- TABLE OF CONTENTS
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STUDY - MORAL
ISSUES - KING
JAMES BIBLE - CULTS
It is always in order to find a worthy person to whom we might dedicate a page like this. In view of their exceptional skills at growing and processing what I feel is the best coffee in the world, I dedicate this page jointly to the coffee farmers of Vera Cruz, Mexico and the people of Kaffa Province in Ethiopia.
I do believe it is a toss up between Mexico and Ethiopia. It was the people of Ethiopia who sustained the coffee plant as keepers of God's Garden. Thus, coffee is named for Ethiopia's Kaffa Province, the primal estate of Buna or Khawa.
FMUSIC IN THE BACKGROUND WHILE YOU READ
WASHINGTON (AP) -- Coffee can give you a kick on a cold morning, and it's a great donut companion. Now researchers say a cup of joe may also help prevent liver cancer. A study of more than 90-thousand Japanese finds people who drink coffee daily or nearly every day have half the risk of liver cancer. It says the protective effect occurs in people who drink one to two cups of coffee a day and increases at three to four cups. No word on whether it's the caffeine or something else. Decaf is rarely consumed in Japan and wasn't included in the study. Coffee contains antioxidants, but so does green tea. Researchers found no reduced risk of liver cancer with green tea. A separate study shows no relationship between coffee and colon or rectal cancer. But it finds a 52-percent decline in rectal cancer among people who regularly drink two or more cups of decaf. Both studies appear in this week's issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
In 1997 the American Institute of Cancer Research, based in Washington, DC, and London's World Cancer Research Fund, published a comprehensive review, which concluded that coffee was not cancerous. Indeed, coffee may help prevent cancer of the colon. An analysis of 17 studies on colorectal cancer and coffee dating from 1960 to 1990 indicated that the risk was lowered by 24 per cent amongst those who drank four cups of coffee a day. In other words, coffee does not appear to be responsible for cancer, and may confer some protective benefit.
Recently research from the Faculty of Medicine in Lisbon, Portugal, has shown that coffee can reduce the risk of contracting Alzheimer's disease. The study compared 54 people with Alzheimer's with 54 who had not contracted the disease, matched for age and sex. They found that people who did not have Alzheimer's had been drinking nearly 200 mg of caffeine a day for twenty years. that's just over two cups of brewed coffee a day. There is also evidence to suggest that it can reduce the risk of contracting Parkinson's disease
"In general there are not very many good studies which show the negative effects of coffee," says Dr Peter Martin, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology and director of the department for Addiction Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, in Nashville, Tennessee, "What people are studying is the effect of caffeine, not coffee. Coffee is much more than a tablet of caffeine." The number of aromatic compounds in coffee has reached 800 and is still increasing, as our analytical methods are becoming more accurate. The furans are the most predominant group of compounds and these have caramel-like odours; the second largest group, the pyrazines, contribute to the toasted flavours. But what Martin and his colleague, Dr James May, are interested in are chlorogenic acids.
Vanderbilt University has recently been awarded a grant to create the Institute for Coffee Research and one of the first studies that have been carried out is on antioxidants in coffee. Roasting coffee oxidises chlorogenic acid, which is broken down in the body to form dihydrocaffeic acid. This compound is an antioxidant and research has proved that it is preferentially taken up the body's cells. Antioxidants, because they combat wear and tear on the body, can help us live longer in a healthier state and may be found in concentrations four times higher in coffee than in tea, so drinking coffee (in moderation) really does appear to be good for you.
Caffeine range (mg)
Average caffeine (mg)
|Coffee based on 8 oz cup|
|Espresso, 1 oz cup|
Capuccino, Latte, 1oz shot
|Moccachino, 1 oz sho|
COFFEE GLOSSARY OF TERMS:
1a: High quality coffee beans. 1aaa: Highest quality coffee beans identified and described stating size, quality, density, and moisture content.
A: Largest size grade in India, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.
AA: Largest size grade in Kenya, Tanzania, and New Guinea, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.
AAA: Largest size grade in Peru, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.
About: Theoretically, an error of +/- 5%. In actuality, -2% to -4.5%.
Acidity, Acidy, Acid: The pH of the substance. In coffee it is about 5. The tartness taste to coffee.
Afloat: The coffee is in route on a ship.
Aged Coffee: Coffee held in warehouse for several years in order to reduce acidity and increased body. Aged coffee is held longer than an old crop, or mature coffee. The official position of Majestic Coffee and Tea's owner is it taste like cork. And is of poor taste. Some people in the world may argue with this position.
