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and to enjoy his creation.




EDITOR:
Steve Van Nattan

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COFFEE SHOP
The Advantages of the Lovely Brew

By Steve Van Nattan

In the photo I am roasting Ethiopian Harare green beans. I used a Coleman camp stove, both burners,
a cast iron skillet, and stir with a wooden spoon.
The whole
arrangement was done on an old wooden ironing board which we painted blue and have on the front porch to use as a Hick Buffet (Tennessee style) for porch picnics. We do have cultcha, folks.


Why discuss coffee in a Christian journal. Well, one man has said the coffee is Baptist holy water. If the Pope can really impart holiness to water, why not make it more interesting, and beatify coffee?

It seems to me that you who read this Journal also deserve some luxuries.  

One of the truly choice luxuries of life is the consumption of that brew of the Ethiopian Bunyi Plant, Coffee. Having traveled somewhat, and having lived in the homeland of the noble coffee bean, I feel reasonably prepared for this calling.  

It is always in order to find a worthy person to whom we might dedicate a page like this.  In view of their exceptional skills at growing and processing what I feel is the best coffee in the world, I dedicate this page jointly to the coffee farmers of Vera Cruz, Mexico and the people of Kaffa Province in Ethiopia.

I do believe it is a toss up between Mexico and Ethiopia. It was the people of Ethiopia who sustained the coffee plant as keepers of God's Garden. Thus, coffee is named for Ethiopia's Kaffa Province, the primal estate of Buna or Khawa.

JS Bach's Coffee Concerto

Roast your coffee outdoors, and you will have a happier wife :-)


NEWS FLASH:  
Here is a very curious new culinary idea
-- Let's try it!

 

COFFEE NEWS

 

WASHINGTON (AP) -- Coffee can give you a kick on a cold morning, and it's a great donut companion. Now researchers say a cup of joe may also help prevent liver cancer. A study of more than 90-thousand Japanese finds people who drink coffee daily or nearly every day have half the risk of liver cancer. It says the protective effect occurs in people who drink one to two cups of coffee a day and increases at three to four cups. No word on whether it's the caffeine or something else. Decaf is rarely consumed in Japan and wasn't included in the study. Coffee contains antioxidants, but so does green tea. Researchers found no reduced risk of liver cancer with green tea. A separate study shows no relationship between coffee and colon or rectal cancer. But it finds a 52-percent decline in rectal cancer among people who regularly drink two or more cups of decaf. Both studies appear in this week's issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Copyright 2005 by The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.)

In 1997 the American Institute of Cancer Research, based in Washington, DC, and London�s World Cancer Research Fund, published a comprehensive review, which concluded that coffee was not cancerous. Indeed, coffee may help prevent cancer of the colon. An analysis of 17 studies on colorectal cancer and coffee dating from 1960 to 1990 indicated that the risk was lowered by 24 per cent amongst those who drank four cups of coffee a day. In other words, coffee does not appear to be responsible for cancer, and may confer some protective benefit.

Recently research from the Faculty of Medicine in Lisbon, Portugal, has shown that coffee can reduce the risk of contracting Alzheimer�s disease. The study compared 54 people with Alzheimer�s with 54 who had not contracted the disease, matched for age and sex. They found that people who did not have Alzheimer�s had been drinking nearly 200 mg of caffeine a day for twenty years � that�s just over two cups of brewed coffee a day. There is also evidence to suggest that it can reduce the risk of contracting Parkinson�s disease

�In general there are not very many good studies which show the negative effects of coffee,� says Dr Peter Martin, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology and director of the department for Addiction Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, in Nashville, Tennessee, �What people are studying is the effect of caffeine, not coffee. Coffee is much more than a tablet of caffeine.� The number of aromatic compounds in coffee has reached 800 and is still increasing, as our analytical methods are becoming more accurate. The furans are the most predominant group of compounds and these have caramel-like odours; the second largest group, the pyrazines, contribute to the toasted flavours. But what Martin and his colleague, Dr James May, are interested in are chlorogenic acids.

Vanderbilt University has recently been awarded a grant to create the Institute for Coffee Research and one of the first studies that have been carried out is on antioxidants in coffee. Roasting coffee oxidises chlorogenic acid, which is broken down in the body to form dihydrocaffeic acid. This compound is an antioxidant and May has proved that it is preferentially taken up the body�s cells. Antioxidants, because they combat wear and tear on the body, can help us live longer in a healthier state and may be found in concentrations four times higher in coffee than in tea, so drinking coffee (in moderation) really does appear to be good for you.


FORMAT OF THIS PAGE:

We will not endeavour to schmooze you too much here, but we will try to simply allow this page to ramble along from week to week in the manner of any good coffee break room.  We will seek to observe the social grace of the Hilltop Cafe in Bailey, Michigan, where Frank Hall presides over the ceremonies every day unless he is coon hunting.  If you would presume to quote us as a source of absolute and reliable truth in coffee reporting, you are a real idiot.  However; having settled that matter, we WILL seek to deliver facts and data in a reasonably accurate form.  Just take it with a sip of Java.


SHORT HISTORY OF COFFEE:

Coffee appears to have originated in Abyssinia and certainly has an early presence around the Red Sea about AD 700. By the 13th and 14th centuries coffee had become part of cultural life, particularly in the cities, where coffee shops multiplied rapidly. Coffee cultivation was rare until the 15th and 16th centuries, when extensive planting of the tree occurred in the Yemen region of Arabia. The popularity spread through Europe to such an extent that during the 17th and 18th centuries there were more coffee shops in London than there are today. Coffee shops then were influential places, used extensively by artists, intellectuals, merchants and bankers and a forum for political activities and developments.

Large-scale cultivation was pioneered by the Dutch in their colonies in the 17th century. The British and French followed, exploiting the tropical climate and peoples of the colonies to start one of the world's biggest trades. In recent years the welfare of growing areas has become of more concern and so there is more control over the turning of land into coffee plantations and better trading deals are being negotiated.

�Coffee should be black as hell, strong as death, and as sweet as love,�
Turkish proverb


HOW IS COFFEE GROWN AND PROCESSED?

There are two main commercial varieties of coffee-bean favored worldwide- Arabica and Robusta. Arabica is the most widely grown and preferred bean, growing on higher land, usually between about three and seven thousand feet altitude. Robusta, a more hardy variety, is grown at lower altitudes and requires less rainfall. It is important for blending and is widely used for instant coffee. Connoisseurs of good coffee usually shy away from Robusta in favor of a dark Middle Eastern Arabica flavor. Your editor avoids all Robusta, which he feels taste too much like cardboard. But be warned, not all Arabicas are created equal. 

All coffee is grown in tropical areas since it can take no frost.  Coffee is ALL "Mountain Grown."  The TV commercial in the USA some years ago by Folgers was a real joke.  Coffee cannot be grown on flat terrain since the plant needs plenty of rainfall, yet it must also drain well.

The shrub or small tree, 15 to 20 feet high at maturity, bears shiny green, elliptic leaves, and white fragrant flowers that bloom for only a few days. During the six or seven months after flowering, the fruit develops, changing from light green to red and, ultimately, when fully ripe and ready for picking, to deep crimson. The mature fruit, which resembles a cherry, grows in clusters attached to the limb by very short stems, and it usually contains two seeds, or beans, surrounded by a sweet pulp.

The coffee tree produces its first full crop when it is about 5 years old. Thereafter it produces consistently for 15 or 20 years. Some trees yield 2 to 3 lb. of marketable beans annually, but 1 lb. is considered an average annual yield.

Two methods are used for curing the coffee-beans. The wet method is better than the simpler and cheaper dry method.

In the wet method, machines remove the pulp of the ripe coffee cherries (softened in water) exposing the beans' protective coat of parchment. The beans are then soaked and fermented in large tanks to loosen their covering which is washed away with water until the beans are clean. They are then dried by the sun or a machine to be put into a huller which removes the remaining covering. The polished beans (called green coffee) are ready then to be sorted by hand or machine to remove defective beans and extraneous material and finally to be graded by size.

In the dry method, the coffee cherries are spread thinly on mats or drying grounds. They are raked and turned frequently to dry evenly in the sun, which may take two weeks or more. Once dry, the cherries are put through hullers which remove the dry pulp, the parchment and the silver skins.

