be proved by me. For I know myself (I thank God) to be out of 
the danger thereof, wishing that I were as clear out the peril of my enemies; 
and that I am assured I should not be so locked and bolted up within walls and 
doors as I am. God give them a better mind when it pleaseth him." About this time 
there was a great consulting among the bishops and gentlemen, touching a marriage 
for her grace, which some of the Span- iards wished to be with some stranger, 
that she might go out of the realm with her portion; some saying one thing, and 
some another. A lord, who shall be here nameless, being there, at last said, that 
the king should never have any quiet commonwealth in England, unless her head 
were stricken from the shoulders. Whereunto the Spaniards answered, saying, God 
forbid that their king and master should have that mind, to consent to such a 
mischief. This was the courteous answer of the Spaniards to the Englishmen, speak- 
ing after that sort against their own country. From that day the Span- iards never 
left off their good persuasions to the king, that the like honour he should never 
obtain, as he should in delivering the lady Elizabeth's grace out of prison; whereby 
at length she was happily released from the same. Here is a plain and evident 
example of the good clemency and nature of the king and his councillors toward 
her grace (praised be God there-for!) who moved their hearts therein. Then hereu- 
pon she was sent for, shortly after, to come to Hampton Court. While the said 
lady Elizabeth was a prisoner in the Tower, a writ came down, subscribed with 
certain hands of the council, for her execution; which, if it were certain, as 
it is reported, Winchester (no doubt) was deviser of that mishcievous drift. And, 
doubtless, the same Ahithophel had brought his impious purpose that day to pass, 
had not the fatherly providence of Almighty God (who is always stronger than the 
devil) stirred up master Bridges, lieutenant the same time of the Tower, to come 
in haste to the queen, to give certificate thereof, and to know further her consent 
touching her sister's death. Whereupon it followed, that all that device was disappointed, 
and Winchester's devilish plat- form, which he said he had cast, through the Lord's 
great goodness came to no effect. Now, after these things thus declared, to proceed 
further there where we left before, sir Henry Benifield and his soldiers, with 
the lord of Tame, and sir Ralph Chamberline, guarding and waiting upon her, the 
first night from Woodstock she came to Ricot; in which journey such a mighty wind 
did blow, that her servants were fain to hold down her clothes about her: insomuch 
that her hood was twice or thrice blown from her head. PAGE 984 Whereupon she, 
desiring to return to a certain gentleman's house there near, could not be suffered 
by sir Henry Benifield so to do, but was constrained, under a hedge, to trim her 
head as well as she could. After this, the next night they journeyed to master 
Dormer's, and so to Coin- brooke, where she lay all that night at the George; 
and by the way, coming to Coinbrooke, certain of her grace's gentlemen and yeomen 
met her, to the number of three-score, much to all their comforts, which had not 
seen her grace of long season before: notwithstanding they were commanded, in 
the queen's name, immediately to depart the town, to both their and her grace's 
no little heaviness, who could not be suffered once to speak with them. So that 
night all her men were taken from her, saving her gentleman-usher, three gentlewomen, 
two grooms, and one of her wardrobe, the soldiers watching and warding about the 
house, and she close shut up within her prison. The next day following, her grace 
entered Hampton Court on the back side, into the prince's lodging, the doors being 
shut to her; and she, guarded with soldiers as before, lay there a fortnight at 
the least, ere any had recourse unto her. At length came the lord William Haward, 
who marvellous honourably used her grace. Whereat she took much comfort, and requested 
him to be a mean that she might speak with some of the coun- cil; to whom, not 
long after, came the bishop of Winchester, the lord of Arundel, the lord of Shrewsbury, 
and secretary Peter, who, with great humility, humbled themselves to her grace. 
She again, likewise, saluting them, said, "My lords, I am glad to see you: for 
methinks I have been kept a great while from you desolately, alone. Wherefore 
I would desire you to be a mean to the king and queen's majesties, that I may 
be deliv- ered from prison, wherein I have been kept a long space, as to you, 
my lords, it is not unknown." When she had spoken, Stephen Gardiner, the bishop 
of Winchester, kneeled down, and requested that she would submit herself to the 
queen's grace; and in so doing he had no doubt but that her majesty would be good 
to her. She made answer, that rather than she would so do, she would lie in prison 
all the days of her life; adding, that she craved no mercy at her majesty's hand, 
but rather desired the law, if ever she did offend her majesty in thought, word, 
or deed. "And besides this, in yielding," quoth she, "I should speak against myself, 
and confess myself to be an offender, which I never was, towards her majesty, 
by occasion whereof the king and the queen might ever hereafter conceive of me 
an evil opinion. And therefore I say, my lords, it were better for me to lie in 
prison for the truth, than to be abroad and suspected of my prince." And so they 
departed, promising to declare her message to the queen. On the next day the bishop 
of Winchester came again unto her grace, and kneeling down declared, that the 
queen marvelled that she would so stoutly use herself, not confessing that she 
had offended: so that it should seem that the queen's majesty had wrongfully imprisoned 
her grace. "Nay," quoth the lady Elizabeth, "it may please her to punish me as 
she thinketh good." "Well," quoth Gardiner, "her majesty willeth me to tell you, 
that you must tell another tale ere that you be set at liberty." Her grace answered, 
that she had as lieve be in prison with honesty and truth, as to be abroad suspected 
of her majesty: "and this that I have said, I will," said she, "stand unto; for 
I will never belie myself." PAGE 985 Winchester again kneeled down, and said, 
"Then your grace hath the vantage of me, and other the lords, for your wrong and 
long imprison- ment." "What vantage I have," quoth she, "you know: taking God 
to record, I seek no vantage at your hands for your so dealing with me; but God 
forgive you and me also!" With that the rest kneeled, desiring her grace that 
all might be forgotten, and so departed, she being fast locked up again. A sevennight 
after, the queen sent for her grace, at ten of the clock in the night, to speak 
with her: for she had not seen her in two years before. Yet, for all that, she, 
amazed at the sudden sending for, think- ing it had been worse than afterwards 
it proved, desired her gentlemen and gentlewomen to pray for her; for that she 
could not tell whether ever she should see them again or no. At which time sir 
Henry Benifield with mistress Clarencius coming in, her grace was brought into 
the garden, unto a stair's foot that went into the queen's lodging, her grace's 
gentlewomen waiting upon her, her gentleman-usher and her grooms going before 
with torches: where her gentlemen and gentlewomen being commanded to stay all, 
saving one woman, mistress Clarencius conducted her to the queen's bed-chamber, 
where her majesty was. At the sight of whom her grace kneeled down, and desired 
God to preserve her majesty, not mistrusting but that she should try herself as 
true a subject to- wards her majesty, as ever did any; and desired her majesty 
even so to judge of her: and said, that she should not find her to the contrary, 
whatsoever report otherwise had gone of her. To whom the queen answered, "You 
will not confess your offence, but stand stoutly to your truth: I pray God it 
may so fall out." "If it doth not," quoth the lady Eliza- beth, "I request neither 
favour nor pardon at your majesty's hands." "Well," said the queen, "you stiffly 
still persevere in your truth. Belike you will not confess but that you have been 
wrongfully punished." "I must not say so, if it please your majesty, to you." 
"Why then," said the queen, "belike you will to others." "No, if it please your 
majesty," quoth she, "I have borne the burden, and must bear it. I humbly beseech 
your majesty to have a good opinion of me, and to think me to be your true subject, 
not only from the beginning hitherto, but for ever, as long as life lasteth." 
And so they departed with very few comfortable words of the queen in English: 
but what she said in Spanish, God kno- weth. It is thought that king Philip was 
there behind a cloth, and that he showed himself a very friend in that matter. 
Thus her grace departing, went to her lodging again, and that day seven- night 
was released of sir Henry Benifield, (her jailer as she termed him,) and his soldiers. 
And so her grace being set at liberty from imprisonment, went into the country, 
and had appointed to go with her sir Thomas Pope, one of queen Mary's councillors, 
and one of her gentle- men-ushers, master Gage; and thus straitly was she looked 
to, all queen Mary's time. And this is the discourse of her highness's imprisonment. 
After so great afflictions falling upon this realm from the first begin- ning 
of queen Mary's reign, we are come at length (the Lord be praised!) to the 17th 
day of November, which day as it brought to the persecuted members of Christ rest 
from their mourning, so it easeth me somewhat likewise of my labourious writing, 
by the death, I mean, of queen Mary; who, being long sick before, upon the said 
17th day of November, 1558, PAGE 986 about three or four o'clock in the morning 
yielded life to nature, and her kingdom to queen Elizabeth her sister. As touching 
the manner of her death, some say that she died of a tympany, some (by her much 
sighing before her death) supposed she died of thought and sorrow. Whereupon her 
council, seeing her sighing, and desirous to know the cause that they might minister 
the more ready consolation, feared, as they said, that she took that thought for 
the king's majesty her husband, which was gone from her. To whom she said, "Indeed 
that may be one cause, but that is not the greatest wound that pierceth my oppressed 
mind:" but what that was she would not express to them. Albeit, afterward, she 
opened the matter more plainly to master Rise and mistress Clarencius (if it be 
true that they told me, which heard it of master Rise himself;) who being familiar 
with her and most bold about her, said also that they feared she took thought 
for king Philip's departing from her. "Not that only," said she; "but when I am 
dead and opened, you shall find Calais lying in my heart." Now forasmuch as queen 
Mary, during all the time of her reign, was such a vehement adversary and persecutor 
against the sincere professors of Christ Jesus and his gospel: for the which there 
be many which do highly magnify and approve her doings therein, reputing her religion 
to be sound and catholic, and her proceedings to be most acceptable and blessed 
to Almighty God: to the intent therefore that all men may under- stand how the 
blessing of God did not only not proceed with her proceed- ings, but contrariwise 
how his manifest displeasure ever wrought against her, in plaguing both her and 
her realm, and in subverting all her counsels and attempts, whatsoever she took 
in hand, we will bestow a little time therein. Gamaliel, speaking his mind in 
the council of the Pharisees, concerning Christ's religion, gave this reason: 
that if it were of God it should continue, whosoever said nay; if it were not, 
it could not stand. So may it be said of queen Mary and her Romish religion; that 
if it were so perfect and catholic as they pretend, and the contrary faith of 
the gospellers so detestable and heretical as they make it, how cometh it then, 
that this so catholic a queen, such a necessary pillar of his spouse the church, 
continued no longer, till she had utterly rooted out of the land this heretical 
generation? yea, how chanced it rather, that Almighty God, to spare these poor 
heretics, rooted out queen Mary so soon from her throne, after she had reigned 
but only five years and five months? Now furthermore, how God blessed her ways 
and endeavours in the mean time, until she thus persecuted the true servants of 
God, remaineth to be discussed; where this is first to be noted, that when she 
first began to stand for the title of the crown, and yet had wrought no resistance 
against Christ and his gospel, but had promised her faith to the Suf- folk-men, 
to maintain the religion left by king Edward her brother, so long God went with 
her, advanced her, and, by the means of the gospell- ers, brought her to the possession 
of the realm. But after that she, breaking her promise with God and man, began 
to take part with Stephen Gardiner, and had given over her supremacy unto the 
pope, by-and-by God's blessing left her, neither did anything well thrive with 
her afterward, during the whole time of her regiment. PAGE 987 For first, incontinently, 
the fairest and greatest ship she had, called Great Harry, was burnt; such a vessel 
as in all these parts of Europe was not to be matched. Then would she needs bring 
in king Philip, and by her strange marriage with him, to make the whole realm 
of England sub- ject unto a stranger. And all that notwithstanding, (that she 
either did, or was able to do,) she could not bring to pass to set the crown of 
England upon his head. With king Philip also came in the pope and his popish mass; 
with whom also her purpose was to restore again the monks and nuns unto their 
places; neither lacked there all kind of attempts to the uttermost of her ability; 
and yet therein also God stopped her of her will, that it came not forward. After 
this, what a dearth happened in her time here in her land! the like whereof hath 
not lightly in England been seen, insomuch that in sundry places her poor subjects 
were fain to feed off acorns, for want of corn. Furthermore, where other kings 
are wont to be renowned by some worthy victory and prowess by them achieved, let 
us now see what valiant victory was gotten in this queen Mary's days. Kind Edward 
the sixth, her blessed brother, how many rebel- lions did he suppress in Devonshire, 
in Norfolk, in Oxfordshire, and elsewhere! What a famous victory in his time was 
gotten in Scotland, by the singular working (no doubt) of God's blessed hand, 
rather than by any expectation of man! King Edward the third, (which was the eleventh 
king from the conquest,) by princely puissance purchased Calais unto England, 
which had been kept English ever since, till at length came queen Mary, the eleventh 
likewise from the said king Edward, which lost Calais from England again; so that 
the winnings of this queen were very small - what the losses were let other men 
judge. Hitherto the affairs of queen Mary have had no great success, as you have 
heard. But never worse success had any woman, than had she in her child-birth. 
For seeing one of these two must needs be granted, that either she was with child 
or not with child: if she were with child and did travail, why was it not seen? 
if she were not, how was all the realm deluded! And in the meanwhile, where were 
all the prayers, the solemn processions, the devout masses of the catholic clergy? 
why did they not prevail with God, if their religion were so godly as they pretend? 
If their masses, "ex opere operato," be able to fetch Christ from heaven, and 
to reach down to purgatory, how chanced then they could not reach to the queen's 
chamber, to help her in her travail, if she had been with child indeed? if not, 
how then came it to pass, that all the catholic church of England did so err, 
and was so deeply deceived? PAGE 988 Queen Mary, after these manifold plagues 
and corrections, which might sufficiently admonish her of God's disfavour provoked 
against her, would not yet cease her persecution, but still continued more and 
more to revenge her catholic zeal upon the Lord's faithful people, setting fire 
to their poor bodies by half dozens and dozens together. Whereupon, God's wrathful 
indignation increasing more and more against her, ceased not to touch her more 
near with private misfortunes and calamities. For after that he had taken from 
her the fruit of children, (which chiefly and above all things she desired,) then 
he bereft her of that, which of all earthly things should have been her chief 
stay of honour, and staff of comfort, that is, withdrew from her the affection 
and company even of her own husband, by whose marriage she had promised before 
to herself whole heaps of such joy and felicity. But now the omnipotent Governor 
of all things so turned the wheel of her own spinning against her, that her high 
buildings of such joys and felicities came all to a castle-come- down; her hopes 
being confounded, her purposes disappointed, and she now brought to desolation; 
who seemed neither to have the favour of God, nor the hearts of her subjects, 
nor yet the love of her husband; who neither had fruit by him while she had him, 
neither could now enjoy him whom she had married, neither yet was at liberty to 
marry any other whom she might enjoy. Mark here, Christian reader, the woeful 
adversity of this queen, and learn withal what the Lord can do, when man's wilfulness 
will needs resist him, and will not be ruled. At last, when all these fair admonitions 
would take no place with the queen, nor move her to revoke her bloody laws, nor 
to stay the tyranny of her priests, nor yet to spare her own subjects, but that 
the poor servants of God were drawn daily by heaps most pitifully as sheep to 
the slaughter, it so pleased the heavenly majesty of Almighty God, when no other 
remedy would serve, by death to cut her off; which in her life so little regarded 
the life of others, giving her throne, which she abused to the destruction of 
Christ's church and people, to another, who more temperately and quietly could 
guide the same, after she had reigned here the space of five years and five months. 
The shortness of which years and reign, scarce we find in any other story of king 
or queen since the conquest or before, (being come to their own government,) save 
only in king Richard III. And thus much here, as in the closing up of this story, 
I thought to insinuate, touching the unlucky and rueful reign of queen Mary: not 
for any detraction to her place and state royal, whereunto she was called of the 
Lord, but to this only intent and effect: that forsomuch as she would needs set 
herself so confidently to work and strive against the Lord and his proceedings, 
all readers and rulers may not only see how the Lord did work against her there-for, 
but also by her may be adver- tised and learn what a perilous thing it is for 
men and women in author- ity, upon blind zeal and opinion, to stir up persecution 
in Christ's church, to the effusion of Christian blood, lest it prove in the end 
with them, (as it did here,) that while they think to persecute heret- ics, they 
stumble at the same stone as did the Jews, in persecuting Christ and his true 
members to death, to their own confusion and de- struction. PAGE 989 Leaving now 
queen Mary, being dead and gone, I come to them which under her were the chief 
ministers and doers of this persecution, the bishops and priests to whom the queen 
gave all the execution of her power, as did queen Alexandra to the Pharisees after 
the time of the Maccabees, of whom Josephus says: "She only retained to herself 
the name and title of the kingdom, but all her power she gave to the Pharisees 
to possess." Touching which prelates and priests here is to be noted in like sort 
the wonderful and miraculous providence of Almighty God, which as he abridged 
the reign of their queen, so he suffered them not to escape unvisited. First beginning 
with Stephen Gardiner, the arch-persecutor of Christ's church, whom he took away 
about the midst of the queen's reign, of whom sufficient hath been touched before. 
After him dropped others away also, some before the death of queen Mary, and some 
after; as Mor- gan, bishop of St. David's, who sitting upon the condemnation of 
bishop Farrar, unjustly usurping his room, not long after was stricken by God's 
hand after such a strange sort, that his meat would not go down, but rise and 
pick up again, sometimes at his mouth, sometimes blown out at his nose, most horrible 
to behold; and so he continued till his death. This foresaid bishop Morgan bringeth 
me also in remembrance of justice Morgan, who sat upon the death of the lady Jane, 
and not long after fell mad, and was bereft of his wits; and so died, having ever 
in his mouth, "Lady Jane, lady Jane!" Before the death of queen Mary died Dr. 
Dunning, the wretched chancellor of Norwich, who after he had most rigorously 
condemned and murdered so many simple and faithful saints of the Lord, died in 
Lincolnshire, being suddenly taken, as some say, sitting in his chair. The like 
sudden death fell also upon Berry, commissary in Norwich, as is before showed 
in the story of Thomas Hudson. Bishop Thornton, suffragan of Dover, after he had 
exercised his cruel tyranny upon so many godly men at Canterbury, coming upon 
a Saturday from the chapter-house at Canterbury to Bourne, and there, upon the 
Sunday following, looking upon his men playing at the bowls, fell suddenly in 
a palsy, and so had to bed, was willed to remember God: "Yea, so I do," said he, 
"and my lord cardinal too." After him succeeded another bishop, ordained by the 
foresaid cardinal, who brake his neck falling down a pair of stairs in the cardinal's 
chamber at Greenwich, as he had received the cardinal's blessing. To these examples 
may be added the terrible judgment of God upon the parson at Crundale in Kent, 
of which read before. Not long before the death of queen Mary, died Dr. Capon, 
bishop of Salisbury; and about the same time followed the unprepared death of 
Dr. Jeffrey, chancellor of Salisbury, who in the midst of his buildings, suddenly 
being taken by the mighty hand of God, yielded his life, which had so little pity 
of other men's lives before. Here is to be noted that the foresaid chancel- lor 
departing upon a Saturday, the next day before the same he had appointed to call 
before him ninety persons, and not so few, to examine them by inquisition; had 
not the goodness of the Lord prevented him with death, providing for his poor 
servants in time. Such is the merciful dealing of the Almighty with his people, 
whom after he scourged a lit- tle, in his displeasure, at length he burned the 
rod. And now to come from priests to laymen, we find in them also no less terrible 
demonstration of God's heavy judgment upon such as have been vexers and persecutors 
of his people. In the story of master Bradford, mention was made of master Woodroofe 
the sheriff, who used much to rejoice at the death of the poor saints in Christ; 
and so hard he was in his office, that when master Rogers was in the cart going 
toward Smith- field, and in the way his children were brought unto him, the people 
making a lane for them to come, master Woodroofe bade the carman's head should 
be broken, for staying his cart. But what happened? He was not come out of his 
office the space of a week, but he was stricken by the sudden hand of God, the 
one half of his body; in such sort, that he lay benumbed and bedridden, not able 
to move himself but as he was lifted of others; and so continued in that infirmity 
the space of seven or eight years, till his dying day. PAGE 990 Likewise touching 
Ralph Lardin, the betrayer of George Eagles, it is thought of some, that the said 
Ralph afterward was attached himself, arraigned, and hanged; who, being at the 
bar, had these words before the judges there, and a great multitude of people: 
"This is most justly fallen upon me," saith he, "for that I have betrayed the 
innocent blood of a good and just man, George Eagles, who was here condemned in 
the time of queen Mary's reign, through my procurement, who sold his blood for 
a little money." Not much unlike stroke of these severally was showed upon William 
Swallow of Chelmsford, and his wife; also upon Richard Potto, and justice Brown, 
cruel persecutors of the said George Eagles, concerning whose story read before. 
Alexander the keeper of Newgate, a cruel enemy to those that lay there for religion, 
died very miserably, being so swollen that he was more like a monster than a man, 
and so rotten within, that no man could abide the smell of him. This cruel wretch, 
to hasten the poor lambs to the slaughter, would go to Bonner, Storey, Cholmley, 
and others, crying out, "Rid my prison; rid my prison! I am too much pestered 
with these heretics." The son of the said Alexander called James, having felt 
unto him by his father great substance, within three years wasted all to nought: 
and when some marvelled how he spent those goods so fast, "Oh!" said he, "evil 
gotten, evil spent." And shortly after, as he went in Newgate- market, he fell 
down suddenly, and there wretchedly died. John Peter, son-in-law to this Alexander, 
and a horrible blasphemer of God, and no less cruel to the said prisoners, rotted 
away, and so most miserably died; who commonly when he would affirm anything, 
were it true or false, used to say, "If it be not true, I pray God I rot ere I 
die." - Witness the printer hereof, with divers others. And thus much concerning 
those persecutors, as well of the clergy-sort as of the laity, which were stricken, 
and died before the death of queen Mary. With whom also are to be numbered in 
the race of persecuting bishops, which died before queen Mary, these bishops following: 
Cotes, bishop of Chester; Parfew, bishop of Hereford; Glyn, bishop of Bangor; 
Brookes, bishop of Gloucester; King, bishop of Tame; Petow, elect of Salisbury; 
Day, bishop of Chichester; Holyman, bishop of Bristol. Now, after the queen, immediately 
following, or rather waited upon her, the death of cardinal Pole, who the next 
day departed: of what disease, although it be uncertain to many, yet by some it 
is suspected, that he took some Italian physic, which did him no good. Then followed 
these bishops in order: John Christopherson, bishop of Chichester; Hopton, bishop 
of Norwich; Morgan, bishop of St. David's; John White, bishop of Winchester; Ralph 
Bayne, bishop of Lichfield and Coventry; Owen Oglethorpe, bishop of Carlisle; 
Cuthbert Tonstall, bishop of Durhan; Thomas Reynolds, elect of Hereford, after 
his deprivation died in pris- on. Besides these bishops, first died at the same 
time, Dr. Weston, dean of Westminster, afterwards dean of Windsor; chief disputer 
against Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer. Master Slethurst, master of Trinity col- 
lege in Oxford, who died in the Tower. Seth Holland, dean of Worcester, and warden 
of All Souls' college in Oxford. William Cobinger, monk of Westminster, who bare 
the great seal before Stephen Gardiner, after the death of the said Gardiner made 
himself monk in the house of Westmin- ster; and shortly after fell mad, and died 
in the Tower. Dr. Steward, dean of Winchester. PAGE 991 To behold the working 
of God's judgments, it is wondrous. In the first year of queen Mary, when the 
clergy were assembled in the Convocation- house, and also afterward, when the 
disputation was in Oxford against Drs. Cranmer and Ridley, and master Larimer, 
he that had seen then Dr. Weston the prolocutor in his ruff, how highly he took 
upon him in the schools, and how stoutly he stood in the pope's quarrel against 
simple and naked truth, full little would have thought, and less did he think 
himself, I dare say, that his glory and lofty looks should have been brought down 
so soon, especially by them of his own religion, whose part he so doughtily defended. 
But such is the reward and end commonly of them who presumptuously oppose themselves 
to strive against the Lord, as by the example of this doctorly prolocutor right 
well may appear. For not long after the dispu- tation above mentioned against 
bishop Cranmer and his fellows, God so wrought against the said Dr. Weston, that 
he fell in great displeasure with cardinal Pole and other bishops, because he 
was unwilling to give up his deanery, and house of Westminster, unto the monks 
and religious men, whom indeed he favoured not, although in other things he maintained 
the church of Rome: who notwithstanding, at last, through importunate suit, gave 
up Westminster, and was dean of Windsor; where, not long after, he was apprehended 
in adultery, and for the same was by the cardinal put from all his spiritual livings. 
Wherefore he appealed to Rome, and purposed to have fled out of the realm, but 
was taken by the way, and committed to the Tower of London; and there remained 
until queen Elizabeth was proclaimed queen, at which time he being delivered, 
fell sick and died. The common talk was, that if he had not so suddenly ended 
his life, he would have opened and revealed the purpose of the chief of the clergy, 
(meaning the cardinal,) which was to have taken up king Henry's body at Windsor, 
and to have burned it. And thus much of Dr. Weston. The residue that remained 
of the persecuting clergy, and escaped the stroke of death, were deprived, and 
committed to prisons. Concerning Dr. Chedsey here is to be noted, that in the 
beginning of king Edward's reign, he recanted, and subscribed to thirty-four arti- 
cles, wherein he then fully consented and agreed, with his own handwrit- ing, 
to the whole form of doctrine approved and allowed then in the church, as well 
concerning justification by faith only, as also the doctrine of the two sacraments 
then received; denying as well the pope's supremacy, transubstantiation, purgatory, 
invocation of saints, eleva- tion and adoration of the sacrament, the sacrifice 
and veneration of the mass, as also all other like excrements of popish superstition, 
accord- ing to the king's book then set forth. PAGE 992 Wherefore the more marvel 
it is, that he, being counted such a famous and learned clerk, would show himself 
so fickle and unstable in his assertions, so double in his doings, to alter his 
religion according to time, and to maintain for truth, not what he thought best, 
but what he might most safely defend. So long as the state of the lord protector 
and of his brother stood upright, what was then the conformity of this Dr. Chedsey, 
his own articles in Latin, written and subscribed with his own hand, do declare, 
which I have to show, if he will deny them. But after the decay of the king's 
uncles, the fortune of them turned not so fast, but his religion turned withal; 
and eftsoons he took upon him to dispute against Peter Martyr, in upholding transubstantiation 
at Oxford, which, a little before, with his own handwriting he had overthrown. 
After this ensued the time of queen Mary, wherein Dr. Chedsey, to show his double 
diligence, was so eager in his commission to sit in judgment, and to bring poor 
men to their death, that in the last year of queen Mary, when the lord chancellor, 
sir Thomas Cornwallis, lord Clinton, and divers others of the council had sent 
for him, by a special letter, to repair unto London out of Essex, he, writing 
again to the bishop of London, sought means not to come at the council's bidding, 
but to continue still in his persecuting progress. The copy of whose letter I 
have also in my hands, if need were, to bring forth. To these add also the stinking 
death of Edmund Bonner, commonly named the bloody bishop of London; who, not many 
years ago, in the time and reign of queen Elizabeth, after he had long feasted 
and banqueted in durance at the Marshalsea, as he wretchedly died in his blind 
popery, so as strikingly and blindly, at midnight, was he brought out and buried 
in the outside of all the city, amongst thieves and murderers, a place right convenient 
for such a murderer; with confusion and derision both of men and children, who, 
trampling upon his grave, well declared how he was hated both of God and man. 
What else be all these, I say, but plain visible arguments, testimonies, and demonstrations 
even from heaven, against the pope, his murdering religion, and his bloody doctrine? 
For who can deny their doings not to be good, whose end is so evil? If Christ 
bid us to know men by their fruits, and especially seeing by the end all things 
are to be tried, how can the profession of that doctrine please God, which endeth 
so ungodly? Esaias, prophesying of the end of God's enemies, which would needs 
walk in the light of their own setting up, and not in the light of the Lord's 
kindling, threateneth to them this final malediction, "In doloribus," saith he, 
"dormietis;" i.e. "In sorrow shall ye sleep." Innumerable examples more to the 
same effect might be added, but these may suffice, which I here notify unto the 
children of the murdering mother church of Rome, (of whom it may well be said, 
"Your hands be full of blood,") to the intent that they by the example of their 
fellows may be admonished to follow the prophet's counsel, "Be you washed, and 
make yourselves clean," etc; and not to presume too far upon their own security, 
not think themselves the fur- ther off from God's hand, because man's hand forbeareth 
them. PAGE 993 I know and grant, that man hath no further power upon any than 
God from above doth give. And what the laws of this realm could make against them, 
as against open murderers, I will not here discuss, because they shall not say 
that we desire their blood to be spilt, but rather to be spared; but yet this 
I say, and wish them well to understand, that the sparing of their lives which 
have been murderers of so many is not for want of power in magistrates, nor for 
lack of any just law against them, whereby they might justly have been condemned; 
but because Almighty God peradventure in his secret purpose, having something 
to do with these persecutors, hath spared them hitherto; not that they should 
escape unpunished, but that he will take his own cause into his own hand, either 
by death to take them away, (as he did by Bonner and others,) or else to make 
them persecute themselves; or stir up their consciences to their own confusion, 
in such sort as the church shall have no need to lay any hands upon them. Wherefore 
with this short admonition to close up the matter, I wish all whom God's lenity 
suffereth yet to live wisely to ponder with themselves, that as their cruel persecution 
hurteth not the saints of God, whom they have put to death, so the patience of 
Christ's church suffering them to live doth not profit them, but rather heapeth 
the greater judgment of God upon them in the day of wrath, unless they repent 
in time, which I pray God they may. And now to re-enter again to the time of queen 
Elizabeth. It cannot sufficiently be expressed what felicity and blessed happiness 
this realm hath received in receiving her at the Lord's almighty and gracious 
hand; whose coming in was not only so calm, so joyful, and so peaceable, without 
shedding any blood, but also her reign, during the first twenty- four years and 
more, so quiet, that all that time her sword was spotted and polluted with no 
drop of blood. In commendation of her clemency also, here might be added how mildly 
her grace forgave the foresaid sir Henry Benifield, suffering him to enjoy goods, 
life, lands, and liberty. Towards the end of March, 1559, a conference was held 
by command of the queen's most excellent majesty at Westminster, between the papists 
and the protestants; eight persons, that is to say, four bishops and four doctors, 
being appointed on either side. The matter of the conference was comprehended 
in these three propositions: 1. It is against the word of God, and the custom 
of the ancient church, to use a tongue unknown to the people, in common prayers, 
and the administration of the sacraments. 2. Every church hath authority to appoint, 
take away, and change ceremo- nies and ecclesiastical rites, so the same be to 
edification. 3. It cannot be proved by the word of God, that there is, in the 
mass, offered up a sacrifice propitiatory for the quick and the dead. About this 
time also was a parliament summoned at Westminster, wherein was much debating 
about matters touching religion; and although some diversity there was of judgment 
and opinion between parties, yet, not- withstanding, through the merciful goodness 
of the Lord, the true cause of the gospel had the upper hand, the papists' hope 
was frustrate, and their rage abated, the order and proceedings of king Edward's 
time concerning religion were revived again, the supremacy of the pope abol- ished, 
the articles and bloody statutes of queen Mary repealed; briefly, the furious 
firebrands of cruel persecution, which had consumed so many poor men's bodies, 
were now extinct and quenched. Finally, the old bishops were deposed, for that 
they refused the oath in renouncing the pope, and not subscribing to the queen's 
just and lawful title: in whose rooms and places, first for cardinal Pole succeeded 
Dr. Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury. In the place of Heath succeed- ed 
Dr. Young. Instead of Bonner, Edmund Grindall was bishop of London. For Hopton, 
Thirlby, Tonstall, Pates, Christopherson, Petow, Cotes, Morgan, Voysey, White, 
Oglethorpe, etc., were placed Dr. John Parkhurst in Norwich, Dr. Coxe in Ely, 
Jewell in Salisbury, Pilkinton in Durham, Dr. Sands in Worcester, master Downham 
in West-Chester, Bentham in Coventry and Lichfield, Davies in St. David's, Alley 
in Exeter, Horne in Winchester, Scory in Hereford, Best in Carlisle, Bullingham 
in Lincoln, Scambler in Peterborough, Barkley in Bath, Guest in Rochester, Barlow 
in Chichester, etc. PAGE 994 And now to conclude, good Christian reader, this 
present tractation, not for lack of matter, but to shorten rather the matter for 
largeness of the volume, I here stay for this present time, without further addition 
of more discourse, either to overweary thee with longer tediousness, or overcharge 
the book with longer prolixity; having hitherto set forth the acts and proceedings 
of the whole church of Christ, namely, of the church of England, although not 
in such particular perfection, that nothing hath overpassed us; yet in such general 
sufficiency, that I trust not very much hath escaped us, necessary to be known, 
touching the principal affairs, doings, and proceedings of the church and churchmen. 
Wherein may be see the whole state, order, descent, course, and continu- ance 
of the same, the increase and decrease of true religion, the creep- ing in of 
superstition, the horrible troubles of persecution, the won- derful assistance 
of the Almighty in maintaining his truth, the glorious constancy of Christ's martyrs, 
the rage of the enemies, the alteration of times, the travails and troubles of 
the church, from the first primi- tive age of Christ's gospel, to the end of queen 
Mary, and the beginning of this our gracious queen Elizabeth. During the time 
of her happy reign, which hath hitherto continued (through the gracious protection 
of the Lord) the space now of twenty-four years, as my wish is, so I would be 
glad the good will of the Lord were so, that no more matter of such lamentable 
stories may ever be offered hereafter to write upon. But so it is, I cannot tell 
how, the elder the world waxeth, the longer it continueth, the nearer it hasteneth 
to its end, the more Satan rageth; giving still new matter of writing books and 
volumes: insomuch that if all were recorded and committed to history, that within 
the said compass of this queen's reign hitherto hath happened, in Scotland, Flanders, 
France, Spain, Germany, besides this our own country of England and Ireland, with 
other countries more, I verily suppose one Eusebius, or Polyhistor, which Pliny 
writeth of, would not suffice thereunto. But of these incidents and occurrents 
hereafter more, as it shall please the Lord to give grace and space. In the mean 
time, the grace of the Lord Jesus work with thee, gentle reader, in all thy studious 
readings. And while thou hast space, so employ thyself to read, that by reading 
thou mayest learn daily to know that which may profit thy soul, may teach thee 
experience, may arm thee with patience, and instruct thee in all spiritual knowledge 
more and more to thy perpetual comfort and salvation in Christ Jesus our Lord; 
to whom be glory in secula seculor- um. Amen. PAGE 995 APPENDIX. SECTION I. MASSACRES 
IN 1620, a dreadful massacre occurred in the Valteline, a fertile valley of Switzerland, 
inhabited chiefly by Roman catholics. The ringleaders entered the valley one night 
about six o'clock, taking care that all the ways and passages were well guarded, 
that their bloody purpose might not be defeated. Four muskets were discharged 
before the palace of the seignior Podesta, principal magistrate of Tyrane, and 
the great bell rung, upon which signal the inhabitants took the alarm, and made 
toward the palace. The murderers then ordered the bridge to be broken which lay 
towards Bruce, and there planted a strong guard: all this was done before day. 
At dawn of day the bells rang another peal at the church of Marello. The wretches 
ranged themselves together, so that when the protestants, without fear or suspicion, 
came out of their houses to see what was the matter, they were instantly shot. 
Others by force entered the houses, dragged their victims from their beds, and 
slew them. One poor gentleman hid himself in a garret, but the villains finding 
him threw him out of window, and afterwards dispatched him with the blow of a 
club. Antonia de Salve, chancellor in that valley, a man of great authority, was 
dragged out of his house, and shot. The governor of Teglio, a man of great worth, 
very learned and skilled in many languag- es, being by chance at Tyrane, was also 
with his servant strangled, in the chamber where he was found. The pastor of the 
church of Tyrane, and the pastor of Marello, withdrew themselves into a hall, 
where they were discovered and murdered. The wretches cut off the head of the 
former, and carried it into the church, fixing it upon a pole in the pulpit where 
he used to preach. The palace of the chequer of Tyrane was besieged, John de Cappaul 
being at that time governor. The chancellor Michael Lazarone was hated by the 
papists for his piety, and pursued even thither by these hell-hounds, who threatened 
to fire the palace, unless he were delivered into their hands. Lazarone, seeing 
that, secretly left the house in the evening, and hid himself about the banks 
of the river Adda, wherein he covered himself, and lay close three hours. His 
enemies, however, at length found him, and dragged him out of the water; and though 
in tears he begged for his life, in consideration of his children, they answered, 
that this was no time for pity and favour: but if he would swear by the pope's 
bull, and abjure his faith, they would grant him his life. He answered, "God forbid 
that I, for the love of this temporal life, should deny my Lord Jesus Christ, 
who with his precious blood, did at so dear a rate redeem me. I say, God forbid!" 
Upon this they immediately murdered him. PAGE 996 The same evening, the gate of 
the palace was burnt to the ground by these rebels, who the next morning entered 
into it, raging with fury, and took the governor prisoner, with his young son; 
spoiling and maiming wives and maidens, and carrying away all they could lay hands 
on. The governor was taken away, and after he had remained a long time prisoner, 
was shot. In endeavouring to resist, one John Antonio Mazano and his wife defending 
him, was with herself and two young children cruelly killed. John Antonio Schlosser, 
a Gardonese, having made long resist- ance, and killed one of the rebels, was 
at last taken, tied to a tree, and shot. In brief, these rebels had regard to 
neither young, old, weak, or strong, many of all sorts were either shot to death 
or cut in pieces, or in one manner or other destroyed. The ladies who were not 
slain, were constrained to change their reli- gion, and to go to mass, except 
the wife of the Lazarone and her daugh- ters, and niece, who by the assistance 
of Almighty God continued in safety. On the 8th of August, these were released, 
and retired them- selves into Retia, leaving behind them in the Valteline one 
daughter and two young sons, who could not obtain leave to depart the country. 
At the massacre of Teglio were murdered about sixty persons. A number of wicked 
wretches, apparelled in red cassocks, and well mounted on horse- back, marched 
in the morning to Tellat, at the hour when the sermon was, and ran like wolves 
to the Volta church; the protestants who were assem- bled, observing the evil 
intention of those villains, arose suddenly from their seats, endeavoured to shut 
the door, and to barricade the place with the benches. They without laboured with 
all their power to enter the church; but not being able so speedily to do it, 
some climbed up into the windows, and discharged their muskets among the people 
without respect of any person, and killed many. At last they opened the door, 
entered, and slew all they found, except a few who promised to go to mass. Some 
of the men and women with their children fled into the belfry to save themselves; 
but they set fire to the place, and burnt all that were within. At the massacre 
at Sondres, in the mountain of Sondrium and Malenk, were left dead about one hundred 
and forty persons. Annaidai Lita, wife of Anthoni Grotti, of Chio, in the territory 
of Vincentine, of an honour- able and ancient house, was come out of Italy but 
a few years before for the liberty of her conscience. She was first exhorted to 
change her religion; but constantly persevering therein, she was admonished to 
have a care of her young infant which she held in her arms, being about two months 
old; otherwise she and her babe too should die: but with an undaunted courage 
she answered, that she had not departed from her native country, neither had she 
forsaken all the estate she had, to renounce at last that faith which had been 
inspired into her by the Lord Jesus Christ. "And how" - said she - "should I have 
regard in this cause of my infant, since God spared not his only Son, but delivered 
him up to death for the love of me and of all sinners?" Then giving them the child, 
she said - "Behold the child! the Lord God, who hath the care of the birds of 
the air, will much more be able to save this poor creature, PAGE 997 although 
by you it were left in those wild mountains." So unlacing her gown, she said - 
"Here is the body which you have power to kill; but my soul, on which you have 
no power to lay hands, that I commend to my God." Immediately she was cut in pieces, 
being thirty-five years of age. The infant, because it was a lovely babe to look 
on, was suffered to live, and was delivered to a popish woman to nurse. The husband 
of this gentlewoman was murdered for the faith a little before. Some women were 
by force taken up to the tops of high and craggy moun- tains, and threatened to 
be thrown down headlong with their children, unless they would go to mass. And 
yet those that were moved and terri- fied with the horrors of death, and had consented 
to change their reli- gion, yet were they murdered for all that without any pity 
at all. An aged man of sixty-seven years was set upon an ass, his face turned 
to the tail, which he held in his hand instead of a bridle, and in his other hand 
a book, whom in this manner they carried through Sondres. Then they cut off his 
ears, nose and cheeks, boring holes into divers parts of his body, with a strange 
and unparalleled barbarity, until they had quite killed him. Anthony de Prati, 
of the hills, was exhorted with many words to abjure his religion; but he refused 
with all the constancy of a martyr, and made a most powerful impression on all 
who witnessed his courage and calmness in his dying moments, calculated to establish 
them the more firmly in their most holy faith. They were astonished, and gave 
glory to God, publicly bearing witness of the martyr's triumphant end. Paulo Beretta, 
of Chio, in the province of Vicence, aged seventy-five years, a maiden lady of 
a noble and ancient family, who came twenty-seven years before to Sondres to embrace 
the gospel, was carried through Sondres in scorn, having a mitre of paper on her 
head, her face besmeared with dirt, and many buffets given on her cheeks. Being 
required to call upon the holy virgin and the saints, and to place her trust in 
them, she smiling readily answered them - "My trust and my salvation is in my 
Saviour Jesus Christ, and in him only will I trust." At last she was carried away 
to be sent to Milan. On the eighteenth of July an elderly woman was found murdered 
in the highway, in the plain of St. Gregory, in the Valteline, which was conjectured 
to be the body of this gentlewoman. Many hid themselves in dens, and caves, and 
woods, out of which they durst not come but by night to get some food, and that 
with great fear and terror, on account of the watching of the enemy, while others 
for want of convenient food to eat, and others that fed only upon roots, leaves, 
and grass, made an end of their lives; and many were murdered in divers places, 
who had no burial at all; so that several carcases were to be seen in groves and 
woods in the mountains, and in the waters in many places. At the massacre of Berbonne, 
were slain about eleven per- sons. And likewise at Caspano and Trahorn, about 
the same number; one of them, a tradesman, being discovered by his countrymen 
and kindred, was taken and carried to Morbegnio, and burnt, being sixty years 
old. PAGE 998 Giovan Pietro Malacrida, although he was little of stature, yet 
was he great and mighty in his confession of the truth, insomuch that for the 
love of his Saviour he suffered death with singular cheerfulness, being forty 
years of age. His example was devoutly and constantly imitated by Elizabeth his 
wife, who was killed in the thirty-eighth year of her age: and moreover these 
murderers not therewith content, observing a daughter of hers, an infant of three 
years old, to lie in the cradle, they took the innocent babe by the feet, and 
dashed out her brains against the wall. Upon impartial investigation it every 
way appears, that these several persons underwent their sufferings for the truth 
of the gospel, and were honest and faithful martyrs of Christ. SECTION II. ATTEMPTS 
MASSACRES IN IRELAND. RETURNING to our own country, we observe with much gratitude 
the auspi- cious measures commencing the reign of Elizabeth. The secure establish- 
ment of this princess on the throne of England, put a stop to the rage of the 
papists; for the authority of the pope vanished, and peace and liberty rested 
on the nation. But the papists thought it a sin to live peaceably under a heretical 
princess, especially one against whom two popes had thundered out excommunications 
freeing her subjects from their allegiance, and threatening them with the wrath 
of God if they did assist her, and promising rewards to all persons who should 
lay hands upon her, which was to be paid out of the church, with full pardon of 
all their sins. But when they saw that the queen's subjects were too faithful 
to engage in any such villanous designs, they then proceeded to secret plots, 
as that wherein the duke of Norfolk and Robert Biddulph were engaged, in 1566, 
and for which the Duke suffered at York. In 1578, the invasion of Ireland, at 
the charge of the pope, was happily prevent- ed. The next year James Fitz Morris 
was sent into Ireland, with Saunders the jesuit, who carried consecrated banners 
to them. The year following San Joseph was sent thither with 700 Spanish soldiers, 
and the pope's promise of a million of crowns, to carry on the work of rebellion; 
and to them joined one earl of Desmond and his brothers; but they being all happily 
defeated, they next conspired the death of the queen, and made several attempts 
to murder her; first by Somervile and Hall, two pri- ests; one of whom being condemned, 
was found murdered for fear he should discover others. After this followed the 
devices of Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, with Throgmorton and Parry, who had 
letters, with plenary pardon, sent them by the pope for killing the queen. The 
same year, Savage and Babington, engaged to commit the like wicked act, by procure- 
ment of Ballard a jesuit; but being happily discovered, were condemned and executed, 
and were registered for martyrs in the Romish Calendar. Stafford and Moody were 
dealt withal to commit the like villany, propos- ing to lay a bag of gun-powder 
under the queen's bed-chamber, which, by the mercy of heaven, was detected, as 
well as all the other plots. PAGE 999 These schemes providentially failing, the 
pope instigated Philip II. of Spain to invade England, though in queen Mary's 
time he had affected great kindness towards the princess Elizabeth. For this purpose 
the pope furnished him with a consecrated banner, and fresh bulls for excommuni- 
cating the queen as a heretic, publishing a crusade against her, and absolving 
her subjects from their oath of allegiance. Philip equipped a most formidable 
armament, which the Spaniards, proud of their power and elated with the vain hopes 
of victory, named the Invincible Armada. It consisted of one hundred and thirty 
sail of ships, containing 57,808 tons, wherein were engaged 8,350 seamen, 19,290 
soldiers, and two thou- sand and eighty galley slaves, besides gentlemen and volunteers 
in abundance; so that scarce a family in Spain but had either a son, broth- er, 
or cousin in the fleet. There were likewise on board 2,340 cannon, with powder, 
bullets, match, muskets, pikes, spears, swords, knives, daggers, chains, and whips, 
to torment and murder English protestants; and with them came swarms of capuchins, 
mendicants, and jesuits. There lay in Flanders 50,000 old soldiers, with 288 vessels 
ready to transport them, under the duke of Parma; all the king of Spain's best 
soldiers, even as for the America, being drawn forth for this boasted crusade. 