Altura: In spanish means heights and describes Mexican coffee that has been grown high or "mountain grown".
American Roast: medium brown.
Alqueir: A term used to describe the capacity of a liquid. In coffee terms it is 50 kilograms.
And/or: A term which both, all, or one. When in a coffee contract it means both, either, but not mixed.
Arabica: Coffea Arabica, a coffee bean developed for wider latitudes. The most common cultivated species of coffee in the modern market. Preferred in the Middle East for dark roast and brewing by an Ibrik. Arabica is descended from the original Ethiopian coffee trees. The coffee made from this variety is mild and aromatic. It's the king of coffee and accounts for about 70 percent of the world's coffee production. These coffee trees grow best in higher altitudes, between 2,000 and 6,000 feet (610 and 1,829 m) above sea level. Mild temperatures (60 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit / 16 to 24 degrees Celsius) and about 60 inches (152 cm) of rain per year ensure arabica's growth. Heavy frost will kill arabica coffee trees.
Arbitrage: A transaction where the operator takes advantage of a communication delay time. Where the coffee is purchased and sold simultaneously to the advantage of the operator.
Aroma: The fragrance produced by any substance. Smell.
Arroba: A term for weight in Central and South America. Generally, 12.5 kilos or 27.5 pounds.
Automatic Drip: coffee brewers that automatically heat and filter water the coffee.
Balance: A tasting term applied to coffee or wine means no single taste characteristic overwhelms others.
Bag: Usually a burlap sack of coffee. In various countries it is a different weight. As an example: Brazil a bag is 132 pounds. Colombia it is 154 pounds. In Angola it is 176 pound.
Bale: Another term for bag. About 176 pounds but changes depending on who is using the term.
Batch Roaster: A machine which roasts a given quantity at one time. In effect, it is a roaster which does not continually roast beans. There is an identifiable start and end time to the roasters capabilities.
Benefico: A Spanish term for establishments that have cleaning, washing, drying, and sorting machines.
Black beans: Dead coffee which fell off the tree. 1 imperfection.
Black jack coffee: Coffee beans which turned bad after picking or during shipping.
Blend: A mix of two or more coffee beans.
Body: The sense of thickness associated with taste.
Bourbon: Coffee beans which come from plants which have not been altered originating from the Isle of Bourbon. Coffea Arabica.
Braca: A measure of length; 2 meters and 2 centimeters.
Bright: a taste term for acidic.
Brisures: Broken and separated by screening.
Broken: Cracked coffee beans.
Brokers: Generally anyone paid a commission involved in trade.
Bullhead: An extra large coffee bean. Sometimes a peaberry which has not totally grown together.
Buna: The name for coffee in Ethiopia.
Bundles: Another term for bale.
CC, C/C: Current Crop.
C&f: Cost of the coffee bean and freight.
Caracol: Another word for Peaberry; a large single round coffee bean.
Caturra: A recently developed subvariety of the Coffea Arabica which is better disease resistant.
Cif: Cost of the coffee bean, insurance, and freight.
Cafe beneficiado: Hulled coffee.
Cafe bonifieur: Thoroughly cleaned and polished coffee beans.
Cafe de panno: Coffee picked in the cloth. Coffee picked very carefully where a cloth is placed on the ground so no dirt gets in accidently if the bean falls.
Cafe despolpado: Washed coffee or pulped coffee, is the process.
Cafe em casca: Coffee in parchment.
Cafe em ceraja: Coffee in the red cherry.
Cafe em coco: Coffee in the dried pod.
Cafe en parche: Coffee in the parchment.
Cafe habitant: Coffee which has not been polished.
Cafe rebeneficiado: Coffee reseparated or improved.
Cafe terreir: Coffee washed and dried in coco.
Cafeate: Coffee with milk.
Cafetal: A plantation of coffee trees.
Cafeine C8H10N4O2; an alkaloid substance found in the coffee bean, the leaf, some tea leaf, yerba mate, cocoa bean.
Caffeine content: in a cup of coffee about 1.5 grains.
Caffeeol, Caffeol, Coffeol: A volatile aromatic conglomerate formed during roasting. Essence of coffee, coffee oils.
Caffetannic acid: Erroneously term used to describe the acids of coffee. There is no such compound.
Cargo bags: Bags delivered to the boat, the shipper, the receiver, etc.
Cargo slacks: Bags of coffee that have become slack through leakage in transit.
Cherry: Name applied to the ripe fruit of the coffee tree. Cherry hulls dried can be bought online and have researched medical benefits when brewed as a beverage.
Chicory: An addition or filler in coffee made from the plant, cichorium intybus.