Coffee can be stored "green," or unroasted, for up to five years.  Once Coffee is roasted, it immediately starts losing its flavor.  This is because the cellulose in the coffee has been carmelized by roasting, and the oils and bean itself deteriorate.  The flavor is in the oil, and it is aromatic.  This means the oils evaporate constantly, and this can result in stale coffee.  Vacuum packing only slows this process.  The best results in brewing coffee are gained by buying "green' beans and roasting them yourself.  Any Arab or Ethiopian will tell you that.

Video: Picking Coffee in Kenya


ROASTING THE COFFEE:

Donald McBroom gave me of a great idea. He uses a Wearever popcorn air popper to roast his coffee. He said that the plastic top cannot take the sustained heat, so buy a globe for a kerosene lamp at WalMart, and insert it into the base of the popper. I found a popper at Goodwill for $2, and added the glass globe to the base. I dropped a cup of green beans in and ran it. The chaff was all blown out the top, while the beans roasted nicely. The roasting was very even, and I could see the darkness very well so I knew when to stop the roast. GREAT IDEA! If you use another brand of air popper, make sure the hot air vents in the machine come in the sides of the hot chamber, not from below. Do not use Presto.

Goodwill has these all the time, and no one wants them-- cheap! You could add some flourish to a party by roasting the coffee and then popcorn for your guests.

Don suggests this site for coffee. Prices are great!
http://www.coffeeproject.com

See a video page-- The only alteration I used was to pour the roasted beans onto a large cookie sheet so they are one layer. The cool very fast. Again, pull the beans off roast one shade lighter than you want them. They keep roasting from internal heat for a while.

================================

Temperatures for roasting range from about 193 degrees Centigrade (about 380 Fahrenheit) for a light roast, through about about 400 F. for a medium roast, to about 218 C (about 425 F) for a dark roast. Once the roasting is completed, the beans are transferred to mesh trays for rapid cooling which halts the roasting process.  Small electric home roasting machines are now obtainable - have fun perfecting your unique, personal roast.  If you are going to roast your own coffee, follow these rules:

1. Keep the green beans dry until you roast them.  Mildew can set in where there is dampness.

2. Roast only as much as you intend to use immediately, or for no more than 3 days.

3. Roast the beans in a heavy cast iron skillet, or some folks oven roast them at about 400 degrees F.

4. In a skillet, roast the beans on a pretty high beat.  DO NOT wander around and leave the beans.  Stand there and watch them carefully.

5. When the beans are about one or two shades lighter than you want them, jerk the skillet, and immediately pour them out on a cookie (biscuit) sheet.  Spread them at once out to a single bean layer in depth so they will cool quickly.  For Mexican style coffee, roast for a dark color, and just before taking the beans off the flame, stir in a couple of tablespoons of sugar and pull the skillet only after the sugar stops bubbling. This is not for sweetening.  Rather; it gives a very black cup without adding bitter qualities.  This is my favorite method.

For Middle Eastern coffee, drop about ten pods of whole cardamom into the skillet as it finishes.  Leave them in the unground coffee and grind them with the coffee later.  Cinnamon or cocoa powder may also be sprinkled over the coffee just as you pull it off of the flame for another unique flavor.

6. As the beans cool, they will turn darker since the oils in the beans are still at cooking temperature.  Beware-- The beans will stay rather hot for a while.

7. Cool the beans completely before storing them.  Store in an airtight container in the freezer.  DO NOT grind them now.

8. Grind only as much as you need at each brewing.  Wait until your guests have arrived.  The aroma is very encouraging to coffee lovers.  In fact, in the Middle East and Ethiopia, it is customary to wait until the guests are present to roast the coffee, and many home makers roast the beans on a small fire in the main living room of the home.  This ritual is one you must experience to understand.

Generally speaking, Arabica coffee will give you a richer and more flavorful coffee, but you must roast it very dark to carmelize all the cellulose, or you will get a bitter cup.  Americans demand a bland and cardboard taste in coffee compared to the rest of the world, so they need Robusta coffees which can be lightly roasted and still taste fairly good.  Personally, I can't stand the commercial coffees of the USA.  After living in Ethiopia and drinking coffee with Arabs, Colombian coffee tastes pretty sorry folks.  Also, the British make a good strong cup of coffee which must be taken in smaller doses than US coffee blends.  It is possible to vastly improve on US blends by buying cans of unground beans, then roast them until they are very dark before grinding them.  More later on the coffees of various countries of the world.


BREWING COFFEE:

Good coffee can be made in an electric American drip type coffee maker.  But, do roast and grind your own coffee please.  Here is a page which describes the various ways of making coffee and the cooking pots which are used.  I don't think a person needs to get all wrapped up in these various devices to have good coffee.  I suggest you use an electric drip machine for everyday, then use the Middle Eastern Ibrik for special occasions.

Let me tell you about the Middle Eastern Ibrik. This little kettle-like device is the most artistic form of brewing coffee because of the ritual involved.  Master this technique, and your guests will be in awe.

First, you will need to go to a specialty coffee store or kitchen store and buy an ibrik like the one pictured.  Also, you should buy enough handless Arab cups for all the guests you expect to entertain at one time.  Now, the best thing is to go to a Middle Eastern store in a city near you, and buy the ibrik and cups.  You will get them much cheaper, and they will be authentic.  The cups will come in boxes of a dozen.  Don't worry if they are "made in China"-- That is normal.

Next, roast the beans very dark.  I suggest you roast and grind AFTER your guests are present in order to get the maximum mood and social impact.  Of course, you will NOT want to roast the beans during the dinner event if you don't have an exhaust hood over your stove.  In that case, roast ahead of time.  Grind the roasted coffee beans until they are a fine powder.  If you add cardamom to the coffee for the Yemen and Arab touch, toast it slightly with the coffee while roasting so it will grind properly.

Fill the ibrik about half full of water.  If you have more guests than your ibrik will handle in one brewing, you will need a bigger one, or do more than one brewing.  Don't try to brew Middle Eastern / Arab coffee by filling the ibrik to the top.  The best social results will be gained if the ibrik can handle all guests in one brewing.  Heat the ibrik to boiling.

You must have all the cups you will use, in serving your guests, lined up near the brewing scene and preferably on a serving tray.

Now, you will have to experiment BEFORE you try this with guests.  With the water in the ibrik boiling moderately, and with the handle in your left hand, drop about three table spoons of ground coffee into the average sized ibrik.  More coffee will be needed in a larger ibrik.  Do not skimp on the amount of coffee.  This is NOT American weak stuff you are brewing.

Now, you will have a surprise when you drop the coffee into the boiling water.  It will boil only briefly before it foams up rapidly--  almost violently.  You WANT this foam to come right to the top of the ibrik and not run over.  This takes practice of course.  So, you will need to pull the ibrik off the heat as the foam rises.  With a spoon, quickly put a spoonful of the foam into each guests cup.

Now, return the ibrik to the fire.  Hold the ibrik over the fire, and try to get the foam to rise more gently this time.  Pull it off the fire, and let the foam settle.  Do this a third time, and the coffee is done.  Trust me, three times, no more and no less, is perfect!  Pour it at once, and serve your guests.  The object of the foaming trick is to have some foam in the cup of each guest as you serve it.  This means the guests must be seated and waiting to be served, and you cannot let anything interrupt the flow of the brewing ceremony so that the foam is just right.

If sugar is to be added to the coffee, let the guests do this after serving them.  In Ethiopia, a pinch of salt will be added, and on very special occasions, a bit of kibbei (rendered spiced butter) will be added to each cup before serving. In Ethiopia the first sip is considered the height of posh living and a great honor to the guest.  Arabs usually drink the coffee with nothing added, but don't assume this.   Some like loads of sugar.  

Don't worry about the grounds getting into the cup.  The last swig, which includes much of the grounds, is considered a treat by most Arabs.  Do it right, OK?  One more thing--  If you are entertaining Arabs, they may excuse themselves after the coffee ceremony since the serving of coffee signals the end of the evening.  If you don't want them to make this conclusion, you had better tell them so.