The whole of the expedition cost the Spaniards twelve millions of crowns; added 
to which the pope contributed a million of gold. But the mercy of God defended 
England, discomfiting this mighty armada, and driving it back with shame, loss, 
and confusion; so that of 134 ships which sailed out of Lisbon, only thirty eight 
returned; the Spaniards losing in this voyage eighty-one ships, 13,500 soldiers, 
and 2000 more taken prisoners in England, Ireland, and the Low-Countries: the 
rest of the navy being destroyed by the English and Dutch, the seas, rocks, sands, 
and temp- ests, all seeming to conspire to defeat this insolent attempt. Yet these 
people no sooner recovered breath, than they sent over new commissioners and emissaries 
disguised in all shapes into England, with new contrivances. Lopez and his confederates, 
Cullen, York, Williams, Squire, Hesket, all entered into a conspiracy to kill 
the queen, being encouraged by the Jesuits and the Spanish ministers of state. 
These proving abortive, in 1599 the earl of Tyrone made a new rebellion in Ireland, 
having the same pardons to offer as were given by the popes to those who fight 
against the Turks. And in 1601, the king of Spain sent a great fleet to the same 
country, to assist the rebels. But notwithstand- ing all these designs, Elizabeth 
having outlived four kings and eight popes, died in a good old age. She had previously 
intimated her desire that the king of Scotland should succeed her, in which the 
whole nation seemed to concur. He mounted to the English throne with the title 
of James 1st. he was the son of Henry Stuart, lord Darnley, and Mary, queen of 
Scots, the only child of James V. of Scotland, son of James IV, and Margaret his 
queen, who was the eldest daughter of Henry VII, king of England. He arrived at 
the Charterhouse, in London, May 7th, and was crowned at Westminster, July 25th, 
1603. PAGE 1000 Among subsequent efforts to overturn the reformed government, 
the gun- powder conspiracy is the most signal. The chief persons concerned in 
this diabolical plot were Robert Catesby, a gentleman of Northamp- tonshire; Thomas 
Percy, the earl of Northumberland's cousin; John Grant, Ambrose Rockwood, John 
and Christopher Wright, Francis Tresham, Guy Fawkes, Sir Everand Digby, Robert 
and Thomas Winter, Thomas Bates, and Robert Keyes. Some of these consulting together 
at their first meeting how they might restore the popish religion in England, 
Percy, one of the most zealous, proposed to kill the king, and offered to perform 
it himself. To whom Catesby answered, that if the king was taken off, there were 
still two young princes and princesses, with the greatest part of the nobility 
and gentry, devoted to the protestant religion; and unless these were involved 
in the same fate with the king, they should render their condition rather worse 
than better, by attempting his majesty's life only. He proposed therefor the blowing 
up the king, queen, and prince, with both the houses of lords and commons, at 
the next assembly of the parliament, when the king should come to the house, to 
make his speech, at the opening of the sessions. This being approved by the rest 
as a most glorious undertaking, it was resolved to put it into execu- tion; but 
some, scrupling the lawfulness of committing so terrible a slaughter on a religious 
account, they agreed, before they proceeded in it, to ask the opinion of their 
confessors; whereupon Henry Garnet, the superior, with Oswald Tesmond and John 
Gerard, two other priests of the Jesuits' order, were consulted; who did not only 
declare the enterprise lawful, but applauded the design as just, and even pious; 
since it was to be executed upon excommunicated heretics. An oath of secrecy was 
taken by the conspirators; and mass being cel- ebrated by Gerard, they also took 
the sacrament to be true to each other, and promote the plot with all their powers; 
after which, Percy took a house adjoining to the house of lords, from whence they 
proposed to dig a mine under it, which would contain a sufficient quantity of 
gunpowder to blow up the whole building; and they began to work on their mine 
about Christmas 1604. But the parliament being prorogued, first to February, then 
to October, and again to the 5th of November, 1605, they had time enough, or rather 
too much, to effect their design, though they were obliged to dig through the 
foundation of a very thick wall. When the conspirators had almost conquered this 
difficulty, they were sur- prised to hear a noise and the talking of people near 
the place where they were at work, and began to conclude they were discovered; 
but sending out Guy Faukes for intelligence, he brought them word, that the voices 
they had heard were in an adjoining cellar, where coals were exposed to sale; 
and that it was exactly under the house of lords, and now offered to be let. Whereupon 
Percy went immediately and hired it, putting thirty-six barrels of gunpowder into 
it, which he had imported from Holland, and covered them with coals and fagots. 
Having thus provided for their grand design, it was considered that though the 
king and prince might be taken off by this means, yet the duke of York and princess 
Elizabeth would be out of their power; and consequently the success of their enterprize 
would still be very doubt- ful: but Percy being one of the band of pensioners, 
and well acquainted with the palace, undertook to secure the duke of York; and 
it was looked PAGE 1001 upon as no difficult matter to surprise the princess, 
who resided at the lord Harrington's, in Warwickshire, under a pretence of a hunting 
match. It was next considered, what money and horses they could raise towards 
effecting their purpose: whereupon Digby promised fifteen hundred pounds, Tresham 
two hundred, Percy the rents of Northumberland, which he was empowered to receive, 
and computed they would amount to 4000 L. He was engaged to provide ten horses 
from the same quarter; and the rest of the conspirators promised to raise what 
money and troops they could, that they might be able to make a stand, and encourage 
their friends to take arms in defence of their religion, when the great blow was 
given. It was debated also, whether they should require the assistance of any 
princes of their communion; but it was thought necessary to defer this till after 
the act was committed, lest the plot should be discovered by being communicated 
to too many. It was resolved to proclaim the princess Elizabeth queen, when they 
had assembled their troops, a proclamation being drawn up with this view, in which 
they made no mention of the intended alteration of religion; this being agreed 
to be deferred till their forces should be joined by some of the catholic powers. 
In the mean time, they resolved to charge the Puritans with the destruction that 
was intended: and it is supposed they designed to assassinate the duke of York, 
by their promising to proclaim the princess Elizabeth. The conspirators having 
thus formed their scheme, and proceeded so far in the execution of it, there remained 
little more for them to do, than to set fire to the train they had laid for blowing 
up the king, the queen and prince, the nobility, and the representatives of a 
great and flourishing people. When, on a sudden, an unaccountable fit of tender- 
ness seized one of the party, who, by his endeavouring to rescue a friend, lord 
Monteagle, from this unparalleled destruction, discovered the design. The following 
is a copy of the letter which was sent about ten days before the meeting of parliament. 
"My lord,Out of the love I bear to some of your friends, I have regard to your 
preservation; therefore would advise you, as you tender your life, to invent some 
excuse to put off your attendance at this parlia- ment; for God and man have concurred 
to punish the wickedness of these times. Think not slightly of this advice, but 
retire yourself into the country, where you may expect the event in safety; for 
though there be no appearance of any stir, yet, I say, they shall receive a terrible 
blow in this parliament, and shall not see who they are that hurt them. This counsel 
is not to be contemned, because it may do you good, and can do you no harm, for 
the danger is past, as soon as you have burnt the letter: and I hope God will 
give you the grace to make good use of it. To whose holy protection I commit you." 
His lordship carried the letter, the same evening he received it, to secretary 
Cecil; who communicated it to some other members of the coun- cil; but they did 
not think it of that consequence, to make any inqui- ries about the matter, till 
the king should return from Royston where he was gone to hunt: he did not return 
till the last day of October. PAGE 1002 The next day this letter was shown to 
his majesty; who, upon perusing it, said, he did not think it was to be contemned: 
to which Cecil an- swered, he was of opinion, that it was written either by a 
fool or a madman, by that expression in it - "The danger is past, as soon as you 
have burnt the letter:" for, he observed, the warning given by it could be of 
no use, if the burning the letter would remove the danger; but the king interpreted 
it, That the danger would be over in as little time as he could burn the letter; 
having great regard to that passage, "They should receive a terrible blow this 
parliament," and ye "should not see who hurt them." Which sudden blow, he apprehended, 
would be the effect of gunpowder; and therefore ordered all the cellars, and all 
other places near the parliament house, to be searched. The earl of Suffolk, who 
was then lord-chamberlain, and whose proper place it was to see all places prepared 
for the king's reception, put off the search till the day before the meeting of 
parliament; and then, taking the lord Montea- gle with him, viewed all the rooms 
about the parliament-house, and particularly the cellar under the house of lords; 
which he found full of wood and coals: and having inquired who it belonged to, 
was answered, to lord Percy; who being a servant of his majesty, and one who made 
some figure at court, the earl returned, and acquainted the king in what state 
he found things, without searching further. But the king's suspi- cion being rather 
increased than diminished by this report, he ordered all the wood and coals in 
the cellar to be removed forthwith; and Sir Thomas Knevet, a justice of peace 
for Westminster, and gentleman of the privy-chamber, was ordered to see it done, 
though it was then late at night. The gentleman was so fortunate, as to discover 
the six and thirty barrels of powder hidden under the coals! He also found a man 
standing near the place, booted and spurred, with his cloak on whom he searched, 
and found upon him a dark anthorn and three matches. This person proved to be 
Guy Faukes, one of the conspirators, who passed for Percy's man; who seeing their 
hopeful plot discovered, swore, when he was apprehend- ed, that had he been found 
within the cellar, he would have blown up himself, and them likewise. This discovery 
being made, the secretary and the lord-chamberlain immediately acquainted the 
king therewith, who was then in bed; and the prisoner, being examined before the 
council, was so far from being in any consternation, that he acknowledged the 
villanous design, took it all upon himself, said his religion and conscience prompted 
him to it, and would name none of his accomplices; only observ- ing that the devil 
had betrayed a very good design, and that there was no crime in destroying a heretical 
king. However, being carried to the Tower the next day and threatened with the 
rack, he confessed the con- spiracy, and named his accomplices; who having some 
intimation of the discovery, fled into Warwickshire; where some of their friends 
were preparing to rise in arms and surprise the princess Elizabeth, according 
to the scheme they had laid. They had actually broken open a stable belonging 
to one Benock, and seized seven or eight managed horses for their purpose: but 
understanding from their friends who fled from Lon- don, that the enterprise was 
entirely defeated, they assembled about a hundred horse, and endeavoured to persuade 
their brethren, the papists, to take arms in the defence of their religion: but 
nobody joining them they fled, and were pursued by Sir Foulk Greville, deputy-lieutenant 
of Warwickshire, and the sheriff of that and the neighbouring counties, till the 
rebels took shelter in a house, at a place called Holbach, in Staffordshire. Here 
they endeavoured to defend themselves, when a spark of fire falling into a parcel 
of gunpowder, which they were drying by the fire, blew up part of the house; whereupon 
they endevoured to sally out at the gate, and make their way with their swords 
in their hands, but were repulsed. Catesby, Percy, and Winter, setting themselves 
back to back, resolved to die fighting: the two first had their desire, but Winter 
was wounded and taken; Digby, Rockwood, Grant, and Boter surren- dered. Mr. Tresham, 
Robert Winter, and Littleton, were apprehended at their lodgings in London, and 
all of them committed to the Tower. PAGE 1003 Thomas Winter, upon his examination, 
confessed the whole conspiracy and acknowledged their crimes were too great to 
be forgiven; while Digby, on the other hand, said they were provoked to this desperate 
attempt through the severe usage they met with from the government, after hopes 
had been given them of a toleration; and Tresham, in his examination, accused 
Garnet the Jesuit as privy to the conspiracy, though he after- wards retracted 
it, and pretended he had not seen Garnet for sixteen years. Such was the terror 
in which the clergy held the laity of the catholic church in that day. The protestants 
in Ireland were happily preserved from persecution in the reign of the cruel queen 
Mary, by the following singular providence. Mary, resolving to persecute them, 
appointed Dr. Cole, a bloody agent of Bonner, one of the commissioners for this 
purpose. He arrived at Chester with his commission, and the mayor of that city 
being a papist waited upon him; when the doctor taking out of his cloak-bag a 
leathern box, said - "Here is a commission that shall dash the heretics of Ireland." 
The good woman of the house, being a protestant, and having a brother in Dublin, 
named John Edmonds, was greatly troubled at what she heard. But watching her opportunity, 
whilst the mayor was taking his leave, and the doctor complimenting him down stairs, 
she opened the box, took out the commission, and instead thereof laid a sheet 
of paper, with a pack of cards, and the knave of clubs at top. The doctor not 
suspecting any thing, put up the box, and arrived with it in Dublin in September 
1558. Then waiting upon the lord Fitz-Walters, at that time viceroy, he pre- sented 
the box to him, which being opened, nothing was found therein but a pack of cards. 
This startling all the persons present, the lord-deputy said - 'We must procure 
another commission; and in the mean time let us shuffle the cards.' Dr. Cole was 
returning to England to get another commission; but waiting for a wind, news came 
that queen Mary was dead, very happily for the protestants, who by this means 
escaped a most cruel persecution. The above relation is confirmed by historians 
of the great- est credit, who add, that queen Elizabeth settled a pension of forty 
pounds per annum upon Elizabeth Edmonds, for having thus saved the lives of her 
protestant subjects. PAGE 1004 Another generation had, however, scarcely passed 
away before the protes- tants of Ireland were most cruelly visited with persecution. 
So greatly had the Irish ecclesiastics increased under Charles I. by titular Romish 
archbishops, bishops, deans, &c. that in the year 1629, it was deemed necessary 
to forbid the public exercise of the popish rites and ceremo- nies. But notwithstanding 
this prohibition, soon after, the Romish clergy erected a new popish university 
in Dublin. They also proceeded to build monasteries and nunneries in various parts 
of the kingdom; in which the priests, and the chiefs of the Irish, held frequent 
meetings; and, from thence, used to pass, to and fro, to France, Spain, Flanders, 
Loraine, and Rome; where the plot of 1641, was maturing by the family of the O'Neil's 
and their followers. A short time before the conspiracy broke out, the papists 
of Ireland had presented a remonstrance to the lords-justices of that kingdom, 
demanding the free exercise of their religion, and a repeal of all laws to the 
contrary. To this both houses of parliament in England solemnly answered, that 
they would not allow any toleration to the popish religion in that kingdom. Irritated 
by this, the papists hastened to put in execution the concert- ed plot, for the 
destruction of the protestants. The great design was, that a general insurrection 
should take place at the same time through- out the kingdom; and that all the 
protestants without exception should be murdered. The day fixed for this horrid 
massacre was the 23rd of October, 1641, the feast of Ignatius Loyala, founder 
of the Jesuits; and the chief conspirators, in the principal parts of the kingdom, 
made the necessary preparations for the intended conflict. In order that this 
detested scheme might the more infallibly succeed, the most distin- guished artifices 
were practised by the papists; whose behaviour, in their visits to the protestants, 
at this time, was with more seeming kindness than they had hitherto shewn, which 
was done more completely to effect their inhuman and treacherous designs. The 
carrying the conspiracy into effect was delayed till the approach of winter, that 
the sending of troops from England might be attended with greater difficulty. 
Cardinal Richelieu, the French minister, had prom- ised the conspirators a considerable 
supply of men and money; and many Irish officers had given the strongest assurances, 
that they would heartily concur with their catholic brethren, as soon as the insurrec- 
tion appeared. The day preceding that which was appointed for this horrid transaction 
arrived, when, happily for the metropolis of the kingdom, the conspiracy was discovered 
by one Owen O'Connelly, an Irish- man. PAGE 1005 The lords-justices had but just 
time to put themselves, and the city, in a proper posture of defence. The lord 
M'Guire, who was the principal leader here, with his accomplices, were seized 
the same evening in the city: and in their lodgings were found swords, hatchets, 
pole-axes, hammers, and such other instruments of death as had been prepared for 
the destruction and extirpation of the protestants in that part of the kingdom. 
The metropolis was thus happily preserved; but the bloody part of the intended 
tragedy was past prevention. The conspirators were in arms all over the kingdom 
early in the morning of the day appointed, and every protestant who fell in their 
way was immediately murdered. On the 22nd of October, Sir Phelim O'Neil, upon 
pretence of paying a visit to lord Charlemont, first perfidiously seized him in 
his castle, killed his servants before him, and, in a few days murdered his lordship, 
with some others, in cold blood, as clearly appeared on the trial of lord M'Guire, 
who was executed for high treason, in London, in 1664. The scene of blood having 
been begun, it flowed all over the country. No age, no sex, no condition was spared. 
The wife weeping for her butchered husband, and embracing her helpless children, 
was pierced with them, and perished by the same stroke. The old, the young, the 
vigorous, and the infirm, underwent the same fate, and were blended in one common 
ruin. In vain did flight save from the first assault: destruction was every where 
let loose, and met the hunted victims at every turn. In vain was re- course had 
to relations, to companions, to friends: all connections were dissolved, and death 
was dealt by that hand, from which protection was implored and expected. Without 
provocation, without opposition, the astonished English, living in profound peace, 
and, as they thought, in full security, were massacred by their nearest neighbours, 
with whom they had long maintained a continued intercourse of kindness and good 
offices. Nay, even death was the slightest punishment inflicted by these monsters 
in human form: all the tortures which wanton cruelty could invent, all the lingering 
pains of body, the anguish of mind, the ago- nies of despair, could not satiate 
revenge excited without injury, and cruelly derived from no cause whatever. Depraved 
nature, even perverted religion, though encouraged by the utmost licence cannot 
reach to a greater pitch of ferocity than appeared in these merciless barbarians. 
Even the weaker sex, naturally tender to their own sufferings, and compassionate 
to those of others, here emulated their robust companions in the practice of every 
cruelty. The very children taught by example, and encouraged by the exhortation 
of their parents, dealt their feeble blows on the dead carcases of defenceless 
children of the English. Neither was the avarice of the Irish sufficient to produce 
the least restraint on their cruelty. Such was their frenzy, that the cattle they 
had seized, and by rapine had made their own, were, because they bore the name 
of English, wantonly slaughtered, or, when covered with wounds, turned loose into 
the woods, there to perish by slow and lingering torments. All the commodious 
habitations of the planters were laid in ashes, or levelled with the ground. And 
where the wretched owners had shut themselves up in the houses, and were preparing 
for defence, they perished in the flames, together with their wives and children. 
The bigoted and merciless papists had no sooner begun to imbrue their hands in 
blood, than they repeated the horrid tragedy day after day; and the protestants 
in all parts of the kingdom fell victims to their fury by deaths of the most unheard-of 
nature. The vain and ignorant Irish were more strongly instigated to execute the 
infernal business by the Jesuits, priests, and friars, who, when the day for the 
execution of the plot was agreed on, recommended, in their prayers, diligence 
in the great design, which they said would greatly tend to the prosperity of the 
kingdom, and to the advancement of the catholic cause. They every where declared 
to the common people, that the protestants were heretics, and ought not to be 
suffered to live any longer among them; adding, that it was no more sin to kill 
an Englishman than to kill a dog; and that the relieving or protecting them was 
a crime of the most unpardonable nature. Such was the general description of this 
unparalleled massacre; but we must now proceed to particulars. PAGE 1006 When 
the papists besieged the town and castle of Longford, and the inhabitants of the 
latter, who were protestants, surrendered on condi- tion of being allowed quarter, 
the besiegers, the instant the townspeo- ple appeared, attacked them in the most 
unmerciful manner, their priest, as a signal for the rest to fall on, first ripping 
open the body of the English protestant minister; after which his followers murdered 
all the rest, some of whom they hung, others were stabbed or shot, and great numbers 
knocked on the head with axes provided for the purpose. The garrison at Sligo 
was thus treated by O'Connor Slygah; who upon the protestants quitting their holds 
promised them quarter, and to convey them safe over the Carlow mountains, to Roscommon. 
But he first impris- oned them in a most loathsome gaol, allowing them only grains 
for their food. Afterwards, when some papists were merry over their cups, who 
were come to congratulate their wicked brethren for their victory over these unhappy 
creatures, those protestants who survived were brought forth by the White-friars, 
and were either killed, or precipitated over the bridge into a swift water, where 
they were soon destroyed. It is added, that this wicked company of White-friars 
went some time after, in solemn procession, with holy water in their hands, to 
sprinkle the river; on pretence of cleansing and purifying it from the stains 
and pollution of the blood and dead bodies of the heretics, as they called the 
unfor- tunate protestants who were inhumanly slaughtered at this very time. At 
Kilmore, Dr. Bedell, bishop of that see, had charitably settled and supported 
a great number of distressed protestants, who had fled from their habitations 
to escape the diabolical cruelties committed by the papists. But they did not 
long enjoy the consolation of living together; the good prelate was forcibly dragged 
from his episcopal residence, which was immediately occupied by Dr. Swiney, the 
popish titular bishop of Kilmore, who said mass in the church the Sunday following, 
and then seized on all the goods and effects belonging to the persecuted bishop. 
Immediately after this, the papists forced Dr. Bedell, his two sons, and the rest 
of his family, with some of the chief of the protestants whom he had protected 
into a ruinous castle, called Lochwater, situated in a lake near the sea. Here 
he remained with his companions some weeks, all of them daily expecting to be 
put to death. The greatest part of them were stripped naked, by which means, as 
the season was cold and the building in which they were confined open at the top, 
they suffered the most severe hardships. PAGE 1007 In this situation they continued 
till the 7th of January, when they were all released. The bishop was courteously 
received into the house of Dennis O'Sheridan, one of his clergy, whom he had made 
a convert to the church of England. He was at that time in the seventy-first year 
of his age, and being afflicted with a violent ague caught in his late cold and 
desolate habitation on the lake, it soon threw him into a fever of the most dangerous 
nature. Finding his dissolution at hand, he received it with joy, like one of 
the primitive martyrs just hastening to his crown of glory. After having addressed 
his little flock, and exhorted them to patience in the most pathetic manner, as 
they saw their own last day approaching; after having solemly blessed his people, 
his family and his children, he finished the course of his ministry and life together, 
on the 7th of February, 1642. Some of the better disposed of his foes, who had 
venerated him when living, attended his funeral, and when his re- mains were deposited 
in the grave, they discharged a volley of shot, crying out, Requiescat in pace 
ultimus Anglorum: that is - "May the last of the English rest in peace." Adding, 
that as he was one of the best, so he should be the last English bishop found 
among them. In the barony of Trelawney, the papists, at the instigation of their 
friars, compelled above forty English protestants, some of whom were women and 
children, to the hard fate either of falling by the sword or of drowning in the 
sea. These choosing the latter, were accordingly forced, by the naked weapons 
of their inexorable persecutors, into the deep, where, with their children in 
their arms, they first waded up to their chins, and afterwards sunk down and perished 
together. In the castle of Lisgool upwards of 150 men, women, and children, were 
all burnt together; and at the castle of Moneah no less than 100 were all put 
to the sword. Great numbers were also murdered at the castle of Tullah, which 
was delivered up to M'Guire on condition of having fair quarter; but no sooner 
had that base villain got possession of the place, than he ordered his followers 
to murder the people, which was immediately done with the greatest cruelty. Several 
others were put to death in the most horrid manner, such as could have been invented 
only by daemons in the form of men. Some were laid with the centre of their backs 
on the axle-tree of a carriage, with their legs resting on the ground on one side, 
and their arms and head on the other. In this position one of the savages scourged 
the wretched object on the thighs and legs; while another set on furious dogs, 
who tore to pieces the arms and upper parts of the body; and in this dread- ful 
manner were they deprived of their existence. Several were fastened to horses' 
tails, and the beasts being set on full gallop by their riders, the wretched victims 
were dragged along till they expired. Many were hung on lofty gibbets, and a fire 
being kindled under them, they finished their lives, partly by hanging, and partly 
by burning. Nor did the more tender sex escape the fullest share of cruelty that 
could be projected by their merciless and furious persecutors. Many women of all 
ages, were put to deaths of the most cruel nature. Some in particular were fastened 
with their backs to strong posts, and being stripped to the waists, the inhuman 
monsters cut off their right breasts with shears, which of course put them to 
the most excruciating torments; and in this position they were left, till, from 
the loss of blood, they expired. PAGE 1008 Such was the savage ferocity of these 
barbarians, that even unborn infants were dragged from the womb to become victims 
to their rage. Many unhappy mothers were hung naked on the branches of trees, 
and their bodies being cut open, the innocent offsprings were taken from them, 
and thrown to dogs and swine. And to increase the horrid scene, they would oblige 
the husband to be a spectator before he suffered himself. There were upwards of 
a hundred Scottish protestants at the town of Lissens- keath to whom were shewed 
no more mercy than to the English. M'Guire, going to the castle of that town, 
desired to speak with the governor, when being admitted, he immediately burnt 
the records of the county, which were kept there. He then demanded a thousand 
pounds of the governor, which having received, he immediately compelled him to 
hear mass, and to swear that he would continue so to do. And to complete his horrid 
barbarities, he ordered the wife and children of the governor to be hung up before 
his face; besides massacreing at least one hundred of the inhabitants. There were 
more than a thousand men, women, and child- ren, driven, in different companies, 
to Portendown bridge, which was broken in the middle, and they were compelled 
to throw themselves into the water: such as attempted to reach the shore were 
knocked on the head. In the same part of the country, at least four thousand persons 
were drowned in different places. The inhuman papists, after first stripping them, 
drove them like beasts to the spot fixed on for their destruction; and if any, 
through fatigue or infirmities, were slack in their pace, they pricked them with 
their swords and pikes; and to strike terror on the multitude they murdered some 
by the way. Many of these poor wretches, when thrown into the water endeavoured 
to save themselves by swimming to the shore: but their persecutors prevented their 
endea- vours taking effect, by shooting them in the water. At one place one hundred 
and forty English, after being driven for many miles in the most severe weather, 
were all murdered on the same spot, some being hanged, others burnt, some shot, 
and many of them buried alive; and so cruel were their tormentors, that they would 
not suffer them to pray before they robbed them of their existence. They took 
other companies under pretence of safe-conduct, who, from that consideration, 
proceeded cheerfully on their journey; but when the treacherous papists had got 
them to a convenient spot, they butchered them all in the most cruel manner. About 
one hundred and fifteen men, women, and children, were conducted, by order of 
Sir Phelim O'Neil, to Portendown bridge, where they were all forced into the river, 
and drowned. One woman, named Campbel, finding no probability of escaping, suddenly 
clasped one of the chief of the pa- pists in her arms, and held him so fast, that 
they were both drowned together. Forty-eight families were massacred in Killoman, 
among whom twenty-two were burnt together in one house. PAGE 1009 The rest were 
either hanged, shot, or drowned. The people of Kilmore comprised about two hundred 
families, and all fell victims to their rage. Some of them sat in the stocks till 
they confessed where their money was; after which they put them to death. The 
whole country was one common scene of butchery, and many thousands perished in 
a short time, by sword, famine, fire, water, and all other the most cruel deaths 
that rage and malice could invent. These bloody villains shewed so much favour 
to some as to dispatch them immediately; but they would by no means suffer them 
to pray. Others they imprisoned in filthy dungeons, putting heavy bolts on their 
legs, and keeping them there till they were starved to death. They thrust all 
the protestants at Cashel into a loathsome dungeon, where they kept them together 
for several weeks in the greatest misery. At length they were released, when some 
of them were barbarously mangled, and left on the highways to perish at leisure; 
others were hanged, and some were buried in the ground upright, with their heads 
above the earth; the papists, to increase their misery, treating them with derision 
during their suffer- ings. Nine hundred and fifty-four protestants in the county 
of Antrim were murdered in one morning; and afterwards about twelve hundred more 
in that county. Twenty-four protestants were forced into a house, at a town called 
Lisnegary, which was fired, and they were all burned together, their outcries, 
in derision, being counterfeited by their foes. Among other acts of cruelty, they 
took two children belonging to an English woman, and dashed out their brains before 
her face; after which they threw the mother into a river, and she was drowned. 
They served many other children in the like manner, to the great affliction of 
their parents, and the disgrace of human nature. All the protestants in Kilkenny, 
without exception, were put to death, and some of them in so cruel a manner, as 
perhaps, was never before thought of. They beat an English female protestant with 
such barbarity, that she had scarce a whole bone left; after which they threw 
her into a ditch; but not satisfied with this, they took her child, a girl about 
six years of age, and after stabbing it, threw it to its mother, there to languish 
till it perished. One man they forced to go to mass, after which they ripped open 
his body, and in that manner left him. They sawed another asunder, cut the throat 
of his wife, and after having dashed out the brains of their infant, threw it 
to the swine, who greedily devoured it. Having committed these, and many other 
horrid cruelties, they took the heads of seven protestants, and among them that 
of a pious minister, all which they fixed up at the market cross. They put a gag 
into the minis- ter's mouth, then slit his cheeks to his ears, and laying a leaf 
of the bible before it, bid him preach, for his mouth was wide enough. They did 
several other things by way of derision, and expressed the greatest satisfaction 
at having thus murdered, and exposed the unhappy protes- tants. It is in fact 
impossible to imagine the pleasure these monsters took in exercising their cruelty; 
and to increase the misery of those who fell into their hands, when they butchered 
them they would say - "Your soul is thus sent to the devil." One of these miscreants 
would come into a house with his hands imbrued in blood, and boast that it was 
English blood, and that his sword had pierced the white skins of the protestants 
even to the hilt! PAGE 1010 As soon as any one of them had killed a protestant, 
others would come and receive a gratification in cutting and mangling the body; 
after which they left it exposed to be devoured by dogs; and when they had slain 
a number of them they would boast, that the devil was beholden to them for sending 
so many souls to hell! In the church of Powerscourt they burnt the pulpit, pews, 
chests, and bibles belonging to it. They took other bibles, and after wetting 
them with dirty water, dashed them in the faces of the protestants, saying - "We 
know you love a good less- on; here is an excellent one for you; come to-morrow, 
and you shall have as good a sermon as this." Many of the protestants they dragged 
by the hair of their heads into the church, where they stripped and whipped them 
in the most cruel manner, telling them, at the same time, that if they came to-marrow, 
they should hear the like sermon. There were put to death several ministers in 
Munster, in the most shock- ing manner. One of particular, they stripped stark 
naked, and driving him before them, pricked him with swords and darts till he 
fell down and expired. In some places they plucked out the eyes, and cut off the 
hands of the protestants, and in that manner turned them into the fields, to wander 
out their miserable existence. Many young men they also obliged to force their 
aged parents to a river, where they were drowned. One young man was compelled 
in one place to kill his father, and then was himself immediately hanged. In another 
they forced a woman to kill her husband, then obliged the son to kill her, and 
afterwards shot him through the head. At a place called Glaslow, a popish priest, 
with some others, prevailed on forty protestants to be reconciled to the church 
of Rome. They had no sooner done this, than they told them they were in a good 
faith, and that they would prevent their falling from it, and turning heretics, 
by sending them out of the world, which they did by immediately putting them to 
death. Upwards of thirty protestants, men, women, and children, in the county 
of Tipperary, fell into the hands of the papists, who after stripping them naked, 
murdered them with stones, pole-axes, swords, and other instruments. In the county 
of Mayo about sixty protes- tants, fifteen of whom were ministers, were, upon 
covenant, to be safely conducted to Galway, by one Edmund Burke and his soldiers; 
but that inhuman monster by the way drew his sword, as an intimation of his design 
to the rest, who immediately followed his example, and murdered the whole. PAGE 
1011 Great numbers of Queen's County were put to the most shocking deaths. Fifty 
or sixty were placed together in one house, which being set on fire, they all 
perished in the flames. Several were stripped naked, and being fastened to horses 
by ropes placed round their middles, were dragged through bogs till they expired 
in the greatest torture. Several were suspended by the feet to tenter-hooks driven 
into poles; and left till they perished in that wretched posture. Some were fastened 
to the trunk of a tree, with a branch at top. Over this branch hung one arm, which 
principally supported the weight of the body; and one of the legs was turned up, 
and fastened to the trunk, while the other hung straight. In this dreadful posture 
did they remain, as long as life would permit, pleasing spectacles to their blood-thirsty 
persecutors. Seventeen men were buried alive at Clownes; and an Englishman, his 
wife, five children, and a servant maid, were all hung together, and their bodies 
afterwards thrown into a ditch. Many were hung by the middle, in which postures 
they left them till they expired. Others were fastened to windmills, and before 
they were half dead, the barbarians cut them in pieces with their swords. Some 
men, women, and children, they cut and hacked in various parts of their bodies, 
and left them wallowing in their blood to perish where they fell. One poor woman 
they hung on a gibbet, with her child, an infant about a twelvemonth old, the 
latter of whom was hung by the neck with the hair of its mother's head, and in 
that manner finished its short but miserable existence. No less than three hundred 
protestants were drowned in one day in the county of Tyrone; and many others were 
hanged, burned, and otherwise put to death. The rector of Tyrone, Dr. Maxwell, 
lived at this time near Armagh, and suffered greatly from these merciless savages. 
This clergy- man in his examination, taken upon oath before the king's commissioners, 
declared, that the Irish papists owned to him, that at several times they had 
destroyed, in one place, 12,000 protestants, whom they inhuman- ly slaughtered 
at Glynwood, in their flight from the county of Armagh. The river Bann being nor 
fordable, and the bridge broken down, the Irish forced thither, at different times, 
a great number of unarmed and defen- celess protestants, and with pikes and swords 
violently thrust above one thousand into the river, where they miserably perished. 
The cathedral of Armagh did not escape the fury of these barbarians, it being 
maliciously set on fire by their leaders, and burnt to the ground. And to extirpate, 
if possible, the very race of those unhappy protes- tants, who lived in or near 
Armagh, the Irish first burnt all their houses, and then gathered together many 
hundred of innocent people, young and old, on pretence of allowing them a guard 
and safe-conduct to Colerain, when they treacherously fell on them by the way, 
and inhumanly murdered them all. Similar barbarities were practiced on the wretched 
protestants in almost all parts of the kingdom; and, when an estimate was afterwards 
made of the number who were sacrificed to gratify the diabolical souls of the 
papists, it amounted to one hundred and fifty thousand! PAGE 1012 Flushed with 
success and insolence, these desperate wretches soon got possession of the castle 
of Newry, where the king's stores and ammuni- tion were lodged; and, with as little 
difficulty, made themselves mas- ters of Dundalk. They afterwards took the town 
of Ardea, where they murdered all the protestants, and then proceeded to Drogheda. 
The garrison of Drogheda was in no condition to sustain a siege, notwith- standing 
which, as often as the Irish renewed their attacks, they were vigorously repulsed, 
by a very unequal number of the king's forces, and a few faithful protestant citizens 
under sir Henry Tichborne, the gover- nor, assisted by the lord viscount Moore. 
The siege of Drogheda began on the 30th of November, 1641, and held till the 4th 
of March, 1642, when sir Phelim O'Neil, and the Irish miscreants under him, were 
forced to retreat. During this proceeding, ten thousand troops were sent from 
Scotland to the relief of the remaining protestants in Ireland, which being properly 
divided in the most capital parts of the kingdom, happily overpowered the Irish 
savages; and the protestants, for a time, lived happy and unmolested. In the reign 
of king James II., however, they were again interrupted, for in a parliament held 
at Dublin in the year 1689, great numbers of the protestant nobility, clergy, 
and gentry of Ireland, were attainted of high treason. The government of the kingdom 
was, at that time, in- vested in the earl of Tyrconnel, a bigoted papist, and 
an inveterate enemy to the protestants. By his order they were again persecuted 
in various parts of the kingdom. The revenues of the city of Dublin were seized, 
and most of the churches converted into prisons. And had it not been for the resolution 
and uncommon bravery of the garrisons of the city of Londonderry, and the town 
of Inniskillen, there had not one place remained for refuge to the distressed 
protestants in the whole kingdom; but all must have been given up to king James, 
and to the furious popish party. On the 18th of April, 1689, the remarkable siege 
of Londonderry was opened by twenty thousand papists, the flower of the Irish 
army. The city was not properly circumstanced to sustain a siege, the defenders, 
consisting of a body of raw undisciplined protestants, who had fled thither for 
shelter, and half a regiment of lord Mountjoy's disciplined soldiers, with the 
principal part of the inhabitants, making in all only seven thousand three hundred 
and sixty-one fighting men. At first the besieged hoped that their stores of corn 
and other necessaries, would be sufficient; but, by the continuance of the siege, 
their wants increased; and these became at last so heavy, that for a considerable 
time before the siege was raised, a pint of coarse barley, a small quantity of 
greens, a few spoonfuls of starch, with a very moderate proportion of horse-flesh, 
were reckoned a week's provision for a soldier. And they were, at length, reduced 
to such extremities, that they ate whatever they could procure. PAGE 1013 While 
their miseries increased with the siege, many through mere hunger and want pined 
and languished away, or fell dead in the streets. And it is remarkable, that when 
their long expected succours arrived from England, they were upon the point of 
being reduced to this alternative, either to preserve their existence by eating 
each other, or attempting to fight their way through the Irish, which must have 
infallibly pro- duced their destruction. Most seasonably and happily these succours 
were brought by the ship Mountjoy, of Derry, and the Phoenix, of Colerain, at 
which time they had only nine lean horses left, with a pint of meal to each man. 
By hunger, and the fatigues of war, their seven thousand three hundred and sixty-one 
fighting men were reduced to four thousand three hundred, one-fourth of whom were 
rendered unfit for service. As the calamities of the besieged were very great, 
so likewise were the terrors and sufferings of their protestant friends and relations; 
all of whom were forcibly driven from the country thirty miles round, and inhumanly 
reduced to the sad necessity of continuing some days and nights, without food 
or covering, before the walls of the town; and were thus exposed to the continual 
fire both of the Irish army from without, and the shot of their friends from within. 
The succours from England happily arriving, put an end to their afflictions; and 
the siege was raised on the 31st of July, having been continued upwards of three 
months before. The day before the siege of Londonderry was raised, the Inniskilliners 
engaged a body of six thousand Irish Roman catholics, at Newton Butler, or Crown-Castle, 
of whom near five thousand were slain. This, with the defeat at Londonderry, dispirited 
the papists, and they gave up all farther attempts to persecute the protestants. 
In the fol- lowing year, viz. 1690, the Irish took up arms in favour of James 
II., but were totally defeated by his successor king William III. SECTION III. 
LORD RUSSEL, ALGERNON SIDNEY, AND OTHERS. MUCH controversy has been expended about 
the cause of the great fire of London. Without affecting to decide the question 
of its being caused in whole or in part by the papists, such incidents only are 
here inserted as tend to the affirmative. It broke out about two o'clock in the 
morn- ing of Sept. 2, 1666, at a baker's house in Pudding-lane, near Fish- street-hill. 
It raged with extreme violence, by means of a strong north- east wind; so that 
notwithstanding all means used for extinguishing it, it spread far and near, and 
so continued for near four days, till it had burnt down 13,200 houses, which stood 
upon 337 acres of ground, within the walls, and 63 acres three rods without, besides 
89 parish churches, the spacious cathedral of St. Paul, the Royal Exchange, the 
Guild-hall, the Custom-house, many other halls, several principal city-gates, 
and other public edifices. It was accompanied with the loss of vast quanti- ties 
of rich household stuff, and goods of all sorts, but especially books, of which 
alone were lost near the value of 150,000 pounds; to- gether with a great quantity 
of tobacco, sugar, wines, and plums: so that the whole loss was computed to be 
9,900,000 pounds; and yet not above seven or eight persons, through God's providence, 
were burnt in this vast desolation. PAGE 1014 On Sept. 18th, the parliament met, 
and the commons appointed a committee to examine into the causes of the fire, 
and to take informations con- cerning it; and in a short time many and considerable 
informations were brought in, that the papists were the contrivers and managers 
of this dreadful fire. Among other things, it plainly appeared that several of 
the popish party were made acquainted with it before it happened. Mr. Light, of 
Radcliff, deposed - That being in discourse with Mr. Richard Langham (afterwards 
executed for high-treason) in February before the fire, concerning religion, Langham 
took him by the hand, and said to him--"You expect great things in sixty-six, 
and think that Rome will be destroyed, but what if it be London!" A Frenchman 
told one Elizabeth Stiles, in April before the fire - That English maids would 
love French- men better, when there was not a house left standing between Temple-bar 
and London-bridge; to which she replied - She hoped his eyes would never see that. 
He said, "This will happen betwixt June and October." Robert Hubert, a French 
papist of Normandy, is said to have begun the fire of London, having been hired 
thereto by Stephen Piedelow, likewise a papist; but Hubert observing the ruin 
and desolation that followed, could not rest till he had freely discovered the 
whole matter; affirm- ing, that by Piedelow's directions he had put a fire-ball 
to the end of a long pole, and lighting it with a piece of a match, put it into 
the baker's window, and staid till the house was in a flame. A French mer- chant 
went to Hubert in the White Lion prison in Southwark, and told him, he did not 
believe him guilty of what he had confessed. He replied - "Yes, sir, I am guilty 
of it, and have been brought to it by the instigation of Mr. Piedelow; yet not 
out of any malice to the English nation, but from a desire of reward which he 
promised me, upon my return into France." Hubert was tried and executed for this 
horrid fact, owning to the last his doing thereof by the instigation of Piedelow. 