Chop: Before shipping, each invoice of coffee is made up into a number of division called chops. The bags in each division are marked with a particular chop number.
Cinnamon Roast: a term for the lighter roasts.
City Roast: A term for a medium dark roasted coffee.
Coffee fruit: The berry which contains the seed.
Coffee grade: One who grades coffee.
Coffeol: Essence of coffee, coffee oils.
Cold Water Method: a way of brewing coffee using cold water rather than hot water.
Commercial Coffees: general refers to a brand name coffee which is preground. Used by some countries to differentiate between those coffees which the locals can drink and those exported.
Commissario: A name used to designate the commission merchant at coffee ports who bought from the planter, or sold the planter's coffee on the commission, stored it in a warehouse, and sold it to an exporter.
Commission merchant: a person or firm receiving coffee on consignment for sale in a consuming country.
Complexity: a tasting term describing sensation shifts; resonance, depth.
Continous Roaster: a roaster that roasts coffee continually as opposed to a batch roaster.
Conto: A term in currency equal to 1000 cruzeiros.
Contract: A Coffee Exchange contract is 32,500 lbs. (250 bags)
Country damage: An insurance term meaning damaged occurring in the country of origin while in transit to the port of loading.
Crema: the pale brown foam covering the surface of a well brewed cup of espresso.
Cup testing: Judging the merits of a coffee by roasting, grinding, and brewing some of it. The brew is sipped.
Dark French Roast: a roast almost jet black in color, thin bodied and bittersweet tasting a bit like burnt charcoal.
Dark Roast: a roast which the beans are just turning black but still look brown.
Date of invoice: date from the time of purchase and not from the time of shipment.
Decaffeinated: coffee which has had the caffeine removed or blocked in such a way that the caffeine will not leave the bean during brewing.
Decaffeination Process: the process by which the coffee was decaffeinated.
Delivered: The seller undertakes to guarantee the safe carriage at his expense to the point stipulated in the contract, and reweighed at destination. discounts: Some price less that the normal price.
Demitasse: a half size cup for espresso.
Doser: A spring loaded device on certain espresso grinders which dispenses single servings of ground coffee.
Drip Method: a brewing method that drips the hot water over the bed of coffee grounds.
Dry fermenting: When washed, coffee is fermented without water.
Dry Processed Coffee: a process to remove the husk from the fruit after the coffee berries have been dried. Generally scraping the berry and considered inferior to the washed or fermented process.
Dry roast: A roasting process in which no water is used to check the roast. The operator depends entirely upon his cooling apparatus for quick cooling.
Earthiness: a tasting term describing coffee which taste a little off and a bit like dirt.
En oro: Term for washed coffee when the parchment and silver skin have been removed. Clean coffee.
En parche: term used for coffee in the parchment. Green beans with the parchment still on them are not inferior, but you will have them blowing all over the place as you roast the beans.
Espresso: a method to brew coffee which forces the water into the grind by pressure.
Estate Grown: Coffee grown on large farms as opposed to small peasant plots, usually old family owned plantations. Estate coffee is sold by the name of the estate that produced it. This allows the coffee lover to zero in on more than, let's say, Sumatra, and the Mandeling area. He can buy coffee from that area and know which estate grew it. Estate coffee is usually expensive.
European Preparation: removing imperfections by hand.
Excelso: a grade of coffee which includes size, quality, and imperfections.
Ex dock: Contracts requiring the buyer to take delivery from the pier.
Ex ship: Coffee which is sold before arrival with the understanding that the buyer will remove it immediately after unloading on the dock.
Extra: second best grade of coffee.
Ex warehouse: coffee which is warehoused which are placed at the disposal of the buyer.
Faq: Fair average quality.
Fazenda: A coffee plantation.
Fazendero: A proprietor of a fazenda.
Fermenting: A process where yeasts eat the sugars in a substance.
Filtered Method: coffee brewed with a filter where the coffee is held separate from the sitting water.
Finish: the after taste or the lingering taste of the coffee.
Flip Drip: a device which water is heated on the bottom of the brewer, when boiling, the device is flipped over and the water drips down through the coffee which was loaded in the middle of the brewer.
Fluid Bed Roaster: a roaster which cooks the bean by holding them up with a blast of hot air.
French Press: a device which brews coffee by allowing the grinds to sit in the water, when finished, a press pushes the grounds to the bottom.
French Roast: a roast black in color tasting bittersweet but not like burnt charcoal.
Finca: A coffee plantation.
Finquero: A proprietor of a finca.
Flat bean: A larger bean without the curly characteristic generally void of acid.