COFFEE:  MORE HISTORY AND NOTIONS:

Tradition in the Middle East tells us that Muslim monks were visiting Ethiopia, and they noticed that Ethiopian herd boys and old sages were chewing the leaves of the Bunyi, or Khawa tree.  When asked why, the Ethiopians said the leaves helped them to stay awake.  The Muslim monks thought this would be good to help them stay awake during their devotions.  They took seeds back to Saba and Yemen, and there you have it.  All these thousands of years later, truck drivers still pull into cafes all over the world to get a cup and stay awake. In fact, many a theological student still uses a cuppa java to keep awake while pounding out a late term paper in the wee hours.

In about 1600, coffee was slowly making its way into Europe, but the priests of the Catholic Church were angry over this since the main merchants of coffee were Arab Muslims.  The Bishops of Rome petitioned Pope Clement VIII to forbid coffee drinking to all of Christendom.  This was a touch and go situation for the future of coffee.  Pope Clement listened to the Bishops give all the sordid properties of coffee and how it was the invention of the Devil.  Then Clement asked for a cup of the brew to sample and see if it was as evil as they had told him.  Clement sipped the coffee thoughtfully, and then he declared the the brew was "so delicious that it would be a pity to allow the Muslim infidels to have exclusive use of it."  

What a blessing-- Reality and existential experimentation won out over theological insanity. Thereupon, Pope Clement VIII baptized the coffee to make it truly a Christian beverage, and Catholics and Protestants have been baptizing coffee ever since.  Even Martin Luther did not disagree on this doctrinal point, and J.S. Bach even wrote a Coffee Concerto during this era.

In about 1700 in England, many coffee houses featured a brass-bound box near the door.  On the box was a sign which read, "To Insure Promptness."  Patrons were asked to drop a coin into the box, and the proceeds were then divided among the coffee house staff at the end of the day.  Later, the sign was abbreviated to read simply, "TIP", and we are still tipping the waiter.

Coffee was brewed by explorers in North America and served as a peace offering.  In fact, it still works.  Many a disagreement has been resolved over a cup of coffee.

The French gourmet, Brillat-Savarin had this to say about coffee:  "A cup of coffee well laced with milk will not hinder your intelligence; on the contrary, leaving your stomach free of rich foods, it will not tire your brain.... Soon the suave molecules of Mocha will stir your blood, without unduly heating it; the organ of thought will feel a sympathetic force: work will become easier, and you will feel well right up until the main meal which will restore your body and give you a calm and delicious evening."  

Only a Frenchman could raise coffee to such lofty heights.

Nations which grow coffee in the order of the most production first:

Brazil
Colombia
Indonesia
Vietnam
Mexico
Ethiopia
India
Guatemala
Cote d'Ivoire
Kenya
Uganda
Jamaica
Hawaii


GO GET A CUPPA,
AND LOOK AT THESE IMPORTANT FACTS ON THE BEAN:

The coffee "bean" is actually the seed of the coffee cherry. Two beans grow face-to-face within each cherry, and there are about four thousand handpicked beans in a single pound of specialty coffee.

Coffee is a big business: It is second only to oil as a commodity on world markets.

Germany is the world's second largest consumer of coffee in terms of volume at 16 pounds per person.

Occasionally a single round bean, called a "Peaberry" will form instead of the normal 2 flat ones.

A scientific report from the University of California found that the steam rising from a cup of coffee contains the same amount of antioxidants as three oranges. The antioxidants are heterocyclic compounds which prevent cancer and heart disease. Inhale deeply groupies.

52% of Americans drink coffee.

Turkish Proverb - "Coffee should be black as hell, strong as death, and as sweet as love."

The heavy tea tax imposed on the colonies in 1773, which caused the "Boston Tea Party," resulted in America switching from tea to coffee. Drinking coffee was an expression of freedom.

In the last three centuries, 90% of all people living in the Western world have switched from tea to coffee.

Coffee is the most popular beverage worldwide with over 400 billion cups consumed each year.

Hawaii is the only state of the United States in which coffee is commercially grown. Hawaii features an annual Kona Festival, coffee picking contest. Each year the winner becomes a state celebrity. In Hawaii coffee is harvested between November and April. Puerto Rico also grows coffee.

The first coffee plant to be trnasplanted from Arabia was carried by a Dutchman to Java.  Thus, Java coffee.

Australians consume 60% more coffee than tea, a sixfold increase since 1940.

Dark roasted coffees actually have LESS caffeine than medium roasts? The longer a coffee is roasted, the more caffeine burns off during the process.

An acre of coffee trees can produce up to 10,000 pounds of coffee cherries. That amounts to approximately 2,000 pounds of beans after hulling or milling.

Over 65 countries grow coffee world wide, but all of them lie along the equator between the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn.

"Hard Bean" means the coffee was grown at an altitude above 5000 feet.

October 1st is the official Coffee Day in Japan.

Each year some 7 million tons of green beans are produced world wide. Most of which is hand picked.

If you like make believe, here is a tale to read.

How to stay happily married:

Coffee was introduced to Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks. The world's first coffee shop, Kiv Han, opened there in 1475. Turkish law made it legal for a woman to divorce her husband if he failed to provide her with her daily quota of coffee.

International intrigue:

In 1714, the Mayor of Amsterdam presented a gift of a young coffee plant to King Louis XIV of France. The King ordered it to be planted in the Royal Botanical Garden in Paris. In 1723, a young naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu obtained a seedling from the King�s plant. Despite an arduous voyage - complete with horrendous weather, a saboteur who tried to destroy the seedling and a pirate attack - he managed to transport it safely to Martinique. Once planted, the seedling thrived and is credited with the spread of over 18 million coffee trees on the island of Martinique in the next 50 years. Eventually, 90 percent of the worlds coffee would spread from this plant. With it being the stock from which coffee trees throughout the Caribbean, South and Central America originated.

The first European coffee was sold in pharmacies in 1615 as a medical remedy.

It takes 42 coffee beans to make an espresso.

Too much coffee may lead to Atheism:

Voltaire is rumoured to have had a 50 cup a day coffee habit. And at one point during the making of �Citizen Kane� Orson Wells had to be taken to hospital (it was said) due to excessive coffee consumption.

 

THE NOBLE VIRTUES OF COFFEE

As of December, 2005: Harvard Health Publications

The latest research has not only confirmed that moderate coffee consumption doesn't cause harm, it's also uncovered possible benefits. Studies show that the risk for type 2 diabetes is lower among regular coffee drinkers than among those who don't drink it. Also, coffee may reduce the risk of developing gallstones, discourage the development of colon cancer, improve cognitive function, reduce the risk of liver damage in people at high risk for liver disease, and reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease. Coffee has also been shown to improve endurance performance in long-duration physical activities.

However, as the September issue notes, coffee is not completely innocent. Caffeine, coffee's main ingredient is a mild addictive stimulant. And coffee does have modest cardiovascular effects such as increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and occasional irregular heartbeat that should be considered. Studies have been largely inconclusive regarding coffee and its effect on women's health issues such as breast health, cancer, and osteoporosis. But, the negative effects of coffee tend to emerge in excessive drinking so it is best to avoid heavy consumption.

Comment: Steve Van Nattan-- I sure am glad I am not under the bondage of Joseph Smith of the Mormons and Ellen G. White of the Seventh Day Adventists. Nor do I pay any attention to the four flusher, Lester Roloff of the Baptists. Coffee turns out to have very useful health applications if taken in moderation, which the Apostle Paul taught us about 2000 years ago. So, let us imbibe with joy.

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle-- April 2005

But, interestingly, recent studies indicate a cup of coffee may do more than just provide an energy boost. Coffee, in fact, has four times the antioxidant content when compared to green tea � more than cocoa, herbal teas and red wine. Coffee contains about 1,000 different antioxidants. While coffee may not be a health food, research shows that it may protect against certain diseases.

The February issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported a study that followed the coffee habits for seven to 10 years of more than 61,000 Japanese aged 40 or older. Those who drank coffee daily or nearly every day had half the liver cancer risk of those who never drank coffee. They were unable to compare the effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee because decaf is rarely consumed in Japan.