The Jesuits and their partizans finding the burning of London had not completed 
their work, since in a few years it rose more glorious than before, resolved, 
by the assistance of France, to extinguish the protes- tant cause, or what they 
were pleased to term, the northern heresy. This mighty project was to be accomplished 
by the murder of King Charles II. they finding him not to possess courage enough, 
though he shewed his inclination, for perfecting this pious design. But Dr. Titus 
Oates, who had been chaplain to the duke of Norfolk, being reconciled to the church 
of Rome, hearing some whisperings among the popish priests, of a vast contrivance 
in hand, and desiring to know the extent of it, be by open- ing some letters sent 
by the Jesuits to their confederates in Spain, became acquainted with the whole 
conspiracy, which upon his return into England he discovered to the king, council, 
and parliament; charging Edward Coleman, secretary to the duchess of York, of 
corresponding with PAGE 1015 father de la Chaise, confessor to the French king, 
for reducing these three kingdoms to popery and slavery; of which Coleman's letters 
that were seized, gave a full confirmation; and it appeared, that several noblemen 
and gentlemen had commissions to command in the army that was to be raised for 
effecting the business. It was afterwards discovered, that many cities and great 
towns in England were to be fired, upon the murder of king Charles; and a general 
massacre was intended by an army of 50,000 men, mostly French and Irish, who, 
they gave out, were enough, upon a surprise, to slay many thousand protestants; 
the militia of London and Westminster being at that time undisciplined. This and 
a great deal more being discovered, both houses of parliament were fully satisfied 
of the reality of the plot. A singular and barbarous murder of a worthy gentleman 
named Sir Edmond Godfrey, now occurred. Sir Edmond appearing zealous in the discovery 
and prosecution of the popish plot, of which Dr. Oates had given him infor- mation 
upon oath, so enraged the conspirators, that they resolved to take him off, to 
deter all others from intermeddling therein. Several popish priests were concerned 
in contriving his death, which they at length accomplished. On October 12, 1678, 
Sir Edmond going, about nine o'clock in the evening, by Somerset-house in the 
Strand, Hill, servant to Dr. Godden, the jesuit, stepped out of the gate hastily, 
and intreat- ed him for God's sake to come in, for that there were two men quarrell- 
ing, and he was afraid there would be blood shed. To give an appearance of truth 
to this, Kelly, an irish priest, and Berry, porter to Somerset- house, pretended 
to quarrel on purpose. Sir Edmond at first refused to go in, but his importunity 
prevailing, Hill entered the gate first and after him Sir Edmond; Girald, another 
Irish priest, and Green, cushion- man to queen Catherine, followed just behind. 
Prance, the queen's gold- smith, watched at the gate, that nobody else should 
enter. Sir Edmond, going towards those that pretended to quarrel, Green threw 
a cravat about his neck, and presently all four pulled it so that he could make 
no noise; they then violently beat him on the breast with their knees, and Green, 
with all his force, wrung his nick almost round. For the disposal of the body, 
they carried it into a little chamber of Hill's, another of the murderers, who 
had been, or was Dr. Godden's man, where it lay till Monday night, when they moved 
it into another room, and thence back again till Wednesday, when they carried 
him out in a sedan about twelve o'clock, and afterwards upon a horse, with Hill 
behind him, to support him, till they got to Primrose-hill, near a public house, 
and there threw him into a ditch, with his gloves and cane on a bank near him, 
and his own sword run through him, on purpose to persuade the world he had killed 
himself. Thus making choice of a place, where they might think he would be some 
time concealed, and near where he had been seen walking the same day, if the affidavits 
to this purpose in Sir Roger's book may be relied upon. PAGE 1016 All this Mr. 
Prance swore upon the trial of the murderers, with whom he acknowledged to have 
had several consultations before, concerning it; whose evidence was confirmed, 
not only by innumerable other circumstanc- es, but Bedlow's confession, who was 
to have been present at the action had not remorse of conscience hindered him, 
having been engaged by the conspirators for a great reward: he was also afterwards 
to have had a considerable part of it for carrying off the body. Green, Hill, 
and Berry were tried and executed for this murder. At the same time the following 
persons being found guilty, upon the fullest evidence of the conspiracy against 
the king's person, were also executed, namely Edward Coleman, William Ireland, 
Thomas Pickering, John Grove, Thomas White- bread, William Harcourt, John Fenwick, 
John Gavan, Anthony Turner, Richard Langhorn, and Oliver Plunket. And about the 
same time the lord Stafford, being impeached by the house of commons, before his 
peers in Westminster-hall, was found guilty of high treason, and beheaded on Tower-hill. 
The Roman catholics, incensed that their plot had miscarried, and that so many 
of their party had fallen in their cause, resolved, with the assistance of several 
great persons at court, to be revenged of their enemies. To bring this about, 
a pretended protestant plot was advanced, which was said to have the iniquitous 
design of murdering the king and the duke of York. To this, many of the best persons 
in England fell a sacrifice. Mr. Arnold, a vigorous opponent of priests and Jesuits, 
was at this time assailed by their vigilance and malice, and would have suffered 
violent death at their hands but for some providential interposition more than 
once of friendly individuals to rescue him. The first assault was in the Temple-lane, 
of which he was seasonably apprised, and for which he was sufficiently prepared. 
The second and more serious attack was soon after near the same spot, when he 
would have been murdered but for the sudden appearance of a youth with a light, 
when the assassins fled. The next who suffered was Mr. Stephen College, who was 
first known to the public at the trial of lord Stafford, being called up as collateral 
witness for Mr. Dugdale. He was accused by Heins and Macnamarra, and one or two 
of the apostate evidences of the popish plot. These persons swore against him 
the most extravagant things, such as his taking Whitehall, and dragging the king 
from it; in short, so incongruous was their story, and so ill were their own characters, 
that the London jury refused to find the bill, but returned it ignored. Notwithstanding 
this, contrary to all justice, he was tried again at Oxford, and condemned. His 
be- haviour at his execution, was such as convinced many of his greatest enemies 
of his innocence. He maintained, that he was perfectly innocent of what he died 
for. "I did deny it," says he, "before the council, and do deny it upon my death: 
I never was in any kind of plot in my days; and if I had any such design as these 
have sworn against me, I take God to witness, as I am a dying man, and on the 
terms of my salvation, I know not one man upon the face of the earth who would 
have stood by me. And lower, I knew not of any part of what they swore against 
me, till I heard it sworn at the bar. Again, all the arms we had were for our 
defence, in case the papists should have made any attempt by way of massacre. 
God is my witness, this is all I know. It is thee, O God, I trust in. I disown 
all dispensations, and will not go out of the world with a lie in my mouth. From 
the sincerity of my heart, I declare again, that these are the very sentiments 
of my soul, as God shall have mercy upon me." PAGE 1017 The next sufferer in the 
protestant cause at this period was Arthur, earl of Essex, a person whom it was 
the highest interest of the popish faction to have out of the way. He had a large 
interest, a plentiful estate, a great deal of courage, understood the world, and 
the princi- ples and practices of the papist as well as any man, having also been 
of several secret committees in the examination of the plot, for which very reason 
there was as much necessity for his dying as for Sir Edmond Godfrey being put 
to death. With respect to the immediate subject of his death, the manner and circumstances 
thereof: it must first be granted, that for the present only supposing he was 
murdered by the hands of the papists, they would, certainly, make it their business 
to render the manner of it as dark as the hell in which it was contrived. Murders, 
especially of that magnitude, are not used to be committed in the face of all 
the world, and at noon-day. The earl of Essex was found with his throat cut in 
the Tower, on the 13th of July 1683, about eight or nine in the morning, at which 
time the duke of York, the king's brother, and a bigoted papist, his known and 
bitter enemy, was present. Every thing tended to excite a suspicion of his having 
been murdered, although, as in the case of Sir E. Godfrey it was intended that 
he should be thought to have killed himself. A deputy coroner only was present 
at the inquest, instead of a legal one; and none of the relations were called 
to attend the inquest. The body was removed from the place were it was first laid, 
stripped, the clothes taken away, the body and rooms washed from the blood, and 
the clothes denied the view of the jury! The principal witnesses examined were 
only Bomeny his man, and Russel his warder, who might be so justly suspected of 
being privy to, if not actors in it. The jury hastened and hurried the verdict, 
when so great a man, a peer of the realm, and such a peer was concerned, who was 
the king's prisoner. When Sir Thomas Overbury had been before murdered in the 
Tower, and his jury brought in an un- righteous verdict, the case was adjourned. 
When even Sir Edmond God- frey's jury were so much cried out against for their 
ill-management, they adjourned their verdict, and staid considerably before they 
brought it in. This was at a time when the lord Russel was to be tried for a share 
in the plot, in which the earl was also accused of being con- cerned. One branch 
of this conspiracy, and which it was so much the papists' interest to have the 
belief fixed on it, was a barbarous murder of the duke and king; and nothing could 
so immediately and critically tend to the earl of Essex's ruin. The news of his 
death was instantly, with much diligence, conveyed from the Tower to the Sessions-house, 
Bench, Bar, and Jury, and harped upon by the lord Howard and by others in after- 
trials, as by more than a thousand witnesses, as a proof of the finger of God. 
After this, the very centinel, who that day stood near the place, was found dead 
in the Tower ditch, and captain Hawley barbarously murdered at Rochester; and 
ill methods used to prevent the truth of all from coming to light. Mr. Braddon 
was harassed, prosecuted imprisoned, and fined for stirring in it. On the fair 
and impartial consideration of these things, every one of which is but notorious 
matter of fact, is it not evident he was murdered by the popish party? PAGE 1018 
From the manner, too, in which the deed was perpetrated, it appeared impossible, 
that the earl could have done it himself. His throat was cut from one jugular 
to the other, and lay the aspera arteria and windpipe, to the vertebrae of the 
neck, both the jugulars being thoroughly divid- ed; so that from the great flux 
of blood which must necessarily have followed on the dividing of one jugular, 
as well as all those strong muscles which lie in the way, he must have fainted, 
and been rendered unable to go round to the other. In this evident and conclusive 
manner does guilt often attach itself with unerring certainty to its actual perpetrators; 
and leave the inference in the power of the simplest reasoner. The next who fell 
under their cruelty, and to whose death that of the earl of Essex was but a prologue, 
was Lord Russel; without all dispute one of the most accomplished gentlemen that 
ever England bred; and whose pious life and virtue was much more treason against 
the court, by af- fronting them with what was so much hated there, than anything 
else that was sworn against him. That he must be viewed as a martyr to the cruelty 
of a rising papal faction, there can be no doubt. Being marked out, and among 
others destined for the slaughter, he was taken and imprisoned in the Tower, and 
brought to his trial the 13th of July 1683, the very day on which Essex was murdered. 
He was brought to the Old Bailey, and the same morning tried for high treason. 
He earnestly desired that he might have respite, and not be tried that day, since 
he had some witnesses who could not be in town till the night: but they were so 
eager for his blood, that they would not stay so much a till the afternoon, pretending 
it was against precedent, and they could not do it without the attorney- general's 
consent. Just at that time, news was brought into the house, that my lord Essex 
had that morning prevented justice: and several of the jury afterwards confessed, 
that they had never found Russel guilty, had it not been for that accident. His 
indictment ran in these words - "He did conspire and compass our lord the king, 
his supreme lord, not only of his kingly state, title, power and government of 
this his king- dom of England, to deprive and throw down; but also our said sovereign 
lord the king to kill, and the ancient government of this kingdom of England to 
change, alter, and wholly subvert, and to cause a miserable slaughter among the 
subjects of our said lord the king through his whole kingdom of England." That 
all this was not intended as a matter of form only, is clear, by the king's counsel 
opening the evidence. The first said, "He was indict- ed for no less than conspiring 
the death of the king's majesty; and that in order to the same, he and others 
did meet and conspire together, to bring our sovereign lord the king to death, 
to raise war and rebellion against him, and to massacre his subjects; and in order 
to compass these wicked designs, being assembled, did conspire to seize the king's 
guards, and his majesty's person: and this is the charge against him." PAGE 1019 
The attorney-general fell a little lower, and told them, that the mean- ing of 
all these tragical words, was a consultation about a rising about seizing the 
guards, and receiving messages from the earl of Shaftsbury concerning an insurrection. 
Yet the proof against him came not up so high even as this, though all care was 
used for that purpose, and kind questions put very frequently to lead and draw 
the evidence; only one of them witnessing to any one point in particular. Colonel 
Rumsey first swore, That he was sent with a letter from lord Shaftsbury, who lay 
concealed at Wapping, to meet lord Russel, Ferguson and others, at Shepherd's, 
to know of them what resolution they were come to concerning the rising designed 
at Taunton. That when he came thither, the answer was, that Mr. Trencher had failed 
them, and no more would be done at that time. That Mr. Ferguson spoke the most 
part of that answer; but that lord Russel was present, and that he did speak about 
the rising of Taunton, and consented to it. That the company was discoursing also 
of viewing the guards, in order to surprise them, if the rising had gone on; and 
that some undertook to view them; and that the lord Russel was by, when this was 
undertaken. But this being the main hinge of the business, and this witness not 
yet coming up to the purpose, they thought it convenient to refresh his memory, 
asking him, Whether he found my lord Russel averse, or agreeing to it? He answered, 
Agreeing. But being afterwards on the trial asked, Whether he could swear positively, 
that my lord Russel heard the message, and gave any answer to it? - all that he 
said was, That when he came in, they were at the fire-side, and that they all 
came from the fire-side to hearken to his words. The chief that Shepherd witnessed, 
was, That my lord Russel and others being at his house, there was a discourse 
of surprising the king's guards; and Sir Thomas Armstrong having viewed them when 
he came thither another time, said, that they were remiss, and the thing was seizable, 
if there were strength to do it. And upon being questioned too, as Rumsey before 
him, whether my lord Russel was there, he said he was at the time they talked 
of seizing the guards. Lord Howard was the next witness. After a long and florid 
harangue, he at last made his evidence bear directly upon the point for which 
he came thither, and swore, that after my lord Shaftsbury went away, their party 
resolved still to carry on the design of the insurrection without him; for the 
better management whereof they erected a little cabal among themselves, which 
consisted of six persons, whereof my lord Russel and himself were two: that they 
met for that purpose at Mr. Hampden's house, and there adjusted the place and 
manner of the intended insurrection. That about ten days after, they had another 
meeting on the same business at my lord Russel's, where they resolved to send 
some persons to engage Argyle and the Scots in the design, and that he was sure 
my lord Russel was there. Being asked whether he said any thing, he answered, 
That every one knew him to be a person of great judgment, and not very lavish 
of discourse. Being again goaded on by Jeffreys, with the question - did he consent? 
"We did," he said, "put it to the vote, it went without contradiction, and I took 
it that all there gave their consent accordingly." PAGE 1020 Now as to colonel 
Rumsey the first witness: my lord Cavendish proved on the trial, that lord Russel 
had a very ill opinion of him, and therefore it was not likely he would intrust 
him with a secret of such importance. Then as the evidence, forced out of him, 
as it was, in both branches of the design, seizing the guards, and the rising 
of Taunton, he says in terms very general - That he was agreeing to one, and spoke 
about, and consented to the other. For his agreeing to the seizing of the guards, 
he might think, as the lord Howard did, that silence gives consent; for it did 
not appear, nor did he swear, that my lord spoke one word about it. But he himself, 
in his last speech, and which there is all the reason in the world to believe 
exactly true, since, as he himself says in it, He always detested lying, though 
ever so much to his advantage; and hoped none would be so unjust, or uncharitable, 
to think he would venture on it in these his last words, for which he was soon 
going to give an account to the great God, the searcher of hearts, and judge of 
all things. In this last speech he protests, that at this time of which Rumsey 
swears, there was no undertaking of securing and seizing the guards, nor none 
appointed to view or examine them, only some discourse there was of the practicability 
of it; he heard it mentioned as a thing which might easily be effected, but never 
consented to it as a thing fit to be done. Shepherd's evidence amounted to nothing: 
he spoke not a syllable to the purpose, or any thing which affected lord Russel. 
He could hardly tell whether he was there when there was the discourse of seizing 
the guards, but spake not a word of the prisoner's hearing, or in the least wise 
consenting to the same. With regard to lord Howard, his evidence was equally vague 
and undecisive. He said, that when they had inquired how matters stood in the 
country, and that the duke of Monmouth had found Trenchard and the west country 
failed them, the design was put off again, and this about the 17th or 18th of 
October. Now this same action Rumsey spoke of, but took a larger scope as to the 
time, the end of October, or the beginning of November, far enough from the 17th 
or 18th of the month before. Rumsey said, on this disappointment of the Taunton 
men and Trenchard, Shaftsbury resolved to be gone. Lord Howard, that he was so 
far from it, that he and his party resolved to it without the lords, and had set 
one time and the other, and at last the 17th of November, which also not taking 
effect, then Shaftsbury went off. As to his evidence, which was closer; the story 
of the council of six, besides the former improbabili- ty, that he, among all 
others, should be chosen one of them; it is remarkable, that in their former greater 
consultations at Shepherd's, which he and Rumsey mentioned, the lord Howard was 
never present, nor did he so much as touch on it in his evidence; though here, 
if any where, the grand affair of seizing the guards, and the answer to Shaft- 
sbury about Taunton was concerted. All that appears of truth in the matter, seems 
to be what lord Russel acknowledged, that those persons named, met very often; 
that there was no formed design, but only loose talk about those concerns. That 
there was no debate of any such thing as was sworn, not putting any thing in a 
method; but my lord Howard being a man of voluble tongue, they were all delighted 
to hear his oratory. PAGE 1021 It appears then from his own acknowledgement, that 
Howard, Armstrong, and such others, had sometimes discoursed of ill designs and 
matters in his company: and as he said in his speech, "What the heats, wickedness, 
passions, and vanities of other men had occasioned, he ought not to be answerable 
for, nor could he repress them. Nay more, he did sufficiently disapprove those 
things which he heard discoursed of with more heat than judgment. But for himself, 
he declared solemnly, that he was never in any design against the king's life, 
or any man's whatever; nor ever in any contrivance of altering the government." 
It would after all this, be almost superfluous to go any further, or insert the 
evidence given by Dr. Tillotson, Burnet, Cox, and others, not only of his virtuous 
and honourable behaviour, but especially of his judgment about popular insurrections, 
that he was absolutely against them, that it was folly and madness till things 
came to be regulated in a parliamentary way, and thought it would ruin the best 
cause in the world to take any such ways towards its preservation. But all this 
and more would not do, die he must, the duke ordered it, the witnesses swore it, 
the judges directed it, the jury found it; and when the sentence came to be passed, 
the judge asked, as is usual, What he had to say why it should not be pronounced? 
He answered, that whereas he had been charged in the indictment with conspiring 
the death of the king, which he had not taken notice of before, he appealed to 
the judge and court, whether he were guilty within the statutes on which he was 
tried, the witnesses having sworn an intention of levying war, but not of killing 
the king, of which there was no proof by any one witness. The recorder told him, 
that was an exception proper to be made before the verdict. Whether the evidence 
did amount to prove the charge, was to be observed by the jury; for if the evidence 
came short of the indictment, they could not find it to be a true charge; but 
when once they had found it, their verdict did pass for truth, and the court was 
bound by it, as well as his lordship, and they were to go according to what the 
jury had found, not their evidence. Now it should be asked, what was the reason 
of the prisoner being asked that question, What he had to say for him- self? Was 
not the bench? Or, did it not pretend to be so? And why was not this observed 
by them in their direction to the jury? Being found guilty, against all truth, 
sentence was accordingly past upon him; and he was removed to Newgate. While there, 
the importunity of his friends, lest they should think him sullen or stubborn, 
prevailed with him to sign petitions, and make an address for his life, though 
it was not without difficulty that he did any thing that was begging to save it. 
To the last, he owned that doctrine, which other good men, who were then of another 
judgment, have since been forced into, namely, the lawfulness of resistance against 
unlawful violence, from whomsoever it proceeds. PAGE 1022 After fruitless applications 
for pardon; after a farewell and adieu in this world, to one of the best of women, 
who stood by him, and assisted him in his trial, and did not leave his presence, 
till at last on Satur- day the 21st of July, he went into his own coach about 
nine o'clock with Dr. Tillotson and Dr. Burnet; whence he was carried to Great 
Lincloln's- inn-field to the scaffold prepared for him, where, among all the nu- 
merous persons, he was one of the most unconcerned. Very few rejoiced at so doleful 
a spectacle, except the papists, who indeed had sufficient reason; my lord Powis's 
people expressing, as it is said, a great deal of pleasure and satisfaction. There, 
after he had again solemnly pro- tested his innocency, and that he was far from 
any design against the king's person, or of altering the government: nay, that 
he did upon the words of a dying man profess, that he knew of no plot against 
the king's life or government; and delivering one of the finest speeches in the 
world to the sheriff, he prayed by himself, and with Dr. Tillotson's assistance; 
and embracing him and Dr. Burnet, he submitted to the fatal strokes, for the executioner 
took no less than three before he could sever his head. When it was held up, as 
usual, there was so far from being any shout, that a considerable groan was heard 
round the scaffold. His body was given to his friends, and conveyed to Chenies 
in Buck- inghamshire, where it was buried among his ancestors. During the day 
of his execution there was a great storm, and many loud claps of thunder. The 
story of captain Walcot and his fellow-sufferers, should have been first related, 
they having been convicted before lord Russel, and exe- cuted on Friday, as he 
was on Saturday. But lord Russel's fate having so immediate a dependance on the 
earl of Essex's, and all the plot hanging on him; especially they being the most 
conspicuous of any who suffered on this occasion; it looked more natural and proper 
to begin with them, and reserve the other to this place. Captain Walcot was a 
gentleman of a considerable estate in Ireland, and had eight children all living. 
The supposed crime for which Walcot suffered, and which West and others witnessed 
against him, was consult- ing the death of the king, and charging the guards at 
his return from Newmarket, while the dreadful blunderbuss was to be fired into 
the coach by Rumbald, or some others. His privity to discourses about the king's 
death was but misprison. For his acting in it, they could not have picked on a 
more unlikely man to command a party in so desperate an attempt as charging the 
guards, than one who was bedridden of the gout, as about this time, and often 
besides, the captain was. Nor seems West's pretence more likely, that he refused 
to be active in the assassination, because of the baseness of it, but offered 
to charge the guards, while others did it. This he denied with indignation in 
his speech, and ap- pealed to all that knew him, whether they thought him such 
an idiot, that he should not understand it was the same thing to engage the king's 
guards, while others killed him, as to kill him with his own hands? Here then, 
it is plain, lay the truth of the business. West, Rumsey, and others, had been 
frequently discoursing at this villanous rate: West was most impatiently eager 
of having it done; he proposed the killing him at a play, which he said would 
be in their own calling. PAGE 1023 Colonel Rumsey and West were the main pillars, 
and almost the only witnesses on which the credit of that action depended, who 
appear throughout the great and almost sole managers thereof, and who accuse others 
for being concerned in it. West said, that Walcot joined in the direction about 
the nature and size of the arms, intended for the assas- sination of the king 
and duke; that he was very intimate and familiar with Rumbald, who was to be the 
principal actor in the assassination. But Rumbald's death cleared himself and 
Walcot, and shewed what West was. In another place he affirmed, that Walcot told 
him Ferguson had the chief management of the intended assassination. To sum up 
the whole, the world is left to its liberty to believe, at least three dying men's 
asseverations, against those who so plainly swore away the life of others to save 
their own. All this duly considered, a fair supposition lies of the innocency 
of captain Walcot and others of what they were accused, found guilty, sentenced, 
and died for; it being on West's evidence, and such as his, that he and others 
were arraigned and condemned; the captain's defence being much the same with what 
he says in his speech. It is well known, that the witnesses against captain Walcot 
swore for their own lives with halters as it were about their necks; and it is 
as true that most of the witnesses had talked at a mad rate, in the hearing of 
some of those whom they destroyed; but mark what captain Walcot in a most solemn 
manner with his last breath declared. He denied any design of killing the king, 
or of engaging the guards whilst others killed him, and said, that the witnesses 
invited him to meetings, where some things were discoursed of, in order to the 
assert- ing our liberties and properties; which we looked upon to be violated 
and invaded: that they importuned and perpetually solicited him, and then delivered 
up him to be hanged. That they combined together to swear him out of his life, 
to save their own; and that they might do it effec- tually, they contrived an 
untruth. That he forgave them, though guilty of his blood; but withal, earnestly 
begged, that they might be observed, that marks might be set upon them, whether 
their end were in peace or misery and woe. Rouse, who was tried with the captain, 
was charged with such a parcel of mad romance, as was scarce ever heard of; and 
one would wonder how perjury and malice, which used to be sober sins, could ever 
be so ex- travagant as to think of it. He was to seize the Tower, pay the rabble, 
uncase the aldermen, to be pay-master, and a great deal more to the same tune. 
In his defence he says no great matter, but yet what looks a thousand times more 
like truth than his accusation; that the Tower business was only discourse of 
the feasibleness of the thing; but with- out the least intent of bringing it to 
action; that all he was concerned in any real design he had from Lea, and was 
getting more out of him, with an intention to make a discovery. PAGE 1024 Hone 
was likewise accused, and owned himself guilty of a design to kill the king and 
the duke of York, or one, or neither, for it was impossible to make any sense 
of him. When they came to suffer, Walcot read a paper, in which was a good rational 
confession of his faith; then came to the occasion of his death; for which, he 
said he neither blamed the judges, jury, nor council, but only some men, that 
in reality were deeper con- cerned than he, who had combined together to swear 
him out of his life to save their own, and that they might do it effectually, 
contrived an untruth. He forgave the world and the witnesses; gave his friends 
advice to be more prudent than he had been; prayed that his might be the last 
blood spilled on that account; wished the king would be merciful to others; said 
he knew nothing of Ireland; and concluded with praying God to have mercy on him. 
He had then some discourse with Cartwright, wher- ein he told him, that he was 
not for contriving the death of the king, nor for having any hand in it. The next 
victim was colonel Algernon Sidney. He was of the ancient and noble family of 
the Sidneys, and deservedly famous to the utmost bounds of Europe. As the ingenious 
Mr. Hawles observed, he was merely talked to death, under the notion of a commonwealth 
man, and found guilty by a jury who were not much more proper judges of the cause, 
than they would have been had he written in Greek or Arabic. He was arraigned 
for a branch of this plot at Westminster, the 17th of November, 1683; where, though 
it cannot be said the grand jury knew not what they did, when they found the bill 
against him, since, no doubt, they were well in- structed what to do; yet it appears, 
that they found it almost before they knew what it was, being so well resolved 
on the case, and agreed on their verdict, that had he been indicted for breaking 
open a house, or robbing on the highway, it was doomed to have been billa vera, 
as much as it was now. For although the indictment was never presented to them 
before they came into the hall, yet they immediately found it: the substance whereof 
was, for a conspiracy to depose the king, and stirring up rebellion, and writing 
a libel for that purpose. The most part of the evidence brought against him, was 
only hear-say, as against my lord Russel; nay, West, whose evidence was then refused, 
now was admitted to tell a long story of what he had from one and the other. Rumsey's 
was much of the same nature. In the rear came that never-failing evidence, lord 
Howard, who witnessed that he was one of the council of six, and engaged as one 
of the deepest in their consults. And more than this, he exercised his own faculty 
very handsomely, in an account of two speeches Mr. Hampden made on the occasion, 
which indeed were such fine things, that some might think it worth the while to 
swear against a man, only to have the reputation of reciting them; and let any 
man judge whom they are most like, Mr. Hampden, or my lord's own witty self. A 
paper was the next evidence, said to be of Sidney's writing, which was found in 
his study. The subject was an enquiry into the forms of govern- ment and the reasons 
of their decay; the rights of the people, the bounds of sovereignty, and the origin 
of power. That which gave the greatest offence in it lies in the following sentence. 
"The king is subject to the law of God, as a man, and to the people who made him 
such, as a king." And examples of evil kings and tyrants, whom sometimes a popular 
fury had destroyed; at others, the Ordines Regni either re- duced, or set them 
aside, when their government was a curse instead of a blessing to their people. 
If there were any mistakes, as he said in his speech, they ought to have been 
confuted by law, reason, and scripture, not scaffolds and axes. In the first place, 
it was not proved to be his writing, nor did he confess it; treason and life are 
critical things: one ought to be as fairly proved, as the other to be cautiously 
proceed- ed against. Though he might write it, he had the liberty of an English- 
man, not to accuse himself: the very same thing which was afterwards put PAGE 
1025 in practice by those reverend persons, who, later than he, and cheaper too, 
defended their country's liberty with only the loss of their own. Still here being 
not a syllable in these papers respecting king Charles, any more than of the great 
mogul, against whom they might as well have made it treason; it was all supplied 
by the innuendo, that is, such interpretation as they would please to affix on 
his words. Thus when he writes Tarquin, or Pepin, or Nero, they say, he meant 
king Charles. Such was my lord Howard's evidence, that had the jury been any but 
what they were, and Sidney describes them, they would not have hanged a Jesuit 
upon the credit of it; he having, one would think, taken a pride in damning himself 
deeper and deeper against every new appearance in public, on purpose to try the 
skill and face of the counsel in bringing him off again. To the evidence brought 
against him in my lord Russel's case, he had taken care to add the following:- 
That the earl of Clare witnessed, that he said, after Sidney's imprisonment, if 
questioned again, he would never plead, and that he thought colonel Sidney as 
innocent as any man breathing. Now, though there was no reasonable answer could 
be given to all this; though Sidney pleaded the obligations my lord Howard had 
to him, and the great conveniency he might think there might be in his death, 
since he was some hundreds of pounds in his debt, which would be the readiest 
way of paying him; and had besides, as it appeared, a great mind to have the colonel's 
plate secured at his own house; though never man in the world certainly ever talked 
stronger sense, or better reasoned or more evi- dently bantered the judges, and 
left them nothing but railing; yet it was all a case with him, as well as the 
others; and the petty jury could as easily have found him guilty, without hearing 
his trial, as the grand jury did, as soon as ever they saw the bill. Never was 
any thing more base and barbarous, than the summing up the evidence and directions 
to the jury, who yet stood in no great need of them: not more uncivil and saucy 
a reflection on the noble family and name of the Sidneys, than the judges saying 
that he was born a traitor. Never was any thing braver, or more manly, than his 
remonstrance to the king for justice, and another trial: nor, lastly, more Roman, 
and yet truly Christian than his end. The brave old man came upon the scaffold, 
as undauntedly as if he had been going to fight, and as lively as if he had been 
a Russel. In his last speech he gave almost the substance of those books which 
were lately written in the defence of the late transactions. He there said as 
much in a little space as ever man did - that magistrates were set up for the 
good of nations, not to the contrary. If that be treason, king Charles I. was 
guilty of it against himself, who said the same thing - that the power of magistrates 
was what the laws of the country made it - that those laws and oaths have the 
force of a contract, and if one part is broken, the other ceases. And other maxims 
of the same necessity and usefulness. He, besides this, gave a full account of 
the design of his book, of his trial, and the injustice done him therein; of the 
juries being packed, and important points of law overruled; and ended with a most 
compendious prayer, in which he desired God would forgive his enemies, but keep 
them from doing any more mischief; he then laid down his head in eternal repose. 
PAGE 1026 Before this excellent character is dismissed, let the reader attend 
to the substance of an address delivered at his death. Having first excused his 
not speaking, as well because it was an age that made truth pass treason, for 
the truth of which, he instances his trial and condemna- tion, and that the ears 
of some present were too tender to bear it, as because of the rigour of the season, 
and his infirmities; then after a short reflection upon the little said against 
him by other witnesses, and the little value that was to be put on the lord Howard's 
testimony, whom he charges with an infamous life, and many palpable perjuries, 
and to be biassed only by the promise of pardon, and makes, even though he had 
been liable to no exceptions, to have been but a single witness; he proceeds to 
answer the charge against him from the writings found in his closet by the king's 
officers, which were pretended, but not lawfully evidenced to be his, and pretends 
to prove, that had they been his, they contained no condemnable matter, but principles 
more safe both to princ- es and people too, that the pretended high-flown plea 
for absolute monarchy, composed by Filmer, against which they seemed to be levelled; 
and which he says, all intelligent men thought were founded on wicked principles, 
and such as were destructive both to magistrates and people too. Which he attempts 
to make out after this manner. First, he says, if Filmer might publish to the 
world, that men were born under a necessary and indispensable subjection to an 
absolute king, who could be restrained by no oath, whether he came to it by creation, 
inheritance, or any other right cause, nay, or even by usurpation; why might he 
- Algernon Sidney - not publish his opinion to the contrary, without the breach 
of any known law? This opinion, he professes, con- sisted in the following particulars:- 
That God hath left nations at the liberty of modelling their own governments. 
That magistrates were insti- tuted for nations, and not a contra. That the right 
and power of magis- trates were fixed by the standing laws of each country. That 
those laws, sworn to on both sides, were matter of a contract between the magis- 
trates and people, and could not be broken without danger of dissolving the whole 
government. That usurpation could give no right; and that kings had no greater 
enemies than those who asserted that, or were for stretching their power beyond 
its limits. That such usurpations commonly affecting the slaughter of the reigning 
person, the worst of crimes was thereby most gloriously rewarded. That such doctrines 
are more proper to stir up men to destroy princes, than all the passions that 
ever yet swayed the worst of them, and that no prince could be safe, if his mur- 
PAGE 1027 derers may hope for such rewards; and that few men would be so gentle 
as to spare the best kings, if by their destruction a wild usurper could become 
God's anointed, which he says was the scope of the whole trea- tise, and asserts 
to be the doctrine of the best authors of all nations, times, and religions, and 
of the scripture, and so owned by the best and wisest princes, particularly by 
Louis XIV. of France, in his declaration against Spain, anno 1667, and by king 
James, of England, in his speech to the parliament, 1603, and adds, that if the 
writer had been mistaken, he should have been fairly refuted, but that no man 
was ever otherwise punished for such matters, or any such thing referred to a 
jury. That the book was never finished, nor ever seen by them whom he was charged 
to have endeavoured by it to draw into a conspiracy: that nothing in it was particularly 
or maliciously applied to time, place, or person, but distorted to such a sense 
by inuendoes, as the discourses of the expul- sion of Tarquin, &c. and particularly 
of the translation made of the crown of France from one race to another, had been 
applied by the then lawyers' inuendoes, to the then king of England; never considering, 
that if such acts of state be not allowed good, no prince in the world has any 
title to his crown, and having by a short reflection shewn the ridiculousness 
of deriving absolute monarchy from patriarchal power, he appeals to all the world, 
whether it would not be more advantageous to all kings, to own the derivation 
of their power to the consent of will- ing nations, than to have no better title 
than force, which may be overpowered by superior force. Notwithstanding the innocence 
and loyalty of that doctrine, he was told he must die, or the plot must die; and 
he complained that in order to the destroying the best protestants in England, 
the bench was filled with such as had been blemishes to the bar; and instanced 
that against law, they had advised with the king's counsel about bringing him 
to death, had suffered a jury to be picked by the king's solicitors: re- fused 
him a copy of his indictment, or to suffer the act of the 46th of Edward III. 
to be read, which allows it hath over-ruled the most import- ant points of law, 
without hearing, and assumed to themselves a power to make constructions of treason, 
though against law, sense, and reason, which by the statute of the 25th of Edward 
III. by which they pretended to try him, was reserved only to the parliament; 
and so praying God to forgive them, and to avert the evils that threatened the 
nation, to sanctify those sufferings to him, and though he fell a sacrifice to 
idols, not to suffer idolatry to be established in this land. He con- cluded with 
a thanksgiving, That God had singled him out to be a witness of his truth, and 
for that good old cause, in which from his youth he had been engaged. Such was 
the substance of the writing delivered to the sheriffs a minute before his execution. 
PAGE 1028 Our next victim to the tyranny of the day was Mr. James Holloway. This 
gentleman was by profession a merchant; but the greater part of his trade lay 
in linen manufacture, which, as it appears from his papers, he had brought to 
such a height in England, as, had it met with suitable encouragement, would, as 
he made it appear, have employed 80,000 poor people, and 40,000 acres of land, 
and be 200,000 L. a year advantage to the public revenue. The return of the Habeas 
Corpus writ stated him, late of London, merchant, though he lived mostly at Bristol. 
He seems to be a person of sense, courage, vivacity of spirit, and a man of busi- 
ness. All we can have of him is from that public print, called his Narrative, 
concerning which it must be remembered, that we have no firm authority to assure 
us all therein contained was his own writing; and perhaps it might be thought 
convenient that he should die, for fear he might contradict some things published 
in his name. But on the other side, where he contradicts the other witnesses, 
his evidence is strong, since surely that was not the interest of the managers 
to invent of their own accord; some truth they might utter, though displeasing, 
to gain credit to the rest. Mr. Holloway was accused for the plot, as one who 
was acquainted with West, Rumsey, and the rest; and having been really present 
at their meetings and discourses on that subject, absconded when the public news 
concerning the discovery came into the country; though this, as he told the king, 
was more for fear, that if he were taken up, his creditors would never let him 
come out of gaol, than any thing else. After some time he got to sea in a little 
vessel, went over to France, and so to the West-Indies, among the Caribee Islands, 
where much of his concern lay: but writing to his factor at Nevis, he was by him 
treacherously betrayed, and seized by the order of Sir William Stapleton, and 
thence brought prisoner to England. After examination, and a confession of at 
least all that he knew, having been outlawed in his absence on an in- dictment 
of treason, he was on the 21st of April 1684, brought to the King's-Bench, to 
shew cause why execution should not be awarded against him, as is usual in that 
case; he opposed nothing against it, only saying, if an ingenuous confession of 
truth could merit the king's pardon he hoped he had done it. The attorney being 
called for, ordered the indictment to be read, and gave him the offer of a trial, 
waving the outlawry, which he refused, and threw himself on the king's mercy; 
on which execution was awarded, though the attorney, who had not so much law even 
as Jeffrey, was for having judgment first pass against him, which is never done 
in such cases. He was executed at Tyburn April the 30th. Sir Thomas Armstrong 
was not long after called to sacrifice his life in the same cause. He had been 
all his life a firm servant and friend to the royal family, in their exile and 
afterwards: had been in prison for them under Cromwell, and in danger both of 
execution and starving; for all which they now rewarded him. He had a particular 
honour and devotion for the duke of Monmouth, and pushed on his interest on all 
occasions, being a man of as undaunted English courage as ever our country pro- 
duced. He was with the duke formerly in his actions in Flanders, and shared there 
in his danger and honour. His accusation was, his being concerned in the general 
plot, and that too of killing the king; but he was indeed hanged for running away, 
and troubling them to send so far after him. The particulars pretended against 
him, were what the lord Howard witnessed in Russel's trial, of his going to kill 
the king when their first design failed. But this was only imaginary, though advanced 
into a formal accusation, and aggravated by the attorney, as the reason PAGE 1029 
why he had a trial denied him, when Holloway had one offered, both of them alike 
outlawed. On which outlawry Sir Thomas was kidnapped in Holland, brought over 
in chains, and robbed by the way in the bargain. Being brought up, and asked what 
he had to plead that sentence should not pass upon him, he pleaded the 6th of 
Edward VI. wherein it is pro- vided - That if a person outlawed render himself 
in a year after the outlawry pronounced, and traverse his indictment, and shall 
be acquitted on his trial, he shall be discharged of the outlawry. On which he 
ac- cordingly then and there made a formal surrender of himself to the lord chief 
justice, and asked the benefit of the statute, and a fair trial for his life, 
the year not being yet expired. But this availed him nothing: sentence was passed 
upon him and he suffered on the following Friday. At the place of execution he 
deported himself with courage becoming a great man, and with the seriousness and 
piety suitable to a Christian. Sheriff Daniel told him, he had leave to say what 
he pleased, and should not be interrupted, unless he upbraided the government; 
Sir Thomas thereupon told him that he should not say any thing by way of speech; 
but delivered him a paper, which he said contained his mind; he then called for 
Dr. Tennison, who prayed with him, and then he prayed alone. He thus expressed 
himself in his paper, that he thanked Almighty God he found himself prepared for 
death, his thoughts set upon another world, and weaned from this; yet he could 
not but give so much of his little time, as to answer some calumnies, and particularly 
what Mr. Attorney accused him of at the bar, namely, with being one of those that 
were to kill the king; he took God to witness, that he never had a thought to 
take away the king's life, and that no man ever had the impudence to propose so 
base and barbarous a thing to him; and that he never was in any design to alter 
the government. He then concluded with observing, that if he had been tried, he 
could have proved lord Howard's base reflections upon him, to be notoriously false; 
he concluded, that he had lived, and now died of the reformed religion, and heartily 
wished he had lived more strictly up to what he believed: that he had found the 
great comfort of the love and mercy of God, in and through the blessed Redeem- 
er, in whom alone he trusted, and verily hoped that he was going to partake of 
that fulness of joy which is in his presence, the hopes whereof infinitely pleased 
ascended the English throne under the title of James II., soon manifested his 
tyranny and his intentions. In violation of a statute-law, he erected a new ecclesiastical 
commission court; had a Jesuit confessor; and filled all the places, both civil 
and military, with papists. The interests of Rome engrossed his attention, and 
such was his zeal for the catholic religion, that Pope Innocent XI. to whom he 
had sent his favourite agent, Beryl, cautioned him not to be too hasty. Although, 
on his accession, he had in his address, declaimed all arbitrary principles, and 
promised to protect the honour of the nation, and deserve its confidence, he soon 
evinced his insincerity. In a sort of triumph, he produced some papers of his 
brother Charles II. by which it appeared, that he had died a Roman catholic, and 
in contempt of the feelings of the people, on the first Sunday of his reign, James 
went publicly to mass. The duke of Norfolk, who carried the sword of state, stopt 
at the chapel door. "My lord," said the king, "your father would have gone further." 
- "Your majesty's father," replied the spirited nobleman, "would not have gone 
so far." While James was proceeding thus, and indulging himself in the prospect 
of subverting the established religion, the duke of Monmouth, who, on the death 
of lord Russel, had gone over to Flanders, trusting to the affections he possessed 
in the hearts of the protestants, whose cause he had ever espoused, formed the 
design of bringing about a revolution. To this rash and unhappy enter- prise, 
he was chiefly instigated by the active spirit of the duke of Argyle. Having prepared 
a squadron of six vessels, badly manned, and very ill supplied, they divided, 
and with three each, sailed for the places of their destination: Monmouth landed 
at Lyme, in Dorsetshire, on the 13th of June 1683, with 150 men, and marching 
thence to Taunton, his army increased to 6000. In the mean while, the duke of 
Argyle had landed in Argyleshire, where he found the militia prepared to oppose 
him. But being immediately joined by his brave vassals and faithful partizans, 
he instantly pen- etrated into the western counties, hoping to be joined by the 
disaffect- ed convenanters. But his little squadron being captured, and his brave 
followers having lost their baggage in a morass in Renfrewshire, every hope was 
extinguished, and they were necessitated to disperse for imme- diate preservation. 
The unfortunate nobleman assumed a disguise, but was soon taken by two peasants, 
and conducted to Edinburgh, were he was executed. At his death, he discovered 
all that heroic firmness, which he had uniformly manifested in his life, together 
with a great degree of piety. "Job tells us" said he, "that man that is born of 
a woman is of a few days and full of trouble; and I am a clear instance of it. 
I know afflictions spring not out of the dust: they are not only foretold, but 
promised to Christians; and they are not only tolerable but desirable. We ought 
to have a deep reverence and fear of God's displeasure, but withal, a firm hope 
and dependance on him for a blessed issue, in com- pliance with his will; for 
God chastens his own to refine, and not to ruin them. We are neither to despise, 
nor to faint under afflictions. I freely forgive all who have been the cause of 
my being brought to this place; and I entreat all people to forgive me wherein 
I have offended, and for Christ's sake, pardon all my sins, and receive me to 
his eternal glory." PAGE 1031 The fatal news of the above nobleman and his followers, 
no sooner reached the duke of Monmouth than he sunk into despondency. He now began 
to see the temerity of his undertaking. To provide for his safety was not quite 
impossible. He therefore began to retreat till he re-entered Bridgewater, while 
the royal army being in his rear. Here he ascended a tower, from whence viewing 
the army of Feversham, his hopes again re- vived, while he meditated an attack. 