Fob: Free on board. The seller agrees to place the product safely on board the carrier designated by the purchaser. Generally describes the time title is transferred.
Forwarder: An agent who takes charge of a coffee shipment for interior clients and directs transportation.
French roast: Means the bean is roasted sufficiently to bring the oils to the surface of the bean.
Full city roast: Darker than city roast.
Futures: Coffee sold for delivery sometime in the future.
Gamey, Gaminess: other terms which mean off in taste. Doesn't taste right but can't explain what it is.
General average: An insurance term meaning a loss arising from a voluntary and successful sacrifice or expenses incurred under extraordinary circumstance for the purpose of averting a threatening danger to the common safety.
GHB: Good Hard Bean.
Glazing: Coating the bean to preserve the natural flavor.
Good Hard Bean: a grade of coffee grown at altitudes above 3000 feet. Term varies depending on the country where the bean is grown.
Grade: The measure of quality.
Green Coffee: Unroasted coffee beans.
Group: the fixture protruding from the front of an espresso machine which makes more than one cup at a time.
Groundy: An earthly taste. The taste of dirt.
Hard: coffee with a less mild taste. Generally a term for "not as good."
Hard Bean: same a good hard bean, but more universal and general means a denser bean.
Harsh: A term to describe a certain coffee flavor.
HB: Hard Bean.
HG: High Grown.
HGC: High Grown Central.
Hidey coffee, hidy coffee: Coffee which smells and tastes like hides. Coffee which is shipped wrapped in animal hides.
Hulling: The last step in the preparation of washed coffee.
Husking: Cleaning the dried cherry.
Ibrik: A coffee pot with a taper downward used in Arab homes to brew coffee.
Importer: A person or firm that buys coffee form a producing country and brings it into a nonproducing country.
In store: A contract requiring the seller to store the coffee, clean it, and make it ready for delivery.
Invisible supply: The unknown stocks of coffee, including those held by roasters.
Invoice: One or more chops of coffee billed as one sale.
Italian Roast: a darker roast than American.
Java: An island of Indonesia. An arabica cup of coffee. Any cup of coffee.
Kawah: Coffee in Arabic
Kilogram: 2.2046 pounds.
Last bag notice: A term used by cargo when the last bags are being unloaded. A term used by marketers defining coffee which has been sold before arrival, when notice is given by cargo, the importer can transfer ownership of the coffee.
Lavando Fino: best grade of Venezuelan coffee.
Laterals: Side branches, often horizontal.
Lewak Coffee-- See "shit" coffee below
Limu: a low acid washed coffee, typically from Ethiopia.
LGC: Low Grown Central.
Longberry harrar: a grade of coffee from Ethiopia. The beans are larger than shortberries.
Machine epirre: Machine stoned:
Made sound: Damaged coffee which has been cleaned.
MAM: an acronym for Medelin, Armenia, and Manizales Colombian coffees which are typically sold together in one contract.
Maragogip: an extremely large porous bean.
Mat: All Java coffee is exported in mats weighing about 67 pounds.
Mature Coffee: Generally, a term for coffee still in its parchment waiting for an order which is older than one generation of crop.
Mazagran: The French name for a drink composed of cold coffee and seltzer water:
Mbuni: Unwashed poor quality coffee.
MC: Methylene Chloride; generally used in Decaffeinated coffee.
Microwave Brewers: brewers which work in a microwave oven.
Middle Eastern Coffee: another term for Turkish Coffee, coffee ground to a fine powder, served grounds and all.
Mild coffees: Coffees free of the harsh flavor.
Mocha: A small irregular bean, in color alive green. Has a unique acid character. Generally shipped from Mocha Yemen. Sometimes; mixed with coffee shipped from Mocha Yemen.
Monsooned Coffee: coffee deliberately exposed to monsoon winds in open warehouse to increase body and reduce acidity.
Mulch: A layer of grass, leaves, or compost, placed over the surface of the soil.
Musty: A flavor as a result of overheating or lack of proper drying.
New Crop: freshly picked and processed coffee crop.
No arrival: Didn't arrive as per contract.
No sale: Didn't arrive or was not as contracted for so the sale in incomplete.
Notice: Announcement of delivery.
Old Crop: any crop which has been sitting around a long time. Generally, any crop which is older than one crop. Depending on handling, this may not be aged or mature crop.
Open Pot: one of the oldest methods, leave the coffee in an open pot where the grind separates from the brew by settling or straining.
Parchment: The endocarp of the coffee fruit. It lies between the fleshy part or pericarp and the silver skin. Remove during hulling process.