Drinking coffee also has been associated with a decrease in the incidence of type 2 diabetes among participants in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Study results published in the January 2004 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine found that those who drank more high-test coffee had a lower risk of diabetes than those who drank less or none of it. For men and women, the effects of coffee drinking on diabetes risk didn't become pronounced until people drank at least four cups a day.

Last fall, German researchers identified a powerful antioxidant found exclusively in coffee that has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer. Other research shows that people who drink coffee on a regular basis are 60 percent to 80 percent less likely to develop Parkinson's disease.

In an issue of Science  News, March 2, 1996, p. 143, I read that research had been done at the Harvard School of Public Health to see how drinking of beverages would affect the incidence of kidney stones.  It was learned that the more you drink water, the less your chances for kidney stones.  Not very startling, right?  Water is the Old Testament fluid to cleanse things, houses, etc.  Blood cleanses people.

Well, the Harvard boys took it a bit further.  They tested various beverages.  They found that your chances of kidney stones dropped 10% if your drinking beverage was coffee, and 14% if you drank tea.  They found, on the other  hand, that your chances of having kidney stones increased by 36 % if your beverage was grapefruit or apple juice.  So, coffee, sometimes referred to as "Baptist holy water," is good for your kidneys.  By the way, it is the caffeine in the coffee and tea which stimulates the kidneys to cleanse themselves.  The Seventh Day Adventist guruette, Ellen G. White, was NOT in fellowship with real science. 

Frankly, I would not be at all surprised to see Arab coffee at the Marriage Feast of the Lamb when the saints are feasted in the Glory by Jesus Christ.  Coffee seems to do such wonderful things when served in a Middle Eastern protocol.  Of course, tea will probably be served so that the English don't get lonely.

According to Paul Harvey, source of many useless facts, research on animals has proven that cancer was restrained and regressed by generous doses of coffee. Thus, we find another good reason to use the brew of good health.

COFFEE--  
Regular caffeinated coffee is 100% unrelated to heart attack.
No research has ever proven otherwise.  
Now, if YOU personally react to caffine, that is different, but for the average heart patient,
coffee is not any threat.  
Mayo Clinic Health Letter

What a great way to survive nuclear war!
Source:  The New Scientist

"Four-minute warning"

Rob Edwards

DRINKING COFFEE could protect people from radioactivity, according to scientists in India who have found that mice given caffeine survive otherwise lethal doses of radiation.

A team from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Bombay injected 471 mice with varying amounts of caffeine and then exposed them to 7.5 grays of gamma radiation--usually a lethal dose. But 25 days later, 70 per cent of the mice given 80 milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight one hour before radiation exposure were still alive. By contrast, all 196 of the mice not given caffeine and exposed to the same dose of radiation had died.

Higher doses of caffeine--100 milligrams per kilogram--also led to the majority of the mice surviving over the same period, as did administering the drug just half an hour before irradiation. But all those given a lower dose of 50 milligrams per kilogram died, along with mice that were only injected with caffeine after they had been irradiated. Kachadpillill C. George, who led the research, points to earlier studies which suggest that caffeine--1,3,7-trimethylxanthine--reacts with the hydroxyl radicals produced when cells are irradiated.

This, he says, could prevent the radicals from damaging cells and shutting down vital bodily functions, such as the production of blood cells in bone marrow. Bone marrow failure was the main cause of death among the irradiated mice.

George suggests that a better understanding of the protection offered by caffeine might lead to improvements in the way that radiation is used to treat cancer. His study is published in the latest Journal of Radiological Protection (vol 19, p 171).

Other scientists are cautious about interpreting George's results, however. Peter O'Neill, a radiation researcher from the Medical Research Council's Radiation and Genome Stability Unit at Harwell in Oxfordshire, agrees that caffeine reacts with hydroxyl radicals. "But it may require very high concentrations in order to protect cells from these radicals," he says.

A cup of fresh coffee typically contains between 80 and 100 milligrams of caffeine while instant coffee contains slightly less, according to Audrey Baker of the European Coffee Science Information Centre in Oxfordshire. A person weighing 70 kilograms might therefore need to drink at least 100 cups to receive the same dose as the mice. However, George believes that smaller amounts of caffeine might protect people from lower doses of radiation than those used in his experiment.

George is aware of the difficulty of extrapolating his data from mice to humans. "But at the same time," he says, "it does suggest that coffee might have some beneficial effects in protecting against radiation."


REGIONS, NATIONS, AND VARIETIES OF COFFEE:

I AM SENDING YOU TO A WEB PAGE THAT IS EXCEPTIONAL
If this page disappears, SEND MAIL, and I will find another source.

 

How much caffeine is in coffee?

The amount of caffeine in any single serving of coffee depends on a number of factors, including the variety of coffee bean, where the bean was grown, how it was ground, manufactured and brewed and the size of the coffee mug. Full-bodied, dark roast coffee may contain less caffeine than coffee made from milder, more lightly roasted beans. In general, arabica beans tend to have less caffeine and taste milder than robusta beans.

Coffee Product
Caffeine range (mg)
Average caffeine (mg)
Coffee � based on 8 oz cup
Brewed
65-120
85
Instant
60-85
75
Decaff, brewed
2-4
3
Decaff, instant
1-4
3
Espresso, 1 oz cup
30-50
40

Capuccino, Latte, 1oz shot
30-50
40
Moccachino, 1 oz sho
35-55
45

 

COFFEE GLOSSARY OF TERMS:

1a: High quality coffee beans. 1aaa: Highest quality coffee beans identified and described stating size, quality, density, and moisture content.

A: Largest size grade in India, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.

AA: Largest size grade in Kenya, Tanzania, and New Guinea, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.

AAA: Largest size grade in Peru, a grade of coffee, generally a size grade of arabica coffee beans along with A, B, & C.

About: Theoretically, an error of +/- 5%. In actuality, -2% to -4.5%.

Acidity, Acidy, Acid: The pH of the substance. In coffee it is about 5. The tartness taste to coffee.

Afloat: The coffee is in route on a ship.

Aged Coffee: Coffee held in warehouse for several years in order to reduce acidity and increased body. Aged coffee is held longer than an old crop, or mature coffee. The official position of Majestic Coffee and Tea's owner is it taste like cork. And is of poor taste. Some people in the world may argue with this position.

Altura: In spanish means heights and describes Mexican coffee that has been grown high or "mountain grown".

American Roast: medium brown.

Alqueir: A term used to describe the capacity of a liquid. In coffee terms it is 50 kilograms.

And/or: A term which both, all, or one. When in a coffee contract it means both, either, but not mixed.

Arabica: Coffea Arabica, a coffee bean developed for wider latitudes. The most common cultivated species of coffee in the modern market.  Preferred in the Middle East for dark roast and brewing by an Ibrik. Arabica is descended from the original Ethiopian coffee trees. The coffee made from this variety is mild and aromatic. It's the king of coffee and accounts for about 70 percent of the world's coffee production. These coffee trees grow best in higher altitudes, between 2,000 and 6,000 feet (610 and 1,829 m) above sea level. Mild temperatures (60 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit / 16 to 24 degrees Celsius) and about 60 inches (152 cm) of rain per year ensure arabica's growth. Heavy frost will kill arabica coffee trees.

Arbitrage: A transaction where the operator takes advantage of a communication delay time. Where the coffee is purchased and sold simultaneously to the advantage of the operator.

Aroma: The fragrance produced by any substance. Smell.

Arroba: A term for weight in Central and South America. Generally, 12.5 kilos or 27.5 pounds.

Automatic Drip: coffee brewers that automatically heat and filter water the coffee.

Balance: A tasting term applied to coffee or wine means no single taste characteristic overwhelms others.

Bag: Usually a burlap sack of coffee. In various countries it is a different weight. As an example: Brazil a bag is 132 pounds. Colombia it is 154 pounds. In Angola it is 176 pound.

Bale: Another term for bag. About 176 pounds but changes depending on who is using the term.

Batch Roaster: A machine which roasts a given quantity at one time. In effect, it is a roaster which does not continually roast beans. There is an identifiable start and end time to the roasters capabilities.