He accordingly made most skilful arrangements, but committing an important post 
to lord Grey, that das- tardly soldier betrayed him. Seeing the conflict hopeless, 
he galloped off the field, and continued his flight for twenty miles until his 
horse sunk under him, while the unfortunate noble, almost exhausted as the animal, 
wandered on foot for a few miles further, and then sunk down with hunger and fatigue. 
In the battle, two thousand of Monmouth's troops were slain, and a great number 
made prisoners, of whom some hundreds were afterwards executed. Five days after, 
the poor duke was discovered lying in a ditch, almost in a lifeless state. On 
being recov- ered, the remembrance of the recent incident, affected him so powerful- 
ly, that he wept aloud. He was conveyed to London, and on the 15th of July, was 
brought to the scaffold being in the thirty-sixth year of his age. Previously 
to his death, he said that he repented of his sins, and was more particularly 
concerned for the blood that had been spilt on his account. "Instead" said he, 
"of being accounted factious and rebellious, the very opposing of popery and arbitrary 
power, will sufficiently apologize for me. I have lived, and now die in this opinion, 
that God will work a deliverance for his people. I heartily forgive all who have 
wronged me, even those who have been instrumental to my fall, earnestly praying 
for their souls. I hope that king James will shew himself to be of his brother's 
blood, and extend his mercy to my children, they being not capable to act, and, 
therefore, not conscious of any offence against the government. He entreated the 
executioner to spare him the second blow; but the man, whose heart was unfit for 
his office, failed to strike off his head at the first blow, on which the duke 
gently turning himself round, cast a look of tender reproach upon him, and then 
again meekly submitted his head to the axe, while the tears of the spectators 
spoke how well he was beloved. That ambition had a share in moving both these 
unfortunate noblemen to the step, which ended in their death, cannot be denied: 
but, among their partisans, numbers were doubtless actuated by purer motives, 
even the love of the cause of truth; and though we cannot but lament that igno- 
rance and mistaken zeal, that led them to assume the sword, in order to advance 
the glory of HIM, whose weapons are not carnal, but spiritual, we must not refuse 
to enrol their names with those of the martyrs: their offences, however, and the 
manner of their death being the same, much enlargement is needless. PAGE 1032 
The unjust execution of Alderman Cornish, and the cruel mode and place of that 
outrage are well known, and in the view of protestants generally have given that 
worthy citizen a rank among modern martyrs. The alderman was seized October 1685: 
and the Monday after his commitment, which was on the previous Friday, he was 
arraigned for high-treason, having no notice given him till Saturday noon. His 
charge was for conspiring to kill the king, and promising to assist the duke of 
Monmouth, &c. in their treasonable enterprises. He desired his trial might 
be deferred, because of the short time for preparation; and that he had a consider- 
able witness a hundred and forty miles off, and that the king had left it to the 
judges, whether it should be put off or not. But it was denied him; the attorney 
telling him, he had not deserved so well of the gov- ernment as to have his trial 
delayed. Rumsey and Goodenough were evi- dences against him. They both swore to 
things that were most flagrantly extravagant and false; the first contradicting 
the evidence he had given at the trial of lord Russel, and the last swearing that 
Cornish had talked with him of seizing the Tower, when it was proved, that the 
alderman had ever entertained so ill an opinion of Goodenough, that he would not 
have trusted him with the most trifling secret. He was found guilty in spite of 
all, and condemned, and even that Chris- tian serenity of mind and countenance, 
wherewith it was visible he bore his sentence, the bench turned to his reproach. 
Nevertheless he con- tinued in the same excellent temper whilst in Newgate, and 
gave the world a noble instance of the happiness of such persons as live a pious 
life, when they come to make an end of it, let the way be ever so viol- ent and 
unjust. Approaching the press-yard, on his way to execution, and seeing the halter 
in the officer's hand, he said - "O blessed be God for Newgate, I have enjoyed 
God ever since I came within these walls, and blessed be God who hath made me 
fit to die. I am now going to that God who will not be mocked, to that God who 
will not be imposed upon, to that God who knows the innocency of his poor creature." 
And a little after he said - "Never did any poor creature come unto God with greater 
confidence in his mercy, through Jesus Christ; for there is no other name given 
under heaven whereby we can be saved, but the name of Jesus." Then speaking to 
the officers, he said - "Labour every one of you to be fit to die, for I tell 
you, you are not fit to die: I was not before I came hither; but blessed be God, 
he hath made me fit and willing to die! In a few moments I shall have the fruition 
of the blessed Jesus, and that not for a day, but for ever. I am going to the 
kingdom, where I shall enjoy the pres- ence of God the Father, and of God the 
Son, and of God the Holy Spirit, and of all the holy angels: I am going to the 
general assembly of the first-born, and of the spirits of just men made perfect! 
O that God should ever do so much for me! blessed be his name! this was his design 
from all eternity, to give his only Son to die for poor miserable sin- ners." 
Then the officers going to tie his hands, he said - "What, must I be tied then? 
Well, a brown thread might have served the turn; you need not tie me at all, I 
shall not stir from you, for thank God I am not afraid to die." As he was going 
out, he said - "Farewell, Newgate: farewell all my fellow prisoners here; the 
Lord comfort you, the Lord be with you all." PAGE 1033 He was then led to the 
place of execution, which, to the outrage of all humanity, was before his own 
door near Guildhall. If anything was want- ing in his trial, from the haste of 
it, for the clearing his innocence, he sufficiently made it up in solemn asseverations 
on the scaffold. "God is my witness," said he, "the crimes laid to my charge were 
falsely and maliciously sworn against me by the witnesses; for I never was at 
any consultation or meeting where matters against the government were dis- coursed 
of. I never heard or read any declaration tending that way. Again, as for the 
crimes for which I suffer, upon the words of a dying man, I am altogether innocent." 
The cruelty of his enemies was not satiated by his death. His quarters were set 
up on Guildhall, in terror- em, and for the same reason, no doubt, he was executed 
so near it - to strike early terror into the hearts of the numerous protestants 
of the city, who could not be well affected towards the popery of the new king; 
but who betrayed not the least symptom of confederacy against his gov- ernment 
or his person. Alderman Cornish was condemned as a sharer in the preceding plot: 
and one more individual suffered for that inexplicable affair. He was a surgeon 
of considerable repute, and a man of a liberal and enlarged understanding: his 
name was Bateman. During his imprisonment he sunk into a deep melancholy, and 
when brought to trial, he was quite de- ranged, so that he was unable to speak 
in his own defence, and to con- front his accusers, who were Rouse, Lee, and Goodenough. 
His own son, therefore, undertook to plead his cause; and could but what he brought 
for him have been allowed its due weight, he must have escaped. But he was found 
guilty; and just before his execution very much recovered himself, dying as much 
like a christian, and with as great a presence of mind as most of the others. 
From all these instances, it appears that some violent actions were intended by 
some designing men, who had art- fully insinuated themselves into the confidence 
of these protestant patriots; but who, when detected, in order to save their own 
worthless lives, betrayed those virtuous men, and charged upon them the guilt 
which was meant to be put in execution only by themselves. The assassination of 
Mr. Dangerfield, next claims our attention. His father, a gentleman of Waltham, 
had been a great sufferer in the cause of Charles I. He died about the time of 
the discovery of the plot, and with his last breath charged his son to have no 
hand in any thing against the government; which he promised and faithfully observed. 
He was a man of business and courage, and therefore employed by the papist, while 
among them, in their desperate and most dangerous concerns. The great thing which 
brought him before the public, was Mrs. Celier's business, called the Meal-Tub 
plot. The papists had designed to kill two birds with one stone, divert the laws 
and people from themselves, and ruin their enemies; for which end they had amongst 
them made a plot to bring the best patriots of the nation into a pretended design 
against the king and government, by a kind of an association, like that which 
afterwards took better effect. For this transaction Mr. Dangerfield was made choice 
of, a list of their names, with the design, being by him, according to order, 
conveyed into colonel Mansel's chamber. But he was discovered, and seized in the 
design, and acknowledged all the intrigue, giving so clear an account of it, that 
they had never the impudence to pretend any contradiction. But there was somewhat 
yet deeper in the case, which he afterwards revealed in his depositions before 
the parlia- ment, namely, that he was employed by the same party to kill the king, 
and encouraged and promised impunity and reward, and part of it given him by a 
great person for that purpose. PAGE 1034 While the stream ran violently for popery, 
he went over, for security, into Flanders, but continued not long there. Returning 
back, he was some time after seized, and carried before the council, where, before 
the king himself, persisting in all his former evidence, he was committed to Newgate; 
and after having lain there for some time, petitioned for a trial, which they 
could not do upon any account but Scandalum Magnatum, and that in a matter which 
lay only before the parliament to whom he had revealed it. Yet for that he was 
tried, and found guilty, as Williams the speaker was afterwards for licensing 
his narrative by order of parliament. He was to undergo a whipping. Before he 
went out, he had strong forebodings of his death, and chose the following text 
for his funeral sermon - "There the wicked cease from troubling and there the 
weary are at rest." After the sentence was executed on him, on his return home, 
one Francis, stabbed him in the eye, and the instrument touching his brain, he 
was hardly sensible after, but died of the wound in a few hours, not without great 
suspicion of poison, his body being swelled and black, and full of great blains. 
The murderer fled, but was pursued by the rabble, who had torn him to pieces, 
had not the officers rescued him. He defended and justified the act whilst in 
Newgate, say- ing, he had the greatest men in the kingdom to stand by him; to 
whom, after his trial, and being found guilty upon clear evidence, great applications 
were made, which had been successful for his pardon, had not Jeffreys himself 
gone to Whitehall, and told the king he must die, for that the rabble were now 
thoroughly heated, and, that great danger might ensue; accordingly, the poor state 
martyr was put to death. We now come to the sufferings of Benjamin and William 
Hewling, two most accomplished and amiable youths, and who, from first to last 
displayed such heroic constancy and christian piety, that a general officer in 
the royal army, used frequently to exclaim, "If you would learn to die, go to 
the young men of Taunton" - at which place the elder suffered on the 12th of September 
1685. The elder of these brothers was a superior scholar, well versed in the mathematics 
and philosophy generally. He had the command of a troop of horse in the duke's 
army in Holland; while his brother was a lieutenant of foot. They signalized themselves 
in several partial actions; but were too late in joining the duke's army at Sedge- 
more to save him from defeat and destruction. After attempting to escape by sea, 
they were driven back, apprehended, and committed to Exeter goal. The younger 
brother, who was under twenty, suffered at Lyme on the same day that the elder 
was put to death at Taunton. Let the junior be judged of by the following extract 
from his last letter - "I am going to launch into eternity, and I hope and trust 
into the arms of my blessed Redeemer, to whom I commit you and all my dear relations." 
The elder possessed an equally pious as well as protestant spirit, and both were 
examples of as pure a patriotism as ever glowed in the bosom of an Englishman. 
We cannot withhold one extract from Benjamin's letter to his mother, but two hours 
before his death. "Honoured mother - I know there PAGE 1035 has been nothing left 
undone by you for saving my life, for which I return my hearty thankfulness. Pray 
give me duty to all my relations, and friends. Tell them all how precious an interest 
in Christ is when we come to die, and advise them never to rest in a christless 
state. For if we are his, it is no matter what the world do to us - they can but 
kill the body, while the soul is out of their reach: though I question not but 
their malice wishes the death of that also, which has too evidently appeared by 
their deceitful flattering promises. The Lord God of heaven be your comfort under 
these sorrows, and your refuge from these miser- ies, the Lord carry you through 
this vale of tears with a resigned submissive spirit, and at last bring you to 
himself to glory - where I question not you will meet your dying sons." Next to 
these heroic youths we mention Mr. Christopher Battiscomb, a gentleman of good 
family and fine prospects in the world. He had been confined in Dorchester goal 
from the time of Lord Russel's death; but released upon nothing being proved against 
him. He joined the duke of Monmouth to resist the aggression of popery and arbitrary 
power, and after his defeat was again imprisoned at Dorchester. Tried by the in- 
famous Jeffreys he was not likely to escape. Because he had studied in the temple 
for the bar, the cruel judge was for hanging him without a trial; but some form 
and plea of justice were necessary, which were followed by condemnation and execution. 
He suffered at Lyme with great fortitude. When his friends left him, he said with 
the utmost serenity - "Though we part here, we shall meet in heaven." Mr. William 
Jenkyn follows. For his protestant and patriotic sentiments, freely avowed, his 
father had been committed to Newgate, where close confinement soon deprived him 
of life. The son partook of the parent's spirit, and uniting himself with those 
whom his conscience deemed the true friends of his country and his God, he fell 
into the hands of the papal faction, and paid the forfeiture of his life at Dorchester. 
Some of his last words were - "Parting with my friends, and their grief for me, 
are my greatest difficulty; but it will be only for a very short time, and we 
shall meet again in endless joys, where my dear father is already entered, whom 
I shall presently and triumphantly embrace." Lady Alicia Lisle, from the inexorable 
temper of judge Jeffreys, who, like another Bonner, delighted in blood, was most 
cruelly sacrificed. She was condemned by one of those dormant laws that were scarcely 
known, and seldom executed. Her pretended offence was, that of holding a corre- 
spondence with Nelthorpe, an outlawed person, and for giving him shelter in her 
house. She was so old, that she slept during her trial, yet notwithstanding, she 
found no mercy, but was beheaded at Winchester. Nelthorpe, at his death, afterwards 
declared, that he was wholly a stranger to her, and had never even heard her name 
till he was taken. Juvenal says of Priam, when he was sacrificed, that he had 
scarce blood enough left to tinge the knife of the sacrificer. So it might have 
been said of Lady Lisle. Her extreme age, however, found no pity in the bosom 
of her foes, while her perfect serenity enraged them even more than her pretended 
crime. Parliament, convinced of the injustice of her death reversed the sentence; 
but it was too late - her hoary head had received a crown of glory. PAGE 1036 
The individual with whom she was charged with corresponding, but who deposed his 
entire ignorance of her, Mr. Richard Nelthorpe, suffered at London. He had been 
outlawed, for being in the plot for assassinating the late king. He, however, 
solemnly averred his utter detestation of any such design, neither did he know 
of such a thing being in agitation. He often avowed it his duty to sacrifice life 
for the maintenance of the protestant faith and the consequent liberties of England. 
His dying speech was excellent but too long to be inserted entire, and we are 
fearful of marring its effects by slight quotations. It thus concludes - "Grant 
me thy love, O God my dearest father! stand by me in the hour of death, and give 
thine angels charge over me. Deliver me from the rage of the evil one, and receive 
me into thine eternal kingdom." Mrs. Elizabeth Gaunt was burnt at Wapping. She 
was a woman zealous for the protestant cause, and full of charity to such of its 
professors as stood in need of relief. She was most basely betrayed by a person 
named Barton, whom, with his wife and family, she had preserved from starving; 
and although he was an outlaw, and his outlawry was not re- versed, his evidence, 
contrary to all justice, was admitted against her. We now come to Scotland, to 
notice a few examples of patient suffering in the same hallowed cause in that 
country. The duke of Argyle is enti- tled to the first place in this catalogue, 
in point of time as well as rank. He was put to death at Edinburgh on the 30th 
of June 1685. His speech on the scaffold was most scripture, and has been called 
a sermon of considerable ingenuity as well as seriousness. Nearly at the same 
time Colonel Rumbold suffered. He was proceeding in his last address to explain 
some parts of his political conduct, when drums were beaten to drown his voice. 
His character may be judged by the following loyal and christian sentiments. "For 
the cause of the king, were every hair of my head and beard a life, I would joyfully 
sacrifice them all. I was never anti-monarchical in my principles, but for a king 
and free parliament; the king having power enough to make him great, and the people 
to make them happy. I die in the defence of the just laws and liberties of the 
nation." And being asked if he thought not his sentence dreadful? he answered, 
"I wish I had a limb for every town in Christendom." Mr. John King was executed 
at Edinburgh, on the 14th of August, 1679. He, at his death, made a long and interesting 
address to the people - too long for insertion, yet too good for abridgement. 
On the same day also, and at the same place, Mr. John Kidd suffered. He likewise 
ad- dressed the spectators at considerable length, and discovered great resignation 
and piety. The following were his last words, "O that God would pass by Scotland 
once again, and make our time a time of love! come, Lord Jesus, come quickly! 
The Lord is my light and life, my joy, and song, and salvation; whom then can 
I fear? The God of his chosen be my mercy this day, and the enriching comforts 
of the Holy Ghost keep up and carry me fair through, to the glory of his grace 
the edification of his people, and my own eternal advantage." PAGE 1037 Mr. Matthew 
Bragg suffered death at Dorchester. This gentleman's case was particularly severe, 
as he had never intended to join in the rebel- lion; but being met by a party 
of the duke's horse, they forced him to escort them to the house of a Roman catholic, 
which they wanted to plunder for arms. They also detained his horse for the service 
of the duke, and strove to persuade him to join them. This, however, he re- fused, 
and went home on foot. His having been among the duke's party thus accidentally, 
being made public by some malicious persons, he was brought to trial and condemned. 
His condemnation was followed in two days by a barbarous execution. The short 
interval, including the sab- bath, was spent in remarkably fervent and doubtless 
sincere devotions, in which he was joined by an excellent clergyman, who afterwards 
testi- fied to the eminent piety he evinced, and the distinguished preparation 
for heaven which preceded his departure from earth. Among those who innocently 
suffered with Mr. Bragg, was Mr. Smith of Chardstock; and Mr. Speed of Collumpton. 
Both from their confessions and characters appear to have been men of eminent 
piety. In his last ad- dress, Mr. Smith spoke thus - "God forgive my passionate 
judge, and my cruel hasty jury. Father, forgive them, for they know not what they 
do! God bless the king; and though his judges have no mercy on me, I hope he may 
find mercy when he most standeth in need of it." Concerning Mr. Speed, it is sufficient 
to observe that the guards around the scaffold were so struck with his magnanimity 
and resignation that they relented in their tyranny, and were constrained to acknowledge 
their convictions of his innocence and excellence. At Bridport, Mr. John Sprage, 
suffered death, with twelve others. At Lyme, among the first who was brought to 
death was captain Holmes, a man very zealous for the duke, and withal very brave. 
He suffered in company with eleven more persons whom he embraced at the place 
of execution, and strengthened them with spiritual advice. He said, among other 
things - "It is a glorious sun-shining day, and I doubt not, though our breakfast 
be sharp and bitter, it will make us meet for a comfortable supper with our God 
and Saviour in heaven, where all sin and sorrow shall be done away for ever. You 
see I am imperfect, having left one arm in the field; I therefore want some assistance 
to help me up this tragical stage." About the same time, also suffered Mr. Samuel 
Larke, a man greatly beloved for the goodness of his life; and with him, Mr. Christopher 
Battiscomb, Dr. Temple, captains Matthews, Madders, and Kidd, Mr. Joseph Tyler, 
and five others. These were executed in Somerset and Devonshire. At Bristol Mr. 
Tyler and Mr. Cox suffered; and latter, with his two sons had joined the duke 
on his first landing; both the youths were condemned as well as their father; 
but they were providentially preserved. In Sherborne, twelve persons suffered 
death, for their adherence to the same cause. Among these were Messrs. Glisson, 
Savage, Hall, Sprague, and Clegg. At Axminster were executed Mr. Rose and Mr. 
Evans. The former was a gunner, and had come over with the duke: he was a man 
of great resolution, and, finding the hopes of his master frustrated, appeared 
to prefer death to life. Mr. Port, a young surgeon, and very amiable man, suffered 
at Honiton, and discovered at his death, a great share of christian piety, with 
a knowledge of eternal things, surpassing his years, he being about twenty. At 
the same place, soon after, suffered the Rev. J. Evans, who, between the time 
of his sentence and its execu- tion, devoted himself wholly to the teaching of 
eternal things, and received his death with a cheerfulness, that manifested his 
hopes of eternal glory. PAGE 1038 Mr. Simon Hamling suffered at Taunton. He was 
so far from joining in the rebellion, that he had walked from his house in the 
country, about three miles from Taunton, on purpose to persuade his son to take 
no part in the affair; judging all resistance in a professor of Christ, as unlaw- 
ful; but, being a protestant dissenter, he was seized, and not offering to his 
corrupt judges any money for his ransom, he was condemned and executed. Mr. Cratchett 
also suffered innocently; he being a constable of the hundred, was surprised by 
a party of the duke's horse, who shewed him a warrant to bring in provisions for 
the army, and threatened in case of refusal to burn his house: so that, for his 
immediate preserva- tion, he was obliged to comply. Among many other sufferers, 
in various parts, were Mr. Samuel Robins, Mr. Charles Speak, Mr. Parrot, Mr. Henry 
Bodly, and Mr. John Hicks. This last gentleman made a long and peculiar- ly eloquent 
harangue, in justification of himself, of the wickedness of the times, and in 
exhorting his hearers to follow after the things that regarded their eternal welfare. 
At Taunton, besides those already named, with many others, Mr. J. Gatchill, Mr. 
Simon Hamling, and Mr. Hucker, were executed. In addition numbers perished in 
prison, while several were brought to death without any trial, especially by the 
cruel and sanguinary Kirk, so well known in the records of blood. At Bath, more 
exempt from blood than most cities of the realm, Mr. William Hussey, seventy years 
old, and Mr. Thomas Paul, nearly of the same age, were executed. Likewise, a young 
man named Trip, who was carried to his execution in blankets, being at the point 
of death of a malignant fever. This act of cruelty, however, met its reward, as 
many of the soldiers, and those concerned in his death, met in reward, as many 
of the soldiers, and those concerned in his death, caught the disease, and from 
them it spread far and wide about the country. Great numbers of those who suffered 
through this enterprise of the duke of Monmouth, were innocent of the offence, 
may of them never having taken any part in it, and many others having been forced 
into it, in order to save their properties and their lives. It has been remarked, 
and may be remarked again with confidence, that whatever political and civil pleas 
were urged for their condemnation and death, most of them were hurried violently 
out of the world through fear of the influence of their example as sound protestants, 
and men esteemed in their genera- tion. PAGE 1039 Chief-justice Jeffreys, and 
the corrupt judges under him, seemed actuat- ed by the spirit of furies, and whole 
parishes were, by their means, depopulated. Nor was his rage and violence displeasing 
at court. King James was so delighted at his success, that in a proclamation for 
a thanksgiving, he declared that now nothing remained, which could possi- bly 
disturb the future quiet of his reign. He then procured the opinion of his judges 
- That it was in his power to dispense with the penal laws; upon which followed 
a declaration for liberty of conscience, and suspending the taking the oaths of 
allegiance and supremacy, and several papists were put into offices. Soon after, 
the vice-chancellor of Cam- bridge, and the fellows of Magdalen College in Oxford, 
were suspended and turned out, for not admitting popish priests and friars, contrary 
to their oaths. The bishop of London was suspended for refusing to suspend Dr. 
Sharp, for preaching against popery. Seven bishops were committed to the Tower 
for refusing to order the declaration for liberty of con- science to be read in 
their several dioceses: they were tried at West- minster-hall, and brought in 
"Not Guilty," to the great joy of the people. In this sad state was the protestant 
religion in 1688; and, to crown all, it was pretended the queen had a son, who 
was declared prince of Wales, and was designed by the papists to finish the work 
his father might not have time to do; namely, to entail popery and slavery upon 
the nation for ever hereafter. The ancient glory of the English nation, and the 
liberties and properties of all degrees therein, seeming now to be in inevitable 
danger, the nobility and gentry of the kingdom having no where else under heaven 
to place their hope and confidence but in her highness, the heiress apparent to 
the crown, and in the celebrated virtue and renown of his highness the prince 
of Orange, for military conduct and heroic magnanimity. They humbly represented 
their grievances so effectually to them, that at length the prince was induced 
to appear in their defence, and landed with an army of 15000 men. Being joined 
by great numbers of the nobility and gentry at Exeter, and afterwards by several 
of James's own army, the king was so affrighted, that he sent the queen and the 
pretended prince of Wales to France; and father Pet- ers, with the rabble of priests, 
monks, and friars, packed up their trinkets to shift for themselves. The lord 
chancellor Jeffreys fled likewise, but was taken, and died in the Tower; king 
James himself soon after abdicated, and retired into France. After this the whole 
nation by their representatives, made it their humble request, that the prince 
of Orange with his royal consort, would be pleased to accept of the crown; and 
they were accordingly proclaimed king and queen, with great joy, on February 13, 
1688, whereby the nation was restored to its ancient liber- ties, and freed from 
the danger of popery and slavery. Casting an eye as we conclude on the continent, 
an affecting instance of wholesale persecution and virtual martyrdom distinguished 
and disgraced the eighteenth century. But few lives indeed were sacrificed, and 
none by the fatal violence of the moment; yet some hundreds were reduced to extreme 
misery, and expatriated without mercy, by the ecclesiastical powers of Saltzburgh 
in the year 1731. The edict was issued in the winter, and fourteen days only were 
allowed for its execution. At the expiration of this short time the soldiers drove 
the protestants, amounting to some thousands, in troops from every city and town, 
every village and hamlet, of the realm. Most of them were stripped of every PAGE 
1040 thing but the raiment they wore. It is no little relief, amidst this scene, 
to find that subscriptions were opened in every protestant state in Europe, to 
supply their wants, and provide a refuge for them. The greater part obtained an 
asylum in Prussia. A letter from Liepsic gives the following account of their 
arrival in that city. "Upwards of 2000 protestant emigrants, driven destitute 
from their homes, have sought shelter within our hospitable walls. As soon as 
news of their approach arrived, at least ten thousand of the inhabitants went 
out to meet them. The weary pilgrims were of all ages and descriptions. Some were 
bent with age and were supported by their children: others had prattling infants 
in their arms, or new-born babes at their breasts; while the greater part were 
almost dead with hunger and fatigue. They were met at the gates by the clergy, 
and entered the city in as regular procession as possible - those who could use 
their voices singing Luther's hymn. In the market place they halted, and were 
quartered by the magistrates in the different inns and other houses of the city. 
Every family seemed to vie with the rest in hospitality and benevolence. On Sunday 
they assem- bled in the church and a collection was made at the doors. Many of 
the rich merchants subscribed a thousand dollars each. There was scarcely a servant 
or an apprentice boy who did not contribute his part. The women, even the poorest, 
took their handkerchiefs and aprons, when they had nothing else, and bestowed 
upon them." At Halle and Wittemburg the poor wanderers received equally kind attention; 
and at Potsdam the king himself came out to meet them. They then for the first 
time broke their ranks, to surround the sovereign and fall at his feet. He received 
them in the most generous manner, and those who survived their sufferings settled 
in his dominions, while such as were declining towards death had their latter 
days soothed by his beneficence and that of his subjects. We have thus given some 
account of almost every martyr who suffered for the faith of Christ, of whom record 
is preserved. That there were hun- dreds of Christians martyred for the cause 
of the Redeemer, of whom history knows nothing, cannot be doubted; for, a hundred 
volumes would not contain the history of all the worthies who were destroyed in 
the different ages of the Christian church. We have purposely omitted any account 
of the disasters which have happened through popular fanaticism in modern times. 
It may be thought that we have gone too far in classing the sufferers under James 
and Jeffreys with the martyrs for our holy religion; but it should be remembered 
that, although some were politi- cally guilty, the greater number were really 
condemned by the popish party on account of their adherence to the Protestant 
faith. We have not, however, any apprehension that the superior light and religion 
of our day will suffer the martyr-fires to be rekindled, unless our country return 
to its former faithlessness to God and to itself. PAGE 1041 SECTION V. PERSECUTIONS 
XVII. FRANCE has its "noble army of martyrs," and its martyrology is large. In 
a former section of this work, ending at page 213, the reader has been furnished 
with a brief account of the cruelties of popery in that coun- try down to the 
year 1573. In 1576 was formed the famous League, the chief promoter of which was 
the duke of Guise; and the pretence, the preservation of the Catholic religion. 
Henry III., then king, was a bigoted papist; but the increas- ing power of the 
duke of Guise so alarmed him, that to secure himself the better against his intrigues, 
he favoured the Protestants, and they obtained an edict for the free exercise 
of their religion in 1577. This was called the edict of Poictiers. Popish bigotry 
did not, however, long admit the privileges of this edict to be enjoyed by the 
Protestants. Henry IV. succeeded to the throne in 1589, and being a Protestant, 
though he renounced his professed religion, yet he still showed kindness to those 
with whom he had been accustomed to worship; and during a visit at Nantes, he 
published the famous edict named after that town. This edict continued for a number 
of years as the safeguard of the reformed church. It secured to the Protestants 
free worship, and all the rights of citizens, and it was registered as perpetual 
and irrevocable. Henry IV. was stabbed in his coach by an execrable wretch named 
Ravaillac, who assigned as a reason for committing the crime, that he believed 
the king to be still in heart a Protestant. Louis XIII., his successor, was not 
guilty of Protestantism. He was a weak bigot; and the popish clergy adored him 
because he sanctioned their superstitions, and allowed them to use his power in 
persecuting his Protestant subjects, whom he hated. The Jesuits, who had been 
banished from France for attempting the life of Henry IV., A.D. 1593, were re- 
called, and became favourites at the court; and their doctrine obtained popularity, 
that "princes may put heretics to death, and therefore they ought to put them 
to death." An artful priest got raised to the rank of cardinal, and was prime 
minister. This man, cardinal Richelieu, endea- voured by every artifice to prejudice 
the mind of Henry against the Protestants; and having assured him that it was 
a principle with them that kings might be deposed by their people, excited him 
to adopt those measures which created a civil war, in which the Protestants were 
great losers. Five years afterwards, war was renewed; and the last fortified town, 
Rochelle, which was left to the Protestants, endured a siege, in which, out of 
18,000 inhabitants, no less than 13,000 perished, chiefly by famine. This was 
a severe blow to the Protestants. The king, howev- er, confirmed anew the edict 
of Nantes. Many Protestants saw a storm gathering, and fled the country in 1634. 
In less than ten years from this time, both Richelieu and Louis were called to 
give up their final account. Notwithstanding the persecutions of this reign, the 
Protestants had however greatly increased, and their numbers now amounted to not 
less than two millions - thus resembling the palm-tree, which beneath the pressure 
revives and flourishes. PAGE 1042 Louis XIV., now five years of age, ascended 
the throne on the demise of his father, A.D. 1643. The queen-mother was appointed 
sole regent during his minority, and cardinal Mazarine, a creature of Richelieu's, 
was her prime minister. The edict of Nantes was again confirmed, and the confir- 
mation repeated when the king attained his majority. Louis was a tool of the Jesuits, 
and soon adopted the resolution of extirpating the Protes- tants. He tempted the 
great with rank and office. He ordered the priests to preach down the reform faith; 
and when unanswerable replies were published against their arguments, he forbade 
the Protestants to print. And now commenced a series of minor and vexatious persecutions, 
till at length he revoked what had been called "The perpetual and irrevocable 
edict of Nantes." With this revocation he banished the Protestants from his kingdom; 
though, in so doing, he lost a mass of wealth and industry which France could 
never recover. This revocation took place on the 22nd of October,, 1685. The most 
cruel proceedings followed: "Now," says Saurin, "we were ban- ished; then we were 
forbidden to quit the kingdom on pain of death. Here we saw the glorious rewards 
of some who betrayed their religion; and there we beheld others who had the courage 
to confess it, a haling to a dungeon, a scaffold, or a galley. Here we saw our 
persecutors drawing on a sledge the dead bodies of those who had expired on the 
rack; there we beheld a false friar tormenting a dying man, who was terrified, 
on the one hand, with the fear of hell if he should apostatize, and, on the other, 
with the fear of leaving his children without bread, if he should continue in 
the faith; yonder they were tearing children from their parents, while the tender 
parents were shedding more tears for the loss of their souls than for that of 
their bodies or lives." "It is impossi- ble," says Robert Robinson, "to meet with 
parallel instances of cruelty among the heathens in their persecutions of the 
primitive Christians. The bloody butchers who were sent to them under the name 
of dragoons, invented a thousand torments to tire their patience, and to force 
an abjuration from them." "They cast some," says Claude, "into large fires, and 
took them out when they were half-roasted. They hanged others with large ropes 
under their armpits, and plunged them several times into wells, till they promised 
to renounce their religion. They tied them like animals on the rack; and poured 
wine with a funnel into their mouths, till, being intoxicated, they declared that 
they consented to turn Catholics. Some they slashed and cut with penknives; others 
they took by the nose with red-hot tongs, and led them up and down the rooms till 
they promised to turn Catholics." These barbarous deeds made eight hundred thousand 
Protestants quit the kingdom, who, besides their tal- ents and industry, contrived 
to carry off twenty millions of property. The silk manufactory in Spital Fields 
originated in this emigration. The pastor Charnier, who had drawn up the edict 
of Nantes, perished in this persecution, and ranks among the number of illustrious 
martyrs. PAGE 1043 Four hundred thousand Protestants yet remained in France; and 
the merci- less Catholics gave them no rest. They compelled them to go to mass 
and to receive the communion; but some refused to swallow the water, for which 
crime they were burned alive. Others, who refused to receive the sacrament when 
they were dying, were dragged upon hurdles and thrown into the common sewers. 
The punishment of death was decreed against those who met for worship, and against 
any Protestant minister who should return from banishment. Claude Brousson, a 
man of undaunted spirit, was first an advocate at Toulouse, and having entered 
the minis- try returned to Nismes. Public worship being prohibited, he projected 
the plan of meeting to worship God in another way; and preached to numerous assemblies 
in deserts, in caverns, and during the night. At length he was betrayed and conveyed 
to Montpellier, where he was broken alive upon the wheel, under pretence that 
he had corresponded with the king's enemies. He died for the cause of Christ in 
the fifty-first year of his age, and displayed all the heroism of a primitive 
martyr. The Protestants could find shelter nowhere, for they were pursued and 
sought out in their strongholds in dens, woods, rocks, and caves; till at length 
they were, for the most part, obliged to disperse and flee the country. After 
this time there was no public worship; a few only met privately by stealth, and 
occasionally a religious pastor ventured his life by visiting the remnant of his 
oppressed flock. Louis XIV. died in 1715, and left behind him his example as a 
model for tyrants. He had blighted France with a curse from which it has never 
recovered, and shed those torrents of tears and blood, in addition to those caused 
by the cruelty and perfidy of Charles IX., for which a righteous Judge has visited 
that guilty nation in subsequent revolu- tions, the like of which has no existence 
in the pages of history. Louis XV. was great grandson of the last king, whose 
arbitrary reign had extended through seventy-two years. The young king was too 
much occupied with his gallantries to care about the consciences of his subjects, 
so that he did not directly interfere in matters of religion. But the arbitrary 
laws of his predecessor were left in full operation. During his reign several 
Protestant ministers were put to death. A few facts will show the shocking state 
of the French Protestants at this time. Eighteen persons were sentenced to the 
galleys for their religion, in the year 1745; among whom were a physician, and 
two old officers, knights of St. Louis; and in the same year, twenty-one meetings 
of Protestants for public worship were condemned to fines and costs, to the amount 
of 41,000 livres. Fifty-four persons were condemned to prison in 1746, besides 
eleven young females, who were taken from their parents, and forced into dif- 
ferent convents. One aged mother was also imprisoned, with others, for not giving 
up her sons to vengeance and her daughters to the cloister. PAGE 1044 The following 
horrible cruelties, committed at this time, have also been attested by the most 
credible witnesses:- "I accompanied M. de Beauvais," said M. de Boufflers, "in 
a reconnaisance of the shores of Languedoc. We arrived at Aiguesmortes, at the 
foot of the Tour de Con- stance. We found at the entrance an officious jailer, 
who, after having conducted us by some back and winding staircases, opened with 
a tremen- dous noise a frightful door, on which we might have expected to have 
seen the inscription of Dante. No language can describe the effect of a spectacle 
to which our eyes were unaccustomed; it was at once hideous and affecting, and 
disgust increased its horror. We saw a large round hall, deprived of air and light; 
fourteen women languished there in misery and in tears. The commander could scarcely 
contain his emotion; and doubtless, for the first time, these unhappy beings perceived 
com- passion on a human countenance. I see them still. At this sudden ap- pearance 
they fell at our feet, bathed them with tears, attempted to speak, but found only 
sighs; and at length, emboldened by consolations, related to us all at once their 
common sufferings. Alas! all their crime was that they were educated in the religion 
of Henry IV. The youngest of these martyrs was nearly fifty years of age - she 
was only eight when they seized her, as she was going to the sermon with her mother, 
and her punishment had not yet terminated." "I have also seen this Tour de Constance," 
says Monsieur Boissy d'An- glas, addressing his children. "It must excite in you 
a double interest, since the ancestor of your mother, accused of having attended 
preaching, and being confined there during her pregnancy, gave birth to a daughter, 
from whom you are descended. I declare that nothing I have ever seen was so calculated 
to insure ineffable remembrance. It was towards the year 1763; five or six years 
before the circumstance related by M. de Bouf- flers, and so honourable to M. 
de Beauvais. My mother had brought me to visit one of our relations, who resided 
a league from Aiguesmortes; she wished to see the unhappy victims of the religion 
we professed, and she took me with her. There were more than twenty-five prisoners; 
and the description of their misery by M. de Boufflers is but too exact; only 
instead of a simple gaoler, they were under the care of a royal lieuten- ant, 
who alone could open the Tour, and give permission to enter. The prison was composed 
of two large round halls, one above another; the lower room received light from 
the upper, by a circular hole about six feet in diameter, and the upper from a 
similar hole, made in the terrace which formed the roof. The fire was lighted 
in the centre; the smoke could only escape through openings, by which air and 
light, and unhappi- ly with them rain and wind, were admitted. I saw the prisoner 
who had been shut up from the time she was eight years old. Thirty-two years she 
had been there when I saw her, and she had been there thirty-eight when she was 
liberated. Her mother died in her arms some time after their captivity. Her name 
was Mademoiselle Durand." PAGE 1045 "I dare not attempt," says M. Wilks, "to sketch 
merely an outline of the bitter sufferings, cruel tortures, and glorious deaths 
which compose the annals of this period. M. Desubas, an excellent and zealous 
minister, twenty-six years of age, was arrested December 11, 1745, at D'Aggrene, 
and the next day a lieutenant and thirty men conducted him to Vernoux. Some Protestant 
peasants, informed of the seizure of their minister, assembled on the route, without 
arms, to implore his liberation; the only answer was a discharge of musketry - 
six were killed, and four were made prisoners. Arrived at Vernoux, the tidings 
spread, and the poor people, alarmed for the life of their pastor, collected in 
crowds. Old men, women, and children, united in tears and intreaties for their 
beloved M. Desubas. Two of the Catholic bourgeois gave them some hope of success, 
but it was only the more effectually to prepare their destruc- tion. The escort 
and the Catholics fired them from the windows on a defenceless multitude, amounting 
to 2000 persons. Two hundred Protes- tants were wounded, the greater part of them 
mortally, and thirty-six were killed." The cruel martyrdom of the aged John Calas, 
whose fate is recorded on page 252 of this work, occurred in the latter part of 
this reign. From the time of the death of Calas, to whose memory justice was afterwards 
done, the Protestants of France experienced some mitigation of their sufferings, 
and were generally allowed to worship God publicly and in peace. Louis XV. died 
after a reign of fifty-nine years, and was succeeded by his grandson in 1774. 
Louis XVI. was the best of the Bourbon race; but during the early part of his 
reign, the Protestants suffered much under the intolerant laws which encouraged 
their persecutors. Among other oppressions the suffer- ers were called to endure, 
was the non-recognition of the Protestant marriages, and the consequent illegitimacy 
pronounced against the child- ren, who were too often deprived of their rights 
by unjust and avari- cious Catholics. At length, in 1787, an edict restored the 
Protestants to the enjoyment of their civil rights; but some opposition was made 
to it in parliament; and one enthusiastic papist, presenting a crucifix, peremptorily 
inquired if they were going to crucify the Son of God afresh? There were, however, 
political and pecuniary motives connected with the granting of these favours; 
and, notwithstanding this edict, partial persecutions still existed. The national 
assembly in 1789 decreed, "that no man should be disturbed in his religious opinions, 
nor troubled in the exercise of his religion;" and during the existence of the 
republic, and the subsequent reign of Napoleon, this served as a basis for the 
laws respecting liber- ty of worship. In 1790, a member, however, showed the cloven 
foot of the persecuting Catholic, by proposing that the Catholic, Apostolic, and 
Roman religion should be the only public and authorized worship; but his proposal 
was lost. Still, at this period, liberty of worship was not fully enjoyed. Infi- 
delity reigned among the ruling authorities, and the refractory priests were subjected 
to severities which they had themselves before inflicted on the Protestants. Popery 
was popery still - the same sanguinary super- stition as it ever had been. The 
following brief narrative will confirm the truth of the remark:- In 1815, M. Maigre, 
a venerable octogenarian and large silk manufacturer at Nismes, fled from his 
house in a carriage, with his son, his son's wife, two children, and two female 
servants. They were arrested on the road by a patrol, to whom M. Maigre showed 
a regular passport. Two postilions returning from Beaucaire, cried to the patrol, 
"Why do you suffer these people to pass - they are Protestants?" At this moment 
M. Maigre discovered in the crowd an old servant: "Andre," said he, "do you not 
know me? are you not interested for me?" "Ah, that was formerly," said the ingrate; 
"it is very different now;" and immediately aimed a terrible blow at his old master. 
A postilion leaped from his horse, and threw a rope round the neck of his youngest 
daughter, intending to PAGE 1046 strangle her; but one of the servants flew to 
her rescue, and drew on herself the fury of the monster, who, throwing the instrument 
of his cruelty round her, endeavoured to hang her to a tree: fortunately, the 
cord was too short. The infuriated mob then determined to convey their prisoners 
to Remoulins. They arrived at the village of La Foux, over- whelmed with menaces 
and imprecations; and seeing a capuchin, they solicited his protection. He acknowledged 
that he knew them, but refused to intercede for them, and shut himself up in the 
first house. They were forced into the bark in which they were to cross to Remoulins, 
while the people on the shore cried, "Throw them into the water - drown them!" 
The family then embraced each other, exclaiming in agony, "We are all lost!" A 
man seized the aged father, and threw him into the stream; he tried to swim to 
the bank, but was struck by a stone, and his strength failing he was drowned. 
His son, more vigorous, made more resistance; with one hand he seized a peasant, 
with the other he grasped the mast. To secure him, they promised him his life; 
but at the moment he quitted his hold, they threw him overboard. He swam to the 
shore, where a gentleman ran to his assistance, and tried to staunch the blood 
which was flowing fast from his wounds. A man approached, and pointed a fusil. 
"Spare this good man," said his protector; "he is not guilty of any crime: in 
saving his life, you will render an important service to your country." "Yes," 
said M. Maigre, "we have injured no one. It is true we differ in our religi- ous 
opinions; but should this lead you to take my life? Ask this gentle- man - he 
knows me well." M. Sere then assured the murderers that the family was generally 
respected. "You are yourself one of the same kind," said a peasant. "No, I am 
a Roman Catholic; and to prove my assertion, here is my prayer-book, and a cross 
which belongs to my daughter." "You shall, however, both march to prison," said 
the peasants. "Alas!" cried M. Maigre, seizing the hand of his friend, "to what 
danger has your generosity exposed you!" On the road, a man aimed twice at M. 