Particular average: An insurance term meaning a partial loss or damage to ship, cargo, or any of them resulting directly from the perils of the voyage and of purely accidental nature.
PC, P/C: Past Crop; older than one generation but still in parchment during storage.
Peaberry: A rounded bean from an occasional coffee cherry which contains but one seed instead of the usual flat sided pair.
Percolation: any method of brewing where the hot water is pumped up and gravity falls through the grind.
Pergamino: Parchment, Pergamino coffee is coffee that has been dried after pulping fermenting and washing.
Pile: Coffee dried and hulled by dry process.
Plantation coffee: Pergamino or parchment coffee.
Points: Fluctuations of prices on the commodities market. A term for grading coffee.
Primo Lavado: a grade of coffee which includes most of the fine coffees of Mexico. Generally a contract term which means the coffee is of good grade but not really specific.
Primary market: The market in the country of production.
Pulping: The first step after picking. Removing the outer skin of the berry.
PW: Prime Washed.
Pyrolysis: chemical breakdown during roasting of fats and carbohydrates into oils which provide the flavor and aroma.
Quakers: Unripe plighted or underdeveloped coffee beans.
Rat eaten: Bags attacked by rats on the ship. Unsalable bags of coffee.
Reis: Brazilian money.
Rich, Richness: a taste term of good body and/or acidity.
Rio, Rio flavor: A heavy and harsh taste characteristic of coffees grown in the Rio district of Brazil.
Rioy, Rio-y: generally Rio tasting.
Robusta: This second variety (with Arabica) comes from coffee trees which represent about 30 percent of the world's market. The bean is smaller and rounder than an arabica bean. Robusta is a heartier plant and can withstand warmer temperatures, up to 85 F (29 C). It can also thrive at lower altitudes than arabica. Robusta beans produce a bitter-tasting coffee with about 50 percent more caffeine than arabica. You'll find robusta coffee trees in Southeast Asia, Colombia, and Brazil. Robusta tastes like cardboard after you have tried Arabica.
Rubbery coffee: Taste like rubber.
Salt and rendered butter: Added to coffee just before serving in Ethiopia.
SC: Standard Central.
SHB: Strictly Hard Bean.
SHG: Strictly High Grown.
SHGC: Strictly High Grown Central.
Ship filings: Coffee swept overboard or fell off the pier.
Ship samples: Samples which precede the actual shipment.
Ship sweepings: All loose coffee swept up from the floor of piers, ship holds, or warehouse which are not suitable for consumption.
Shipper's slacks: Bags of coffee originally delivered by the shipper to the steamer in a slack filled condition. Not a completely filled bag.
Shit Coffee: Although it sounds vulgar, "shit" coffee exists as an official designation, and it is coffee berries which have been eaten and the hard bean is excreted by a rare civet cat. This happens also, I am told, with a couple other animals in other countries, but Sumatra is the place of note. This designation is also used of any coffee beans processed in such a manner from dung, feces, or ejected from the bowels. Normally, coffee beans, when being processed, are laid out on a pad in the open and allowed to mold. This process changes the chemistry of the bean, and when the hull is washed off, the coffee flavor has been enhanced. The civet cat does the same process to the beans in its intestinal track, but he does it better. "Shit," or Lewak coffee, sells for as high as $1000 a pound. It is considered by coffee connoisseurs to be the best coffee available. A reader of this page decided to make sure my wife and I had at least one experience with Lewak coffee in our life and sent us a quarter pound. It was indeed very tasty, though we had a bit of a problem with mental images of the process of making it.
Silver skin: A thin, papery covering on the coffee bean surface which blows off during roasting.
Sizing: Grading the size of the coffee bean.
Skimmings: That part of the bag which has been damaged by moisture. The damaged portion being skimmed off. Grade are "gs" for good skimmings, "ms" for not so good skimmings, and "ps" for poor skimmings.
Slack: Bags which have become torn or otherwise not full.
Soft Bean: coffees grown at low altitudes. Generally a more porous or less dense bean.
Sound coffee: Coffee in marketable condition.
Source: The place of origin.
Specialty Coffee: a term to differentiate between large commercial roasters and coffees which are more individual in marketing. Small scale roasters or coffee sold by the grower.
Spills, spillings: All such coffee retrieved with a clean shovel, scooped or otherwise suitable appliance from piles of coffee spilled in the ship's holds, or on the pier.
Spore: The seed of fungi, ferns, mosses, and other flowerless plants.
Spot: The spot market is where the purchaser actually buys the beans. As opposed to the future's market where the sale of coffee is at sometime in the future.