Benefico: A Spanish term for establishments that have cleaning, washing, drying, and sorting machines.

Black beans: Dead coffee which fell off the tree. 1 imperfection.

Black jack coffee: Coffee beans which turned bad after picking or during shipping.

Blend: A mix of two or more coffee beans.

Body: The sense of thickness associated with taste.

Bourbon: Coffee beans which come from plants which have not been altered originating from the Isle of Bourbon. Coffea Arabica.

Braca: A measure of length; 2 meters and 2 centimeters.

Bright: a taste term for acidic.

Brisures: Broken and separated by screening.

Broken: Cracked coffee beans.

Brokers: Generally anyone paid a commission involved in trade.

Bullhead: An extra large coffee bean. Sometimes a peaberry which has not totally grown together.

Buna: The name for coffee in Ethiopia.

Bundles: Another term for bale.

CC, C/C: Current Crop.

C&f: Cost of the coffee bean and freight.

Caracol: Another word for Peaberry; a large single round coffee bean.

Caturra: A recently developed subvariety of the Coffea Arabica which is better disease resistant.

Cif: Cost of the coffee bean, insurance, and freight.

Cafe beneficiado: Hulled coffee.

Cafe bonifieur: Thoroughly cleaned and polished coffee beans.

Cafe de panno: Coffee picked in the cloth. Coffee picked very carefully where a cloth is placed on the ground so no dirt gets in accidently if the bean falls.

Cafe despolpado: Washed coffee or pulped coffee, is the process.

Cafe em casca: Coffee in parchment.

Cafe em ceraja: Coffee in the red cherry.

Cafe em coco: Coffee in the dried pod.

Cafe en parche: Coffee in the parchment.

Cafe habitant: Coffee which has not been polished.

Cafe rebeneficiado: Coffee reseparated or improved.

Cafe terreir: Coffee washed and dried in coco.

Cafeate: Coffee with milk.

Cafetal: A plantation of coffee trees.

Cafeine C8H10N4O2; an alkaloid substance found in the coffee bean, the leaf, some tea leaf, yerba mate, cocoa bean.

Caffeine content: in a cup of coffee about 1.5 grains.

Caffeeol, Caffeol, Coffeol: A volatile aromatic conglomerate formed during roasting. Essence of coffee, coffee oils.

Caffetannic acid: Erroneously term used to describe the acids of coffee. There is no such compound.

Cargo bags: Bags delivered to the boat, the shipper, the receiver, etc.

Cargo slacks: Bags of coffee that have become slack through leakage in transit.

Cherry: Name applied to the ripe fruit of the coffee tree.

Chicory: An addition or filler in coffee made from the plant, cichorium intybus.

Chop: Before shipping, each invoice of coffee is made up into a number of division called chops. The bags in each division are marked with a particular chop number.

Cinnamon Roast: a term for the lighter roasts.

City Roast: A term for a medium dark roasted coffee.

Coffee fruit: The berry which contains the seed.

Coffee grade: One who grades coffee.

Coffeol: Essence of coffee, coffee oils.

Cold Water Method: a way of brewing coffee using cold water rather than hot water.

Commercial Coffees: general refers to a brand name coffee which is preground. Used by some countries to differentiate between those coffees which the locals can drink and those exported.

Commissario: A name used to designate the commission merchant at coffee ports who bought from the planter, or sold the planter's coffee on the commission, stored it in a warehouse, and sold it to an exporter.

Commission merchant: a person or firm receiving coffee on consignment for sale in a consuming country.

Complexity: a tasting term describing sensation shifts; resonance, depth.

Continous Roaster: a roaster that roasts coffee continually as opposed to a batch roaster.

Conto: A term in currency equal to 1000 cruzeiros.

Contract: A Coffee Exchange contract is 32,500 lbs. (250 bags)

Country damage: An insurance term meaning damaged occurring in the country of origin while in transit to the port of loading.

Crema: the pale brown foam covering the surface of a well brewed cup of espresso.

Cup testing: Judging the merits of a coffee by roasting, grinding, and brewing some of it. The brew is sipped.

Dark French Roast: a roast almost jet black in color, thin bodied and bittersweet tasting a bit like burnt charcoal.

Dark Roast: a roast which the beans are just turning black but still look brown.

Date of invoice: date from the time of purchase and not from the time of shipment.

Decaffeinated: coffee which has had the caffeine removed or blocked in such a way that the caffeine will not leave the bean during brewing.

Decaffeination Process: the process by which the coffee was decaffeinated.

Delivered: The seller undertakes to guarantee the safe carriage at his expense to the point stipulated in the contract, and reweighed at destination. discounts: Some price less that the normal price.

Demitasse: a half size cup for espresso.

Doser: A spring loaded device on certain espresso grinders which dispenses single servings of ground coffee.

Drip Method: a brewing method that drips the hot water over the bed of coffee grounds.

Dry fermenting: When washed, coffee is fermented without water.

Dry Processed Coffee: a process to remove the husk from the fruit after the coffee berries have been dried. Generally scraping the berry and considered inferior to the washed or fermented process.

Dry roast: A roasting process in which no water is used to check the roast. The operator depends entirely upon his cooling apparatus for quick cooling.

Earthiness: a tasting term describing coffee which taste a little off and a bit like dirt.

En oro: Term for washed coffee when the parchment and silver skin have been removed. Clean coffee.

En parche: term used for coffee in the parchment. Green beans with the parchment still on them are not inferior, but you will have them blowing all over the place as you roast the beans.

Espresso: a method to brew coffee which forces the water into the grind by pressure.

Estate Grown: Coffee grown on large farms as opposed to small peasant plots, usually old family owned plantations. Estate coffee is sold by the name of the estate that produced it. This allows the coffee lover to zero in on more than, let's say, Sumatra, and the Mandeling area. He can buy coffee from that area and know which estate grew it. Estate coffee is usually expensive.

European Preparation: removing imperfections by hand.

Excelso: a grade of coffee which includes size, quality, and imperfections.

Ex dock: Contracts requiring the buyer to take delivery from the pier.

Ex ship: Coffee which is sold before arrival with the understanding that the buyer will remove it immediately after unloading on the dock.

Extra: second best grade of coffee.

Ex warehouse: coffee which is warehoused which are placed at the disposal of the buyer.

Faq: Fair average quality.

Fazenda: A coffee plantation.

Fazendero: A proprietor of a fazenda.

Fermenting: A process where yeasts eat the sugars in a substance.

Filtered Method: coffee brewed with a filter where the coffee is held separate from the sitting water.

Finish: the after taste or the lingering taste of the coffee.

Flip Drip: a device which water is heated on the bottom of the brewer, when boiling, the device is flipped over and the water drips down through the coffee which was loaded in the middle of the brewer.

Fluid Bed Roaster: a roaster which cooks the bean by holding them up with a blast of hot air.

French Press: a device which brews coffee by allowing the grinds to sit in the water, when finished, a press pushes the grounds to the bottom.

French Roast: a roast black in color tasting bittersweet but not like burnt charcoal.

Finca: A coffee plantation.

Finquero: A proprietor of a finca.

Flat bean: A larger bean without the curly characteristic generally void of acid.

Fob: Free on board. The seller agrees to place the product safely on board the carrier designated by the purchaser. Generally describes the time title is transferred.

Forwarder: An agent who takes charge of a coffee shipment for interior clients and directs transportation.

French roast: Means the bean is roasted sufficiently to bring the oils to the surface of the bean.

Full city roast: Darker than city roast.

Futures: Coffee sold for delivery sometime in the future.

Gamey, Gaminess: other terms which mean off in taste. Doesn't taste right but can't explain what it is.

General average: An insurance term meaning a loss arising from a voluntary and successful sacrifice or expenses incurred under extraordinary circumstance for the purpose of averting a threatening danger to the common safety.

GHB: Good Hard Bean.

Glazing: Coating the bean to preserve the natural flavor.

Good Hard Bean: a grade of coffee grown at altitudes above 3000 feet. Term varies depending on the country where the bean is grown.

Grade: The measure of quality.

Green Coffee: Unroasted coffee beans.

Group: the fixture protruding from the front of an espresso machine which makes more than one cup at a time.