Maigre with a musket, saying, "Stand away, let me kill him;" while M. Sere threw 
himself on the musket, knelt at their feet, and kissed the hands of the murderer, 
earnestly imploring the life of the unfortunate. "Retire," said the savage, "unless 
you wish to share the same fate." A woman, alarmed at the danger to which the 
intrepid courage of Sere had exposed himself, drew him away. M. Maigre was assassinated, 
and thrown into a stream which flowed by the village. A reaper drew his body from 
the water with his scythe, took his money, his snuff-box, and his watch, and cast 
the corpse again into the river. The wife and daughters had taken refuge in an 
inn; the assassins pursued them with the intention of immolating the whole family; 
and had not the innkeeper assured them that the ladies had escaped into the country, 
and the marechaussee almost immediately appeared, they would inevitably have been 
sacrificed by the murderers of their husband and brother. When Bonaparte was first 
consul, he concluded a concordat with the pope, in which he well secured the Protestants; 
a circumstance that gave great dissatisfaction to the Roman Catholics, who tried 
in vain to induce him to make some alterations in their favour. The condition 
of the Protes- tants was greatly improved during the elevation of Napoleon, a 
circum- stance which could not fail to attach them to his dynasty. PAGE 1047 Louis 
XVIII., having been placed on the throne by the forces of the allied powers, was 
soon surrounded by interested priests, and efforts were made to restore to the 
Catholics paramount influence. But suddenly Napoleon boldly invaded France with 
his miniature army, and resumed his seat on the throne. His hundred days' reign 
was terminated by the battle of Waterloo, A.D. 1815. Louis XVIII. returned. The 
Catholics now felt themselves secure in the prospect of renewed authority, and 
the Protestants dreaded that their vengeance, which had been dammed up for so 
long a time, would now burst forth like a mountain-torrent. During the hundred 
days they had not hesitated to pronounce their threats, and to intimate that if 
Louis returned they would denounce the Protestants as Bonapartists. The time of 
vengeance arrived; and in the month of July, 1815, about four hundred Protestants 
were inhumanly murdered in the department of the Garde. These persecutions were 
stubbornly denied by the Roman Catholics, both at home and abroad; and when they 
were obliged to admit the facts, they contradicted the causes, and as usual, in 
all cases of popish persecu- tion, attributed them to political differences. There 
were great numbers of Bonapartists among the population of Nismes, but not one 
of them suffered; while even royalists were said to have perished among the Protestants. 
Prior to the return of Napoleon, the esplanade or public walk at Nismes resounded 
with songs, in which men, women, and children repeated that they would "wash their 
hands in the blood of Protestants: that with their liver and lights they would 
make a mess to feed upon, and that they would make black puddings of the blood 
of Calvin's child- ren!" The most worthless vagabonds were employed to sing these 
songs, and were paid, according to their age and services, from twopence half- 
penny to fifteen pence each day. Protestants were not safe from cruel assaults, 
if found in a spot where they could be secretly committed; and when the injured 
parties called for justice, the magistrates disregarded their appeals. The declamations 
of the Catholics became more bold: "We will no longer suffer amongst us these 
villains, these monsters of Protestants; we must rid ourselves of them; annihilate 
even the last of them." The Protestants were insulted every instant; and Catholics 
were accustomed to soap cords publicly, in their presence, with which they declared 
they would tie them to the gallows prepared for their execution. M. de Vallongne, 
afterwards mayor of Nismes, a man of rank, education, and family, was heard to 
say that a second St. Bartholomew was necessary. The Duke D'Angouleme visited 
Nismes. Complaints were made to him, and all the facts above related were laid 
before him; but he refused to believe them, or to make any inquiry, but arrested 
twelve of the principal Protestants accused by the Catholics of being Bonapartists. 
Among the arrested was the worthy M. Vincens St. Laurence, counseller of the prefecture. 
When he was led to the state prison amidst the sanguinary vociferations of the 
populace, M. Boyer Brun, advocate-secretary to the prince, said, on seeing him 
pass, "At last we shall overcome those villains of Protestants!" The army marched 
to encounter Napoleon on his return, but the Catholics threatened that when they 
returned they would massacre every Protestant. When Bonaparte resumed his power, 
the Protestants, so far from retaliat- ing, showed that degree of kindness to 
their enemies that made them ashamed; but the return of the Bourbons to power 
was the signal for PAGE 1048 renewing the cruel persecutions. The Protestants 
suffered imprisonment under false accusations; their vineyards were spoiled, their 
houses plundered, their places of worship burned; they experienced the most cruel 
insults and assaults, and large numbers suffered death - some under the most aggravated 
forms. The perpetrators of these crimes es- caped punishment. One barbarian, more 
cruel that the rest, boasted that with his own hands he had killed forty Protestants, 
and should not be satisfied till he had killed fifty! This bloodthirsty wretch, 
originally a street-sweeper, whose name was Trestaillon, alias Toilajon, alias 
La- font, died only a short time since, when his zeal was not forgotten, for he 
was buried by the priests with considerable splendour. He had re- ceived a commission 
in the army. About ten thousand, who saw the ap- proach of the storm, fled to 
the mountains of Cevennes to avoid the threatening danger; but the prefect persuaded 
the principal persons to return, and great numbers of these were assassinated. 
This chapter might be extended to a volume, and the number of the vic- tims, in 
various ways, be greatly augmented; but it is necessary to study brevity. A few 
well-attested facts shall conclude the account of the persecutions of the French 
Protestants in 1815. Two parties glutted their savage appetites on the farm of 
Madame Frat. The first, after eating, drinking, breaking the furniture, and stealing 
what they thought proper, took leave by announcing the arrival of their comrades, 
"compared with whom," they said, "they should be thought merciful." Their predictions 
were fulfilled. Three men and an old woman were left on the premises: at the sight 
of the second company, two of the men fled. The banditi entered the kitchen, seized 
the old woman, and demanded, "Are you a Catholic?" "Yes." "Repeat, then, your 
Pater and Ave." Terrified by the recollection of the past and the apprehension 
of the future, she hesitated, and was instantly knocked down with a musket. On 
recovering her senses, she took an opportunity to leave the house; and in going 
out she met Ladet, a servant of the farm, who was bringing in a salad, which the 
depredators had ordered him to cut as they en- tered. She entreated him to fly; 
but the good man, confident in his age and innocence, refused to abandon the property 
of his employers, and for the last time approached the house of his mistress. 
"Are you a Protes- tant?" they exclaimed. "I am," he replied; and immediately 
a musket was presented at him, and he fell wounded, but not dead. To consummate 
their work, the monsters lighted a fire with straw and boards threw their yet 
living victim into the flames, and suffered him to expire in the most dreadful 
agonies. They left the remains not wholly consumed; part of which were devoured 
by the dogs. The prefect of the Garde, in order to cover the crime, declared again 
and again that the man was a Catholic; but the Protestant pastors, MM. Juillerat 
and Rabant, publicly contra- dicted the apologist, and declared that the murdered 
man and all his family were Protestants. The unfortunate victim was in his sixty-third 
year, and left a widow and four children dependent on the bounty of his Protestant 
brethren. This and the subsequent barbarities were practised chiefly about Nismes. 
PAGE 1049 An old unmarried man aged sixty, named Lafond, lived in a very retired 
manner; he had neither the inclination nor the ability to engage in political 
plots or discussions. His only crime was that he professed the reformed religion. 
He was singled out as one of the first victims. Trestaillon, accompanied by other 
ruffians, went to his house, forced open the street door, and went up to his apartment, 
which was on an upper floor. Regardless of his cries and entreaties, they dragged 
him by his white locks to the landing-place, and precipitated him from the top 
of the balustrade. They thought he was dead, and left him; but returning soon 
after, they found him only stunned, and much wounded: they brought him to his 
door, and there, amidst the acclamations of the populace, literally cut him into 
pieces with axes and broadswords. A Protestant in the national guard, one night 
being on piquet with Catholics, who were going to relieve a post stationed at 
one of the gates, descried by the light of the moon two female bodies, with their 
faces turned towards the ground. When they were turned up, the miserable man recognised 
his wife and daughter, who had been murdered as they returned from the country. 
The cries of agony he raised on the discovery of his misfortune irritated the 
barbarians who accompanied him. They levelled their muskets, saying it was a pity 
he should be separated from those he so much loved, fired, and he fell on the 
dead bodies. He, however, lingered till the next morning, when he told his distressing 
tale and expired. One Bigot, a carter, was attacked in his house, where he defended 
him- self, with the assistance of his wife and sister-in-law. They were compelled 
to yield to the assailants, who, in spite of their cries, tears, and entreaties, 
cut the throat of Bigot, and left him to bleed to death. His wife and sister, 
whom they forced to be present at the horrid scene, were afterwards killed on 
his body with axes. An old man, aged eighty, was farmer on the estate of M. Chambeau: 
about thirty banditti went to his house, and after they had levied a contribu- 
tion, asked him if he was not a Protestant. On his answering "Yes," they ordered 
him to kneel down, and shot him; they then lighted up a large fire, and burnt 
his body to ashes! In 1801, M. Saussine retired from the army, (which he had entered 
in 1777,) with the rank of captain, and his two sons had since fallen on the field 
of battle. He was sixty-five years of age, infirm and deaf; and living in peace 
and privacy. It was enough that he was a Protestant. At six o'clock in the morning 
he was found at his residence on the road to Uzes, in the department of the Garde, 
and killed on the spot. Truphe- my drove the widow from her home, and Trestaillon 
took possession of it as a dwelling for his sister. Madame Saussine died soon 
after of grief and persecution. At Nismes, as in all France, the inhabitants wash 
their clothes either at the fountains or on the banks of streams. There is a large 
basin near the fountain, where every day great numbers of women may be seen kneel- 
ing at the edge of the water, and beating the linen with heavy pieces of wood 
in the shape of battledoors. This spot became the scene of the most cruel and 
indecent practices. The Catholics vented their fury on the wives, widows, and 
daughters of Protestants, by a newly-invented punish- ment. They turned their 
lower garments over their heads, and so fastened them as to favour their shameful 
exposure, and their subjection to chastisement; and nails being placed in the 
wood of the battoirs in the PAGE 1050 form of fleurs-de-lis, they beat them till 
the blood streamed from their bodies, and their screams rent the air. The fete 
of the Assumption, professedly designed by the Catholics to recall the most exalted 
purity and the Divine benevolence, was observed by those of Nismes, by the most 
revolting violation of female modesty, and by brutal gratifications at which even 
savages might blush. Often was death demanded as a commuta- tion of this ignominious 
punishment, but death was refused with malign- ant joy; murder was to perfect, 
and not prevent, the obscene and cruel sport. To carry their outrage to the highest 
degree, they assailed in this manner several who were in a state of pregnancy! 
Madame Rath, when near her confinement, was attacked by about sixty of the purest 
Catholics armed with knotted cords, battoirs, and stones. It was with difficulty 
that she escaped instant death, and only by extraor- dinary skill that her life 
was preserved in premature childbirth. Her babe just breathed and expired. Her 
mother had already lost an eye from the discharge of a pistol fired at her by 
Trestaillon. The loss of her child, the distressing situation of her mother, and 
her own agony and shame, were the punishments inflicted on her for being guilty 
of Calvinism! Madame Gautiere and Madame Domerque, in a similar critical period, 
were treated with similar indignity. Madame Reboul died in a few days of the injuries 
she had received. The daughter of Benouette was beaten and torn with nails, by 
a young man named Merle, assisted by an inhuman rabble of both sexes. One of the 
daughters of Bigonette, who was thrown into a well and drowned, died of the ill-treatment 
she experienced: one orphan sister, in terror, had become a Catholic; but the 
other, although at the risk of her life, refused to abandon her religion. A female 
servant was stripped of all her clothes, and left on the public road, covered 
with blood, and exposed to the jests of a degraded populace: a soldier took off 
his great coat, threw it on her, and conducted her to the town. But it is time 
to stop, though the list might be greatly enlarged. Yet, notwithstanding the authenticated 
accounts of numerous victims of popish brutality, the half has not been told. 
For the scandalous nature of these outrages prevented many of the sufferers from 
making them public, and especially from relating the most aggravating circumstances. 
The practice continued for several months. Where were the authorities? What punishment 
was inflicted on the criminals? The agents of the government made light of the 
transactions, and deceived public opinion; a force was at the command of the authorities, 
but they never honestly employed it. A party had resolved, if possible, to extirpate 
the Protestants in this their principal seat. Allured by specious proclamations, 
many who had fled returned, but only to be slaughtered; and many Protestant fathers 
thus fell by the hands of the Catholic assassins while in the bosom of their families. 
The most horrible cruelties were committed in a wholesale manner; and when any 
of the murderers were taken, they were soon again set at liberty. The criminals 
were none of them strangers, neither were they few, but there was no justice for 
the unfortunate Protestants. A much-esteemed Protes- tant ex-mayor was shot in 
the streets of Ners. Three Protestant friends and companions of the deceased were 
accused of the crime. They were taken before the authorities, and instantly ordered 
to be shot. PAGE 1051 The king and his ministers were not ignorant of what was 
passing. Memo- rials were forwarded to them by stealth. From one of these the 
following is an extract: "Those men, Sire, who are described as your enemies, 
perish without a struggle, that they may not appear to disobey your authority. 
Protestant princes surround them, and they have not preferred a complaint, nor 
solicited their mediation. Are such men rebels? [It was under shelter of this 
charge that the criminals pursued their savage persecutions.] But, Sire, patience 
may be exhausted, and it may be difficult to restrain by reason the vengeance 
of a people too cruelly persecuted. Anticipate, Sire, this dire alternative; reorganize 
the national guard; dissolve the bands assembled in defiance of your author- ity; 
and remove from their administrative functions those who have caused or suffered 
our blood to flow. But, if reserved for continued persecution, at least let our 
fate be distinctly announced. Ministers of Louis XVIII., would you be more inexorable 
than Louis XIV., against whom Europe uttered the cry of execration? If so, satisfy 
the hatred of our enemies, but give us time to assemble our dispersed families, 
to dispose of the property we have acquired in enriching the country still so 
dear to our hearts. We will seek again a refuge on foreign shores; we will once 
more implore the compassion of those hospitable nations in which our forefathers 
found an asylum, where their names are still held in honour, and their memories 
are revered." "If," said another memorial, "the Protestants are authorized to 
profess the principles which the king has proclaimed, why should they be tormented, 
decimated, treated as wild beasts? Why should they not return to their homes, 
and at least resume their labours, and the ruins of their dilapidated shops? Why 
should they not be permitted the exercise of their religious worship, more necessary 
to their comfort than ever, but suspended by the dispersion of both the pastors 
and the flocks?" While the Protestants were thus suffering in despair, the Catholics, 
the constituted authorities, and their friends, were not only free from anxiety, 
but surrounded with splendid prosperity, and distinguished by festivities and 
mirth; while the midnight sky was illuminated with the flames which were seen 
in all directions, blazing and ascending from the country houses of the Protestants. 
Sham proclamations were issued, expressing a sort of regret at these proceedings; 
while the assassins and Catholics in general were allowed to retain their arms, 
but the Protestants were left without any to protect themselves. Among other acts 
of fanaticism, the persecutors proceeded to tear inf- ants from their mothers, 
even when just put to the breast, that they might be baptized in the Catholic 
church; and they endeavoured to terri- fy the women, by declaring that if their 
children lived unbaptized Catholics, they would be cursed, and if they died, they 
would be buried like heretic dogs. Such was popery in France in the years 1815 
and 1816! PAGE 1052 The Protestants had to flee from their homes, or barricade 
their houses and secrete their property. Yet great numbers were imprisoned, ill- 
treated, and cruelly butchered; while some of the murderers publicly declared 
how many Protestants they would kill for their share, and fixed on their next 
martyrs. Country houses, warehouses, shops, town dwellings, vineyards, property 
of every kind was involved in ruin, and robbery and pillage everywhere added to 
murder. All worship was suspend- ed, pastors fled, or, if they remained, were 
exposed to prison and death, and the Protestant temples were sacked by the Catholic 
multitude. The re-restoration of Louis XVIII. was followed by the like persecu- 
tions; and the tribunals before which the causes of the Protestants were tried, 
condemned Protestants to death, who were known to be innocent of crime, but acquitted 
the wretches who were the notorious ringleaders of the Catholic mobs. These were 
Trestaillons, alias Lafont, etc., Quatre- taillons or Graffan and Truphemy. Some 
of these murderers demanded the Protestants shut up in prison, marched them out 
in pairs, and obliging them to kneel down on the ashes of their yet burning property, 
shot them in slow succession. These were the men that found advocates among the 
highest ranks in society, and, which was not at all surprising, among the Catholic 
clergy, who became their warm intercessors! At length the Protestant temples which 
had been shut up for several months were ordered to be re-opened, under the auspices 
of the Duc D'Angouleme, whose attachment to popery none could dispute; and urged 
by General Lagarde, who had promised the prince to see his desires execut- ed, 
the consistory ventured to obey. But fearing a tumult, the greatest caution and 
silence were used, and private information only was given to the worshippers. 
M. Juillerat Chasseur was appointed to perform a service at Nismes. On his way, 
he heard these exclamations and remarks from the Catholics: "What! have they still 
the audacity to dare to pray to God?" "This is the moment to give them the last 
blow." "Yes, and neither women nor children must be spared." "Ah," said one, "they 
dare to come again; I will go and get my musket, and ten for my share!" When the 
worshippers arrived, they found persons in possession of the adjacent streets, 
and the steps of the church, who vowed that the worship should not be per- formed; 
and expressed their rage in the most furious language, crying, "Down with the 
Protestants!" "Kill the Protestants!" The service began. In a few moments a rush 
of persons into the church interrupted the minister, and shouts were raised of 
"Vive le Roi!" "Death, death to the Protestants! kill, kill!" The gendarmes forced 
out the fanatics. The noise was increased outside. The house of God resounded 
with groans and shrieks. The pastors were inaudible. They attempted in vain to 
sing the forty-second Psalm. Madame Juillerat, the excellent wife of the preach- 
er, stood at the foot of the pulpit with her infant daughter in her arms, and 
expected instant death. "We shall be slain," said she, "at the altar of our God, 
the victims of a sacred duty, and heaven will open to receive us and our unhappy 
brethren." She blessed the Redeemer, and waited the approach of the expected murderers. 
At length a detachment of soldiers arrived, and under their wing the assembly 
escaped. The Cathol- ics were enraged; for too much ardour had deranged their 
plan. It was intended to suffer the worship to terminate, and then to rush with 
arms on the unsuspecting Protestants as they left the temple, and massacre them 
all. The aged pastor, Oliver Desmond, was reported in England to have been killed; 
and when it was found that he was not, the Catholic periodicals of the day impudently 
denied the whole affair, and maligned PAGE 1053 those who had raised a naturally 
exaggerated report. But the fact was, that he was saved only by the greatest resolution. 
The venerable man was actually surrounded by murderers; they put their fists in 
his face, and cried, "Kill the chief of brigands!" his life was only preserved 
by the firmness of some officers, among whom was his own son, an officer in the 
royal troops of the line. They made a bulwark round him with their bodies, and 
amidst their naked sabres conducted him to his home. M. Juillerat, with his wife 
and child, was pursued and assailed with stones, and his mother received a severe 
and dangerous blow on the head. Several females were cruelly treated, and died 
of their injuries; and the number of Protestants more or less ill-treated, amounted 
to between seventy and eighty. General Lagarde was informed of these outrages. 
He instantly resolved to disperse the assailants. For this purpose, he mounted 
his horse, and entered one of the streets, where a mob had assembled. A villain 
seized his bridle, another presented the muzzle of a pistol close to his body, 
and asked in a vociferating tone, "Wretch! you make me retire?" He immediately 
fired; and perceiving that the general retained his seat, he added, "Ah! brigand, 
I have not killed you." The murderer was Louis Boissin, a serjeant in the company 
of the national guards, commanded by M. Vidal. Boissin was known to everybody, 
but no one endeavoured to arrest him, and he effected his escape without difficulty. 
As soon as the general found himself wounded, he gave orders to the commander 
of the gendarmerie to protect the Protestants, and set off in a gallop to his 
hotel. Immediately on his arrival, he fainted. On recovering from the swoon, he 
prevented the surgeon from examining his wound till he had written a letter to 
the government, that, in case of his death, it might be known from what quarter 
the blow had been aimed, and that none might dare to accuse the Protestants of 
the crime from which he suffered. In the evening the Catholics again visited the 
temple, broke open the doors, robbed the poor-box, rent the ministers' robes in 
pieces, tore the books into fragments, stripped and defiled the pulpit by numberless 
indecencies, ransacked the closets, and would have destroyed the records, but 
were at that time providentially prevented. After this, more victims were added 
to the number of the murdered. Upwards of six hundred Protestants were suffered 
to remain in the pris- ons of Nismes, detained without a warrant, and unable to 
procure trial or liberation. Every day the fanatics sent emissaries to the dungeons 
to endeavour to obtain, by promises or threats, abjurations of faith, and conversions 
to the Apostolic, Catholic, and Roman religion. The families of the imprisoned 
Protestants were necessarily insulted and tormented with similar importunities. 
The pastors were either absent or unable to strengthen the sufferers by their 
counsel and their prayers; and public ordinances of their religion had been long 
denied; fraternal visits were difficult, and often impossible; charitable relief 
could not be adminis- tered; and unfortunate individuals, who had neither work 
not bread, were urged and invited to embrace a religion rendered hateful by their 
own persecution, and the imprisonment and murder of their dearest relations. That 
in such circumstances some should profess a change they felt not is PAGE 1054 
scarcely surprising, when it is remembered what multitudes under the dragonades 
of Louis XIV. were received into the bosom of the Catholic church as sound converts, 
who were afterwards condemned and murdered as heretics relapsed. But to the honour 
of the persecuted, and to the glory of God who strengthens the infirmity of his 
creatures in the hour of trial, the Protestants had hitherto generally preferred 
insult, outrage, spoliation, imprisonment, and death, to all the allurements connected 
with the adoption, even feigned, to a religion which their consciences disavowed. 
But now the system of forced conversions made regular and fearful progress; and 
these were the subjects of boasting and triumph among the Catholics. The Protestants 
were some time before they could reassemble for worship; and when they did it 
was under the protection of a strong guard, and after they had agreed to give 
up their places of worship, which were unjustly claimed by the Catholics, in lieu 
of which new places were to be erected. During these persecutions the interference 
of foreign aid was never sought. But the editor of these pages, having received 
documents rela- tive to this persecution, ventured to publish them to the world 
under the title of "Statements of Persecutions of the Protestants in the South 
of France." This pamphlet, amidst the clashing sentiments of the times, brought 
some furious attacks upon the author. For the statements were denied by high authority, 
because they inevitably reflected on the Bourbon dynasty. They, however, contained 
authentic documents sufficient to excite the attention of the Corporation of London, 
the Deputies of the Three Denomination, the three denominations of dissenting 
ministers themselves, and the Society for the Protection of Religious Liberty. 
Large extracts from the pamphlet were read at Guildhall; and a circular published 
by "The Protestant Society" stated, that "A pamphlet prepared by the Rev. I. Cobbin 
attracted the particular attention of the commit- tee." These societies all adopted 
resolutions founded on the statements. But the dissenting ministry did more; and 
as contradictory statements were abroad, they deputized the Rev. Clement Perrot, 
of Guernsey, to visit the department of the Garde, and ascertain facts more correctly. 
He did so with some difficulty and danger; and on his return published his "Report 
of the Persecution of the French Protestants," from which it appeared that the 
half had not been told. The agents of France were enraged at this bold publication 
of the truth. "The interference of the police," says Mr. Perrot, "experienced 
throughout my journey; and even since I have happily arrived in my native land, 
I have the most authen- tic proofs that the sub-prefect of St. Maloes, M. Petit 
Thouars, has written to the inspector of aliens at Jersey, to make inquiries respect- 
ing my journey, and has also declared his determination to arrest me if I came 
to that port to embark for Guernsey." But the statements and Report produced their 
desired effect, and the covert persecutors were too much exposed and ashamed to 
pursue their course. Sir Samuel Romilly made a stir on the subject in the British 
parliament, and entered accu- rately into the whole history of the persecutions, 
vindicating the character of the Protestants as peaceable subjects, and exposing 
the malice and subtlety of their enemies. The measure towards redress was opposed 
by Lord Castlereagh, then in power, and who had recently re- turned from a long 
residence in the court of France. The storm did not now rage as before; but the 
prisons remained filled with Protestants, an impartial judge was displaced, and 
more victims were immolated under the semblance of justice, though the witnesses 
against them contradicted each other. The unfortunate victims of perjury were 
condemned to impris- onment - the pillory - branding with hot irons - the galleys 
for limited terms or for life, and some to death. PAGE 1055 In July, 1816, two 
months after the efforts of sir Samuel Romilly in behalf of the Protestants, three 
of their number were doomed to perpetu- al labour, and five to be executed. The 
executions took place at Nismes and at Arpaillaigues, in the month of September. 
The unhappy Protes- tants, accompanied by two pastors, ascended the scaffold with 
a con- fidence which the Catholics attributed to arrogance, but which religion 
only could inspire. Dame Verdus was the first; and she mounted the guillotine 
singing, in the words of the twenty-fifth Psalm, "Unto thee, O Lord, do I lift 
up my soul. O my God, I trust in thee, let me not be ashamed; let not mine enemies 
triumph over me," etc. Roboul died, recom- mending his family to God, and imploring 
for himself his grace and mercy. Bresson said, "Though young, I do not regret 
life; I leave the world with resignation, because I am confident that the God 
with whom my religion has made me acquainted, will be more merciful and more just 
than those who have condemned me to this shameful death: but I feel for my aged 
father, who depended on me, and has no one left for his support." The widow Boucoiran, 
before being taken to the place of execution, offered up an affecting prayer with 
her friends, and sang the fifty- first Psalm. As she and two pastors who attended 
her passed the town of Uzes, she caught a view of the steeple of the Protestant 
church, and exclaimed, "Blessed temple, where I loved so much to worship, I shall 
never see you more; but I shall go to one still more glorious in heaven, and angels 
will conduct me there." When the vehicle arrived at the village of Arpaillaigues, 
"There," said she, "I am about to die, before my own house: my children are perhaps 
there concealed; and I must leave the world without giving and receiving one embrace. 
Ah! this is indeed, painful to a mother's heart; but the will of the Lord be done." 
Looking around, she continued, "Everything in nature dies - trees, flowers, all 
perish. We are like flowers; why should not I die also? But when I am no more, 
watch over my children; let them, I beseech you, be well instruct- ed in religion, 
that they may find it support them, as it has supported me, and as it now supports 
me in my last trial. Make them learn the catechism thoroughly, and let them be 
taught trades, that they may gain an honest livelihood, and be placed above the 
temptation of abandoning their religion." When the pastor Roux had addressed the 
condemned and prayed, he raised the widow and conducted her on the scaffold, which 
she ascended with an energy and fortitude altogether above her sex. Her resignation; 
the prayers which she offered, with an unaltered tone, for her own salva- tion; 
the forgiveness of her enemies, which she repeatedly pronounced, astonished and 
affected many of the spectators. Till the moment that the head was severed from 
her body, the voice of prayer was heard to issue from her lips. Her pastor prayed 
also, beside her, till she had passed into an eternal world; and then, covered 
with her blood, he prayed for her companion, Boisson, a venerable man of seventy-eight 
years of age, PAGE 1056 who also ascended with a firm step, pardoned his persecutors, 
implored the grace of God, and resigned himself to death with a calm and digni- 
fied confidence, of which the multitude had never beheld an example. The Catholics 
exulted in the execution of the unfortunate victims, and even longed for the gratification 
of insulting their lifeless remains, which were deposited in two holes prepared 
for them the night before. The widow Boucorian left four orphan children; the 
eldest, a girl of thirteen years of age, was thrown into prison, charged with 
a capital crime, and brought before the court of assizes. While in prison she 
was separated from her mother, and exposed to numerous inducements to re- nounce 
the Protestant religion, and embrace the Catholic faith. In 1820, the assassination 
of the Duc de Berri at Paris, by Louvel, furnished a splendid occasion, after 
a short interval of rest, for the persecutors to resume their sanguinary work. 
Trestaillons, who had fled lest he should at length be made to answer for his 
crimes, reappeared at Nismes triumphant. "He is come to revenge the death of the 
prince on the Protestants!" "Why did not we make an end of the race in 1815?" 
"Let us murder these wretches; their blood will produce royalists." Such was the 
declamatory language of the persecutors. The accusation was so obviously false, 
that the government at Paris more decidedly interfered, and prevented a renewal 
of carnage. At this critical period, Providence raised up an advocate for the 
Prot- estants in the person of M. Madier of Montjau, a Catholic, a magistrate, 
and a royalist. In a petition to the Chamber of Deputies, he revealed all the 
facts of the long and inconceivable persecution. "He exposed the brutality of 
the populace, the intrigues of their leaders, the guilt of the magistrates, the 
scandal of the tribunals; asserted the innocence and the virtue of the Protestants; 
demanded the destruction of the secret armed force, and the punishment of the 
guilty." The statements of M. Madier could not be controverted. He had witnessed 
every transaction, and his reputation was irreproachable. Several deputies eloquently 
pleaded the cause of the Protestants. France could not but pronounce a verdict 
in favour of the persecuted. The widows, orphans, and relations of the murdered 
Protestants appealed for justice on the guilty. Quatretaillons was accused before 
the tribun- als, but noble Catholics and eminent royalists withdrew him from the 
danger of the storm, and protected him! M. Madier was charged with impropriety 
of conduct, and summoned before the court of cassation. His crime was revealing 
the dangerous circumstances of the Protestants. The public prosecutor demanded 
the erasure of his name from the list of magistrates, but he was only censured 
1809, Colonel Lehmanowsky was attached to that part of Napoleon's army stationed 
at Madrid; and while in that city, the Colonel used to express his opinions freely 
among the people, respecting the priests and Jesuits of the Inquisition. It had 
been decreed by the French emperor that the Inquisition and monasteries should 
be suppressed, but the decree was not executed. Months had passed away, and the 
prisons of the Inquisition had not been opened. One night, about twelve o'clock, 
as the Colonel was walking along one of the streets of Madrid, two armed men sprang 
upon him from an alley, and made a furious attack. He instantly drew his sword, 
put himself in a posture of defence, and, while strug- gling with them, he saw 
at a distance the lights of the patroles - French soldiers mounted, who carried 
lanterns, and rode through the streets of the city at all hours of the night, 
to preserve order. He called to them in French, and, as they hastened to his assistance, 
the assailants took to their heels, and escaped - not, however, before he saw 
by their dress that they belonged to the guards of the Inquisition. He went immediately 
to Marshal Soult, then governor of Madrid, told him what had taken place, and 
reminded him of the decree to suppress the institution. Marshal Soult replied 
that he might go and destroy it. The Colonel having told him that his regiment 
- the 9th of the Polish Lancers - was not sufficient for such a service, without 
the aid of two additional regiments, the troops required were granted: one of 
these regiments was the 17th, under the command of Colonel de Lile, subse- quently 
pastor of an evangelical church in Marseilles. The troops marched to fulfil their 
destined object, the Inquisition being about five miles from the city. It was 
surrounded by a wall of great strength, and defended by a company of soldiers. 
When they arrived at the walls, the Colonel addressed one of the senti- nels, 
and summoned the holy fathers to surrender to the imperial army, and open the 
gates of the Inquisition. The sentinel who was standing on the wall appeared to 
enter into conversation for a moment with some one within, at the close of which 
he presented his musket, and shot one of the Colonel's men. This was a signal 
of attack, and he ordered his troops to fire upon those that appeared on the walls. 
It was soon obvi- ous that it was an unequal warfare. The walls of the Inquisition 
were covered with soldiers of the holy office; there was also a breastwork upon 
the walls, behind which they partially exposed themselves as they discharged their 
muskets. The French troops were in the open plain, and exposed to a destructive 
fire. They had no cannon, nor could they scale the walls; and the gates successfully 
resisted all attempts at forcing them. The Colonel could not retire, and send 
for cannon to break through the walls, without giving them time to lay a train 
for blowing up the French troops. He saw, therefore, that it was necessary to 
change the mode of attack, and directed that some trees should be cut down and 
PAGE 1058 trimmed, to be used as battering-rams. Two of these were taken up by 
detachments of men, as numerous as could work to advantage, and brought to bear 
upon the walls with all the power that they could exert; while the troops kept 
up a fire to protect them from that poured upon them from the walls. Presently 
the walls began to tremble, a breach was made, and the imperial troops rushed 
into the Inquisition. Here they met with an incident, to which nothing but Jesuitical 
effrontery is equal. The inquisitor-general, followed by the father-confessors 
in their priestly robes, all came out of their rooms as the French were making 
their way into the interior of the Inquisition; and with long faces and their 
arms crossed over their breasts, their fingers resting on their shoulders, as 
though they had been deaf to all the noise of the attack and defence, and had 
just learned what was going on, they addressed themselves in the language of seeming 
rebuke to their own soldiers, and asked, "Why do you fight our friends the French?" 
Their intention was, doubtless, to make their assailants think that the resistance 
was wholly unauthorized by them; and if they could have succeeded in making a 
temporary impression in their favour, they would have had an opportunity, in the 
confusion of the moment, to escape. But their artifice was too shallow, and did 
not succeed. Colonel Lehmanowsky caused them to be placed under guard, and all 
the soldiers of the Inqui- sition to be secured as prisoners. He then proceeded 
to examine all the rooms of the stately edifice. He passed from room to room, 
and found all perfectly in order. The apartments were richly furnished, with altars 
and crucifixes and wax candles in abundance, but no evidence could be discovered 
of iniquity being practised there; there were none of those peculiar features 
which might have been expected in an Inquisition. Splendid paintings adorned the 
walls. There was a rich and extensive library. Beauty and splendour appeared everywhere, 
and the most perfect order on which eyes ever rested. The architecture, the proportions 
were perfect. The ceiling and floors of wood were scoured and highly pol- ished. 
The marble floors were arranged with a strict regard to order. There was everything 
to please the eye and gratify a cultivated taste; but where were those horrid 
instruments of torture which were reported to be there, and where those dungeons 
in which human beings were said to be buried alive? The search seemed to be in 
vain. The holy fathers assured the Colonel that they had been belied, and that 
he had seen all. The commanding officer began to think that this Inquisition was 
differ- ent from others of which he had heard, and was inclined to give up the 
search. But Colonel de Lile was of a different mind. Addressing Colonel Lehmanowsky, 
he said, "Colonel, you are commander to-day, and as you say so it must be; but 
if you will be advised by me, let this marble floor be examined. Let water be 
brought and poured upon it, and we will watch and see if there is any place through 
which it passes more freely than others." "Do as you please, Colonel," replied 
the commander, and ordered water to be brought accordingly. The slabs of marble 
were large, and beautifully polished. When the water had been poured over the 
floor, much to the dissatisfaction of the inquisitors, a careful examination was 
made of every seam in the floor, to see if the water passed through. Presently 
Colonel de Lile exclaimed that he had found it. By the side of one of these marble 
slabs the water passed through fast, as though there PAGE 1059 was an opening 
beneath. All hands were now at work for further discov- ery; the officers with 
their swords, and the soldiers with their bayo- nets, cleared out the seam, and 
endeavoured to raise the slab; others with the but-ends of their muskets struck 
the slab with all their might in order to break it; while the priests remonstrated 
against the dese- cration of their holy and beautiful house. While this engaged, 
a soldier who was striking with the but-end of his musket struck a spring, and 
the marble slab flew up. The faces of the inquisitors instantly grew pale as Belshazzar 
when the hand-writing appeared on the wall, and they shook with fear from head 
to foot. Beneath the marble slab, now partly up, there was a staircase. The commander 
stepped to the altar, and took from the candlestick one of the lighted candles 
four feet in length, that he might explore the room below. One of the inquisitors 
endeavoured to prevent him; and laying his hand gently on his arm, with a very 
demure and sanctified look, he said, "My son, you must not take those lights with 
your bloody hands: they are holy." "Never mind," said the comman- der, "I will 
take a holy thing to shed light on iniquity; I will bear the responsibility!" 
Colonel Lehmanowsky then took the light, and pro- ceeded down the staircase. When 
he and his companions in arms reached the floor of the stairs, they entered a 
large square room which was called the Hall of Judgment. In the center of it was 
a large block, and a chain fastened to it. On this they had been accustomed to 
place the accused, chained to his seat. On one side of the room was an elevated 
seat, called the Throne of Judgment, which the inquisitor-general occu- pied; 
and on either side were seats less elevated, for the holy fathers when engaged 
in the solemn business of the Holy Inquisition. From this room the party proceeded 
to the right, and obtained access to small cells extending the entire length of 
the edifice; and here they were presented with the most distressing sights. These 
cells were places of solitary confinement, where the wretched objects of inquisitorial 
hate were confined year after year, till death released them from their sufferings: 
and there their bodies were suffered to remain until they were entirely decayed, 
and the rooms had become fit for others to occu- py. To prevent this being offensive 
to those who occupied the Inquisi- tion, there were flues or tubes extending to 
the open air, sufficiently capacious to carry off the odour. In these cells were 
the remains of some who had paid the debt of nature; of whom some had been dead 
appar- ently but a short time; while of others nothing remained but their bones, 
still chained to the floor of their dungeon. In other cells were found living 
sufferers of both sexes and of every age, from threescore years and ten down to 
fourteen or fifteen years, all in a state of complete nudity, and all in chains! 
Here were old men and aged women, who had been shut up for many years. Here, too, 
were the middle-aged, and the young man, and the maiden of fourteen years old. 
The soldiers immediately went to work to release these captives from their chains, 
and took from their knapsacks their overcoats and other clothing, which they gave 
to cover their nakedness. They were exceedingly anxious to bring them out to the 
light of day; but Colonel Lehmanowsky, aware of the danger, had food given them, 
and then brought them gradually to the light as they were able to bear it. PAGE 
1060 The military party then proceeded to explore yet another room on their left. 
Here they found the instruments of torture, of every kind which the ingenuity 
of men or devils could invent. The first instrument no- ticed was a machine by 
which the victim was confined, and then, begin- ning with the fingers, all the 
joints in the hands, arms, and body were broken and drawn one after another, until 
the suffered died. The second was a box in which the head and neck of the victim 
were so closely confined by a screw, that he could not move in any way. Over the 
box was a vessel, from which one drop of water fell upon the head of the victim 
every second, each successive drop falling upon precisely the same place; by which, 
in a few moments, the circulation was suspended, and the sufferer had to endure 
the most excruciating agony. The third was an infernal machine, laid horizontally, 
to which the victim was bound; the machine then being placed between two beams, 
in which were scores of knives so fixed that, by turning the machine with a crank, 
the flesh of the sufferer was all torn from his limbs into small pieces. The fourth 
surpassed the others in fiendish ingenuity. Its exterior was a large doll, richly 
dressed, and having the appearance of a beautiful woman, with her arms extended 
ready to embrace her victim. A semicircle was drawn around her, and the person 
who passed over this fatal mark touched a spring which caused the diabolical engine 
to open; its arms immediate- ly clasped him, and a thousand knives cut him in 
as many pieces, while in the deadly embrace. The sight of these engines of infernal 
cruelty kindled the fire of indignation in the bosoms of the soldiers. They declared 
that every inquisitor and soldier of the inquisition should be put to the torture. 
Their rage was ungovernable. Colonel Lehmanowsky did not oppose them: they might 
have turned their arms against him, if he had attempted to arrest their work. 
They then began punishing the holy fathers. The first was put to death in the 
machine for breaking joints. The torture of the inquisitor that suffered death 
by the dropping of water on his head was most excruciating: the poor wretch cried 
out in agony to be taken from the fatal machine. Next the inquisitor-general was 
brought before the infernal engine called "the Virgin." He was ordered to embrace 
her, and begged hard to be excused. "No," said the soldiers; "you have caused 
others to kiss her, and now you must do it." They interlocked their bayonets, 
so as to form large forks, and with these pushed him over the deadly circle. The 
beautiful image, prepared for the embrace, instantly clasped him in its arms, 
and cut him into innumerable pieces. The French commander, after having witnessed 
the torture of four of the barbarous inquisitors, sickened at the awful scene, 
and he left the soldiers to wreak their vengeance on the other guilty inmates 
of that prison-house of hell. In the mean time it was reported through Madrid, 
that the prisons of the Inquisition were broken up, and multitudes hastened to 
the fatal spot. Oh, what a meeting was there! It was like a resurrection. About 
a hundred who had been buried for many years were now restored to life. There 
were fathers who found their long-lost daughters; wives were restored to their 
husbands, sisters to their brothers, and parents to their children; and there 
were few who could recognise no friend among the multitude. The scene was such 
as no tongue can describe. When the multitude had retired, Colonel Lehmanowsky 
caused the library, paint- ings, furniture, and other articles of value, to be 
removed; and having PAGE 1060-A [This page contains a woodcut entitled, "CRUELTIES 
PRACTICED IN THE INQUISITION.--PAGE 1060."--Ed.] PAGE 1060-B [This page left blank--Ed.] 
PAGE 1061 sent to the city for a wagon-load of powder, he deposited a large quant- 
ity in the vaults beneath the building, and placed a slow match in connexion with 
it. All having withdrawn to a distance, in a few moments the walls and turrets 
of the massive structure rose majestically in the air, impelled by a tremendous 
explosion, and then fell back to the earth an immense heap of ruins. The Inquisition 
was no more! It is to be regretted that in the papal countries, in the northern 
parts of the continent, similar cruelties are, however, still inflicted. The odious 
name of Inquisition is indeed dropped; but there are dungeons and tortures, and 
the like instruments are used to inflict suffering and death; while multitudes 
of unhappy victims for conscience' sake are dying daily, wasted away by a cruel 
and lingering death. May the prison doors soon be opened, the captives' chains 
be for ever broken, and the heralds of the everlasting gospel go forth themselves 
unfettered, and proclaim "the acceptable year of the Lord!" SECTION VII. PERSECUTIONS 
IN POLAND, AUSTRIA, AND HUNGARY. THE Greek and Roman religions are twins; but 
the corruptions of the former are even too bad to be coupled with the latter. 
The emperor Nicholas wished to bring all his subjects to one standard, and pope 
Gregory XVI. was pleased to accommodate himself to the wishes of the arbitrary 
autocrat. In the year 1834, his holiness therefore issued a bull, by which he 
anathematized the Roman Catholics of Poland, for not obeying the absolute commands 
of the czar of the Muscovites: "We Gregory XVI., the servant of God's Servant, 
send our salutes and blessings to our beloved brethren in Jesus Christ. We command 
and order, by the power given us by Jesus Christ and his successors, that you 
may be obedient in every thing to your emperor, whom God has given you as a ruler, 
and know that all the power comes from God. I received a report that you have 
rebelled against the power of your monarch: therefore, if you do not return to 
obedience, I shall forget you; God will abandon you; he shall retain the heavenly 
dew; your land shall deny its fruits; you shall starve from hunger, wandering 
in deserts like wild beasts, and live on grass like king Nebuchadnezzar. Power 
is given to me to open the kingdom of heaven to my obedient children, and shut 
it up to the disobedient. I hope you will obey your holy father; if not - I will 
anathematize you in your posterity unto the ninth generation! Whosoever shall 
oppose my commands, let him be accursed for ever!" This cursing letter is to be 
found in the archives of every parish in Poland at this very day. It was read 
by force from every pulpit of every religious denomination, on every Sunday and 
fast-day, during a period of four months, in the presence of a Muscovian policeman. 