Standard: A fixed quality.
Steamer sweat: An insurance term meaning damage to coffee from sweat generated by the heat in the hold of a vessel.
Steam Wand: a pipe on most espresso machines which provide steam for the milk frothing operation.
Steel cut: The grinding process of removing the chaff. Does not mean the the grinding mills have steel.
Straight Coffee: unblended coffee from a single country, region, or crop.
Style: A term designated to the appearance of the whole coffee bean.
Summer roast: The summer heat causes coffee to sweat after roasting.
Supremo: of the highest grade of coffee.
Sweated coffee: Green coffee which has been submitted to a steaming process to give the beans a brown appearance. It is considered an adulteration.
Sweet: A coffee which is free from harshness.
Tamper: a device used to compress the ground coffee inside the filter basket of an espresso machine.
Tare: The weight of the bag in which the coffee is bagged.
Thermal Block: a system of coils in a heating element use in espresso machines to heat water rather than a boiler or tank.
Tipping: Charring the little germ at the end of the coffee bean during the roasting process.
To arrive: When the coffee is expected to arrive.
Traviesa: Secondary crop.
Triage: Broken coffee beans.
Turkish Coffee: coffee ground to a fine powder, brewed and served with the grounds.
Type: A sample fairly representing the coffee to be shipped.
Unwashed coffee: Green coffee produced by the dry process:
Ugq: Usually good quality.
Vintage Coffee: a term used to state the coffee was aged on purpose.
Visible supply: The known coffee stocks in public warehouses, afloat and at ports of shipment.
Washed coffee: Coffee which has been pulped, fermented, and washed, to remove the gummy substance.
Wet Processed, Wet Method: removing the bean from the berry which the berry is still moist.
Wilting: The collapse of the leaf or stem of a plant due to the loss of water or disease.
Woody coffee: Green coffee which has deteriorated and lost its commercial value.
Whole Bean: coffee which has been roasted but not ground.
Yemen Mocha- A very high quality Arabica bean. The people from The Yemen add cardamom to their coffee-- use green cardamom if you try this.
How Coffee wise are You?
Although you may know a lot about the brewing and enjoyment of coffee, there may be quite a lot you don't know about its other attributes. Take this quick quiz and test your knowledge about the potential health benefits of coffee- one of the world's favorite beverages!
1. Which of the following is true?
A. The positive effects of caffeine will be reduced as users drink more coffee and build up tolerance.
B. Fine motor control can improve with moderate amounts of coffee.
C. An 8 oz cup of coffee contains 110 mg of caffeine.
B is true.
2. Coffee seems to offer some protection against which of the following?
A. Colon cancer
B. Type 2 diabetes
A, B, and C are all true.
Studies have shown that the incidence of colon cancer and type 2 diabetes are lower among coffee drinkers. The beneficial action of coffee on these and other diseases, such as Parkinson�s, continues to spur legitimate research in the medical community. Drinking coffee has been found to be as hydrating as drinking water, and coffee has been shown to have the same minimal diuretic effect as water.
3. What is a functional food?
A. A food that helps you function at your chosen activity.
B. A food that may deliver some health benefits beyond the nutrients it contains.
C. Disease reductions may occur if this food is eaten regularly as part of a healthy diet.
A, B, and C are all correct.
Coffee is considered a functional food since it fits in all three categories: A) Coffee helps athletes function at their sports in terms of endurance, recovery, hydration, and less muscle pain. B) Coffee's health benefits include that it helps individuals to be alert and think more clearly; it enables soldiers to do their jobs more effectively and with more accuracy; coffee has a pronounced antioxidant effect. C) Coffee drinkers have lower incidences of certain diseases.
4. For which sports have studies demonstrated a caffeine/coffee benefit of improved stamina?
B. Endurance sports like cycling or running
C. Synchronized swimming
B is correct
Studies suggest caffeine consumption may help athletes reduce fatigue, enhance stamina and even reduce muscle pain especially in endurance sports. In addition, we are now learning that coffee may be just as hydrating for the body as water!
5. Which of the following would likely inhibit your ability to think clearly on an exam at 1:00 pm?
A. 1000-calorie high-carbohydrate pasta lunch
B. Skipping lunch and breakfast
C. A cup of coffee at noon
A and B are correct.
Behavioral researchers report that scores on mental acuity tests were lower in those subjects fed large lunches. They also learned that the best way to eat for sustained energy is to have multiple, moderate-sized feedings during the day. In fact most dietitians recommend that something be eaten every four hours- ideally a combination of carbohydrates, protein and a little fat. Sustained food deprivation (from dinner through lunch the following day, for example), may cause fatigue, irritability, anxiety and the inability to concentrate.