Groundy: An earthly taste. The taste of dirt.

Hard: coffee with a less mild taste. Generally a term for "not as good."

Hard Bean: same a good hard bean, but more universal and general means a denser bean.

Harsh: A term to describe a certain coffee flavor.

HB: Hard Bean.

HG: High Grown.

HGC: High Grown Central.

Hidey coffee, hidy coffee: Coffee which smells and tastes like hides. Coffee which is shipped wrapped in animal hides.

Hulling: The last step in the preparation of washed coffee.

Husking: Cleaning the dried cherry.

Ibrik: A coffee pot with a taper downward used in Arab homes to brew coffee.

Importer: A person or firm that buys coffee form a producing country and brings it into a nonproducing country.

In store: A contract requiring the seller to store the coffee, clean it, and make it ready for delivery.

Invisible supply: The unknown stocks of coffee, including those held by roasters.

Invoice: One or more chops of coffee billed as one sale.

Italian Roast: a darker roast than American.

Java: An island of Indonesia. An arabica cup of coffee. Any cup of coffee.

Kawah: Coffee in Arabic

Kilogram: 2.2046 pounds.

Last bag notice: A term used by cargo when the last bags are being unloaded. A term used by marketers defining coffee which has been sold before arrival, when notice is given by cargo, the importer can transfer ownership of the coffee.

Lavando Fino: best grade of Venezuelan coffee.

Laterals: Side branches, often horizontal.

Lewak Coffee-- See "shit" coffee below

Limu: a low acid washed coffee, typically from Ethiopia.

LGC: Low Grown Central.

Longberry harrar: a grade of coffee from Ethiopia. The beans are larger than shortberries.

Machine epirre: Machine stoned:

Made sound: Damaged coffee which has been cleaned.

MAM: an acronym for Medelin, Armenia, and Manizales Colombian coffees which are typically sold together in one contract.

Maragogip: an extremely large porous bean.

Mat: All Java coffee is exported in mats weighing about 67 pounds.

Mature Coffee: Generally, a term for coffee still in its parchment waiting for an order which is older than one generation of crop.

Mazagran: The French name for a drink composed of cold coffee and seltzer water:

Mbuni: Unwashed poor quality coffee.

MC: Methylene Chloride; generally used in Decaffeinated coffee.

Microwave Brewers: brewers which work in a microwave oven.

Middle Eastern Coffee: another term for Turkish Coffee, coffee ground to a fine powder, served grounds and all.

Mild coffees: Coffees free of the harsh flavor.

Mocha: A small irregular bean, in color alive green. Has a unique acid character. Generally shipped from Mocha Yemen. Sometimes; mixed with coffee shipped from Mocha Yemen.

Monsooned Coffee: coffee deliberately exposed to monsoon winds in open warehouse to increase body and reduce acidity.

Mulch: A layer of grass, leaves, or compost, placed over the surface of the soil.

Musty: A flavor as a result of overheating or lack of proper drying.

New Crop: freshly picked and processed coffee crop.

No arrival: Didn't arrive as per contract.

No sale: Didn't arrive or was not as contracted for so the sale in incomplete.

Notice: Announcement of delivery.

Old Crop: any crop which has been sitting around a long time. Generally, any crop which is older than one crop. Depending on handling, this may not be aged or mature crop.

Open Pot: one of the oldest methods, leave the coffee in an open pot where the grind separates from the brew by settling or straining.

Parchment: The endocarp of the coffee fruit. It lies between the fleshy part or pericarp and the silver skin. Remove during hulling process.

Particular average: An insurance term meaning a partial loss or damage to ship, cargo, or any of them resulting directly from the perils of the voyage and of purely accidental nature.

PC, P/C: Past Crop; older than one generation but still in parchment during storage.

Peaberry: A rounded bean from an occasional coffee cherry which contains but one seed instead of the usual flat sided pair.

Percolation: any method of brewing where the hot water is pumped up and gravity falls through the grind.

Pergamino: Parchment, Pergamino coffee is coffee that has been dried after pulping fermenting and washing.

Pile: Coffee dried and hulled by dry process.

Plantation coffee: Pergamino or parchment coffee.

Points: Fluctuations of prices on the commodities market. A term for grading coffee.

Primo Lavado: a grade of coffee which includes most of the fine coffees of Mexico. Generally a contract term which means the coffee is of good grade but not really specific.

Primary market: The market in the country of production.

Pulping: The first step after picking. Removing the outer skin of the berry.

PW: Prime Washed.

Pyrolysis: chemical breakdown during roasting of fats and carbohydrates into oils which provide the flavor and aroma.

Quakers: Unripe plighted or underdeveloped coffee beans.

Rat eaten: Bags attacked by rats on the ship. Unsalable bags of coffee.

Reis: Brazilian money.

Rich, Richness: a taste term of good body and/or acidity.

Rio, Rio flavor: A heavy and harsh taste characteristic of coffees grown in the Rio district of Brazil.

Rioy, Rio-y: generally Rio tasting.

Robusta: This second variety (with Arabica) comes from coffee trees which represent about 30 percent of the world's market. The bean is smaller and rounder than an arabica bean. Robusta is a heartier plant and can withstand warmer temperatures, up to 85 F (29 C). It can also thrive at lower altitudes than arabica. Robusta beans produce a bitter-tasting coffee with about 50 percent more caffeine than arabica. You'll find robusta coffee trees in Southeast Asia, Colombia, and Brazil. Robusta tastes like cardboard after you have tried Arabica.

Rubbery coffee: Taste like rubber.

Salt and rendered butter: Added to coffee just before serving in Ethiopia.

SC: Standard Central.

SHB: Strictly Hard Bean.

SHG: Strictly High Grown.

SHGC: Strictly High Grown Central.

Ship filings: Coffee swept overboard or fell off the pier.

Ship samples: Samples which precede the actual shipment.

Ship sweepings: All loose coffee swept up from the floor of piers, ship holds, or warehouse which are not suitable for consumption.

Shipper's slacks: Bags of coffee originally delivered by the shipper to the steamer in a slack filled condition. Not a completely filled bag.

Shit Coffee: Although it sounds vulgar, "shit" coffee exists as an official designation, and it is coffee berries which have been eaten and the hard bean is excreted by a rare civet cat. This happens also, I am told, with a couple other animals in other countries, but Sumatra is the place of note. This designation is also used of any coffee beans processed in such a manner from dung, feces, or ejected from the bowels. Normally, coffee beans, when being processed, are laid out on a pad in the open and allowed to mold. This process changes the chemistry of the bean, and when the hull is washed off, the coffee flavor has been enhanced. The civet cat does the same process to the beans in its intestinal track, but he does it better. "Shit," or Lewak coffee, sells for as high as $1000 a pound. It is considered by coffee connoisseurs to be the best coffee available. A reader of this page decided to make sure my wife and I had at least one experience with Lewak coffee in our life and sent us a quarter pound. It was indeed very tasty, though we had a bit of a problem with mental images of the process of making it.

Silver skin: A thin, papery covering on the coffee bean surface which blows off during roasting.

Sizing: Grading the size of the coffee bean.

Skimmings: That part of the bag which has been damaged by moisture. The damaged portion being skimmed off. Grade are "gs" for good skimmings, "ms" for not so good skimmings, and "ps" for poor skimmings.

Slack: Bags which have become torn or otherwise not full.

Soft Bean: coffees grown at low altitudes. Generally a more porous or less dense bean.

Sound coffee: Coffee in marketable condition.

Source: The place of origin.

Specialty Coffee: a term to differentiate between large commercial roasters and coffees which are more individual in marketing. Small scale roasters or coffee sold by the grower.

Spills, spillings: All such coffee retrieved with a clean shovel, scooped or otherwise suitable appliance from piles of coffee spilled in the ship's holds, or on the pier.

Spore: The seed of fungi, ferns, mosses, and other flowerless plants.

Spot: The spot market is where the purchaser actually buys the beans. As opposed to the future's market where the sale of coffee is at sometime in the future.

Standard: A fixed quality.

Steamer sweat: An insurance term meaning damage to coffee from sweat generated by the heat in the hold of a vessel.