PAGE 1062 As if to confound the impudence of Rome - to prove that the pope is 
nothing else but a lying impostor, Divine Providence caused that the anathematized 
land of Saimatra should produce in the next year, 1835, such abundant crops of 
corn, fruits, and vegetables, that the oldest inhabitants could not recollect 
such rich proofs of God's bounty! The people aroused from Roman degradation, cried 
out unanimously, "This is a great sign - a miracle!" Hundreds of honest sensible 
young priests, joined the people, and, throwing away the slavish fears, which 
charac- terize every Roman priest, they began to preach to the nations the true 
gospel of Christ. Centuries had elapsed since a change had taken place. "Down 
with the pope! Down with Rome! Down with the Greek schism! Down with the monks 
and Jesuits!" re-echoed from one end of the land to the other; and if this first 
outbreak is hushed for a moment, it is only to gather strength for a last and 
prevailing explosion of truth and justice. Such a reformation has, however, to 
contend with great difficulties. The Jesuits, who take the habits of monks, kidnap 
every protesting Sclavo- nian, whom they destroy in the secret dungeons; while 
the czar of Musco- via exterminates by millions every protesting Roman Catholic, 
every Jew and every Protestant, who does not embrace the debasing tenets of the 
Russian, that is, the Greek church. These facts are concealed as much as possible 
from the rest of Europe, and the public oracles of intelligence have powerful 
motives to suppress them. One only of recent date shall be here recorded. In the 
town of Lenezyca in Poland, is a convent of the Bernardines, of which Francis 
Paidloski is custos provinciae, or chief, and where is founded a Roman theological 
college, of which Erasm Wnorowski is the definitor, or first professor. Wladislaus 
Hentzel, who has abjured popery for ever, was the second professor: he has since 
removed his residence to the diocese of Breslau, in Silesia, where he is now known 
as a protestant minister. Every student in this college is dressed as a monk, 
and obliged in his turn to wander round the country, and defraud the people by 
a wholesale system of insolent mendicity, from which the fathers are able to spent 
their lives in comforts, luxuries, and debaucheries. In 1834, after the excommunication 
of the Poles by the pope of Rome, the turn to go on a begging expedition fell 
upon the laic, or novice, Raymond Ziemnowiez - one of those young reformers who 
waited but for an opportunity to de- nounce the baneful system of Popery. He went 
directly to the village of Topola, near Lenezyca; and there, hanging his monkish 
cowl and habit on the wooden cross in the village cemetery, began to preach the 
gospel, and to demonstrate the tyrannies and impositions of the Roman pontiffs. 
In spite of the villagers, who applauded the boldness of this young apostle, he 
was imprisoned by the parish priest and the Muscovites, and sent into his convent 
to be punished for having spoken the truth. But Raymond, well aware of the secret 
assassinations practised by the monks, implored the protection of the major of 
Lenezyca, Baldowski, and re- quested to be judged by the laws of the country. 
Moreover, he was well known in the town, and had numerous influential friends: 
hence, the monks, not able to murder him as a heretic, made him clericus perpetuus, 
a perpetual servant of the convent, never to go out, nor to be ordained a priest. 
Their vengeance was not however satiated; they had recourse to the old stratagem 
of popish persecutors, and denounced him as a con- spirator against the czar: 
a falsehood which all the monks confirmed as truth, and poor Raymond Ziemnowiez 
was banished to Siberia for life! PAGE 1063 Raymond, however, was not a subject 
of Russia. He was born in Galicia; and having relations in Bohemia and Hungary, 
all his friends combined to save him from destruction, and to confound the impudent 
monks. After five years of unremitting exertions and expences, the unfortunate 
Ray- mond was released from the dungeons of Siberia, under the condition not to 
leave the country; and even the Muscovian government granted him, as a recompense, 
a pension for life. Had he had the misfortune of being a Russian subject, he would 
never have been released from the murdering grasp of the monks, and from the imperial 
dungeons; nor would his friends have dared to appeal to the czar for justice. 
The Protestant who may visit Lenezyca will there find the half-martyr Raymond 
with his face marked with the burning iron, bearing the brand - SIBERIA! It may 
be added that another victim of the pope and czar, the preacher Benjamin, of the 
town of Konin, was less fortunate than Raymond Ziemno- wiez; he was sent to Siberia 
for having dared to preach the pure gospel of Christ, and being a Russian subject 
none dare intercede in his behalf. Among the bitter persecutors of the protesting 
Christian families of Poland are Valentinus Tomaszewski, bishop of Kalizz, and 
the bishop of Sandornir, Joseph Goldman. Both wretches are renowned for their 
crimes, robberies, and villanies; both have brought thousands of families to beggary 
by false denunciations; both are loaded with execrations by millions of unfortunates, 
who expire, through their instrumentality, in the dungeons of Siberia daily; both 
are recompensed with the numerous estates of those Christian families whom they 
have sent by force to the mountains of the Ural, to perish in misery; and both 
are received into favour with the czar. The Roman Catholic Austrian dungeons at 
Speilberg have been crammed with protesting Poles. Since the expulsion of Metternich, 
those dungeons have been opened, and it is to be hoped the whole of the victims 
of popish cruelty were released. But in the Siberian mines they are expiring daily 
by hundreds under their tortures. Men worthy of a better lot perish at the rate 
of from one hundred to five hundred a day! It is not to be supposed that all are 
Christians in the best sense of the word; but numbers are, and the rest are honest 
men not ashamed to avow their protesting sentiments against the crimes of popery. 
New victims have been found to replace daily the dying ones, who crammed into 
a large pit by hundreds, are covered with fagots and burnt to ashes, as the cheapest 
mode of burial. Such is the spirit of persecution and tyranny in Poland and Austria; 
yet Protestantism is not wholly suppressed. Five thousand staunch disciples of 
Christ, scattered secretly among the people, still expose Roman and schismatic 
idolatries and superstitions; and in Switzerland, France, and England some thousands 
of ex-catholics of Poland have united in a Protestant Evangelical Union, and ex-popish 
priests are labouring assiduously as protestant missionaries. PAGE 1064 The kingdom 
of Hungary, unfortunately under the dominion of Austria, has suffered much from 
her oppressions; and the popish priesthood have availed themselves of the advantages 
afforded under that power for crushing freedom of worship. "The sufferings of 
Protestantism in France - the history of all the cruel edicts applied for by the 
priests, grant- ed by the civil power, and put in force by the dragoons, through 
the different quarters of that kingdom - have long had an abiding place in the 
mind of evangelical Christendom; but, if the history of Hungary were known, the 
persecutions which devout Protestants have endured in these distant countries 
would perhaps exceed in interest those of the Huguenots under the Valois and Bourbons." 
At his coronation every king of Hungary was obliged to take an oath of fidelity 
to a constitution which guaranteed the equality of religious confessions. But, 
alas! what is a constitution to the partizans of the papacy? In 1609, under Leopald 
II., at the instance of the Jesuits, the evangelical ministers were cited to Presburg; 
and they were shut up in the dungeons of Tyrnau. Some were forced to recant, others 
were ban- ished, others after frightful tortures were sent in chains to the gal- 
leys at Naples; and many were tortured to death. From 1702 to 1783, the evangelical 
churches of Hungary, with few exceptions, were without pastors. Though some districts 
under the Turkish government enjoyed religious liberty, whenever they again became 
subject to their former princes that liberty was anew withdrawn. Evangelical Christians 
were excluded from offices of public trust; and, when they ventured to com- plain 
of this, were subjected to heavy fines or to corporal punishments. Did it happen 
that a Romish procession passed a Protestant temple, and could get admission, 
the priest muttered some prayers, and by this process took possession of it in 
the name of the church. Such a proces- sion took place, on one occasion, at Vadasia. 
The Protestants fearing that their adversaries might look with envy on their church, 
surrounded it with carriages, forming on all sides a solid entrenchment, and them- 
selves mounted guard inside. Suddenly the sound of chanting was heard, the great 
popish procession drew near, the more zealous of the devotees attempted to throw 
down the barriers, a conflict ensued, and, unfor- tunately, a papist fell dead. 
Immediately after, that neighbourhood was subjected to military occupation, numerous 
arrests were made, and the venerable pastor, M. Fabry, was, notwithstanding his 
innocence, himself put in fetters in the prison of the Comitat. His unhappy wife 
rushed to Vienna, and threw herself in an agony of grief at the feet of Maria 
Theresa. That princess, however, unfortunately prevented by the Jesuits, repulsed 
her from her feet, saying, "Begone, Lutheran courtesan!" Joseph II., by the edict 
of toleration, restored to the Protestants of Hungary their pastors and churches; 
but the oppression under which they had groaned for seventy years rendered this 
benefit almost illusory. More than three thousand pastors were wanted at once; 
and though some were found ready for the work, numbers were employed who were 
not worthy of the office. The Magyar Protestants yet numbered several thousands 
in the year 1849, but much crippled in their state, owing to the recent struggles 
of the Hungarian nation to obtain their liberties. PAGE 1065 SECTION VIII. PERSECUTIONS 
IN TARTARY - ACCOUNT OF ABDALLAH AND SABAT. THE brief history of the following 
martyrdom bears a striking resem- blance to that of Stephen, not in the manner 
of its being executed, but in the circumstance of a young man witnessing the execution 
and consent- ing to the death, who afterwards himself became a convert to the 
truth as it is in Jesus. Converts among Mohammedans, where their laws are in force, 
are indeed very rare, for they have slender means of coming to the knowledge of 
the Saviour. If they avow it, they are exposed to certain death, as stated and 
seen in the subjoined narrative: an illustrious proof of the grace of God, both 
in the conversion and martyrdom of a young Arabian, as well as the conversion 
of his friend and companion. The latter resided some time with the distinguished 
scholar and missionary Dr. Claudius Bucha- nan, whose statement is here recorded 
in his own words:- "Abdallah and Sabat were intimate friends, and being young 
men of family in Arabia, they agreed to travel together, and to visit foreign 
countries. They were both zealous Mohammedans. Sabat is the son of Ibrahim Sabat, 
a noble family of the line of Beni-Sabat, who trace their pedigree to Mohammed. 
The two friends left Arabia, after paying their adorations at the tomb of their 
prophet at Mecca, and travelled through Persia, and thence to Cabul. Abdallah 
was appointed to an office of state under Zemoun Shah, king of Cabul; and Sabat 
left him there, and proceeded on a tour through Tartary. "While Abdallah remained 
at Cabul, he was converted to the Christian faith by the perusal of a Bible, as 
is supposed, belonging to a Chris- tian from Armenia, then residing at Cabul: 
the Armenian Christians in Persia having among them a few copies of the Arabic 
Bible. In the Moham- medan states it is death for a man of rank to become a Christian. 
Abdal- lah endeavoured for a time to conceal his conversion, but finding it no 
longer possible, he determined to flee to some of the Christian churches near 
the Caspian Sea. He accordingly left Cabul in disguise, and had gained the great 
city of Bochara, in Tartary, when he was met in the streets of that city by his 
friend Sabat, who immediately recognized him. Sabat had heard of his conversion 
and flight, and was filled with indignation at his conduct. Abdallah knew his 
danger, and threw himself at the feet of Sabat. He confessed that he was a Christian; 
and implored him, by the sacred tie of their former friendship, to let him escape 
with his life. 'But, sir,' said Sabat, when relating the story himself, 'I had 
no pity, I caused my servants to seize him, and I delivered him up to Morad Shah, 
king of Bochara. He was sentenced to die, and a herald went through the city of 
Bochara, announcing the time of his execution. An immense multitude attended, 
and the chief men of the city. I also went and stood near to Abdallah. He was 
offered his life, if he would PAGE 1066 abjure Christ, the executioner standing 
by him with his sword in his hand. "No," said he, (as if the proposition were 
impossible to be com- plied with,) "I cannot abjure Christ." Then one of his hands 
was cut off at the wrist. He stood firm, his arm hanging by his side with but 
little motion. A physician by desire of the king offered to heal the wound, if 
he would recant. He made no answer, but looked up steadfastly towards heaven, 
like Stephen the first martyr, his eyes streaming with tears. He did not look 
with anger towards me. He looked at me, but it was benign- ly, and with the countenance 
of forgiveness. His other hand was then cut off. But, sir' continued Sabat, in 
his imperfect English, 'he never changed, he never changed! And when he bowed 
his head to receive the blow of death, all Bochara seemed to say, What new thing 
is this?'" This was a wonderful instance of the sovereignty and power of Divine 
grace, as well as of the efficacy of the word of God, through the secret teaching 
of the Holy Spirit, in leading a sinner to Jesus, when he sincerely sought after 
a Saviour, and left his mind open to conviction. We know not of all the subjects 
of the Redeemer: they are found where we should never have sought for them. Nor 
probably are all the eminent martyrs for Christ found in our martyrologies. Here 
was one of whom we should perhaps never have known, had it not been for the subsequent 
conversion of his friend and accuser. He stood alone amidst thousands of his countrymen, 
an individual witness to the truth as it is in Jesus. No brother Christian cheered 
him by his sympathy; no Christian spectator witnessed his heroism; no other Christian 
knew of his martyrdom to encourage him by his prayers. There was nothing but the 
love of Jesus in his heart, and the promises of Jesus treasured up in his memory, 
to stimulate and support him amidst his excruciating sufferings. But these were 
enough. He had Christ in his heart, "the hope of glory," and he was willing to 
be offered up. Thus he "witnessed a good confession before many witnesses," and 
his happy spirit winged its way to join the noble army of martyrs. The subsequent 
history of the accuser must not be separated from this narrative:- "Sabat had 
indulged the hope that Abdallah would have re- canted when he was offered his 
life; but when he saw that his friend was dead, he resigned himself to grief and 
remorse. He traveled from place to place, seeking rest and finding none. At last 
he thought that he would visit India. He accordingly came to Madras about five 
years ago, [that is, in 1804.] Soon after his arrival, he was appointed Mufti, 
or expounder of the Mohammedan law, by the English government; his great learning 
and respectable station in his own country rendering him emi- nently qualified 
for that office. And now the period of his own conver- sion drew near. While he 
was at Visagapatam, in the northern Circars, exercising his professional duties, 
Divine Providence brought in his was a New Testament in Arabic. He read it with 
deep thought, the Koran lying before him. He compared them together; and at length 
the truth of the word of God fell on his mind, as he expressed it, like a flood 
of light. Soon afterwards he proceeded to Madras, a journey of three hundred miles, 
to seek Christian baptism; and having made a public confession of his faith he 
was baptized by the Rev. Dr. Kerr, in the English church at that place, by the 
name of Nathaniel, in the twenty-seventh year of his PAGE 1067 age. Being now 
desirous to devote his future life to the glory of God, he resigned his secular 
employment, and came by invitation to Bengal, where he is now [1809] engaged in 
translating the Scriptures into the Persian language. This work hath not hitherto 
been executed, for want of a translator of sufficient ability. The Persian is 
an important language in the East, being the general language of Western Asia, 
particularly among the higher classes, and is understood from Calcutta to Damascus. 
But the great work which occupies the attention of this noble Arabian is the promulgation 
of the gospel among his own countrymen; and, from the present fluctuations of 
religious opinion in Arabia, he is sanguine in his hopes of success. His first 
work is entitled, 'Neama Besharatin lil Arabi,' (Happy News for Arabia!) written 
in the Nabuttee, or common dialect of the country. It contains an eloquent and 
argumentative eluci- dation of the truth of the gospel; with copious authorities 
admitted by the Mohammedans themselves, and particularly by the Wahabians. And 
prefixed to it is an account of the conversion of the author, and an appeal to 
the members of his well-known family in Arabia for the truth of the facts." The 
following circumstance in the history of Sabat ought not to be omitted. When his 
family in Arabia had heard that he had followed the example of Abdallah and become 
a Christian, they despatched his brother to India, a voyage of two months, to 
assassinate him. While Sabat was sitting in his house at Visagapatam, his brother 
presented himself in the disguise of a faqueer, or beggar, having a dagger concealed 
under his mantle. He rushed on Sabat, and wounded him. But Sabat seized his arm, 
and his servants came to his assistance. He then recognised his brother. The intended 
assassin would have become the victim of public justice, but Sabat interceded 
for his brother, and sent him home in peace, with letters and presents to his 
mother's house in Arabia. Sabat after this was some time at Dinapore, in Bengal, 
with the eminent missionary Martyn, then chaplain to the East India Company. The 
latter was associated with Mirza Tetrut, another celebrated Persian scholar, as 
coadjutors in the translation of the Scriptures. Mr. Martyn, in his letters, never 
failed to speak of his friend Sabat in terms of affection and admiration. John 
Huss and Jerome of Prague were not perhaps more talked of in Europe, than Abdallah 
and Sabat in Bucharia and Arabia. How wonderful are the ways of God! The conversion 
of Abdallah indirectly led the way to the conversion of his friend Sabat. The 
circumstances of his capture and execution were links in the mysterious chain. 
The faith, patience, and fortitude of the martyr affected the heart that was before 
obdurate. While Abdallah looked benignly on his cruel friend, as the blood flowed 
from his amputated limbs, and the sword was already lifted up to deprive him of 
life, doubtless the last prayer that proceeded from his lips was in behalf of 
his persecutors, and especially of Sabat, "Father, forgive them; for they know 
not what they do!" That fervent prayer for his late friend was heard; and friends 
so awfully separated on earth will be found reunited in heaven, and spend a long 
eternity in wonder, love, and praise! The narrative is a striking practical comment 
comparatively but little known to the world, has added to the illustrious martyrs 
for Jesus. It is one of the largest islands in the world, being two hundred and 
forty leagues long, and from forty to seventy broad. Its situation is in the Indian 
or Eastern Ocean, and it is the principal island in the group usually designated 
the Eastern Archipelago. It is separated from the eastern coast of Africa by the 
Mosambique Channel, which is about one hundred and fifty leagues across. Its population, 
according to the highest estimate, is about four mil- lions. The island is inhabited 
by several tribes or castes: 1. The Betsimicaracs, or negro race, on the northeast 
coast, who have the character of being drunkards, cowards, and fools; the Antibanivouls, 
their neighbours, distinguished for stupidness and ignorance; and the Betalimes, 
who are herdsmen. 2. The Hovas, inhabiting the province of Ancorie, near the middle 
of the island, much resemble the natives of India, and are well skilled in working 
metals. 3. The Antimahouris, most probably descended from the Malay race, are 
indolent. Their religion extends to the knowledge of a preserving Deity; but he 
is never worshipped, not addressed, but when he is reviled for sending misfor- 
tunes. They believe in an evil spirit, whose habitual residence is in burial-places. 
Their youth is spent in debauchery, and in middle age they marry. All ages are 
given to intoxication. They believe in sorcery, and wear amulets to defend them 
from it. In the year 1818, the London Missionary Society established a mission 
in this important country. At that period the English government was on very friendly 
terms with Radama, who was then king, though not possessed of the entire island, 
and who resided in the Hova country. During his reign the missionaries went on 
prosperously; but he died prematurely, from indulged habits of intemperance and 
irregularity, at the age of thirty-six, after the mission had been established 
ten years. Radama's eldest sister's eldest son was the proper heir to the throne: 
but it was seized by Ranavalona, one of the deceased king's wives. The queen has 
always known to be deeply attached to the superstitions of her country, and to 
have cherished a great veneration for the national idols and their worship. Ranavalona 
was intimate with the missionaries, but evinced no inclination to embrace Christianity; 
and she and her flatter- ers attributed her elevation to her idols. She soon manifested 
a strong dislike to the new religion, and an opposition to its extension in Madagascar. 
She began by ordering the missionaries to leave the country. A young man named 
Andriatsoa, who boldly avowed his attachment to the gospel and ridiculed the idols, 
fell under her severe displeasure. An idol had been appealed to by the opponents 
of Andriatsoa, which had directed that he should be killed and cut in pieces, 
or otherwise the rice-harvest that year would perish. An officer named Razakandrianaina 
took an active part against him, for he had induced one of his wives to read and 
to attend the preaching of the gospel, on which account she had PAGE 1069 been 
divorced by him. He therefore accused Andriatsoa to the judges, stating that he 
was changing the religious customs of the country; that he paid no regard to the 
idol where he resided; that he conducted him- self differently to other people; 
would not swear, nor follow the licen- tious habits of the people; that he would 
not work on the Sabbath, nor mention the name of the idol in his prayers, although 
he prayed four or five times a day; that he was collecting the people to pray 
after dark; and that owing to the disrespect he had shown to the idol, it was 
so incensed that it was destroying the rice with hailstones. Human nature and 
idolatry are still the same; and one is here strongly reminded of the charges 
against the pious captives in Babylon as recorded in the book of Daniel. It was 
expected that the young Christian would have immediately fallen a victim to the 
queen's displeasure: she, however, only ordered him to be tried by the ordeal 
of the tangena; that is, taking a poison which by remaining in the stomach kills, 
but if thrown off the intended victim escapes, and is pronounced innocent. In 
this case the accused escaped; and the native Christians imprudently showed their 
joy by making a grand procession on the occasion. The queen her- self saw the 
procession, and was indignant, considering it as an insult offered to herself. 
The queen's mind was now prepared to receive further charges against the Christians; 
and Razakandrianaina, greatly mortified at the result of his accusation, and the 
respect paid to the young man, resolved to bring an accusation against the whole 
body of the Christians, in which he was the more encouraged from the state of 
the queen's mind. An opportunity for misrepresentation was afforded him, by hearing 
one of the slaves preach- ing an evening discourse on Joshua xxiv. 14, 15; in 
which the preacher urged his hearers to leave off idolatry, and forsake the gods 
which their fathers had served, and to serve Jehovah and Jesus Christ. The usual 
artifice of accusers was resorted to, and the slave and his fellow Christians 
were represented as political enemies to the throne, raising assemblies in the 
night, and urging the people to serve the English and renounce their allegiance 
to the queen. "There are," said the accuser, "in and around the capital, certain 
people changing the customs of the twelve sovereigns of Andrianimponimerina, of 
Lehidama, and that of Ranavalomarijaka, they despise the idols of the queen and 
sikidy, (or divination,) and all the customs of their forefathers; they treat 
them as nothing, and consider themselves as under no obligation to honour and 
worship them, though these alone obtained the kingdom for the queen and her ancestors; 
they enter into a league with the English that are resid- ing here; they despise 
the graves of the Vazimba, though they, perhaps, contain the ashes of the ancestors 
of the queen. They also hold assem- blies in the night, rather than in the day, 
and deliver speeches in these meetings that no one replies to, and they do these 
things without permission from the queen. Moreover, in these meetings they urge 
all present to serve Jehovah and Jesus Christ. Our ancestors never heard of these 
persons, nor have we till now; nor do we know, even now, who they are. It is said 
that Jehovah was the first king of the English, and that Jesus Christ was the 
second. Besides all this, these meetings are car- ried on by slaves. We cannot 
see the end of these things: the queen only knows; and she knows what is best 
to be done; but we fear that these people, who have become so friendly with the 
English, will attempt to transfer the kingdom of the queen to them." PAGE 1070 
One of the queen's ministers, to whom the above allegations were made promised 
to lay them before the queen. When the queen heard them she went into a violent 
passion, burst into tears, and vowed that she would stop the progress of the Christians 
even with their blood. On a certain sabbath she was returning from bull-sporting, 
and passing a place of worship, who overheard the singing, on which she observed, 
"These people will not leave off until some of their heads are taken from their 
shoulders." The queen summoned a general meeting of all the people, men, women, 
and children, to be held on a sabbath day; and orders were given to return a list 
of places where the Christians assembled, and also a list of the baptized. Ranavalona 
was astonished when she learned the greatness of their numbers, and swore that 
she would put to death the owners of the houses where they met. Many persons of 
influence about the queen's person spoke in favour of the Christians, and testified 
to their good conduct, so that the queen was somewhat softened and shaken in her 
resolution to put all the Christians to death. She, however, afterwards sent them 
information, that they would be allowed to exercise their own religious customs 
among themselves, but they would violate the laws if they made any proselytes, 
and subject themselves to the penalty for so doing. From that time, spies were 
employed to see what natives attended Christian worship, and numbers who before 
attended were afraid of diso- beying the queen. The grand assemblage of the people 
took place as the queen had command- ed, and a royal message was delivered forbidding 
the free exercise of the Christian religion among the natives. All that had become 
converts and been baptized, and all that had attended Divine worship, were re- 
quired to make confession within one month; and those who did not conf- ess, when 
discovered, would be put to death. The period was afterwards shortened to a week, 
with this caution: "Remember that next Sunday is the last day; unless you send 
in your names by that time, you die wilfully." This was a trying time, and "the 
fearful and unbelieving," some of whom had promised better things, turned back 
from their Christian brethren, and went no more with them. There were, however, 
others who boldly pleaded, "We did no evil, and intended none to the queen or 
her kingdom, in our prayers and our observance of the sabbath; we prayed to the 
God of heaven and earth to prosper her reign." One excellent Christian, a man 
of influence, accused himself to the judges, and being asked how often he prayed, 
replied, "For the last three or four years I have not spent a single day without 
offering prayer several times a day." The judges asked him to give a specimen 
of his prayer, and he did so, in- cluding in it confession of sin, supplication 
for mercy and grace, and intercession for the queen and for all her subjects. 
The judges approved of the spirit of the prayer; but said as the queen did not 
approve of these things, prayers to God ought not to be offered in her country. 
This eminent and large-hearted Christian preached the gospel with great faithfulness; 
and afterwards risked his life by concealing the persecut- ed during several months, 
till he was obliged to flee to the forest himself to avoid the rage of the persecutors. 
PAGE 1071 The Christians assembled at midnight to pray for the Divine protection 
throughout the week of probation. One of high rank in the army joined them, and 
openly avowed his attachment to the cause of Christ. He would not accuse himself 
to the queen, because he was conscious he had done no wrong, and he resolved to 
take the Christian's God as his God, and to unite himself with his people. Soon 
after his wife also was brought to acknowledge the Saviour. He concealed some 
of the Christians for some time within his house. The week elapsed. The queen 
accepted of a dollar and a bullock as an atonement for the offences of many, which 
if renewed their lives were to be forfeited. Many others were degraded, or wholly 
deprived of their honours, and not less than four hundred officers were reduced 
in rank. They were also prohibited from instructing their slaves, who were in 
that case to be beheaded, and their owners to be severely fined and to undergo 
further punishment. The Christians were next deprived of their books, the concealing 
of a single leaf exposing them to death. To their great grief many delivered them 
up, but many others ventured to retain small portions. These books were collected 
throughout the country, where they had found a circulation even at the distance 
of three hundred miles from the capital. Some of the missionaries left the island; 
but those that remained still imparted instruction to many of the natives, and 
continued so to do during the year 1835, till the time of their departure in 1836. 
The number of converts had gradually increased, notwithstanding the great danger 
to which they were exposed. The Lord's Supper was occasionally administered; and 
in the prospect of soon losing their teachers, the Christians rapidly grew in 
Divine knowledge, by diligently reading the word of God. The Bible was so prized, 
that one man in a feeble state of health traveled sixty miles to obtain a copy. 
He pressed the precious volume to his heart, and said, "This contains the words 
of eternal life; it is my life, and I will take as much care of it as of my own 
life." This man continued steadfast in the faith, but, like the primitive Christians, 
he was compelled by persecution to leave his home, and to seek refuge in the forests. 
The Christians in the capital durst not now sing the songs of Zion, but they reminded 
themselves of them by often playing their tunes on their national harps. The Christians 
who apostatized were subject to the jeers of the heathen. A great officer had 
especially remarked, that he had heard them singing words expressive of triumph 
over the fear of death; but now they had been all frightened at it, made confession 
to the queen, craved pardon, and promised to offend no more. These jeers, however, 
induced many to show more fortitude, decision, and consistency. In 1836 the missionaries 
were obliged to quit the country. They could do no further good. They could not 
collect any people to hear the gospel, for none durst attend. The congregations 
were scattered. The pious visited the missionaries by stealth, but the unbelievers 
durst not do so; nor could the missionaries visit any of the people, for it was 
death to a native to lend an ear. The schools also were subject to the same general 
interdict. The year 1836 was a year of suffering; the servants of the departed 
missionaries were subjected to the murderous ordeal of the tangena. The oppressions 
of the government became more and more cruel. The native Christians gradually 
took courage, and held secret meetings in each other's houses, on solitary mountains, 
and other places where they could see a great distance, and escape from any approaching 
danger. They also secured some Bibles and other religious works, which they buried 
under ground, so that they could apply to these instructors in failure of the 
missionaries. PAGE 1072 An excellent woman and early Christian convert, named 
Rafaravavy, fell under the displeasure of the queen, just about the time that 
the mis- sionaries were quitting the capital. Rafaravavy had been a most zealous 
idolator, and was now as zealous in the cause of Christ. She obtained a large 
house in the capital, and there instituted a prayer-meeting. By her simplicity, 
fervour, and consistency, she induced many to attend on the regular means of grace. 
At this time three of her servants laid an information against her, accusing her 
and nine of her friends of observ- ing the sabbath, reading the book which the 
queen had prohibited, and continually praying to Jehovah Jesus, according to the 
custom of the Europeans. They particularly pointed out the time and place where 
they regularly met together. One of the officers accordingly went to the house. 
Rafaravavy was alone at the time, and had been reading just in the very place 
mentioned, having left the spot only a few moments before the officers reached 
the house, and retired to the other end of the dwelling. Rafaravavy, informed 
of her narrow escape from detection, immediately deposited all her books with 
the missionaries. Her father, a man of rank, put the servants in irons: they were, 
however, afterwards released at the intercession of their accused mistress. The 
judge sent to Rafaravavy's father, and informing him of the charges alleged against 
his daughter, advised him to tell her to accuse herself instantly before the queen, 
and at the same time to denounce her companions, or it would go hard with her. 
Her father hastened to interrogate her, and to shake her resolution, but she boldly 
confessed that she adhered to Christiani- ty. He then went and accused himself 
and her before the judge, and the accusation was sent to the queen. She was in 
a rage: "Is it possible," said she, "that there is any one so daring as to defy 
me, and that one too a woman? This is annoying to me; go and put her to death 
at once: it cannot be borne." Several influential persons made great interest 
in her behalf, and pleaded the services which her father and brother had ren- 
dered to the government in the high offices which they sustained. At three o'clock 
in the morning, Rafaravavy paid her farewell visit to the missionary family on 
the eve of departure. She was then expecting death, but displayed the greatest 
serenity and composure; and quitted the house, leaving behind her Christian salutations 
to all the churches of the Redeemer, begging their intercessions for the little 
flock in Madagascar. The queen, however, decided to spare her life, and was for 
this time satisfied with a pecuniary fine; but she warned Rafaravavy, that "if 
ever she should be found again guilty of a similar offence, she must not hope 
for pardon; life alone would then make atonement for the crime." Finding that 
she was narrowly watched by her father, and her friends, who lived near her, she 
resolved to remove to the suburbs of the capi- tal, and went to Ambatonakanga. 
Here the little band of Christians frequently met together; and sometimes they 
retired to a mountain, or to some more remote place, that they might enjoy their 
social meeting without interruption. Here Christians, introduced to them from 
distant parts by the missionaries, often enjoyed sacred and social intercourse, 
and the house of Rafaravavy was their hospitable abode for weeks together. PAGE 
1073 The converts rather increased than decreased, and enjoyed a little rest, 
for the queen supposed that their religion would depart with the mis- sionaries. 
They were, however, constantly exposed to danger at any hour; but in a letter 
addressed to one of their late missionaries, in 1837, they expressed themselves 
in the following terms: "By the strength of God, we shall still go forward, and 
not fear what may befall us. But we will go in the power of the Lord; and if accused 
by the people, we will still go straightforward, for we know that if we deny him 
before men, Jesus will deny us before his Father; but if we confess him, he also 
will confess us, when he shall come in the clouds to judge the world, and present 
them that are blameless before the Father for ever." As there were now no schools, 
the Christians taught those among them who could not read, each taking a few pupils. 
The Christians enjoyed but a short respite from persecution. Five men and nine 
women were apprehended, and all reduced to slavery, their property at the same 
time being confiscated. Among the sufferers was Rafaravavy, who was dragged to 
prison and loaded with irons. She expect- ed immediate execution, and frequently 
uttered, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!" To a young Christian who followed her, 
she said privately, "Go with me and see my end, and hear my last words; for, if 
I shall find by experience the strength of Christ sufficient for my support, and 
am enabled to bear testimony to it in my last moments, as I have enjoyed it hitherto, 
it may tend to encourage our friends who may be called to follow my steps." While 
the irons were being put on, one of the men said to the smith, "Do not put them 
on too fast, it will be difficult to take them off; nor, indeed, is it necessary, 
she is to be put to death to-morrow morning at cock-crow." This indeed was the 
queen's order; but in consequence of a fire breaking out in the capital in the 
course of the night, and de- stroying many houses, the execution was in the confusion 
unavoidably deferred. New orders were expected from the queen, but were not given. 
A short time after this, orders were again issued immediately to execute Rafaravavy; 
but with great difficulty and danger she escaped, and with five others came to 
England. They, however, afterwards returned to a safe spot in their own country, 
where, under another authority, the queen could not touch them. Rasalama, an excellent 
young female, was among the queen's victims. She was put in heavy irons and beaten, 
but continued singing hymns. Her firmness amidst her sufferings astonished her 
persecutors, which they ignorantly attributed to witchcraft, and supposed that 
the missionaries operated by some secret charm on the minds of the Christian converts. 
Rasalama had been confined in the house of a man in office, named Rami- androvola, 
whose character was proverbially savage and cruel. From this house she was emancipated, 
only to prepare for execution the next morn- ing. She was put that afternoon into 
irons of a peculiar construction, not intended so much for the security of the 
prisoners as for cruel punishment. The irons consisted of rings and bars, so fastened 
around the feet, hands, knees, and neck as to produce the most excruciating pain. 
PAGE 1074 At the appointed time she was led to the place of execution, singing 
hymns by the way. Passing by Mr. Griffith's chapel, where she was bap- tized, 
she exclaimed, "There I heard the words of the Saviour!" On reaching the fatal 
spot, she calmly kneeled down, committed her spirit into the hands of her Redeemer, 
and in that attitude was speared to death, the executioners, three or four in 
number, standing behind and by the side of her, and striking her through the ribs 
and the heart. The pain would be momentary, the release triumphant, and the bliss 
that followed immortal. Her body was left to be devoured by the wild dogs that 
frequent all places in Madagascar where criminals suffer. When some friends went, 
some time afterwards, to the exact spot where she was killed, they could find 
a few bones only, lying about where they had been scattered by the dogs. The next 
martyr was a young man named Rafaralahy. This devoted Christian had built a house 
in a retired spot, for the purpose of affording accom- modation to those in slavery, 
that they might meet together for religi- ous conversation and prayer. They were 
discovered by the treachery of a backslider, and taken up. Rafaralahy was put 
in irons, and desired to give up the names of all his fellow Christians, but he 
remained inflexi- ble. In two or three days he was conveyed to execution; and 
on arriving at the place, he requested a few moments to commit his soul to the 
Saviour. He then rose from his knees; and when the executioners were preparing 
to throw him down on the ground, he said that there was no need for that, as he 
was now ready to die. He then laid himself down, and was immediately put to death. 
His friends were allowed to bury the body with their ancestors, but his property 
was confiscated. Thus died the second martyr of Madagascar. In him the Christians 
lost a hospi- table, generous, and devoted brother Christian, willing to divide 
his property among the persecuted church, to share the dangers of worship- ping 
the true God, and to lay down his life in the cause of the Redeemer. Foxe's Book 
of Martyers - footnotes Page 1 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words "times are fully 
illustrated" To the disgrace of all modern editions which we have seen of the 
"Lives of the Martyers," this most interesting historical part of the original 
work has been totally omitted. Page 2 - Footnote marker b - BT 4 words "empire 
at his pleasure" The disgrace and contempt into which this Antichrist has now 
fallen, must convince all true Christians of the fulfilment of the scriptures, 
as they describe his overthrow. Nothing proves so clearly that Buona- parte was 
intended by the Almighty as a scourge to the nations of the Continent, as his 
conduct towards the popes of his time, whom he robbed, insulted, and trod under 
foot with as great a degree of contumely as preceeding popes did the rightful 
but bigoted sovereigns of the great nations in former ages. Some years ago, when 
the Editor of this work was making a tour throught Italy, he was shewn the statues 
of the popes which are preserved in the pantheon at Rome. It was shortly after 
the death of Pius VI.; and he remarked that there was only one niche remain- ing 
unfilled. The guide, with a melancholy shake of the head, observed that a prophecy 
had long prevailed in that city, that when the niche in question should be filled 
there would be no need for any others. Since then the temporal authority of the 
pope has been degraded even to ridi- cule; and every hour seems to prognosticate 
that the papal supremacy is approximating to its end, at least on the continent. 
Page 3 - Footnote marker c - BT 4 words "succession , nisi tantum aequivoce" AEquivoce, 
that is in name only, and not in deed. Univoce, that is both in name and also 
in definition and effect, agreeing with the name. Page 6 - Footnote marker e - 
BT 4 words "hundred years before Carolus." This singular historical fact forcibly 
shews the increase of the papal supremacy in modern ages. The sanctuary of the 
church, in catholic countries, is a safeguard for murderers and criminals of every 
descrip- tion. In Italy and Spain, in particular, to the present day, a man who 
chuses to murder another in the public streets receives protection from entering 
the porches of a church, and a summary vengeance would fall upon any one who should 
molest him in such a sacred spot. One of the writers in the Spectator has introduced 
a beautiful story from a subject of this nature: it is the adventure of a gentleman 
who takes refuge in a church after killing his antogonist in a duel. Page 13 - 
Footnote marker f - BT 4 words "magistrates when they please" It is likely that 
this degree of power is lost to them for ever; but it still remains their nominal 
prerogative. Page 15 - Footnote marker g - BT 4 words "of Constatine the great." 
Eusebbius was the principle historian who has transmitted to us an account of 
the sufferings of these blessed martyrs, and to his works we are indebted for 
many valuable anecdotes not to be found in any other writer. Page 15 - Footnote 
marker h - Bt 4 words "speaking of these martyrs" De Civit. 22. cap 6. Page 16 
- Footnote marker i - BT 4 words "its Blessed Founder himself" A reverend editor 
of an edition of the Book of Christian Martyrs, published some years since, with 
a pompous title-page, and announced as the only "complete and original History 
of Martyrdom," has absurdly described as martyrs, Noah, Lot, Joseph, the Children 
of Israel, Shadrach, Meshach, Abednego, &c. It is, nevertheless, evident, 
that these characters, who sustained with all becoming fortitude, as we learn 
from scripture, the malignity of their persecutors, ought not to be classed amongst 
the blessed martyrs, whose lives were sacrificed for the perseverance in the doctrines 
of Christianity. As well might be recorded in a history of martyrs every man who 
had been in danger of perishing by the hand of an assassin. Page 17 - Footnote 
marker j - BT 4 words "people scattered and cursed" A similar example of punishment 
is to be noted amongst the Romans; for when Tiberius Caesar, having received accounts 
from Pontius Pilate, of the doings of Christ, of his miracles, resurrection, and 
ascension into Heaven, and how he was received as a divine messenger, was himself 
also moved with belief, and conferred with the whole senate of Rome to have Christ 
adored as God: they refused, because that, contrary to the law of the Romans, 
he was consecrated for God, before the senate of Rome had so decreed and approved 
him. Tertul. Apol. cap.5. Thus the senate following rather the law of a man than 
of God, the permission of God stirred up their own emperors against them in such 
a degree, that the senators were almost all destroyed, and the whole city horribly 
afflicted for the space of three hundred subsequent years. Tiberius, who for a 
great part of his reign was a moderate prince, was afterwards a severe tyrant, 
who neither favoured his own mother, spared his own nephews, nor the princes of 
the city, nor such as were his own counsellors, of whom, to the number of twenty, 
he left only two or three alive. History relates him to have been so tyrannical, 
that in his reign many were accused, and condemned with their wives and children. 
In one day, according to Sueto- nius, he ordered twenty persons to be drawn to 
the place of execution. By him, also, Pilate, under whom Christ was crucified, 
was apprehended and accused at Rome, deposed, then banished to the town of Lyons, 
and at length committed suicide. Herod and Caiaphas also did not long escape. 
We shall here, combining historical facts with our narrative, inform the reader, 
that it was in the reign of Tiberius, that Jesus, the Son of God, in the four-and-thirtieth 
year of his age, which was the seven- teenth of this emperor, suffered martyrdom. 
After this, Tiberius lived six years, during which time no persecution had begun 
in Rome against the Christians. It was in the reign of this emperor that St. Paul 
was converted to the faith. Page 19 - Footnote marker k - BT 4 words "to leave 
their country" Dorotheus, in his Synopsis, asserts, apparently upon good authority, 
that Nicanor, one of the seven deacons, with two thousand others, who believed 
in Christ, suffered on the same day when Stephen was martyred. He also adds, that 
Simon, another of the deacons, afterwards bishop of Bostrum, in Arabia, was there 
burned. Parmenas, another of the deacons, suffered at the same time. Page 21 - 
Footnote marker l - BT 4 words "the first of May" Egissippus in his commentaries, 
gives the following interesting account of this martyr - "James, the brother of 
our Lord, took in hand to govern the church after the apostles, being counted 
of all men, from the time of Christ, to be a just and perfect man. There were 
many other of the name; but this was born holy: he drank no wine nor any strong 
drink, neither did he eat any living creature, the razor never came upon his head, 
he was not anointed with oil, neither did he use bath; to him only was it lawful 
to enter into the holy place; neither was he clothed with woollen cloth, but with 
silk; and he entered into the temple, always upon his knees, asking remission 
for the people, so that his knees, by constant use, lost the sense of feeling, 
being benumbed and hardened like the knees of a camel. He was (for worshipping 
God, and craving forgiveness for the people), called the Just, and for the excellency 
of his life named Oblias, which is the safequard and justice of the people, as 
the prophets declare of him: therefore, when many of the heretics which were among 
the people asked him what manner of man Jesus should be, he answered, that he 
was the Saviour. But the aforesaid heretics, neither believe the resurrection, 
nor that one shall come, who shall render unto every man according to his works; 
but as many as believe, they believe in James's faith. When some, therefore, of 
the princes did, there was a tumult made of the Scribes, Jews, and Pharisees, 
saying, it is dangerous lest that all the people do look for this Jesius as for 
Christ. Therefore, they gathered themselves together, and said, to James - 'We 
beseech thee restrain the people, for they believe in Jesus as though he were 
Christ; we pray thee persuade them all which come unto the feast of the passover 
of Jesus; for we are all obedient unto thee, and all the people do testify of 
thee that thou art just, neither that thou dost accept the person of any man; 
therefore persuade the people that they be not deceived in Jesus, and all the 
people and we will obey thee; therefore stand upon the pillar of the temple, that 
thou mayest be seen from above, and that thy words may be perceived of all the 
people, for to his passover all the tribes do come with all the country.' And 
thus the Scribes and Pharisees did set James upon the battlements of the church, 
and they cried unto him and said, 'Thou just man, whom we all ought to obey, because 
this people is led after Jesus, who is crucified, tell what is Jesus crucified?' 
And he answered with a great voice, 'What do you ask me of Jesus the Son of Man, 
seeing that he sitteth on the right hand of God, and shall come in the clouds 
of Heaven.' When many were persuaded of this, they glorified God upon the witness 
of James, and said, 'Hosanna in the highest to the Son of David.'" Page22 - Footnote 
marker m - BT 4 words "at his own request" As to the cause and manner of his death 
there are many who describe them, as Hierome, Egissippus, Eusebius, Abdias, and 
others, although they do not all precisely agree in the time. The words of Hierome 
are these, "Simon Peter the son of Jonas, of the province of Galilee, and of the 
town of Bethsaida, the brother of Andrew, after he had been bishop of the church 
of Antioch, and had preached to the dispersed of them that believed of the circumcision, 
in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, in the second year of Claudius 
the emperor (which was about the year of our Lord 44) came to Rome to withstand 
Simon Magus and there kept the priestly chair the space of five-and-twenty years, 
until the last year of the aforesaid Nero, which was the fourteenth year of his 
reign, in which he was crucified, his head being down, and his feet upward, himself 
so requiring, because he was, he said, unworthy to be crucified after the same 
form and manner as the Lord Jesus. Page 23 - Footnote marker n - BT 4 words "strenuous 
supporter of christianity" The circumstances of the conversion of this apostle 
are not so well known as they ought to be; in fact, there are many important events 
in the lives of the martyrs which none can properly know but those who read the 
Greek and Latin works of theological historians. The following particulars of 
St. Paul are from Hieronymus, (De viris Illustribus.) Paul, before his conversion 
was called Saul; and after performing many journeys and unspeakable favours in 
promoting the gospel of Christ, he suffered under persecution and was beheaded. 