The body will direct fuel stores to preserve the most vital of bodily functions (cardiovascular function, respiration, etc.) and give short shrift to the exam. On the other hand, a number of impressive studies indicate caffeine (even 300 mg) can increase alertness, learning ability, memory and reasoning.
Hi Steve and family:
Hope all is well with you all. I went in again to your website to see what is new and what you were up to these days..... Still laugh when ever I read your site. Laugh at the comments of others..... Just reread the coffee stuff......... Loved it again... I am going to use that on my doctors....... As I get older, they make me do these tests, that I feel are unnecessary...... (I feel they are a trap of the unmedical society) I was forced by them and my family to have a Colonoscopy done because of the family trappings (history) they use on you.... From now on, I was an orphan..... no history, even if it is a lie.... I was harassed by those in my family with less faith in God and more faith in the snake system, Med profession.
Give up coffee was another one.. After reading about caffeine, what is good enough for the rats, or mice is good enough for me. I have seen animals are smarter than most humans I know anyway... They at least use their senses better.... When they know they should not be somewhere and are in danger, they leave, most Christians do not.....
Enough from me..... Going on so..... Hope you all are well..... Go with God...
Love in Jesus
Thanks for the article on coffee. I read it when you first published it. I just got around to ordering some green beans from www.sweatmarias.com. I chose the Saihi Type Sana'ani Yemeni bean.. WHAT A TREAT !! My first roasting/grinding/cupping try was a delightfull success. My wife and older daughters couldn't believe I was in the kitchen roasting coffee. They just knew I was making a big mess. I can't wait to share this with my friends.
AND THEN, THERE IS TEA
It seemed to me that tea needs to be discussed. We drink a lot more tea than coffee. Tea has been shown, in well done research studies, to reduce heart issues. It also strengthens teeth, and it may well toughen the linings of the GI track to advantage.
Also, tea culture, worldwide, is just as sophisticated as coffee. So, until I start a page just for tea, here are some curious facts about tea.
BLACK TEAS These teas are fully fermented and create a dark brown liquor. Black teas are quite versatile and can be taken hot, with milk and/or sugar, or as an iced tea. To brew, use hot to boiling water and steep for about 3-4 minutes.
As with coffee, there are several grades of black tea:
Dust D-- This is the lowest grade in the classification of Black tea. Actually it consists of small pieces of tea leaves and tea dust.
Fanning-- This consists mainly of pieces of tea leaves. It is a low grade.
BOP-- Broken Orange Pekoe This consists of small tea leaves or pieces of large Leaves. It is considered a medium grading for the classification of tea leaves.
OP-- Orange Pekoe This consists of large, whole tea leaves picked without the flower bud of the tea plant.
FOP-- Flowery Orange Pekoe These are the whole tea leaves together with the flowering tea plant.
These teas are unfermented, and retain their green leaf coloration. Green teas are known for their health benefits- particularly as antioxidants. Green tea lacks the deep satisfying taste of black tea.
Technically, they are not tea, but are brewed in much the same way. Herbal teas are generally low in caffeine. Yerba Mate is perhaps the most popular, followed by Rooibos from South Africa.
Flavored teas come in too many varieties to list. They are also flavored with sleep inducing herbs and stomach settling herbs. Jasmine tea is the most famous flavoring and is from China. Some flavored teas have no real tea in them at all. They are herb teas, and some of them are very interesting.
An ancient semi-fermented tea from the Fujian region of China. It is very popular recently as a weight-loss aid. It tastes a lot like cardboard, but with less flavor.
White teas are plucked in the spring and dried immediately after harvest. Again, as with Oolong, white tea is low on taste and popular with trendy half wits.
CANE BREAK TEA
This is a tea substitute made of hot water with sugar and cream alone. If you are a Mormon, or a Seventh Day Adventist, we might give you a pass for drinking such a weak beverage, but if you are a Fundamental Baptist, you should be put under church discipline for coming up with such a sorry beverage. Now, if you are a Whiskeypalian, at least add a shot of brandy to the slop.
Growing and processing:
Black tea is grown in highland areas on the Equator, often just down the road from a coffee plantation. The fields must not be flat so that frequent rain can soak in but not stand. Tea bushes grow to about four to five feet height, and then the last three leaves at the tips of branches are picked about once every three months.
The tea leaves are processed at once. They are first wilted in humidity controlled chambers. Once wilted, but not at all dry, they are rolled into globules and fermented. These are then dried with heat if black tea is wanted. If not, they are sent to finished processing. This results in green tea and gun shot tea, which does resemble gun shot.