Steam Wand: a pipe on most espresso machines which provide steam for the milk frothing operation.

Steel cut: The grinding process of removing the chaff. Does not mean the the grinding mills have steel.

Straight Coffee: unblended coffee from a single country, region, or crop.

Style: A term designated to the appearance of the whole coffee bean.

Summer roast: The summer heat causes coffee to sweat after roasting.

Supremo: of the highest grade of coffee.

Sweated coffee: Green coffee which has been submitted to a steaming process to give the beans a brown appearance. It is considered an adulteration.

Sweet: A coffee which is free from harshness.

Tamper: a device used to compress the ground coffee inside the filter basket of an espresso machine.

Tare: The weight of the bag in which the coffee is bagged.

Thermal Block: a system of coils in a heating element use in espresso machines to heat water rather than a boiler or tank.

Tipping: Charring the little germ at the end of the coffee bean during the roasting process.

To arrive: When the coffee is expected to arrive.

Traviesa: Secondary crop.

Triage: Broken coffee beans.

Turkish Coffee: coffee ground to a fine powder, brewed and served with the grounds.

Type: A sample fairly representing the coffee to be shipped.

Unwashed coffee: Green coffee produced by the dry process:

Ugq: Usually good quality.

Vintage Coffee: a term used to state the coffee was aged on purpose.

Visible supply: The known coffee stocks in public warehouses, afloat and at ports of shipment.

Washed coffee: Coffee which has been pulped, fermented, and washed, to remove the gummy substance.

Wet Processed, Wet Method: removing the bean from the berry which the berry is still moist.

Wilting: The collapse of the leaf or stem of a plant due to the loss of water or disease.

Woody coffee: Green coffee which has deteriorated and lost its commercial value.

Whole Bean: coffee which has been roasted but not ground.

Yemen Mocha- A very high quality Arabica bean. The people from The Yemen add cardamom to their coffee-- use green cardamom if you try this.

 

 

COFFEE QUIZ

How Coffee wise are You?

Although you may know a lot about the brewing and enjoyment of coffee, there may be quite a lot you don�t know about its other attributes. Take this quick quiz and test your knowledge about the potential health benefits of coffee � one of the world�s favorite beverages!

1. Which of the following is true?

A. The positive effects of caffeine will be reduced as users drink more coffee and build up tolerance.

B. Fine motor control can improve with moderate amounts of coffee.

C. An 8 oz cup of coffee contains 110 mg of caffeine.

B is true.

 

2. Coffee seems to offer some protection against which of the following?

A. Colon cancer

B. Type 2 diabetes

C. Dehydration

A, B, and C are all true.

Studies have shown that the incidence of colon cancer and type 2 diabetes are lower among coffee drinkers. The beneficial action of coffee on these and other diseases, such as Parkinson�s, continues to spur legitimate research in the medical community. Drinking coffee has been found to be as hydrating as drinking water, and coffee has been shown to have the same minimal diuretic effect as water.

 

3. What is a functional food?

A. A food that helps you function at your chosen activity.

B. A food that may deliver some health benefits beyond the nutrients it contains.

C. Disease reductions may occur if this food is eaten regularly as part of a healthy diet.

A, B, and C are all correct.

Coffee is considered a functional food since it fits in all three categories: A) Coffee helps athletes function at their sports in terms of endurance, recovery, hydration, and less muscle pain. B) Coffee�s health benefits include that it helps individuals to be alert and think more clearly; it enables soldiers to do their jobs more effectively and with more accuracy; coffee has a pronounced antioxidant effect. C) Coffee drinkers have lower incidences of certain diseases.

 

4. For which sports have studies demonstrated a caffeine/coffee benefit of improved stamina?

A. Sprinting

B. Endurance sports like cycling or running

C. Synchronized swimming

B is correct

Studies suggest caffeine consumption may help athletes reduce fatigue, enhance stamina and even reduce muscle pain especially in endurance sports. In addition, we are now learning that coffee may be just as hydrating for the body as water!

 

5. Which of the following would likely inhibit your ability to think clearly on an exam at 1:00 pm?

A. 1000-calorie high-carbohydrate pasta lunch

B. Skipping lunch and breakfast

C. A cup of coffee at noon

A and B are correct.

Behavioral researchers report that scores on mental acuity tests were lower in those subjects fed large lunches. They also learned that the best way to eat for sustained energy is to have multiple, moderate-sized feedings during the day. In fact most dietitians recommend that something be eaten every four hours � ideally a combination of carbohydrates, protein and a little fat. Sustained food deprivation (from dinner through lunch the following day, for example), may cause fatigue, irritability, anxiety and the inability to concentrate.

The body will direct fuel stores to preserve the most vital of bodily functions (cardiovascular function, respiration, etc.) and give short shrift to the exam. On the other hand, a number of impressive studies indicate caffeine (even 300 mg) can increase alertness, learning ability, memory and reasoning.

 

LETTERS:

Hi Steve and family:

Hope all is well with you all. I went in again to your website to see what is new and what you were up to these days..... Still laugh when ever I read your site. Laugh at the comments of others..... Just reread the coffee stuff......... Loved it again... I am going to use that on my doctors....... As I get older, they make me do these tests, that I feel are unnecessary...... (I feel they are a trap of the unmedical society) I was forced by them and my family to have a Colonoscopy done because of the family trappings (history) they use on you.... From now on, I was an orphan..... no history, even if it is a lie.... I was harassed by those in my family with less faith in God and more faith in the snake system, Med profession.

Give up coffee was another one.. After reading about caffeine, what is good enough for the rats, or mice is good enough for me. I have seen animals are smarter than most humans I know anyway... They at least use their senses better.... When they know they should not be somewhere and are in danger, they leave, most Christians do not.....

Enough from me..... Going on so..... Hope you all are well..... Go with God...

Love in Jesus

Diana N____________


Steve!

Thanks for the article on coffee. I read it when you first published it. I just got around to ordering some green beans from www.sweatmarias.com. I chose the Saihi Type Sana'ani Yemeni bean.. WHAT A TREAT !! My first roasting/grinding/cupping try was a delightfull success. My wife and older daughters couldn't believe I was in the kitchen roasting coffee. They just knew I was making a big mess. I can't wait to share this with my friends.

Thanks again..

Karl


 

AND THEN, THERE IS TEA

It seemed to me that tea needs to be discussed. We drink a lot more tea than coffee. Tea has been shown, in well done research studies, to reduce heart issues. It also strengthens teeth, and it may well toughen the linings of the GI track to advantage.

Also, tea culture, worldwide, is just as sophisticated as coffee. So, until I start a page just for tea, here are some curious facts about tea.

BLACK TEAS These teas are fully fermented and create a dark brown liquor. Black teas are quite versatile and can be taken hot, with milk and/or sugar, or as an iced tea. To brew, use hot to boiling water and steep for about 3-4 minutes.

As with coffee, there are several grades of black tea:

Dust �D-- This is the lowest grade in the classification of Black tea. Actually it consists of small pieces of tea leaves and tea dust.

Fanning-- This consists mainly of pieces of tea leaves. It is a low grade.

BOP-- Broken Orange Pekoe This consists of small tea leaves or pieces of large Leaves. It is considered a medium grading for the classification of tea leaves.

OP-- Orange Pekoe This consists of large, whole tea leaves picked without the flower bud of the tea plant.

FOP-- Flowery Orange Pekoe These are the whole tea leaves together with the flowering tea plant.

GREEN TEAS
These teas are unfermented, and retain their green leaf coloration. Green teas are known for their health benefits- particularly as antioxidants. Green tea lacks the deep satisfying taste of black tea.

HERBAL TEAS
Technically, they are not tea, but are brewed in much the same way. Herbal teas are generally low in caffeine. Yerba Mate is perhaps the most popular, followed by Rooibos from South Africa.

FLAVORED TEAS
Flavored teas come in too many varieties to list. They are also flavored with sleep inducing herbs and stomach settling herbs. Jasmine tea is the most famous flavoring and is from China. Some flavored teas have no real tea in them at all. They are herb teas, and some of them are very interesting.

OOLONG TEAS
An ancient semi-fermented tea from the Fujian region of China. It is very popular recently as a weight-loss aid. It tastes a lot like cardboard, but with less flavor.