Before he was converted he was a promoter of the death of Stephen. He was brought 
up under Gama- liel. While on his way to Damascas, the Lord's glory came suddenly 
upon him, and he was struck to the earth; on whick, from a persecutor, he immediately 
became a professor, an apostle, and a martyr. Among his labours in spreading the 
doctrine of Christ he converted to the faith Sergius Paulus, the proconsul of 
Cyprus, on which he took his name, and, was thence called Paulus instead od Saulus. 
After many labours he took to him Barnabas, and went up to Jerusalem to Peter, 
James, and John, where he was ordained, and sent out with Barnabas to preach to 
the Gentiles. Besides what is mentioned of his miraculous conversion, in the sacred 
scriptures, we may add, that this apostle, in the 25th year after the passion 
of our Lord, and in the second of Nero, was sent in chains to Rome, where he almost 
daily disputed for two years against the Jews. Nero, who had not then broken out 
in his wickedness, caused him to be discharged, and he was sent to preach the 
gospel in the west, and about the coast of Italy; where he did much good, and, 
to use his own words, was delivered by the Lord out of the lion's mouth. He was 
beheaded on the same day on which Peter was crucified. Page 24 - Footnote market 
o - BT 4 words "caldron of boiling oil" With respect to this punishment the Legend 
and Perionius say, it took place at Rome, Isidorus also writing of him, declared 
that he turned certain places of wood into gold, and stones by the sea-side into 
pearls, to satisfy the desire of those whom he had persuaded to renounce their 
riches; and they afterwards repenting that for worldly treasure they had lost 
Heaven, the apostle again changed the same into their former substance. It is 
said by Eubebius that he raised a widow and a young man from death to life. That 
he drank poison and it hurt him not. These and other miracles, though they may 
be true, and are found in several writers, yet are not mentioned in the sacred 
books, and may therefore be considered at best as apocryphal. Page 25 - Footnote 
marker p - BT 4 words "the most atrocious barbarities" Eusebius, speaking of his 
cruelties, says, that one might then see cities full of men's bodies, and carcases 
cast out naked, without reverence of sex, in the open streets. Nero was the first 
who began persecution against Christians, and not only in Rome, but also through 
the provinces, thinking to abolish and to destroy the name of Christians in all 
places. In consequence of his crulties towards the Christians, he was the first 
who received the name of anti-christ. See Orosius, lib. 7. and His. Eccles. lib. 
2. cap. 24. Page 27 - Footnote marker q - Bt 4 words "Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem" 
A curious anecdote relative to Simeon will be found at the commencement of the 
third persecution. Page 29 - Footnote marker r - BT 4 words " favour of the Christians" 
This second Pliny was one of the most strenuous defenders of the perse- cuted 
Christians. He wrote to Trajan to stop the cruelties exercised against them. He 
observed in his letter, that he examined them, "and found some, who, though they 
had embraced christianity, did not object to sacrifice to the gods, and to Trajan's 
image." - "Others," said he, "confessed they had been Christians, but afterwards 
denied the fact, affirming to me the whole sum of that sect or error to consist 
in this, that they were wont, at certain times appointed, to convene before day, 
and to sing certain hymns to one Christ their God, and to confederate among themselves: 
to abstain from all theft, murder, and adultery; to keep their faith, and to defraud 
no man; which done, then to depart for a time, and afterward to resort again to 
take food in company together, both men and women, one with another, and yet without 
any act of evil." "In the truth whereof to be further certified whether it were 
so or not, I caused two maidens to be laid on the rack, and with torments to be 
examined of the same. But finding no other thing in them, but only strange and 
immoderate superstition, I thought to cease of farther inquiry, till I might be 
further advertised in the matter from you." Page 29 - Footnote marker s - BT 4 
words "were put to death" When the order for extermination arrived at Jerusalem, 
it appears, according to Egissippus, that certain sectaries of the Jewish nation 
accused Simeon, then bishop of Jerusalem, and son of Cleophas, as being of the 
stock of David, and that he was a Christian. Some of his accusers, says Egissippus, 
were apprehended and proved to be of the stock of David, and so were justly put 
to death themselves who sought the destruction of others. Of Simeon, the blessed 
bishop, Egissippus thus writes, "The Lord's nephew, when he was accused to Attalus 
the pro-consul, by the malice of the Jews, to be of the line of David, and to 
be a Christian, was scourged many days together, being of age 120 years; which 
martyrdom he endured so firmly, that both the consul and the multitude wondered 
at the sight. Page 31 - Footnote marker t - BT 4 words "ten thousand other Christians" 
Florigellus, the author of "Flores Historiarum," affirms that Alexander bishop 
of Rome was beheaded seven miles out of the city, in the year 105. Eusebius records 
no more of him, but that in the third year of Adrian he ended his life and office, 
after he had been bishop ten years. Various miracles are reported of this Alexander, 
in the canon legends, and lives of saints. A singular circumstance, well worthy 
of notice, is mentioned of him. He is said to have been the founder of holy water, 
which was mixed with salt, to purge and pruify those on whom it is sprinkled, 
after receiving the priest's blessing. It is also believed that he was the first 
who ordained water to be mixed with wine in the chalice. Page 31 - Footnote marker 
u - BT 4 words "what injuries they could" Adrian died of a bleeding at the nose 
in the year 129, according to some historians. He commanded the cessation of the 
persecutions against the Christians some years before his death; as is proved 
by Justin, who quotes his letter to Fuodanus, the pro-consul, in which he orders 
that nothing shall be done to the Christians, unless they are complained of as 
malefactors acting contrary to law. The piety and goodness of Antoni- nus were 
so great that he used to say, that he had rather save one citizen, than destroy 
one thousand of his adversaries. At the beginning of his reign, such was the state 
of the church, as Adrian his predeces- sor had left it, that although there was 
no edict to persecure the Christians, yet the tumultous rage of the heathen multitude 
did not cease to disturb and afflict the quiet people of God, imputing to the 
Christians whatever misfortune happened contrary to their desires. Page 33 - Footnote 
marker v - BT 4 words "were soon after martyred" The ancient historians assert, 
that this extraordinary event had such an effect upon the people that they began 
to adore the martyr; and the pro- consul was admonished not to deliver the body, 
lest the people should leave Christ and begin to worship him. It appears from 
the accounts of Ireneus and Eusebius, that Polycarp was a very aged man, who had 
served Christ eighty-six years, and laboured also in the mininstry about the space 
of seventy years. He was a scholar and hearer of John the evangel- ist, and was 
placed by him in Smyrna. Of him also Ignatius makes mention in his epistle which 
he wrote in his journey to Rome, going towards his martyrdom, and commends to 
him the government of the church at Antioch, whereby it appears that Polycarp 
was then in the ministry. Page 35 - Footnote marker w - BT 4 words "of the Christian 
religion" Marcus Aurelius, in this letter, states his army to have consisted of 
975,000 fighting men; but this must be a prodigious overstatement. Page 38 - Footnote 
marker x - BT 4 words "Hercules, were likewise martyred" This Commodus is said 
in history to have been so sure and steady-handed in casting the dart, that in 
the open theatre, before the people, he would encounter with the wild beasts, 
and be certain of striking them in the place specified. Among his vicious qualities, 
he was so far overcome in pride and arrogance, that he would be called Hercules, 
and many times would shew himself to the people, wishing to be counted king of 
men, as the lion is of beasts. Once on his birthday, Commodus calling the people 
of Rome together, having his lion's skin upon him, made sacrifice to Hercules 
and Jupiter, causing it to be cried through the city that Hercules was the patron 
and defender of the city. There was at the same time at Rome, Vincentius, Eusebius, 
Peregrinus, and Potentianus, learned men, and instructors of the people, who, 
following the steps of the apostles, went from place to place, where the gospel 
was not yet preached, converting the Gentiles to the faith of Christ. These, hearing 
the madness of the emperor and the people, began to reprove their idola- trous 
blindness; and while teaching in some villages and towns, they discovered and 
converted the senator Julius. Vide Vincentius, lib.10.cap.11. and Chron. Henr. 
de Erfordia. About the time of Com- modus, among other learned men and famous 
teachers whom God stirred up to confound the persecutors by learning and writing, 
as the martyrs to confirm the truth with their blood, was Seraphion, bishop of 
Antioch, and Egissippus a writer of Ecclesiastical History from Christ's passion 
to his time. About the same time Heraclitus, first began to write anno- tations 
upon the New Testament. Theophilus bishop of Cesarea, Dionysius bishop of Corinth, 
a man famously learned, also wrote divers epistles to churches. By the letters 
of Dionysius, we understand it to be the custom at that time, to read in the churches 
such written epistles as were sent by bishops and teachers to the congregation, 
as appears by these words to the church of the Romans and to Soter, "This day 
we celebrate the holy dominical day, in which we have read your epistle, which 
also we will read for our exhortation; like as we do read the epistle of Clement 
sent to us before." By him also mention is made of keeping of Sunday holy, of 
which we find no mention in ancient authors before his time, except only in Justin 
the martyr, who in his description declares on two occasions especially used for 
Christians to congregate together:- first, when any convert was to be baptized, 
the second was upon the Sunday, which was wont for two causes then to be hallowed: 
first, because upon that day God began the creation; secondly, because Christ 
upon that day first shewed himself, after his resurrection, to his diciples. Page 
41 - Footnote marker y - BT 4 words "gods of their adversaries" According to Tertullian, 
the captains and presidents of the presecution under the emperor Severus, were 
Hilerianus, Vigellius, Claudius, Hermia- nus, ruler of Cappadocia, Cecilius, Capella, 
Vespronius, also Demetrius, mentioned by Cyprian, and Aquila, judge of Alexandria, 
of whom Eusebius, in his 6th book, gives a particular account. Page 46 - Footnote 
marker z - BT 4 words "the same time. Babylas" With respect to Babylas, bishop 
of Antioch, Eusebius and Zonaras asseret that he died in prison, at the time of 
Decius, as did Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem. In the treatise of Chrysostom, 
entitled, "Contra Gen- tiles," there is an interesting history of one Babylas, 
a martyr, who was put to death about this time, for resisting an emperor, by not 
suffering him to enter into the temple of the Christians after a cruel murder, 
the story of which is, that there was a certain emperor, who, upon concluding 
peace with a certain nation, had received for hostage the son of the king, a youth 
of tender age, on the condition that neith- er he should be molested by them, 
nor they be vexed by him. Upon this the king's son was delivered to the emperor, 
who caused him in a short time to be slain. This fact being committed, the tyrant 
would enter into the temple or the Christians, where Babylas, being bishop or 
minister, resisted him. The emperor, in great rage, had him forthwith bound in 
prison, with as many irons as he could bear, and from thence shortly after brought 
to execution. Babylas went boldly to his martyrdom, and desired after his death 
to be buried in his irons and bands. The story adds, that in the reign of Constantinus, 
Gallus, then governor of the eastern parts, caused his body to be removed into 
the suburbs of Anti- och, called Daphnes, where was a temple of Apollo, famous 
for oracles and answers given by that idol. In this temple, after the arrival 
of the body of Babylas, the idol ceased to give any more oracles, complaining 
that the place was wont to be consecrated unto him, but now it was full of dead 
men's bodies. Thus the oracles there ceased for that time till the age of Julianus; 
who on learning why they ceased, caused the bones of the holy martyr to be removed 
from thence by the Christians, whom he called Galileans. They coming in a great 
multitude, both men, maidens, and children, to the tomb of Babylas, transported 
his bones according to the command of the emperor, singing by the way, the verse 
of the paslm, "Confounded be all that worship images, and all that glory in idols,"etc. 
This coming to the emperor's ears, he flew into a rage with the Christians, and 
excited, that as soon as the body of babylas and other martyrs were removed, the 
temple of the idol, with the image, was consumed by a fire in the night. Nicephorus, 
in his fifthe book, makes mention of another babylas, who suffered under Decius, 
and was bishop of Nicomedia. Page 48 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words "year of 
his age" The learned who have written the life of Origen assert, that he was of 
wit quick and sharp, patient of labour, a man who knew many languages, of a spare 
diet, of a strict and abstemious life; he went barefoot, and was a strict observer 
of that saying of the Lord, 'Provide but one coat, &c." He is said to have 
written as much as seven notaries. The number of his books, by the account of 
Jermome, accounted to seven thousand volumes, copies of which he used to sell 
for the value of threepence or a little more, for the support of his life. He 
kept seven maids in constant employ to copy for him. So zealous he was in the 
cause of Christ and his martyrs, that he would assist and exhort them going to 
their death, and kiss them, insomuch that he was near being stoned by the multitude: 
and sometimes by providing for Christain men, had his house guarded with soldiers, 
for the safety of those who daily resorted to hear his readings. These historians 
also mention the following curious circumstance, which is confirmed by Eusebius. 
When Leonidas, the father of Origen, was martyred, his son, then seventeen years 
old, would have suffered by his own wish, had not his mother provily in the right 
conveyed away his clothes and his shirt. On which, more for shame to be seen than 
for fear to die, he was constrained to remain at home; and when he could do nothing 
else, he wrote to his father a letter with these words: "Take heed to yourself, 
that you turn not your thought and purpose for our sake." Such a fervency had 
young Origen to the doctrine of Christ's faith, partly by the diligent education 
of his father, who brought him up from his youth in good literature, but especially 
in reading the holy scriptures, that many times he would put questions to his 
father of the meaning of certain parts of the sacred book. Insomuch that his father 
would frequently uncover his breast when asleep, and kiss is, giving thanks to 
God who had made him so happy a father of such a child. After the death of his 
father, all his goods being confiscated to the emperor, he with his poor mother, 
and six brethren, were reduced to such extreme poverty, that he supported both 
himself and the by keeping a school. The treatise of the venerable Bede, cited 
by Henricus de Orford, gives the following list of those who suffered in the reign 
of Decius, the particulars of whose martyrdoms have not been handed down. Hippolitus 
and Concordia, Hiereneua and Abundua, Victoris, a virgin being nobel personages 
of Antioch; Bellias, bishop of the city of Apollonia, Lacus, Tirsus, and Gallictus. 
Nazanzo, Triphon, in the city of Egypt called Tamas, Phileas, a bishop, Philocomus, 
with many others in Persia, and Philconius, bishop of Babylon, Thesiphon, bishop 
of Pamphilis; Neffor, bishop of Corduba; Parmenias, a priest, with many more. 
In the province called Colonia, Circensis, Marianus, and Jacobus. In Africa, Nemesianus, 
Felix, Rogatianus, a priest, and Felicissimus. At Rome, Jovious and Basileus; 
Tertullianus, Valerianus, Nemesis, Sepronia- nus, and Olympius. In Spain, Teragon. 
At Verona, Zeno, a bishop; and Theodorus, surnamed Gregorius, bishop of Pontus. 
Vincentius in his eleventh book makes mention of certain children suffering martyrdom 
under the same persecution, in a city of Tuscia, called Aretium. Page 53 - Footnote 
marker b - BT 4 words "the cause of Christianity" Cyprian was of an uncommonly 
meek and amiable disposition, and though he neither wanted prudence nor circumspection, 
he was so modest that he never attempted any thing without first consulting his 
partisans. He used to decare that he had visions and revelations concerning the 
events that were to effect the Christian church. He never attempted to thwart 
or circumvent any man; and St. Augustine, in his third book "De baptismo contra 
Donatistas," declares that he was very diligent in reading, especially the works 
of Tertullius. He adds that he saw an old man whose name was Paulus, who told 
him he saw the notary of blessed Cyprian, being an old man, when he himself was 
but a springal in the city of Rome, and told him that it was Cyprian's custom, 
never to let one day pass without reading Tertullian, and that he was accustomed 
to say to him, "Give me my master," meaning thereby Tertullian. Several learned 
authors among the ancients have written on the virtues and good actions of Cyprian, 
and it is much to be regretted that these accounts, as well as many others which 
tend to enforce belief in, and respect for the sacred scriptures, are now unknown, 
owing to the neglect into which the Latin and Greek languages have fallen, though 
every man, whatever may be his station, may have now an opportunity of giving 
his sons a liberal education. The principal divines and authors who wrote concerning 
Cy- prian are, Nicephorus, Nazianzenus, Jacobus de Voragine, Henricus de Erfordia, 
Bolareranus, Hieronymus, and Vincentius; and Laziardus Celes- tinus made an abridgment 
of his works, or rather what is now called ANA, in which, amongst many others, 
are the following pithy sentences, which we quote on account of their excellence. 
Let nothing sleep in thy treasures, that may profit the poor. Two things never 
wax old in man, - the heart ever imagining new cogitations, the tongue ever uttering 
the vain comceptions of the heart. Dicipline is an inordinate amendment of manners 
present, and a regular observation of evils past. There can be no intergrity, 
while they who should condemn the wicked, are ever wanting, and they only who 
are to be condemned, are ever present. A covetous man only possesseth his goods 
for this reason, because another should not possess them. Women that advance themselves 
in putting on silk and purple, cannot but lightly put on Christ. They who love 
to paint themselves in this world otherwise than God hath created the, let them 
fear, lest when the day cometh of reserrection, the Creator will not know them. 
He that giveth an alms to the poor, sacrificeth to God an odour of sweet smell. 
To set out virtue in words, and to destroy the same in facts, is nothing worth. 
The more children and greater household thou hast at home, the more cause thou 
hast not to hoard up, but to disperse abroad, for that many sins are to be redeemed, 
many consciences are to be purged.Eincentianus observes, that in another Book 
of Cyprian, not mentioned in the catalogue of his words, he de- scribes twelve 
principal abuses or absurdities in the life of man, which are in the following 
order, and are unfortunately too frequently to be met with in every age of the 
world; but perhaps more at present than at any former period. 1. A wise man without 
good works. 2. An old man without religion. 3. A young man without obedience. 
4. A rich man without alms. 5. A woman shameless. 6. A guide without virtue. 7. 
A Christian man contentious. 8. A poor man proud. 9. A king unrighteous. 10. A 
bishop negligent. 11. People without discipline. 12. Subjects without law. Page 
54 - Footnote marker c - BT 4 words "befel the emperor Valerian" A very extraordinary 
and interesting event occurred in the reign of Valerain, which is told, though 
in different ways, by Aquilinus, Antonius, and Bergomensis, - Philippus, the governor 
of Alexandris, had a daughter named Eugenia, who was singularly beautiful in her 
person, and had received from her parents an elegant education; but having been 
much in the way of the Christians, was brought up to their faith, to- gether with 
two eunuchs, her schoolfellows, named Protheus and Hia- cinthus, with whom, to 
avoid the persecutions then going on, or else from refusing to marry a pagan, 
she eloped, and resorted to hear the reading of Helenus, then an aged bishop; 
and with this view she put on man's apparel, and named herself Eugenius, under 
which name she was at length admitted into a monastery in the suburbs of Alexandria, 
where for her learning and virtue, she was made head of the place. It is said, 
that Eugenia, after the martyrdom of her father, returning to Rome with Protheus 
and Hiacinthus, on account of converting Basilla to the Chris- tian faith, was 
assailed with sundry kinds of death: first, being tied to a great stone and case 
into the Tiber, where she was prevented from drowning; then put into the hot baths, 
which were extinguished, and she preserved; afterwards by being prevented famishing 
in prison, where they say she was fed by a miraculous hand. Page 55 - Footnote 
marker d - BT 4 words "commotions, particularly earthquakes, pestilence" This 
plague affected, more or less, the whole of the Roman provinces, and lasted nearly 
ten years. In Egypt, it was particularly violent: and Dionysius, who was bishop 
of Alexandria, writing to Hieros, a bishop in Egypt, declares that at the former 
city it was so great that there was no house exempt. Although the greatness of 
the plague affected the Christians, yet it scourged the heathen idolaters much 
more: besides which, the behaviour in the one and the other was very different. 
The Christians, through brotherly love and piety, visited and comforted one another, 
notwithstanding the great danger that attended them by so doing. Page 56 - Footnote 
marker e - BT 4 words "the church enjoyed rest" This Carnius with his son Numerian, 
being slain in the East, Carinus, the other son, reigned alone in Italy; where 
he overcame Sabinus striving for the empire, and reigned there with much wickedness 
till the return of the army from Persia, who then set up Diocletian as emperor; 
by whom Carinus, being forsaken by his host, was overcome, and at length slain 
by the hand of the tribune. Thus Carnius, with his two sons, Numerian and Carinus, 
ended their lives, their reign continuing only three years. Page 74 - Footnote 
marker f - BT 4 words "of cruelty and oppression" Sulpicius, in the second book 
of his Sacred History, observes, that the promistive Christians were more desirous 
of martyrdom than its profes- sors in the after ages were of bishoprics! The number 
of martyrs in- creased under the persecutions of the contemporary emperors, Maximian 
and Diocletian, so much, that there were never less than ten executed daily, and 
from that to twenty, thirty, sixty, and even a hundred, who suffered various kinds 
of deaths till at last it was found necessary to destroy all in one general sacrifice 
per day, as the prisons became so crowded that there were no means of keeping 
the Christians alive. Euse- bius, in his eighth book, cap. 9. as well as Damasus, 
Bede, Orosius, Honorius, and others witness, that there were slain in this persecution 
by the name of Martyrs, within the space of thirty days, seventeen thousand persons! 
Bede in his history writes, that this persecution began under Diocletian, and 
endured till the seventh year of Constanti- nus. And Eusebius says that it lasted 
till the tenth year of Constanti- nus. It was not yet one year from the day in 
which Diocletian and Maxi- mian, joining themselves together, began their persecution, 
before they saw the number of the Christians rather increase than diminish, notwith- 
standing all the cruelty that ever they could shew, and therefore they despaired 
of rooting them out. Some important events which happened to Diocletian, seem 
so immediately the effect of divine judgment upon that tyrant, that we think it 
proper to call the attention of the reader to the brief recital of them. When 
Diocletian and Maximian had reigned together as emperors one and twenty years, 
(Nicephorus says, two and twenty years), Diocletian abandoned his imperial dignity 
at Nicomedia, and lived at Salona; Maximian did the same at Milan; and thus both 
of them led a private life, in the three hundred and ninth year after Christ. 
This strange alteration made it happen, that, within a short space after, there 
were in the Roman commonwealth many emperors at one time. We have stated in the 
text in what manner the empire was divided between Galerius and Constantius; but 
the latter deserves some farther mention on account of his virtues. Constantius, 
as a modest prince, contented with the imperial title, refused Italy and Africa, 
satisfying himself only with France, Spain, and Britian. On which Galerius chose 
to him his two sons, Maximinius and Severus; and on this Constantius tool Constantinus 
his son as Caesar under him. In the mean time, while Galer- ius with his two Caesars 
were in Asia, the Roman soldiers set up for their emperoe Maxentius, the son of 
Maximian, who had before deposed himself. Against him Galerius, the emperor of 
the East, sent his son Severus, who in the same voyage was slain of Maxentius, 
in whose place then Galerius took Licinus. And these were the emperors and Caesars 
who succeded after Doicletian and Maximian, and continued that persecution which 
Diocletian and Maximian begun, during the space of seven or eight years. Constantius 
had no desire of dominion; but was a prince, as Eutropius describes him, very 
excellent, meek, gentle, liberal, and desirous to do good to all who had any authority 
under him: and as Cyrus once said, that he got treasure enough, when he made his 
friends rich; and Constantius would often say, that it were better that his subjects 
had treasure, than he to have it in his treasury. He was disgusted with finery, 
so that he used to eat and drink out of earthen vessels, a part of his conduct 
which had been much praise by Agathocles, the Sicilian. To these virtues he added 
devotion and affection towards the word of God, so that he neither levied any 
wars contrary to piety and the chris- tian religion, nor aided any other prince 
that did the same; neither did he destroy the churches, but commanded that Christians 
should be pre- served and defended from all injury. Constantius knowing that he 
had many hypocrites in his service, and wishing at a certain time to try what 
sincere Christians he had in his court, called together all his officers and servants, 
pretending to chose out such as would do sacri- fice to devils, and that those 
only should keep their offices, while those who would refuse should be banished 
the court. At this appoin- tment, all the courtiers divided themselves into companies. 
The emperor marked which were the godliest; and when some said they would willingly 
do sacrifice, other boldly denied to do so. Then the emperor sharply rebuked those 
who were ready to do sacrifice, and called them traitors to God, accounting them 
unworthy to be in his court, and commanded that they should be banished. But he 
greatly commended those who refused to do sacrifice, affirming, that they only 
were worthy to be about a prince; and commanded that henceforth they should be 
the trusty counsel- lors and defenders both of his person and kingdom. As before 
said, with Constantius was joined Galerius, a man, as Eutropius affirms, who was 
very civil and a good soldier, as well as a favourer of wise and learned men. 
But Eusebius far otherwise describes him. He says, he was a tyran- nical disposition, 
excessively timid and curious in all superstition, insomuch that without the divination 
and answers of magicians, he durst do nothing at all; and therefore he gave great 
offices and dignities to enchanters. He was an exacter an extortioner of the citizens, 
liberal to those that were flatterers, given to surfeiting and riot, a great drin- 
ker of wine, and in his furious drunkenness like a mad-man. To conclude, he was 
so great an idolater, that he built up temples in every city, and repaired those 
that were falling in great decay; but to the Christian religion, he was most incensive, 
and in the East churches exercised cruel persecutions. He at length revoked his 
cruelty by the just judge- ment and punishment of God. For he was seized with 
a fatal and desperate disease. The physicians, not able to abide the intolerable 
offence of the disorder some of them were commanded to be slain, and others, be- 
cause they could not heal him, were cruelly put to death. At length, being reminded 
that this disease was sent from God, he began to think of the wickedness that 
he had done against the saints, and so confessed his offences: then calling those 
who were about him, he commanded all men to cease from persecuting the Christians; 
requiring, moreover, that they should set up his imperial proclamations, for restoring 
their temples, and that they would require of the Christians, that they would 
devoutly pray to God for their emperor. Then was the persecution discontinued. 
Maximian, the other persecutor of the Christians, and the contemporary sovereign 
with Diocletian, also met with a dreadful end. Maxentius, the son of Maximian, 
was set up at Rome by the praetorian soldiers to be emperor. To this the senate, 
though they did not consent, yet for fear did not resist. Maximian, his father, 
who had before deprived himself with Diocletian, hearing of this, was inclined 
to resume his dignity, and laboured to persuade Diocletian to do the same: but 
not succeeding, he repaired to Rome, thinking to wrest the empire out of his son's 
hands. But as the soldiers would not suffer that, he fled to Constanti- nus in 
France, under pretence of complaining of Maxentius his son, but in fact to kill 
Constantinus; but the conspiracy being detected by Fausta, the daughter of Maximian, 
whom Constantinus had married, Con- stantinus through the grace of God was preserved, 
and Maximian returned. In his flight he was apprehended and put to death. Maxentius 
all this while reigned at Rome with tyranny and wickedness like another Pharaoh 
or Nero. He slew most of his noblemen, and took their estates. Sometimes in his 
rage he would destroy great multitudes of the people of Rome by his soldiers, 
as Eusebius declares. He is said to have left no mis- chievous nor lascivious 
act unattempted. Letus declares, that being in love with a noble and chaste gentlewoman 
of Rome, he sent to her such of his courtiers as he held in great estimation. 
These first fell upon her husband and murdered him in his own house: and when 
they could by no means get her away from him, she desired leave to go into her 
chamber, and after prayer she would accomplish what they requested. When she had 
reached her chamber under this plea, she killed herself. The end of Maxentius 
was as follows. Constantinus had a vision that commanded him to bear the sign 
of a cross before his army and go against the pagans. The day following this night's 
vision, Constantinus caused a cross after the same figure to be made of gold and 
precious stones, and to be borne before him instead of his standard; and with 
as much hope of victory and confidence as one armed from Heaven, advanced towards 
his enemy. Maxen- tius being constrained to issue out of the city against him, 
sent all his power to join him in the field beyond the river Tiber, where Maxen- 
tius craftily breaking down the bridge called Pons Milvius, caused an artificial 
bridge to be made of boats, thinking to take Constantinus as in a trap. But here 
it came to pass, as is written, in the seventh Psalm, "He digged a pit and fell 
therein himself." After the hosts met, he being unable to sustain the force of 
Constantinus fighting under the cross against him, was put to such a flight, that 
in returning back, thinking to get into the city upon the same bridge which he 
laid for Constantinus, was overturned by the fall of his horse, and, with a great 
part of his men, was drowned. Page 78 - Footnote marker g - BT 4 words "persevere 
in their faith" Nicephorus tells us that Eustratius was much skilled in the Greek 
lan- guage, and was a scribe of great estimation. It appears that this man, beholding 
the marvellous constancy of the martyrs, thirsted with the desire of martyrdom, 
and privily learned the Christian religion. There- fore he detected himself, and 
professed that he was a Christian, only execrating the madness and vanity of the 
wicked Ethnics. Being in conse- quence carried away, he was tied up and cruelly 
beaten. After that he was scorched and mangled with shells, so that his whole 
body seemed to be one continual wound: yet by God's great goodness, it was speedily 
healed. After this he was carried to Sebastia, where with his companion Orestes 
he was burned to death. Page 82 - Footnote marker h - BT 4 words "which are still 
extant" In the writings of Marsilius Patavinus, entitled "Defensor Pacis," which 
were published in the year 1324, it is observed of Constantine, that he was a 
singular spectacle for all Christian princes to imitate; that his fervent zeal 
in favour of the servants of Christ was notable; but espe- cially the affection 
and reverance of his heart towards those, who had suffered for the confession 
of Christ in previous persecutions: these he held in peculiar veneration, so much 
that he embraced and kissed their wounds and stripes. And if any such bishop or 
other ministers brought to him any complaints one against another, (as many times 
they did) he would take their bills of complaint and burn them before their faces; 
so studious and zealous was his mind to have them agree. Page 83 - Footnote marker 
i - BT 4 words "the 23rd of April" The order of the Garter, instituted by Edward 
the third, on an occasion well known to every child acquainted with English history, 
is placed under the tutelary protection of St. George; but with a most ridiculous 
substitution of fable for fact. The saint is pictured in the badge of the order 
- a badge worn even by the bishop of Winchester, as prelate of the order, in every 
pulpit in which he preaches - in the traditionary attitude of tilting at a dragon 
as a sort of knight errantry defence of some hopeful virgin; thus commemorating 
by the highest order in the realm, a pagan fable, rather than any one of the christian 
enterprises by which the saint is said to have been distinguished! The apology 
for this absurd preference is as ridiculous as the preference itself. The dragon 
is considered an emblem of the devil, and the saint's encounter with it an allegory 
of his assailing the powers of darkness by the life and death of a Christian hero! 
Subsequent ruling powers, however, not satisfied with this apology, have associated 
with St. George in the protection of the order, the Blessed Virgin, St. Edward 
the confessor, and even the Holy Trinity! Page 94 - Footnote marker k - BT 4 words 
"regretted being let down" For many interesting particulars of this martyr, those 
acquainted with classcal literature are referred to Ruff. 5, cap. 26; Theod lib. 
3, cap. 11; and Sozom. lib. 5 cap. 10, 20. Page 95 - Footnote marker l - BT 4 
words "perished in the flames" Although the truth of these cruel martyrdoms cannot 
be doubted, yet many persons will wonder why the Almighty director of all things 
would suffer his servants, who believed in his word, to be so horribly treated; 
but as St. Jerome has justly observed, "We ought not to be moved with this iniquity 
of things, to see the wicked prevail against the body:" for even in the beginning 
of the world, we see Abel the just was killed by the wicked Cain; and afterwards 
Jacob thrust out for Esau to reign in his father's house. The Egyptians, also, 
afflicted the sons of Israel; and the Lord himself was crucified by the Jews. 
The godly in this world therefore suffer for examples, and the wicked flourish 
and prevail; yet we may be sure that these afflictions of God's people in the 
world have not come by chance or fortune, but by the provident appointment of 
God. For as by the affliction of the children of Israel, he hath prefigured the 
persecution of the Christians, so, by the words of Christ in the gospel did he 
forewarn his church of the trouble to come. Neither did he suffer these great 
afflictions to fall upon his servants before he had warned them by special revelation 
in the Apocalypse of John; in which he declared not only what troubles were coming 
upon them, and where and by whom they should come, but also assigned the true 
time, how long the said persecutions should continue, and when they should cease. 
The feelings of the Editor, and he is sure those of his readers, on persuing the 
accounts of such horrid cruelties, resemble those of Titus Livius, who, when writing 
of the wars of Carthage, was so astonished and af- flicted, that he cried out, 
"Ac si in parte alequa labores, ac periculi ipse fuisset." Page 109 - Footnote 
marker m - BT 4 words "church, was an Englishman" As we are speaking of a celebrated 
English martyr, and have already mentioned the first person who was martyred in 
England for the christian faith, it will be interesting to the reader to learn, 
that before the coming of St. Augustine into England, there were four persecutions 
in Britain. The first was under Diocletian, about the year 210; and that not only 
in England, but generally throughout all the Roman monarchy, as is already specified. 
In this persecution, Albanus, Julius, Aaron, with a great number of other christian 
Britons were martyred for the cause of Christ. The second persecution was by the 
invasions of Gnavius and Malga: the first was captain of the Huns, the other of 
the Picts. These tyrants, after the cruel slaughter of Ursula and 11,000 noble 
virgins, entered Britain, hearing it to be destitute of a sufficient military 
force. They spoiled and wasted churches, without having mercy either on women 
or children. The third persecution was by Hengist and the Saxons; who likewise 
destroyed the christian congregations within the land, like raging wolves flying 
upon sheep, and shedding the blood of Christians, till the time or Aurelius Ambrosius, 
who restored the churches of the land. The fourth destruction of the christian 
faith and religion was by Gurmundus, a king of the Africans; who joining in league 
with the Sax- ons, did much injury to the holy cause. Theonus, bishop of London, 
and Thadioceus, bishop of York, and the rest of the people, having no place to 
remain in with safety, fled some to Cornwall and some to the moun- tains of Wales, 
about the year of our Lord 550. This persecution con- tinued till the time of 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, in the year 589. In the reign of Ethelbert, who was the 
fith king of Kent, the faith of Christ was first received by the Saxons or English, 
by the means of Gregory, bishop of Rome, in the following manner. It should be 
observed, that the christian faith first received the king Lucius, endured in 
Britain till this time, about 400 years, when, by Gurmundus Africanus, fighting 
with the Saxons against the Britons, it was nearly extinct in all the land, for 
the space of about forty-four years. So that the first springing of Christ's gospel 
in this land, was in the year of our Lord 180. The coming of the Saxons was in 
the year 449. The coming of Augus- tine, who was sent by Gregory, was in the year 
596. The occasion on which Gregory sent him hither was this:- In the days of Pelagius, 
bishop of Rome, Gregory chanced to see certain children in the market- place of 
Rome, brought thither from England for sale, being fair and beautiful, demanded 
out of what country they were; and understanding they were heathens from England, 
lamented the case of a land so beauti- ful in its people, and yet in pagan darkness. 
Inquiring out of what province they were, he was answered out of Deirs, a part 
of Northumber- land. Then alluding to the name of Deirs, "These people," said 
he, "are to be delivered de Dei ira," which is, from God's wrath. Also under- 
standing the king of that province to be named Alle, alluding to it, he said, 
"There ought Allelujah to be sung to the living God." Some time afterwards becoming 
bishop himself after Pelagius, he sent thither Augustine, with about forty other 
priests; but as the company were travelling, a sudden fear entered into their 
hearts, that, as Antonius says, they all returned. Others write, that Augustine 
went back to Gregory again, to solicit that they might not be sent on a voyage 
so dangerous and uncertain, among a barbarous people, whose language they neither 
knew, nor were able to resist their rudeness. Gregory however sent him again wit 
letters to the bishop of Arelatensis, and his compan- ions, exhorting him to go 
boldly forward on the work of Christ. Page 112 - Footnote marker n - BT 4 words 
"of his barbrous age" Having given the fair side of the character of Boniface, 
the archbishop, it behoves us to say, that he was a great abettor of all the supersti- 
tions of popery: though for this he is not so much to be blamed, because in his 
time the lamp of the true gospel was not lighted. When he was appointed by pope 
Gregory archbishop of Mentz, he brought many countries under the pope's influence, 
held many great councils, ordained bishops, built monasteries, canonized saints, 
commanded relics to be worshipped, and permitted religious fathers to be attended 
by nuns in their minis- terial excursions. Among other works he founded the great 
monastery of Fulda, in Germany, of England monks, into which no women were allowed 
to enter but only Lieba and Tecla, two English nuns. By authority, which he received 
from pope Zachary, Childeric, king of France, was deposed from the right of his 
crown, and Pepin, the betrayer of his master, was confirmed in the soverignty. 
From Boniface proceeded the doctrine which now stands registered in the pope's 
decrees, that in case the pope were of unholy living, and forgetful or negligent 
of himself, and of chris- tianity, in such a degree, that he led innumerable souls 
with him to hell; yet ought no man to rebuke him for so doing, "for he hath power 
to judge all men, and ought of no man to be judged again." Page 114 - Footnote 
marker o - BT 4 words "to expiate my guilt" This, if accurate, shews a distressing 
defect in evangelical views and spiritual perceptions on the part of this individual. 
To think of ex- piating one crime by the voluntary sacrifice of life, sounds too 
harsh in modern christian ears for any thing like cordial approval of the religion 
of such a man. His military habits might strengthen him to face death with courage; 
but his self-righteousness ill prepare him to have boldness in the day of judgement. 
Page 122 - Footnote marker p - BT 4 words "April, A.D. 997." In concluding the 
second book of this history, the reader's attention is recalled to the state of 
religion in this kingdom. It is true that no persecutions had taken place for 
the sake of Christ, though many crimes were committed during the Saxon heptarchy, 
from the time of Lucius to that of Egbert; and these kings, not aware what danger 
would ensue to their own souls from their mistaken zeal, though acting as they 
thought in support of the church of Christ, conceived that the greatest exer- 
tions they could make for the Christian religion would be to build monasteries 
and nunneries, and fill them with monks and virgins. Accord- ingly, during the 
Saxon heptarchy, which lasted about 200 years, they founded no less than twenty-seven 
monasteries and nunneries in England; and not satisfied with sending their children, 
and in some cases their wives, to inhabit them, many of them became monks themselves. 
The fol- lowing are examples:- 1. Kinigilsus, king of the West-Saxons. 2. Ina, 
king of the West-Saxons. 3. Ceolulf, king of Northumberland. 4. Edbert, king of 
Northumberland. 5. Ethelred, king of Mercia. 6. Kenred, king of Mercia. 7. Offa, 
king of the East-Saxons. 8. Sebbi, king of the East-Saxons. 9. Sigebert, king 
of the East-Angles. Among ladies of rank who entered nunneries were, Hilda, daughter 
of the nephew of Edwin, king of Northumberland, abess of Ely; Erongota, with her 
sister Ermenilda, daughters of Ercombert, king of Kent; Ethelberga, queen of Edwin, 
king of Northumberland, and daughter of Ethelbert, king of Kent; Etheldreda, called 
St. Eldred, wife to Egfrid, king of Northum- berland, who being married to two 
husbands, could not give her consent to either of them, during the space of twelve 
years, but lived a virgin, and was a nun at Ely: Werburga, the daughter of Wolfer, 
king of the Mercians, a nun at Ely; Kinedreda, sister of Wolfer, and Kineswida, 
her sister, both professed nuns; Sexburga, daughter of Anna, king of Mercia, and 
wife of Ercombert, king of Kent; was abbess at Ely; Elfrida, daugh- ter of Oswy, 
king of Northumberland, was abbess of Whitby; Mildreda, Milburga, and Milguida, 
three daughters of Merwald, king of the West- Mercians, took the profession and 
vow of virginity; Kineburga, wife of Alfrid, king of Northumberland, and sister 
to Osric, king of the Mer- cians, and daighter of king Penda, was professed abbess 
of the monastery of Gloucester; Elfleda, daighter of king Owsy, and wife of Peda, 
son of king Penda, likewise committed herself to the profession and vow of Roman 
chastity; as did Alfrida, wife to king Edgar, and Editha, daighter to the said 
Edgar, with Wolfride, her mother, etc. All these holy nuns, with many more, the 
Roman catholics have canonized for saints, and put the greater part of them in 
their calendar, only because of the vow of their chastity. Concerning this chastity, 
it is not that which makes saints before God, but only the merit of Christ Jesus, 
and a true faith in him. While we are upon the subject of nuns and nunneries, 
we shall forcibly call the attention of our readers to the increase of popery 
in our own country at the present day. In the 25th volume of the Anti- Jacobin 
Review, it is stated, that a body of nuns have purchased the extensive domain 
of New-Hall, the property of the late Lord Waltham. The ladies are natives of 
this kingdom, and they are charged with attempting to make proselytes, by allowing 
English ladies to take the veil. We have no with to censure the conduct of those 
who devote themselves to a religious life, merely because they are Catholics; 
but it is evident by historical authorities of the most indubitable nature, that 
in the earliest ages the greatest disorders prevailed in houses of nuns, whose 
professed vows have never yet been good to the church, nor profitable to the common-wealth, 
and least of all to themselves. Of such young and wanton women, St. Paul in his 
time complains, (1 Tim. v.) because they would take upon them the profession of 
single life, which they were not able to perform, but falling into shameless luxury, 
deserved to be reprehended. How much better had it been for these lascivious nuns 
not to refuse the safe yoke of christian matrimony, rather than to entangle themselves 
in a superstitious vow of perpetual virginity, which neither was required of them, 
nor were they able to keep. Page 135 - Footnote marker q - BT 4 words "and the 
other behind" The principal persecutor of the Merindolians was this bishop of 
Aix, who persuaded the president and counsellors of the court of parliament to 
send an army through all Provence to destroy those who professed the reformed 
religion. The people, on seeing the army, commended themselves to God, and prepared 
for death. While they were in this distress, mourn- ing and lamenting together, 
suddenly there was news brought them that the army had retired, and no man knew 
how, or by what means; yet after- wards it was known that the lord of Alenc, a 
wise man, and learned in scripture and civil law, moved with the love of justice, 
declared to the president Cassanee, that he ought not to proceed against the inhabitants 
of Merindol by force of arms, without judgement or condemnation: and after more 
arguments to the same effect, he addressed Cassanee, who was a monster of cruelty, 
and reminded him of a statement which the presi- dent had made in a book, called 
"Catalogus Gloria Mundi." This state- ment, which appears to have been a fact, 
is of so lidicrous a nature, that nothing but a knowledge of the absurdities of 
the popish supersti- tions can render it plausible. The president says, that in 
the bishopric of Autun, a process was instituted against the rats by the officers 
of the court and jurisdiction of the bishop; for it happened there was throughout 
all the bailiwick of Laussois such a number of rats, that they destroyed and devoured 
all the corn of the country. Whereupon they sent to the bishop of Autun's official, 
to have the rats excommunicated; and it was decreed by him, after he had heard 
the plaintiff of the procurator fiscal, that before he would proceed to excommunication, 
the rats should have admonition and warning according to the order of jus- tice; 
and it was ordained, that by the sound of a trumpet, and open proclamation made 
throughout all the streets of the town of Autun, the rats should be cited to appear 
within three days; and if they did not appear, the court should proceed against 
them. The three days passed, and the procurator came into court against the rats, 
and for want of appearance obtained default, by virtue wherof he required that 
they should proceed to excommunication. Whereupon it was judicially acknowl- edged 
that the said rats, being absent, should have their advocate appointed them to 
hear their defence, because the question was for the whole destruction and banishment 
of the said rats. "And you, my lord president," says the lord of Alenc, "being 
at that time the king's advocate at Autun, were chosen to be the advocate to defend 
the rats. And having taken the charge upon you in pleading the matter, it was 
by you there declared, that the citation was of no effect, for certain causes 
by you were alleged. Then it was decreed that the aid rats should be again cited 
through the parished where they were; and after the citations were duly served, 
the procurator came again into the court as before; and there it was alleged by 
you, my lord president, that the term of appearance given to the rats was too 
short, and that there were so many cats in every town and village that they had 
to pass through, that they had just cause to be absent. Wherefore, my lord president, 
you ought not so lightly to proceed against these poor men,m but ought to look 
upon the holy scriptures, and there find how to proceed in this matter: and you 
my lord, have alleged many places of scripture concern- ing the same; and by this 
plea of a matter which seemeth to be of a small importance you have obtained great 
fame and honour, for the upright declaration of the form how judges ought gravely 
to proceed in criminal causes. Then, my lord president, you who have taught others, 
will you not also learn by your own books? which will manifestly condemn you, 
if you proceed any further to the destruction of these poor men of Merindol. For 
are they not christian men, and ought you not to minister right and justice unto 
them, as you have done to the rats?" By these humorous demonstrations the president 
was persuaded, and immediately recalled his commission, caused the army to retire, 
and spared his intended victims. The Merindonlians understanding that the army 
was retired, gave thanks to God, comforting one another with admonition and exhortation 
always to have the fear of God before their eyes, to be obedient to his holy commandments, 
subject to his most holy will, and every man to submit himself to his providence, 
patiently attending and looking for the hope of the blessed, the true life, and 
the everlasting riches, having all before them in the example of Jesus christ, 
the Son of God, who entered into his glory by many tribulations. Shortly after 
the bishop of Cavaillon came to Merindol, and calling before him the children, 
gave them money, and commanded them to learn the Pater-noster and the Creed in 
Latin. Most of them answered, that they knew the Pater- noster and Creed already 
in Latin, but they could make nothing of what they spake, except in the vulgar 
tongue. The bishop answered, that it was not necessary they should be so wise, 
but that it was sufficient they knew it in Latin; and that it was not requisite 
for their salvation to understand the articles of their faith; for there were 
many bishops and doctors of divinity whom it would trouble to expound the Pater- 
noster and the Creed. Here the bailiff of Merindol, named Andrew May- nard, asked 
what purpose it would serve to say the Pater-noster and the Creed, and not to 
understand the same: for in so doing they would but mock and deride God. Then 
said the bishop, "Do you understand what is signified by these words, I believe 
in God?" The bailiff answered, "I should think myself very miserable if I did 
not understand it:" and he began to give an account of his faith. Then said the 
bishop, "I should not have thought there had been such great doctors in Merindol." 