For black tea, and after drying, the tea is graded. This is done in long rotating cylinders with holes in them of graduated size. The dust falls out first, while other grades fall out next until some whole leaves survive the rotating cylinder to come out Flowery Orange Pekoe. Dust is used to make commercial tea bottled beverages. Fine tea is used in tea bags. And, larger pieces go into bulk tea for people who think tea bags are uncivilized.
Tea quality is affected mostly by the location where it is grown. Also, attention to detail in picking and processing is important. If the pickers are told to pick four or five, instead of three or even two leaves, the tea will be rank and bitter. This is a form of cheating on the trade in the eyes of tea growers. Soil and growing and weather cycles also make a great deal of difference in tea quality.
Darjeeling tea is one of the types of tea considered to be of the highest quality, the tastiest and the most expensive. The origin of this tea is the Darjeeling region which is located in North -Western Bengal in India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains. It is brought down from the mountains it great trouble, and it is the most expensive tea. Sunny mornings, cool afternoons, and lot so rain seem to be the key, along with the soil of the region. Darjeeling tea has a fine flowery aroma, a light body and is copper red usually. Tannins in the tea causes a slight tingling feeling on the tongue and this is proof of its quality. Darjeeling Tea has been called the "champagne of tea".
The Assam regions sprawls along the two sides of the mighty Brahmaputra River in North-Eastern India and it is the area where the largest amount of tea is grown in the world. Assam black tea excels in its color, taste and strong aroma. Assam tea is especially suited for sipping in the morning with breakfast. It is largely used as a principal ingredient in blending popular teas such as English Breakfast Tea.
Nilgiri is a tea growing area in South - Western India. Nilgiri tea leaves are dark and from them the golden tea infusions are produced that have rich, fruity tastes and aromas. Most of the Nilgiri tea is sold to meet the local Indian consumer demand, but the choicest selected yields of Nilgiri tea (the whole tea leaves) are traded on the world�s exchanges for huge sums of money.
Tea Earl Grey Tea is not a variety of tea but is blended from black teas and seasoned. It is named after the British diplomat Earl Charles Grey who customarily blended black tea leaves and seasoned them with the essence of Bergamot (a small acidic orange) in accordance with an ancient Chinese recipe which came into his hands. In the eighteenth century A.D. the drinking of black tea was a widespread custom of the British nobility. Only the rich could drink tea because of its high price and the nobility would show off their wealth by inviting friends to parties featuring tea drinking and the eating of light meals. At these parties Earl Grey tea gained a place of honor. As far as is known, Earl Grey tea is the first seasoned tea produced in history and it has enjoyed, to this very day, the status of the most famous seasoned tea in the world.
Oolong tea is grown in China, and it is a plain Jane tea to most drinkers. It does have an earthy friendly taste if you drink it straight, and it can be interesting iced. Personally, it is only an act of desperation to make Oolong tea.
Kenya tea is well known as high quality. Possibly the most famous tea in Kenya is Karicho Gold which is grown on estates in the Karicho area in the western hill country. You can find it on Amazon.
The tea bag is to the tea connoisseur, what the cigarette is to the tobacco connoisseur. If you really want the best teas, you will buy bulk tea from the hill country of India, and you will brew it thoughtfully.
Brewing tea is a ritual made famous by the Indian Raj, that is, the high toned snobs of the British Empirical rule of India.
The classic brewing method is to boil the water, heat the pot, add about one teaspoon of tea per cup wanted, plus one, and pour water just off the boil into warmed pot.
Now, any Ethiopian will laugh at this. They set a pot on to boil, and when it is boiling well, they add the tea. Boil it about two minutes, and in Ethiopia add tea spices like cinnamon, cardamom, and black pepper, and pour into cups. It is served in small glasses, and you must be careful how you hold the glass in order not to burn your fingers.
In the rest of Africa, to the boiled tea is then added heavy cream, and lots of sugar, and another boil is required. The tea is strong and sweet and rich. If you are in high school in a boarding school in Kenya, like I was, you are usually allowed to sit up late in your closet and brew "Wog Chai," African tea, the way Africans do. That is my favorite way to make tea? Is it strong? If you have to ask, you are not invited to the party.
In India, after the tea boils, heavy cream and sugar are added and boiled, and lastly tea masala is added. Tea masala is made of various herbs, but especially cardamom.
Iced tea is for Gringos in Texas. Sun tea is the least bitter.
Tea can be brewed quite successfully in a coffee percolator. Experiment.
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