WHITE TEA
White teas are plucked in the spring and dried immediately after harvest. Again, as with Oolong, white tea is low on taste and popular with trendy half wits.

 

Growing and processing:

Black tea is grown in highland areas on the Equator. The fields must not be flat so that frequent rain can soak in but not stand. Tea bushes grow to about four to five feet height, and then the last three leaves at the tips of branches are picked about once every three months.

The tea leaves are processed at once. They are first wilted in humidity controlled chambers. Once wilted, but not at all dry, they are rolled into globules. These are then dried if black tea is wanted. If not, they are sent to finished processing. This results in green tea and gun shot tea, which does resemble gun shot.

For black tea, and after drying, the tea is graded. This is done in long rotating cylinders with holes in them of graduated size. The dust falls out first, while other grades fall out next until whole leaves survive the rotating cylinder to come out Flowery Orange Pekoe.

 

Quality:

Tea quality is affected mostly by the location where it is grown. Also, attention to detail in picking and processing is important. If the pickers are told to pick four or five, instead of three or even two leaves, the tea will be rank and bitter. This is a form of cheating on the trade in the eyes of tea growers. Soil and growing and weather cycles also make a great deal of difference in tea quality.

Darjeeling Tea-
Darjeeling tea is one of the types of tea considered to be of the highest quality, the tastiest and the most expensive. The origin of this tea is the Darjeeling region which is located in North -Western Bengal in India in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains. It is brought down from the mountains it great trouble, and it is the most expensive tea. Sunny mornings, cool afternoons, and lot so rain seem to be the key, along with the soil of the region. Darjeeling tea has a fine flowery aroma, a light body and is copper red usually. Tannins in the tea causes a slight tingling feeling on the tongue and this is proof of its quality. Darjeeling Tea has been called the "champagne of tea".

Assam Tea-
The Assam regions sprawls along the two sides of the mighty Brahmaputra River in North-Eastern India and it is the area where the largest amount of tea is grown in the world. Assam black tea excels in its color, taste and strong aroma. Assam tea is especially suited for sipping in the morning with breakfast. It is largely used as a principal ingredient in blending popular teas such as English Breakfast Tea.

Nilgiri Tea-
Nilgiri is a tea growing area in South - Western India. Nilgiri tea leaves are dark and from them the golden tea infusions are produced that have rich, fruity tastes and aromas. Most of the Nilgiri tea is sold to meet the local Indian consumer demand, but the choicest selected yields of Nilgiri tea (the whole tea leaves) are traded on the world�s exchanges for huge sums of money.

Earl Grey-
Tea Earl Grey Tea is not a variety of tea but is blended from black teas and seasoned. It is named after the British diplomat Earl Charles Grey who customarily blended black tea leaves and seasoned them with the essence of Bergamot (a small acidic orange) in accordance with an ancient Chinese recipe which came into his hands. In the eighteenth century A.D. the drinking of black tea was a widespread custom of the British nobility. Only the rich could drink tea because of its high price and the nobility would show off their wealth by inviting friends to parties featuring tea drinking and the eating of light meals. At these parties Earl Grey tea gained a place of honor. As far as is known, Earl Grey tea is the first seasoned tea produced in history and it has enjoyed, to this very day, the status of the most famous seasoned tea in the world.

Oolong Tea-
Oolong tea is grown in China, and it is a plain Jane tea to most drinkers. It does have an earthy friendly taste if you drink it straight, and it can be interesting iced. Personally, it is only an act of desperation to make Oolong tea.

 

TEA BAGS

The tea bag is to the tea connoisseur, what the cigarette is to the tobacco connoisseur. If you really want the best teas, you will buy bulk tea from the hill country of India, and you will brew it thoughtfully.

 

BREWING TEA

Brewing tea is a ritual made famous by the Indian Raj, that is, the high toned snobs of the British Empirical rule of India.

The classic brewing method is to boil the water, heat the pot, add about one teaspoon of tea per cup wanted, plus one, and pour water just off the boil into warmed pot.

Now, any African or Ethiopian will laugh at this. They set a pot on to boil, and when it is boiling well, they add the tea. Boil is about two minutes, and in Ethiopia add tea spices like cinnamon, cardamom, and black pepper, and pour into cups. A bit of salt and rendered butter is then added, and it is served.

In the rest of Africa, to the boiled tea is then added heavy cream, and lots of sugar, and another boil is allowed. The tea is strong and sweet and rich.

In India, after the tea boils, heavy cream and sugar are added and boiled, and lastly tea masala is added. Tea masala is made of various hers, but especially cardamom.

Iced tea is for Gringos. Sun tea is the least bitter.

Tea can be brewed quite successfully in a coffee percolator. Experiment.

 

 

MORE DISTRCTION FOR YOU AT MY BLOGS:

MEDICAL BITES BLOG

EXPATRIATE BLOG

BALAAM'S ASS SPEAKS BLOG

 

LINKS:

COFFEE IN AMSTERDAM
http://www.germinalproductions.co.uk/ba/aboutus.html

COFFEE NEWS
http://www.coffeereview.com/

COFFEE INHIBITS CANCER AND DIABETES
http://www.bottomlinesecrets.com/blpnet/article.html?article_id=37143

GOOD INFORMATIVE PAGE ON COFFEE
http://www.cafelamore.com/coffee_news.htm

FIRST COFFEE HOUSE IN AMERICA:
http://www.blackapollo.demon.co.uk/first.html

HOME ROASTING SUPPLIES AND GREEN BEANS:
http://www.sweetmarias.com/

ORDER GREEN BEANS AND ROAST THEM YOURSELF:
http://www.roastyourown.com/green-coffee-beans.itml/icOid/5

GREAT PLACE TO ORDER COFFEE:
Price, quality, and service are exceptional--
They have a good turn over, so the coffee is fresh:
http://www.tostino.com/

MORE ON THE COFFEE PLANT:
 http://www.gourmetcoffeeclub.com/cof_plant.htm

ANOTHER ONE ON THE ILLUSTRIOUS PLANT:
http://www.jollycaffe.it/caffee/cennisul.htm

PERHAPS THE MOST COMPLETE PAGE I FOUND--  LOTS OF GRAPHICS:
http://sovrana.com/libstory.htm

GROWING COFFEE IN HAWAII:  
http://coffeetimes.com/aroma.htm

QUICK PAGE ON VARIOUS FORMS OF COFFEE PRODUCTS:  http://www.premierbeverages.com/handbook/page52.html

COFFEE SELLER ON THE WEB WITH A HUGE
AND INFORMATIVE PAGE ON COFFEE--  Buy Green Beans through them:  
http://www.gardfoods.com/coffee/index.shtml

TAKE TEA INSTEAD?
http://www.teatimegarden.com/cgi-bin/load?/information.htm
http://www.teatimeworldwide.com/
http://www.teatimegarden.com/cgi-bin/load?index.htm


More Coffee Links:

Cosmic Java
The Gourmet Coffee Club and Internet Coffee Resource Guide
Coffee Journal
Coffees of the World
Seattle's Coffee Scene
Coffee a GoGo
Java Link
Over The Coffee
Caf� Magazine
COFFEE FOR CONNOISSEURS Coffee Beans in Australia!
Don's Library (reading material)
Fresh Cup
Coffee at The Shopping Place
Coffee in the News
Coffee Journal
Café Magazine
Coffee Talk Magazine
Coffee Companion
Cappuccino.com
CoffeeTea
Strong Coffee
Fresh Cup Magazine
Multimedia Café
Spinelli Coffee Company
All Hawaii Coffee
Ichibunny Enterprises
International Coffee Blends from Old Pasadena
The International Gormet Coffee of the Month Club
Carolina Coffee Roasting Company, Inc.
Coffee Enterprises
Coffee Works Incorporated
Megabyte CoffeeHouse
Red Carpet Coffee
The Choice Coffee Gallery
Coffee a GoGo
Summit Coffee List
Coffee Shop
Canada's Second Cup Coffee Shop
Xtentials
Tico Joe Café de Costa Rica
The Boston Espresso Company
G.A.T. Coffee Machines

 

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