The bailiff answered, "The least of the inhabitants of Merindol can do it more 
readily than I: but I pray you question one or two of these young children, that 
you may understand whether they be well taught or no." But the bishop either knew 
not how to question them, or would not. On this a person named Pieron Roy, said, 
"Sir, one of these children may question with another, if you think fit;" and 
the bishop consented. Then one of the children began to question his fellows, 
with as much grace and gravity as if he had been a schoolmaster; and the children, 
one after another, answered so much to the purpose, that it was wonderful to hear 
them: for it was done in the presence of many, among whom there were four religious 
men who came lately from Paris, one of whom said to the bishop, "I must needs 
confess that I have veen at the schools of Sorbon in Paris, where I have heard 
the disputation of the divines, but yet I never learned so much as I have done 
by hearing these young child- ren." Then said William Armant, a child, "Did you 
never read that which is written in the eleventh chapter of St. Matthew, where 
it is said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of Heaven and Earth, that thou hast hid 
these things from the sage and wise men of the world, and hast revealed them unto 
babes: but behold, O Father, such was thy good will and pleasure." When the bishop 
saw he could not prevail, he tried another way, and went about by flattering words 
to effect his purpose. Causing the strangers to go apart, he said, that he now 
perceived they were not so bad as many thought them; notwithstanding, for the 
sake of those who were their persecutors, it was necessary that they should make 
some abjuration, which only the bailiff, with two officers, might make generally 
in his presence, in the name of the rest, without any notary to record it is writing; 
and in doing so they should be loved and favoured by all men, and even by those 
who now persecuted them: and that they should sustain no infamy therby, for there 
should be no report made, but only to the pope, and the parliament of Provence. 
The children, however, unanimously refused, and said, that they conceived the 
way in which they had been instructed to be the pure faith of Jesus Christ! Page148 
- Footnote marker r - BT 4 words "soon breathed his last." It is stated in Gallic. 
Hist. Johan. Crisp. lib. ii. that the Carmelite friar who attended Husson, and 
made great efforts to convert him to popery, though without success, was soon 
afterwards converted himself, and preached the gospel of Christ. The same writer 
adds, that the decree for cutting out the tongues of the martyrs at ther stake, 
arose from the circumstance of those whothies reviling the popish blasphemies 
even while the fire was burning around them. Page 150 - Footnote marker s - BT 
4 words "to be publicly burnt" Johan, Crispinus says, speaking of this worthy 
martyr, as he went to the stake, he passed by the college of St. Martinal, where 
he was told to honour the picture of the Virgin standing at the gate; but refussing, 
the judge commanded his tongue to be cut out; and then being put to the fire, 
he stood quite, looking up to Heaven all the time of burning, as if he had felt 
nothing, causing such admiration amongst the people, that one of the parliament 
said, it was not judicious to bring the Lutherans to the fire, for that would 
do more harm that good by strengthening their cause. Page 195 - Footnote marker 
t - BT 4 words "dreadful and mortal wound" The author mentions this monstrous 
act of cruelty as a report, and it is to be hoped it was a mere report. The record 
of it is retained, not because the present editor believes it to have actually 
taken place; but as a sample of the credulous taste of the times, which so easily 
re- ceived and so gravely recorded incidents too often because they were monstrous, 
without consulting either their delicacy or their truth - without suspecting their 
falsehood or shrinking at their impropriety. This is, perhaps, the proper place 
to initimate that several reports of this repulsive sort have already been expunged. 
Page 206 - Footnote marker u - BT 4 words "malevolence of their tutors" It is 
remarkable that in this extensive massacre not more than two ministers were known 
to have suffered. Page 210 - Footnote marker v - BT 4 words "out for further atrocities" 
This barbarous deed reminds us of the enormities practised by some of the Irish 
Roman Catholics in their massacre of the English Protestants in the reign of Charles 
I., when every social tie was banished from their remorseless hearts, and the 
oldest friends were murdered by the hands they had so often pressed in amity and 
brotherhood. Page 239 - Footnote marker w - BT 4 words " The arch imposter Mahomet" 
Mahomet was born at Mecca in Arabia, A. D. 571. His parents were poor, and his 
education mean; but by the force of his genius, and an uncommon subtlety, he raised 
himself to be the founder of Mahometanism, and the sovereign of kingdoms. His 
Alcoran is a jumble of paganism, judaism, and christianity. It is adapted entirely 
to the sensual appetites and pas- sions; and the cheif promises held out to its 
believers are women and wine. Mahomet established his doctrine by the power of 
the sword: "The sword," said he, "is the key of heaven and hell. Whoever falls 
in bat- tle, his sins are forgiven him: his wounds shall be resplendent as vermillion, 
and odoriferious as musk: the loss of his limbs shall be supplied with the wings 
of angels." He allowed that Christ was a great prophet and a holy man; that he 
was born of a virgin, received up into glory, and that he shall come again to 
destroy antichrist. Page 240 - Footnote marker x - BT 4 words "lusts of his troops" 
A story is related by Leonicus Chancoldina respecting the barbarity of this monster, 
which we cannot forbear to give. While at Constantinople, his general Omar sent 
him from Methone 500 christian prisioners. Mahomet commanded then to be cut assunder, 
and cast into the fields. While lying in this state, an ox feeding there appeared 
affected at the horrid spectacle, and after bellowing some time, ran to one of 
the dead halves, and lifting it upon his horns, conveyed it to the other part 
of the body, and placed the severed parts together in order to join them. This 
was witnessed by some persons, who conveyed the intelligence to Mahomet, who insisted 
on seeing it himself, and accordingly ordered the parts to be separated, when 
the animal again performed the same wonderful action, to the utter astonishment 
of the brutal Turk. Page 243 - Footnote marker y - BT 4 words "tortures the most 
barbarous" It is gratifying to remark that all cruelties towards Christians in 
Algiers are now at an end. Lord Exmouts's capture of the city in 1816, put a stop 
to the barbarous system; and now French colonization affords a pledge that it 
will never revive. Page 292 - Footnote marker z - BT 4 words " was brought to 
Smithfield" It will not be uninteresting to our city readers, to be informed, 
that that part of Smithfield where a large board is erected, containing the laws 
and regulations of the cattle-market, is the very best spot on which our protestant 
forefathers suffered for the cause of Christ. There many an English martyr's body 
mingled with dust, and from thence ascend- ed many a soul to inherit everlasting 
glory. Page 297 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words "the lists with Luther" It was 
for his writing against Luther, in defence of papacy, that the pope bestowed upon 
him the title of DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, which the British monarchs have, absurdly 
enough, retained to this day. Nothing can be said against the kingly office being 
"set for the defence of the gospel;" but to call a man, whatever be his infidelity 
and immorality, by this name, is indeed a monstrous anomaly. Page 304 - Footnote 
marker b - BT 4 words "the laws of God" This was one of the firmest, as it was 
one of the first steps laid for advancing to a glorious reformation on scriptural 
principles; and was infinitely preferable as an argument to all the reasonings 
afterwards introduced, and exalted to the rank of infallible axioms, when this, 
alas! became slighted and forgotten. Hitherto and afterwards, it was assumed that 
no papal decree could err; but in a happy moment of sudden light it is here seen 
and confessed that edicts of the pope may run contrary to the law of God, and 
thus be undoubtedly wrong. Would to heaven that this principle were considered 
by protestant as well a popish bishops, and carried by all people into their confidence 
in episcopal measures. Page 319 - Footnote marker c - BT 4 words "with an evil 
spirit" In the reign of queen Mary, the works of Sir T. More were published. But 
the letter from which the above extract is taken, although printed among the rest, 
was suppressed. The reason of which seems to be, that there was a design to canonize 
the nun at that time, for she was considerd as a martyr to the cause of queen 
Katharine. To justify this extravagance, there were numbers of feigned miracles 
concerning the nun; therefore a letter so full and clear against her was judged 
best to be concealed. Page 319 - Footnote marker d - BT 4 words "thought her a 
prophetess" Amidst the comparitive darkness of that age, much allowance may be 
made for the delusion of the multitude. But in the present day it is unac- countable 
to see the pervading influence of supersitition enveloping the minds of such numbers. 
We allude to the spreading of Johanna Southcot- te's doctrines. But it is as the 
apostle hath said, "God shall send them strong delusions, that they should believe 
a lie." And why is it? Be- cause their fears towards the Lord is taught by the 
precepots of men; they are ever learning, and never come to the knowledge of the 
truth; beguiling unstable souls, led away with every wind of doctrine. Not knowing 
"that many false prophets shall arise, which shall deceive many." The above note 
was printed in the edition of 1806: had the editor of that edition lived to become 
the reviser of this, he might have placed Edward Irving by the side of Johanna 
Southcotte and Eliza- beth Barton. Widely different from these women in intellect 
and station, his patronage of the unknown tongues had reduced him to a humiliating 
level with those two vulgar female impostors. Alas for human nature! To what vile 
uses may mind as well as body come! Page 322 - Footnote marker e - BT 4 words 
"continue during his pleasure" These were the same as those whom the ancient church 
called Cherepisco- pi, who were at first the bishops of some villages, but were 
afterwards put under the jurisdiction of the bishop of the next city. They were 
set up before the council of Nice. and continued in the church for many ages; 
but the bishops devolving their whole spiritual power upon them they were put 
down, and a decretal epistle was forged in the name of P. Damascus, condemning 
them. Page 324 - Footnote marker f - BT 4 words "our sins no more" It is evident 
that the papists, who hold the doctrine of purgatory, have no correct notions 
of a future state, and on this primary doctrine of the New Testament are almost 
in as great darkness and doubt as were the pagans of antiguity, and as are many 
pious sufferers to this day. Their future world is in fact much worse than this, 
and many pious sufferers would infinitely prefer remaining here, with all the 
infirmities that beset them, than go hence to fall into purgatorial fires, even 
though but a few years duration. Page 331 - Footnote marker g - BT 4 words "from 
the archbishop's jurisdiction" This requires some explanation, as Austin, or Augustine, 
was himself archbishop of Canterbury, and could only concur in such a measure 
by his will. Page 345 - Footnote marker h - BT 4 words "Thomas a Becket's at Canterbury" 
Thomas a Becket was archbishop of Canterbury; and, seconded by the clergy, he 
insisted that they should be exempted from the jurisdiction of the temporal courts 
in criminal cases. His conduct was so galling to the king, and so marked with 
insolence, that his majesty said hastily, "Have I no friend to rid me of this 
insolent enemy?" Upon this four of his knights, esteeming it a signal for his 
death, instantly quitted the royal presence, and hastened to Canterbury, where 
finding the archbishop before the altar of the church at prayers, they slew him 
with their daggers. Henry found great difficulty to excuse himself to the pope, 
and was obligated to do penance. It was this king who, with the French monarch, 
performed the office of yeoman of the stirrup to pope Alexan- der. It is worthy 
of remark that one of the assassins was ancestor of a most respectable and excellent 
family of quakers now flourishing in this country. Page 380 - Footnote marker 
i - BT 4 words "were exhibited against him" These were the articles for which 
he suffered: 1. Man hath no free- will. 2. Man is only justified by faith in Christ. 
3. Man, so long as he liveth, is not without sin. 4. He is not worthy to be called 
a Christain, which believeth not that he is in grace. 5. A good man doeth good 
works: good works do not make a good man. 6. An evil man bringeth forth evil works: 
evil works, being faithfully repented, do not make an evil man. 7. Faith, hope, 
and charity, are so linked together, that one of them cannot be without another 
in one man in this life. Page 383 - Footnote marker k - BT 4 words "nigh." Eph. 
ii. 17" The whole of this is so excellent, and manifests such a devout acquaint- 
ance with scripture in a dark age, that the editor has been anxious to render 
it as complete and accurate as possible. The edition of 1806 was left in a state 
of great incorrectness in this part, which above all others seemed to demand and 
deserve the greatest precision. To have again left a blot on Hamilton's memory 
would have been unpardonable. Page 385 - Footnote marker m - BT 4 words "1 John 
v. 13." In the articles that were objected to this noble soul by the priests, 
was this: "A person professing the gospel, and who is not assured of his own salvation, 
is unworthy of being called a believer, since the very belief is itself the evidence 
of his conversion." Such was the faith of martyrs, and such must be the faith 
of all who believe that Jesus is the Christ. We say not that nothing is faith 
short of this full assurance of personal salvation; but we say that every holy 
believer sooner or later acquires it, and is unworthy of the name if he evil and 
die without it. Page 389 - Footnote marker n - BT 4 words " to praise and worship" 
Some of the objectors to this doctrine contend, that it leads its pro- fessors 
to deny good works. They do certainly deny them as being the ground and cause 
of salvation, but they follow them as the consequence of salvation, they being 
the natural fruits of faith. A person cares but little for offending one who hates 
him: but if a person loves him, it is a grief to offend that person. "A child 
governed by fear," says a phi- losopher, "is always the weaker for it," and the 
obedience of fear can never be sincere. It is the known love of God shed abroad 
in the heart that is the best incentive to obedience; and that obedience, which 
is accompanied by love, is the best offering that can be made to God. It is the 
grossest mockery in the world, for persons to join singing the praises and glory 
of God, who are in doubt as to their being acceptable; such melody may please 
themselves, it may please men, but it can never please him who seeks to be worshipped 
in truth. Page 395 - Footnote marker o - BT 4 words " of treating the subject" 
The editor wishes not to be suspected of offering an apology for a theatrical 
representation of religious subjects or ceremonies of any kind: such a mode of 
amusing the world is made at too great an expence of sacred propriety and feeling 
not to be at once condemned. He must, however, be allowed to say that for much 
of this practice in England at the period now in view, and on the continent to 
the present day, papists must be content to consider themselves responsible. How 
can they blame men for rehearsing in other places the comedies and tragedies which 
they themselves perform in their several churches! What are these churches but 
so many theatres for the exhibition of scenes, which are a much greater burlesque 
of christian devotion that any theatrical exhibition can be of the general worship 
of catholic priests and people! If any doubt this, let them go behind the scenes 
- there the editor has been more than once or twice, and he is assured that no 
collection of proper- ties behind the scenes of a theatre can surpass in ridiculous 
mummery the collection of stars and crowns, of caps and garments, of plans and 
frames, of crosses and banners, and other unmentionable trumpery, to be found 
in the recesses of every considerable popish church. Page 397 - Footnote marker 
p - BT 4 words "to one doctor Tate" This was an ancestor, we believe grandfather 
or great grandfather, to the Nahum Tate to whom we are indebted for the new version 
of the Psalms. Page 406 - Footnote marker q - BT 4 words " meddle with the scriptures" 
If this be a faithful record, it would appear true, as asserted of Gardiner, that 
he was a profane as well as a cruel man. Indeed, these base qualities are generally 
found in union. A modern member of the episcopal bench, of splendid talents, and 
high reputation for his ortho- dox and gifted publications, is said to have been 
in his violent pas- sions a most profane swearer. Judging by the fury with which 
he sometimes treats his literary opponents, he might, in the age of Gardiner, 
have been an inquisitor equally barbarous. Page 407 - Footnote marker r - BT 4 
words "the court, but erucifige" This appears to have been a slang word of frequent 
use in that day - a term of abuse as though they would say eruptionize him, belch 
him, let him be emptied - that is compel him to confess. Page 410 - Footnote marker 
s - BT 4 words " at the same place" It may please the antiquarian reader to be 
reminded that these lively and crafty examinations took place in a chapel, which 
has lately excited no small portion of interest in the public mind - our Ladye's 
chapelle, at the east end of St. Saviour's church, and which, in a restored and 
beautiful state, now adorns the western scene of the new London bridge. Page 419 
- Footnote marker t - BT 4 words "read in the pulpit" This must have been the 
public rostrum of the city, then fixed in front of the townhall, and near the 
centre of the great market-place; and not the pulpit of the single church in Calais, 
which is in a remote corner of the place, and must then have been closed against 
all reformers. Page 421 - Footnote marker u - BT 4 words "he said, "O George" 
His name as before observed, were George Bucker, Adam Damlip. Page 425 - Footnote 
marker v - BT 4 words "we should preach likewise" What a vile criminal was this 
reformer, Forret, for waving his right to the cow and the upper garment of his 
poor parishioners, that their families might have more milk and be better clothed 
than usual, and then to think of supporting his charitable conduct by appealing 
to the gos- pels and epistles of the New Testament! And what a holy churchman 
was the bishop of Dunkeld to insist upon both these novel practices being discontinued! 
Page 425 - Footnote marker w - BT 4 words " and New Testament was." From this 
arose the proverb so common in Scotland - "You are like the bishop of Dunkeld, 
you know not either the old or the new one." Page427 - Footnote marker x - BT 
4 words "learning, and a fletcher" This was a maker of arrows, an occupation which 
the discovery of gun- powder and other modern means of warfare were fast reducing 
in impor- tance; but which at earlier periods was one of the most prosperous and 
active concerns in the land. Page 433 - Footnote marker y - BT 4 words " are no 
beggars found" This speech, though found among the answers of Wishart, and introduced 
in the place in which he uttered it, does not appear to be so appro- priate as 
his other replies. Page 456 - Footnote marker z - BT 4 words "I was a parrot" 
This is almost the only charge against this excellent woman which has a semblance 
of truth. If she had a fault it was a garrulity, so often laid to the account 
of her sex. Her wit was of the quickest and most piercing kind, and not at any 
time unmingled with prudence any more than piety. Before such treacherous judges, 
we rather rejoice than regret that her tongue felt itself at perfect liberty. 
Her rebukes are a standing pro- test against the assumptions of an intolerant 
and intolerable priesthood, and are moreover, some oif the most interesting in 
both expression and sentiment that tongue ever uttered or pen recorded. Page 498 
- Footnote marker a - BT 4 words " the sacrament but penitents" This sounds strange 
to modern Christain ears: but by penitents are here evidently meant persons suspended 
for a time for certain offences from the communion of the church, and are supposed 
to bewail what they have done. Page 508 - Footnote marker b - BT 4 words " and 
they are life" It is remarkable that in the ninth century, many of the greatest 
men wrote against the real presence, and none of them were condemned as heretics. 
The contrary opinion was then received in England, as appeared by the Saxon homily, 
which was read on Easter day, in which are several of Bertram's words. It was 
generally received in the eleventh century, and fully established in the fourth 
council in the Lateran. At first it was believed that the whole loaf was turned 
into one entire body, so that in the distribution every one had a small part given 
him; and according to that conceit it was pretended, that it often bled, and was 
turned into flesh. But this seemed an indecent way of handling Christ's glorified 
body, so that the schoolmen invented a more seemly notion - that such a body might 
be in a place after the manner of a spirit, so that in every crumb there was an 
entire Christ. This, though it appeared hard to be conceived, yet generally prevailed, 
after which the miracles fitted for the former opinion were more heard of, but 
new ones agreeing to this hypothesis were imposes in their stead. So dexterously 
did the priests deceive the world, until the time arrived for the great standing 
deception of the host! Page 518 - Footnote marker c - BT 4 words " present number, 
thirty nine" In the ancient church there was at first a great simplicity in their 
creeds; but afterwards, upon the breaking out of heresies concerning the person 
of Christ, equivocal senses being put on the terms formerly used, new ones, which 
could not be so easily eluded, were invented. A humour of explaining mysteries 
by similes and niceties, and of passing anathe- mas on all who did not receive 
these, was very common in the church: and though the council of Ephesus decreed 
that no new additions should be made to the creed, yet that did not restrain those 
who loved to make their own conceits be received as parts of the faith. Page 526 
- Footnote marker d - BT 4 words " lands, and his palace" That beautiful building 
and ornament of the country, Somerset-house, in the Strand, London. Page 533 - 
Footnote marker e - BT 4 words "wonder of that time" The preceding year, Cardan 
the great philosopher of that age passed through England on his return from Scotland 
to the Continent. He waited on the youthful king, and was so charmed with his 
great knowledge and rare qualities, that he always spoke of him as the most excellent 
char- acter of his age he had ever seen: and after his death, he wrote the following 
account of him. "All the graces were in him: he understood many tongues when he 
was yet but a child; together with the English, he knew both Latin and French; 
he also understood Greek, Italian, and Spanish. Nor was he ignorant of logic, 
of the principles of natural philosophy, or of music. The sweetness of his temper 
was admirable. His gravity became the majesty of a king, and his disposition was 
suitable to his high degree. These things are not spoken rhetorically, and beyond 
the truth, but are indeed short of it. When I was with him, he was in his fifteenth 
year, in which he spake Latin politely and promptly. He asked me what was the 
subject of my book, De rerum veritate, which I dedicated to him? I answered, that 
in the first chapter I gave the true cause of comets, which had been long enquired 
into, but was never found out before. On his asking the cause, I said it was the 
concourse of the light of wandering stars. He asked how that could be, since the 
stars move in different motions? How came it that the comets were not dissi- pated, 
or did not move after them according to their motions? To this I answered, 'They 
do move after them, but much quicker than they, by reason of the different aspect; 
as we see in crystal, or when a rainbow rebounds from a wall: for a little change 
makes a great difference of place.' The king said, 'How can that be, where there 
is no subject to receive that light as the wall is the subject for the rainbow?' 
To this I answered, That this was as in the milky-way, or where many candles were 
lighted; the middle place where their shining met was white and clear." From this 
sample it may be imagined what he was. The ingenuity and sweetness of his disposition 
had raised in all good and learned men, the greatest expectation of him possible. 
He began to love the liberal arts before he knew them, and to know them that he 
might use them: and in him there was such an attempt of nature, that not only 
England, but the world hath reason to lament his being so early snatched away. 
How truly was it said of such extraordinary persons, that their lives are short, 
and seldom do they come to be old! He gave us an essay of virtue, though he did 
not live long to give a pattern of it. When the gravity of a king was needful, 
he carried himself like an old man, and yet he was always affiable and gentle, 
as became his age. These extraordinary blossoms gave but too good reason of fear, 
that a fruit which ripened so fast could not last long. Page 587 - Footnote marker 
l - BT 4 words "wise prince he was" When the treaty of the queen's marriage came 
to be known, the house of commons was much alarmed at it; and they sent their 
speaker with twenty of their members with an address to her not to marry a stranger: 
they were indeed so inflamed, that the court judged it necessary to dissolve the 
parliament. Gardiner, upon this, let the emperor know that the jealousies which 
were taken up on account of the match were such, that unless very extraordinary 
conditions were offered, it would occasion a general rebellion. He also wrote 
to him that great sums of money must be sent over, both to gratify the nobility, 
and to enable them to carry the elections to the next parliament in opposition 
to such as would stand against them. As for conditions, it was resolved to grant 
any should be demanded; for the emperor reckoned that if his son erew once married 
to the queen of England, it would be easy for him to govern the councils as he 
pleased. Page 618 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words " letters passed between them" 
The godly reconciliation of these good men appears by the following extract from 
bishop Ridley's letter to Mr. Hooper: "My dear brother - Forasmuch as I understand 
by your works, which I have yet but superfi- cially seen, that we thoroughly agree 
and wholly consent together in those things which are the grounds and substantial 
points of our reli- gion, against the which the world so furiously rageth in these 
our days, howsoever in time past, in certain bye-matters and circumstances of 
religion, your wisdom and my simplicity (I grant) have a little jarred, each of 
us following the abundance of his own sense and judgment; now, I say, be you assured 
that even with my whole heart, God is my witness, in the bowels of Christ I love 
you in the truth, and for the truth's sake which abideth in us, and as I am persuaded 
shall by the grace of God abide in us for evermore. And because the world, as 
I perceive, brother, ceaseth not to play a pageant, and busily conspireth against 
Christ our Saviour, with all possible force and power 'exalting high things against 
the knowledge of God,' let us join hands together in Christ; and if we cannot 
overthrow, yet to our power, and as much as in us lieth, let us shake those high 
altitudes, not with carnal but with spiritual weapons; and withal, brother, let 
us prepare for the day of dissolution, by the which, after the short time of this 
bodily affliction, by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, we shall triumph together 
with him in eternal glory." Page 634 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words " crown 
that awaited him" "Go forwards," he wrote, "constantly to confess Christ, and 
to defy Antichrist, being mindful of this most holy and most true saying of our 
Lord Jesus christ: 'He that overcometh shall possess all things; and I will be 
his God, and he shall be my son.' The first death is soon over- come, although 
a man must burn for the Lord's sake: for they say well that do affirm this our 
fire to be scarcely a shadow of that which is prepared for unbelievers, and then 
that fall from the truth. Moreover, the Lord granteth unto us, that we may easily 
overcome by his power the first death, the which he himself did taste and overcome; 
promising withal such joys as never shall have end, unspeakable, and passing all 
understanding, the which we shall possess so soon as ever we do depart hence. 
- Therefore, seeing you have such a large promise, be strong in the Lord, fight 
a good fight, be faithful to the Lord unto the end. I and all my household, with 
my sons-in-law and kinsmen, are in good health in the Lord. They do all salute 
you, and pray for your constancy; being sorrowful for you and the rest of the 
prisoners. If there be any thing wherin I may do any pleasure to your wife and 
children, they shall have me wholly at commandment. The Lord Jesus preserve and 
deliver you from all evil, with all them that call upon his name. Farewell, and 
farewell eternally. You know the hand, H.B." Page 660 - Footnote marker a - BT 
4 words "false doctrine by Scripture" Upon the Shrove-Sunday in this year, 1555, 
a certain priest named Nightingale, parson of Crundal near Canterbury, preached 
a sermon on the words of St. John, "He that saith he hath no sin is a liar, and 
the truth is not in him." And so upon the same he declared all such articles as 
were set forth by the pope's authority, and by commandment of the bishops; saying 
moreover, "Now, masters and neighbors, rejoice and be merry, for the prodigal 
son is come home. For I know that the most part of you be as I am, for I know 
your hearts well enough. And I shall tell you what hath happened in this week 
past: I was before my lord cardinal Pole's grace, and he hath made me as free 
from sin as I was at the font- stone: and on Thursday last being before him, he 
hath appointed me to notify the same to you, and I will tell you what it is." 
- And after reading the pope's bill of pardon that was sent into England, he added 
that he believed that by the virtue of that bull he was as clean from sin as the 
night he was born. Immediately upon the same he fell suddenly down out of the 
pulpit, and never more stirred hand nor foot. This was testified by Robert Austen 
of Cartham, who both heard and saw the same, and was witnessed also by the whole 
country round about. Page 738 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words " in a glorified 
act? How can Christ's glorified body be in the sacrament, wherin the sacra- ment 
was given before that body was crucified, and it was cricified before it was glorified? 
"The body unglorified was given in the sacra- ment, in a glorified act," quoth 
Harpsfield. Page 756 - Footnote marker f - BT 4 words " the scriptures of God" 
Instead of leaving the admirable arguments of Mr. Newman weakened by the interposition 
of short and colloquial questions, they have been rendered continuous by the omission 
of those questions: at the same time not an atom of the reasoning of this good 
man has been suffered to escape, nor in a single instance had his meaning been 
misinterpreted. Page 758 - Footnote marker g - BT 4 words " Warne, and Joan Lashford" 
This young woman appears to have been the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Warne, and 
a child worthy of such holy and devoted parents. Whether the name Lashford arose 
from her being married, or was a second name by which she was generally known, 
is uncertain. Page 765 - Footnote marker h - BT 4 words " and all this audience" 
This is a striking instance of a feature too common in Bonner's charac- ter, uniting 
ingenious wit with cool deliberate barbarity, presenting the most cruel parts 
of his disposition from beneath a mask of the greatest hypocrisy. He sought to 
convey to those who heard him, not perhaps excpecting the lord mayor himself, 
that upon Smith's recantation he should be delivered from his present thraldom 
and peril: whereas it is too clear that the sanguinary dissembler meant only that 
the reward of recantation should be a more speedy dispatch by the fire, a more 
prompt sentence and a quicker burning! In this light Smith evidently viewed it. 
Page 778 - Footnote marker i - BT 4 words " king were an infidel" A modern prelate 
discovered exactly the same spirit; who said in the House of Lords, that the poor 
had nothing to do with the laws but to obey them. Page 780 - Footnote marker k 
- BT 4 words " by the Lord Jesus" As the opinions of commentators and learned 
men, respecting the sin against the Holy Ghost, have been swelled into volumes, 
and as it still remains a mystery in the minds of multitudes, we here present 
to our readers an extract upon the subject, from an author who has, in our opinion, 
the clearest views upon it. After having satistactorily answered all the objections 
which could reasonably be made to his arguments, he thus proceeds. "In a word, 
the conclusion of the whole may again be collected thus - In the days of Moses, 
and before Moses from the beginning, not to believe the Holy Ghost and what he 
then witnessed, by whomsoever, or in whatsoever manner he chose to declare the 
saving truth, was to sin against the Holy Ghost. From Moses down to the coming 
of the Holy One and the Just, not to believe the doctrine then delivered by the 
inspiration of the Holy Ghost, was the very sin against the Holy Ghost, in those 
days. When the Messiah, after John the Baptist, his forerunner, came and taught 
and wrought miracles, the unbelievers sinned against the Holy Ghost still more 
and more. But when Jesus was declared the Son of God, with power, according to 
the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead; and the gospel, by 
the Holy Ghost from heaven, was preached to every creature under heaven, whithersoever 
the apostles with their doctrines were sent, as they now are unto us, at this 
day, - the sin of blasphemy against the Holy Ghost arrived at the very highest 
pitch of aggravation. And who, sayest thou, is guilty of it? - Thou, thy very 
individual self, O reader! art indeed at this present moment of God's long suffering 
and forbearance, guilty of this most alarming sin and blasphemy against the Holy 
Ghost; holding him for a liar in his testimony concerning the Son of God, if thou 
hast not verily set to thy seal that God is true, and hast not attained the same 
precise, honourable, divine faith, as all the apostles themselves had, and which 
they preached by the Holy Ghost, and have also recorded in their writings, which 
are our standard: for the faith of all God's elect is one, and their hope one 
in the Lord. 'Be not deceived - God is not mocked; as a man soweth, so shall he 
also reap. These things are written, that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, 
the Son of God, and that believing ye may have life through his name.' Such is 
the note of Milner, in the edition of 1806. To this editor of the present edition 
begs leave to append the following somewhat qualifying remards from the admirable 
"Conversations" of the Rev. Richard Watson. "On our Lord's return to Capernaum 
he cast out a devil which had inflicted both blind- ness and dumbness upon an 
unhappy man. This was a case of peculiarly afflictive and notorious possession: 
and it was the impression made by this miracle in favour of his Messiahship upon 
the minds of the people, which led the Pharisees to utter the blasphemy - 'This 
fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils!' This 
was the wretched argument by which they steeled their perverted consciences against 
all conviction, and which constituted that sin against the Holy Ghost, whose power 
co-operated with Christ in working his miracles, which was declared to be beyond 
forgiveness. This is the only unpardon- able sin. It is not every sin against 
the Holy Ghost which is unpardon- able, though some make awful approaches to that 
which is so: but this sin, the only one excepted from divine mercy, is defined 
to be blasphemy against Him." Page 788 - Footnote marker l - BT 4 words "with 
the bishop's letter" Understanding that one Glover, a heretic, is dead in the 
parish of Wem, which Glover hath for all the time of my being in this country 
been known for a rebel against ournholy faith and religion, a contemner of the 
holy sacraments and ceremonies used in the holy church, and hath separated himself 
from the holy communion of all good Christian men, and never required to be reconciled 
to our mother holy church, nor in his last days did call for his ghostly father, 
but died without all rites belonging to a christian man" I thought it good, not 
only to command the curate of Wem that he should not be buried with Christian 
man's burial, but also will and command the curate of Wem, that no man procure 
help, nor speak to have him buried in holy ground" but I do charge and command 
the church wardens of Wem, in special, and all the parish of the same, that they 
assist the said curate in defendiung, and letting, and procur- ing that he be 
nor buried in the church, or within the walls of the churchyard: and likewise 
I charge those that brought the body to the place to carry it away again, and 
that at their charge, as they will answer at their peril. - At Eccleshall, this 
6th day of September, anno 1558. "By your ordinary, RADULPH COVENTRY AND LITCHFIELD." 
Page 791 - Footnote marker n - BT 4 words "the Lord Jesus Christ" Mr. Fox remarks 
in addition that he received from a friend, from the university of Cambridge, 
the following comparison of these two excellent martyrs - each excellent in his 
way. "Pygot was mild, humble, and mod- est, promising that he would conform to 
his persecutors, if they could persuade him by the scriptures. Wosley was stout, 
strong, and vehement, as one having the fulness of the Spirit, and detested all 
their doing. Hence he was jealous over his friend, lest his gentle nature should 
have been overcome by the enticements of his foes; with whom therefore he was 
unwilling he should converse." Page 797 - Footnote marker 0 - BT 4 words "in one 
is represented" This passage of Ridley - this definition of the true church, and 
of the certain marks by which it may be known - this distinction between the method 
of ascertaining the church before and after it became Roman and papal - merits 
the utmost attention, and deserves to be written in let- ters of gold. If Ridley 
had never written or spoken any thing else, this would have been sufficient to 
convince the world that, on every thing relating to the evidences of religious 
truth and sacred scriptural worship, he would have been equal as a disputant to 
the most enlightened who ever opened his lips or employed his pen in such a cause. 
Page 798 - Footnote marker p - BT 4 words " est, si catera nescis" To give full 
effect to these admirable lines, we present the reader with the following rather 
free, but still fair and faithful translation. To know all things here, and yet 
not Christ to know, Is ignorance deep as the deepest below: To know the Lord Jesus, 
and know nothing more, Is knowledge the highest to which we can soar. Page 812 
- Footnote marker s - BT 4 words " no fewer than three" Cranmer was the other 
individual of the three; and though nothing is hinted of his taking a share in 
the correspondence of these illustrious prisoners, it is evident, by the incidental 
mention of him in this place, that he had not yet become shaken, nor that he yet 
thought of recanting. Page 812 - Footnote marker t - BT 4 words " Wilkson and 
Mrs. Warcup" Two excellent women to whom some of Bradford's best letters were 
ad- dressed. It would appear from their ministrations to the Oxford as well as 
London prisoners, that they devoted themselves to a general attention to the wants 
of the martyrs of that day. Page 816 - Footnote marker u - BT 4 words "heart to 
be Triumph" The word trump, as now used, is a corruption from triumph - the trumph 
card. Page 832 - Footnote marker v - BT 4 words "other could be saved" Mary was 
indeed, according to the salutation of Elizabeth, highly blessed among women in 
bearing that sacred body wherein her God became incarnate; but still she was a 
daughter of Adam, and consequently not without sin, and needing the atoning blood 
of Christ and his righteous- ness, as many as any of her fellow creatures - a 
fact indirectly con- veyed by the words of Christ himself, who, when a certain 
woman ex- claimed - "Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou 
hast sucked! " - answered "Yea, rather blessed are they who hear the word of God 
and keep it." Nothing can be clearer than that a humble believer in Christ is 
superior to the virgin as such, and that her chief excellence consists in her 
own humble and holy faith in his salvation. Page 832 - Footnote marker w - Bt 
4 words "the way of intercession" This may seem a harmless opinion; but no warrant 
for it can be drawn from scripture. We see neither in the Prophets nor the Apostles 
any examples of praying to saints. All requests are to be made known unot God 
through Christ, Psa. xlv. 17; lxxii. 15; Acts iv. 12; Phil ii 9--11; 1 Tim. ii 
5, 6; Heb. ix. 14, 15. Page 833 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words " for the Ave 
Maria" To speak with the least harshness of this, it was certainly a work of superogation 
and of will worship. Mr. Latimer, in these answers, doubtless discovers an apprehension 
of speaking the simple truth, which many of his brother martyrs were quite free 
from. This, however, was in an early part of his career; as he advanced he became 
more firm and clear, until all obscurity vanished. Page 862 - Footnote marker 
a - BT 4 words " over against Balliol college" ["Not many weeks since, some workmen, 
who were employed in making a drain in Broadstreet, opposite the door of the master 
of Balliol's lodgings, found, at the depth of about three feet from the present 
surface, such a quantity of ashes and burnt sticks, as plainly indicated that 
they had discovered the spot on which the martyrs suffered." - Christian Observer, 
June 1838.] Page 899 - Footnote marker f - BT 4 words "by report died miserably" 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester; of whose miserable death, as well as evil life, 
a sketch is given of a preceding page. Page 901 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words 
"spoke against the same" Here either the registrar belieth Philpot, or else he 
meant as not offending the law, thereby to be accused; for his former examinations 
do declare that he spake against the sacrament. Page 973 - Footnote marker * - 
BT 4 words "passed through the pikes" In the goodly company of those persecuted 
in divers ways for the cause of Christ's gospel, in the cruel reign of queen Mary, 
who also escaped the fire, may be numbered the following: John Hunt, Richard White, 
John Willes, Robert Willes, Thomas Hinshaw, R. Bailey, Hudleys, T. Coast, Roger 
Sandy, Richard Wilmot, Thomas Fairfax, Thomas Green, James Harris, Robert Williams, 
William and Julian Living, John Lithal, Edward Grew, William Brown, Elizabeth 
Lawson, Thomas Christenmass, William Wats, John Glover, Alexander Wimshurst, Dabney, 
lady Knevet, John Davis, mistress Roberts, mistress Ann Lacy, one Crossman's wife, 
Edward Benet, Jeffrey Hurst, William Wood, the duchess of Suffolk, Thomas Horton, 
Thomas Sprat, John Cornet, Thomas Bryce, Gertrude Crokhay, William Maldon, Robert 
Horneby, mistress Sands, Thomas Rose, doctor Sands or Sandys, etc. Page 1004 - 
Footnote marker k - BT 4 words "Owen O'Connelly, an Irishman" For this signal 
peice of service, the English parliament voted O'Connelly the man of 00l. and 
a pension during life of 200l. Page 1007 - Footnote marker l - BT 4 words "bishop 
found among them" Very extensive was his learning, and he would have given the 
world a greater proof of it, had he printed half that he wrote. Scarce any of 
his writings were saved; the papists having destroyed most of his papers, and 
his library. He had gathered a vast heap of critical expositions of scripture, 
all which, with a great trunk full of his manuscripts, fell into the hands of 
the Irish. Happily his great Hebrew MS. was preserved, and is now in the library 
of Emanuel College, Oxford. Page 1014 - Footnote marker m - BT 4 words "of the 
popish party" Dr. Oates, in his narrative, says, that in July, 1678, one Strange, 
a Jesuit, told him, that they had got fourteen thousand pounds by the fire of 
London, in 1666, and spent seven hundred fire-balls to effect their villany; and 
that when the fire-merchants were at work, other papists, both men and women, 
were employed to plunder: that they had a warehouse in Wild-street, where some 
of their stolen goods were laid; and other goods were concealed in Somerset-house, 
as hollands, cambrics, fine cloth, and considerable quantities of plate, with 
a box of jewels. Dr. Oates asked Strange how the king came to escape? for it seems 
his death was designed then. He replied, "Indeed we were resolved to have cut 
him off, but seeing him so industrious about quenching the fire, we could not 
find in our hearts to do it." He further said, there were eithty-six employed 
in it; and J. Grove, afterwards executed for high treason, told Dr. Oates that 
he fired Southwark, and that the Jesuits got two thousand pounds by that fire. 
Page 1016 - Footnote marker n - BT 4 words "by way of massacre" There was at this 
time a general, though perhaps, considering the disparity of numbers between the 
Roman catholics and the protestants in England, a groundless apprehension of this: 
yet, such were the impressions upon the public mind, that many prepared themselves 
with arms in case of danger. Page 1026 - Footnote marker o - BT 4 words "evidenced 
to be his" In his petition to the king, speaking of those papers, he says: "That 
whosoever wrote them, they were but a small part of a polemical discourse, in 
answer to a book written thirty years before, upon general propositions, applied 
to no time, nor to any particular case; that the confusion and errors in the writing 
showed that they had never been so much as revised; and that being written in 
a hand that no man could well read, they were not fit for the press, nor could 
be for some years. But they being only the crude and private thoughts of a man 
for the exercise of his own understanding in his tudies, and never shown to any, 
or applied to any particular case, could not fall under the statute of Edward 
III., the statute falsely pleaded, and artfully perverted, for his condemnation 
and death." Page 1038 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words "the duke of Monmouth" 
"The cruelty of the king's officers towards the prisioners which they took at 
Sedgemoor, exceeds all credit. The earl of Feversham ordered about twenty to be 
hung immediately after the action. Nineteen others were put to death at Bridgewater, 
by colonel Kirke, an inhuman wretch, who continued to execute others occasionally 
for his diversion, with circumstances of wanton barbarity. Judge Jeffreys was 
now sent the western circuit, to finish the horrid tragedy. At Dorchester he ordered 
nine and twenty persons to be executed immediately after conviction. He prosecuted 
the same work and carnage at Exeter and Taunton; and two hundred and fifty persons 
are said to have been sacrificed, in this circuit, under colour of justice." - 
Clarendon. Page 1041 - Footnote marker a - BT 4 words "HENRY III. TO LOUIS XVIII. 
This section, and those following, are added by the writer of the Essay BACK